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GRAVITY

EXPREMENT NO (1)

DENSITY

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of

a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often

used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although

the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is

defined as mass divided by volume.

. ρ=m/v

Specific gravity

Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to

the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the

ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference

substance for the same given volume. Apparent specific

gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance

to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance.

The reference substance is nearly always water at its

densest (4°C) for liquids; for gases it is air at room

temperature (21°C). Nonetheless, the temperature and

pressure must be specified for both the sample and the

reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa).

Temperatures for both sample and reference vary from

industry to industry. In British beer brewing, the practice for

specific gravity as specified above is to multiply it by 1000.[1]

Specific gravity is commonly used in industry as a simple

means of obtaining information about the concentration of

solutions of various materials such as brines, hydrocarbons,

sugar solutions (syrups, juices, honeys, brewers wort, must

etc.)

Experiment purpose

1-calculate the density of a substance from measurements

of its mass amd volume.

experimental procedures

A density of a solid

Materials.

1-metal object

2-string or thread

3-graduated cylinder

250)g

2-then we tied it with a string and then we

put it inside the graduated cylinder of

300ml.to know the volume of the solid by

displacement.

Volume of solid=final water level – initial water level

B. density of liquid

Material.

1-Graduated cylinder

2-electronic balance

the balance .

2-then we put 300ml of water inside the breaker and

put it again on the balance to know it mass;just like that

Then we repeat the same procedure for salty water.

Calculate the specific gravity of each liquid used in B. by

dividing density of liquid to density of water standard .

Discussion

water?

A/The density of oil is less than the density of water.

balloon make the balloon rise ?

A/ when the gas is heated the movement molecular of this gas will

be increase. So the gas will rise into the wall of the balloon and

make a balloon rise too.

specific gravity ?

A/ to determine the density of a liquid we need the mass of the

liquid and the volume of the liquid, but specific gravity is a

comparison of the density of that liquid with a density of water.

scientific data ?

A/ the graph can show us a relation between mass and volume.

5- An object made aluminum has a mass

8.37g. when it was placed in graduated

cylinder containing 20m of water, the water

level rise to 23.1 ml. calculate the density

and specific gravity of the object?

A/ Mass (aluminum) = 8.37g

Volume (water)1 = 20ml density = ?

Volume (water)2 = 23.1 specific gravity =?

Volume of object = V2 – V1

Volume of object = 23.1 – 20 = 3.1ml

D= mass / volume

D= 8.37 / 3.1 = 2.7 g/ml = 2700 kg/m3

SG= 2700/1000 = 2.7

density of

0.775 g/ml and a volume of 50ml?

A/ D=0.77 g/ml

V=50ml M=?

M=D x V = 770 kg/m3 x 0.000005 m3

M=0.0385 kg

specific gravity of 1.2 and a mass of 185 g ?

A/ D= SG x D of water

D= 1.2 x 1000= 1200 kg/m3

V= M / D =0.185/1200

V= 0.000154 m3

one container, which one of them is float

above the other ?

A/ fresh water is float above the salt water because its density is

less than the density of salt water.

9- if we heated the fresh water to 80 C, is the

density is becomes higher or lower than it

value at standard conditions?

A/ the density is not change when the temperatures change.

gravity is increased or decreased with

temperature rise ?

A/ The specific gravity of a liquid decreases with a rise in

temperature.

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