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Microsoft Windows XP Professional
User Guide

Purpose of Windows XP User guide

Getting to know your desktop is the first part of your journey to understanding how Windows XP Professional has been made simpler for the end user to navigate through his or her files and folders. Once you grasp how to freely navigate through this exciting new operating system you will become much more efficient at work and at home when it comes to doing these important functions:
• • • • •

Routine tasks Installing and using applications Application sharing File sharing Group collaboration.

Why Training on Windows XP Professional?

Training on Windows XP Professional is vital to the success of you and to the Hope Center. It will give you a better understanding on how files are stored, shared, and distributed across the new Hope Center Network. You will learn in this course how to migrate your old and new files over to the server through Microsoft’s built in Local Area Network (LAN) connection and you will learn how to retrieve your stored data once on the server. Moreover we will show you how you can work from home on those days when you are feeling under the weather with VPN access. During this training you will learn such acronyms as LAN, WAN, and VPN, including but not least why knowing these terms will help in understanding how your new network environment operates on a daily basis.

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In these nine lessons you will learn the basics of using Windows XP. Material Covered in Windows XP Pro Lesson Manual Section I -- Introducing Windows XP Section II --Windows a) Opening b) Minimizing c) Resizing d) Scrolling e) Closing Section III – Files a) Saving Section IV – Folders a) Creating b) Sharing Section V -- Getting Help Section VI – VPN (Virtual Private Network) a) What is a Virtual Private Network? b) Creating your connection c) Connecting to the VPN Section VII -- WiFi Networks in relationship to the Hope Center Section VIII -- Routers Section IX -- Security Conclusion

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Microsoft Windows XP Professional
User Guide

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Section 1 – Introducing Windows XP This section will help you navigate the desktop, and use the start menu, task bar, icons and the Turn Off Computer button to properly shutdown your computer.
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Navigating the Desktop Using the Start Menu Identifying and Using the Icons Using the Taskbar Using the Turn Off Computer Button

Navigating the Desktop

Windows XP has a new clean design that makes it easy to navigate through the desktop, start menu and taskbar.

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Identifying and Using Icons

Starting with the icons at the left of the desktop, each of the icons represents a shortcut to files, programs or information on your computer.

Each of these shortcuts will take you to somewhere special on your hard disk. Double left clicking on your My Computer icon will take you to a new window which will show you all your available drives and peripherals. Right clicking on My Computer will allow you to select the Properties tab and let you see the Hardware manager which will in turn let you troubleshoot the computer. On your desktop you will find My Computer, My Network Places and some other icons you may have already created. First, click on the start button located in the lower left hand side of your screen; you will notice click here to begin pops up. This is pretty much self explanatory.
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My Computer Once you click on Properties a window will pop up. Feel free to browse around to get a feel for where things are. For general and basic knowledge, the Computer Name tab allows you to change the name of your pc and create a name for your local workgroup or domain. The General tab offers information about Windows version, registration, cpu and memory information. The Hardware tab gives you specific information about your computers hardware information i.e. cpu, hard disk, and motherboard. One more tab which we will discuss in more detail later is the Remote tab. Basically this tab will allow remote access to and from the computer from any site in the world so long as you have an active connection and permissions setup. Remote connection will be discussed in the VPN section of the Hope Center user guide.

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Using the Start Button

By clicking on the start button you can see that a window pops up giving you all available options provided to you so that you may work on your current project or simply open up an application as illustrated below in figure 1.3 Figure 1.3

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Using the Task Bar

Along the bottom of your desktop you can see the taskbar which has several buttons which performs many functions. Note that along the far bottom right is the digital clock and if you open it you can set the time of day and set the scheduler to perform many tasks. One of the features of the digital clock is its built in calendar feature to set those important dates. Scrolling of to the digital clock you can hover over the current time and then the current date is provided. Figure 1.4

One great feature among many is the ability to simply click on the desktop icon on the task bar to immediately show the desktop as illustrated below. Figure 1.5

Using the Turn Off Power button

Using the Turn off Power Button is actually quite simple. First click Start, then Click Turn off Computer, then clicks the red Turn Off button. It can’t get any easier than that. The screen will look like this below: Figure 1.6

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Section II --Windows One part of understanding how Windows XP works is gaining knowledge on how to multitask or quite simply using your windows in a smart and efficient manner. Section two will touch lightly on the following windows usage topics:
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Opening Minimizing Maximizing Resizing Scrolling Closing

Opening

The first thing to remember when using a window is know that all windows can be moved graciously about the desktop without much hindrance. Opening a window is quite simple. Most windows are generated automatically by opening an application. To open another window of the same application, simply go to àFile and point to either à New or à Open. Doing this will send a signal to the processor to immediately execute the request for a new window. Once the processor executed the request you may begin multitasking around your desktop. But, what if I want to surf the world-wide-web using, (www), multiple windows? You would simply single or double click the icon of your favorite browser, for this example we will use Internet Explorer, and navigate to à File,à New, à and Window. For the geeks use Ctrl+N on your keyboard.

Minimizing Minimizing a window whether the window is current or not active is the simplest way of removing the clutter from your desktop. Sometimes when doing projects or browsing the web, our desktops quickly fill up with erroneous windows. End users can choose to either close the window or just minimize them. The task of minimizing a window can be done quickly by moving the pointer to your upper right hand side of your current or active screen and then hover over the icon self. and then clicking on it. Go ahead and try it your

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Maximizing

Maximizing a window is not much different than minimizing except that we are enlarging the viewable window to be read. Doing this maximization only requires that the end user clicks on the icon attributed to it. The icon looks like two windows in one and it is also located in the upper right hand side of the current active window. and click on it to see what happens. Resizing Go ahead

The act of resizing a window is strictly for the purpose of being able to view windows the end user wants up all the time with out having a window hiding behind one another. Resizing a window can only be done when the active window is not in full screen mode or maximized. Hovering over the edge of the current window you can see a two way arrow appear, ßà. This arrow will allow you to adjust how much window you want or the end user wants visible. Try it yourself: Hover over the edge and hold down the left click of your mouse then drag in the direction you want to go. Scrolling On every window within the Windows XP environment you will see to your right a scroll bar. Scroll bars or an inherent design built in to every application for ease of use when navigating through sections of files. Without the scroll bar moving through our documents would be virtually impossible. So let’s get acquainted with it. First, let’s mention the different interfaces which allow scrolling possible. There is as follows the four different ways to scroll along, we will only focus on the first one:
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Wheel mouse scrolling (Preferred choice) Point and Click to hold and scroll (Typical method used for scrolling) Roll click and stick to scroll (Built in option for Wheel mice that allow for click and scroll mousing) Tab over and arrow key it scrolling (archaic and takes forever, not recommended)

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Scrolling Cont.

The preferred choice amongst scrolling is Wheel Mouse Scrolling. This feature is widely available in most of the mice on the market today. In fact not having this feature is actually less productive. Being able to move quickly inside a document is necessary for many of editors and writers or anyone who creates documents for work or at home. By floating anywhere on the current document or HTML page a user can easily move a page or pages up and down very fast which in turn is good for quicker output. Wheel Mouse Scrolling saves time, money and helps those who lack patients. Scrolling with a wheel mouse is as simple as moving the pointer over the document or web page and start spinning that wheel.
• •

If you want to grab the page or items simply move to the far left and point to click on the scroll bar. Hold down and start moving. If you want to speedily race through the document just push down on the wheel once and a different cursor will appear. Just starting moving the mouse and now you have finger free scrolling.

This concludes the session on mousing along. Remember you can increase your output and productivity by having the right equipment at the office or at home. Closing Windows Closing windows that are open or are just in the way requires only clicking on the red X, located in the upper right hand corner of any application.

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Section III – Files

Saving Files In this lesson you will learn how to save files you have created to both local and over network storage locations and to a specified share. What are Specified shares? Specified shares are folders setup by the administrator to ease the way end users get, retrieve and save the information which is most important to you or the business. By creating shared or domain folders for every authorized user may now collaborate over the simple network or retrieve the stored data in real time from home. Let us begin learning how to first save files locally. Let us say you started a new document which is to be the Mission or Executive summary of your next big meeting. And we will use Microsoft word for this example so first point your mouse to à File, click on àNew. A new window will pop up asking you to choose the type of document you wish to create. From the selections available choose New Blank Document for this exercise. Once this is clicked on then a new blank document space will be available for you to start creating the executive summary. Saving a file locally only requires you to do the same thing you have done with earlier OS versions of Windows. Simply select the àDrive à Folder to save to and click save.

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Saving a file or files over to a network location such as a server, requires a few mores steps which are outlined below.
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Click on File (upper left hand side and for now on understood) Select Save As The Save As window will appear. On top is a scroll down bar. Move you mouse pointer over to it as depicted below.

Looking above you can see that we highlighted the My Network Places because this is the location to select the server on the network.
• • • •

Click on My Network Places A list of available network folders is now visible. Locate your computer name or folder name then double click it You can now save your file to the shared folder

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Section IV – Folders

To Create a New Folder
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In My Computer or Windows Explorer, open the folder in which you want to create a new folder. On the File menu, point to New, and then click Folder. The new folder appears with a temporary name. Type a name for the new folder, and then press ENTER.

To Create a New Folder over a Network
• • • • • • •

In My Computer or Windows Explorer, open the location in which you want to create a new folder. i.e. C:\ or D:\ drive. For this example choose My Network Places on the left hand side of My Computer windows. Click on View Workgroup Computers Choose the workgroup computer you wish to create the folder in. Click the Shared Folder you wish to make a new folder in On the File menu, point to New, and then click Folder. The new folder appears with a temporary name. Type a name for the new folder, and then press ENTER.

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To allow other systems to access data on your disks / in your folders, you have to give Permission for this: you have to share your disks and/or folders:

(the procedure for sharing on the Professional Edition is different to Sharing on XP Home )
Select the disk to be shared (for example in "My Computer") and right-click on the icon of the disk to get the Context / popup-menu, select "Sharing and Security”:

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Unlike the XP Home-Edition, where the system will display some additional information concerning security issues, you are as a user of Windows XP Professional expected to know what you are doing and you have to handle yourself and security issues seriously. Sharing only folders is more selective and not such a high security problem: Once you have selected the folder to be shared, make either a Right-click to select "Sharing and Security..." or select from the "File and Folder Tasks" (on the left side) to: "Share this folder" The process of sharing a disk or folder is identical to the procedure used on Windows NT4 and Windows 2000. There is already an "invisible" disk-sharing (C$, D$...), allowing network administrator to access the disk.

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Getting help in Windows XP is very easy with it very capable Help Support system built right in. It is like having tech support right at your fingertips. Getting there is very simple. Just go to Start and Choose à Help and Support.

A variety of information is available to you here in XML format. Many of the options include but not least: • Knowledge Bank • Resources • Networking • Troubleshooting • Fixing a Problem • Web based utility for further support if needed

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Section VII – VPN (Virtual Private Network) What is a Virtual Private Network? A Virtual Private Network (VPN from here on in) is a private data network that makes use of the public telecommunication infrastructure, maintaining privacy through the use of a tunneling protocol and security procedures (http://www.vpnc.org/terms.html).

For secure VPNs, the technologies that VPNC supports are
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IPsec with encryption Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) inside of IPsec

For trusted VPNs, the technologies that VPNC supports are:
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Multiprotocol label switching protocol or (MPLS) with constrained distribution of routing information through BGP ("layer 3 VPNs") Transport of layer 2 frames over MPLS ("layer 2 VPNs")

With the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) or Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), which are automatically installed on your computer, you can securely access resources on a network by connecting to a remote access server through the Internet or other network. The use of both private and public networks to create a network connection is called a virtual private network (VPN).

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Advantages

Advantage Cost advantages

Example The Internet is used as a connection instead of a long distance telephone number or 1-800 service. Because an ISP maintains communications hardware such as modems and ISDN adapters, your network requires less hardware to purchase and manage. You can make a local call to the telephone company or Internet service provider (ISP), which then connects you to a remote access server and your corporate network. It is the telephone company or ISP that manages the modems and telephone lines required for dial-up access. Because the ISP supports complex communications hardware configurations, a network administrator is free to centrally manage user accounts at the remote access server. The connection over the Internet is encrypted and secure. New authentication and encryption protocols are enforced by the remote access server. Sensitive data is hidden from Internet users, but made securely accessible to appropriate users through a VPN. Because the most common network protocols (including TCP/IP and IPX) are supported, you can remotely run any application dependent upon these particular network protocols. The IPX/SPX protocol is not available on Windows XP 64-Bit Edition. Because the VPN is encrypted, the addresses you specify are protected, and the Internet only sees the external IP address. For organizations with nonconforming internal IP addresses, the repercussions of this are substantial, as no administrative costs are associated with having to change IP addresses for remote access via the Internet.

Outsourcing dial-up networks

Enhanced security

Network protocol support IP address security

Usage scenarios for secure VPNs and trusted VPNs and peace of mind The main reason that companies use secure VPNs is so that they can transmit sensitive information over the Internet without needing to worry about who might see it. Everything that goes over a secure VPN is encrypted to such a level that even if someone captured a copy of the traffic, they could not read the traffic even if they used hundreds of millions of dollars worth of computers. Further, using a secure VPN allows the company to know that an attacker cannot alter the contents of their transmissions, such as by changing the value of financial transactions.
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Companies who use trusted VPNs do so because they want to know that their data is moving over a set of paths that has specified properties and is controlled by one ISP or a trusted confederation of ISPs. This allows the customer to use their own private IP addressing schemes, and possibly to handle their own routing. The customer trusts that the paths will be maintained according to an agreement, and that people whom the customer does not trust (such as an attacker) cannot either change the paths of any part of the VPN or insert traffic on the VPN. Note that it is usually impossible for a customer to know the paths used by trusted VPNs, or even to validate that a trusted VPN is in place; they must trust their provider completely. It is clear that secure VPNs and trusted VPNs have very different properties. Secure VPNs provide security but no assurance of paths. Trusted VPNs provide assurance of properties of paths such as QoS, but no security from snooping or alternation. Because of these strengths and weaknesses, hybrid VPNs have started to appear, although the list of scenarios where they are desired is still evolving. A typical situation for hybrid VPN deployment is when a company already has a trusted VPN in place and some parts of the company also need security over part of the VPN. Fortunately, none of the common trusted VPN technologies prevent the creation of hybrid VPNs, and some manufacturers are creating systems that explicitly support the creation of hybrid VPN services (www.vpnc.org). Creating your Connection Creating a VPN connection in Windows XP Professional requires a few steps. On your desktop you will find and icon called My Network Places. Right click on it and then choose Properties. You will see a new window pop up called Network Connections as shown below.

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Click on Create a New Network Connection. From here a new window will appear called New Connection Wizard. Now select Next.

Now choose which connection type you want to make. For this exercise you will choose Connect to the network at my workplace.

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This action will not prompt another screen to pop up asking you to create the following connection, either Dial-up connection or Virtual Private Network connection

Next specify a name for this connection. For this example you will type The Hope Center in the text box provided as shown below.

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The next task for completing the VPN setup wizard is to choose the server you want to connect to. The ISP or Internet Service Provider already gives the server information, which is the static IP address 208.57.219.24.

Note: For the record the following information is for technical use and does not have any immediate bearing on this connection for the moment. Although is necessary for configuring and setup of the router. 208.57.0.10 and 208.57.0.11 are the default gateway addresses provided by the ISP (FDN Communications).

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When finished simply click on next at the bottom of the window and then the completing the New Connection Wizard dialogue windows appears. Make sure there is a check on in the field “Add a shortcut to this connection to my desktop”, for ease of finding it later when you want to connect. Now just click Finish. During this process you have successfully completed and created your VPN setup. The next step is learning how to connect to that

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Now that we have completed the VPN setup using Microsoft Windows terminal services we are ready to connect the HOPE Center. Below is the window that will pop up when you are click on the The Hope Center icon found on your desktop.

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VPN Connection properties To adjust the properties of this connection just click on properties above and a window will pop up that looks like the next figure below.

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Section VIII -- WiFi Networks in relationship to the Hope Center

The Hope Center workstations are 100% wirelessly connected to its internal network. All machines are running the latest stored 128-bit encryption key and running WEP. An acronym for Wired Equivalent Privacy, WEP is an encryption method used to protect your wireless data communications. WEP uses a combination of 64-bit or 128-bit keys to provide access control to your network and encryption security for every data transmission. To decode a data transmission, each point in a network must use an identical 64-bit or 128-bit key. Higher encryption levels mean higher levels of security, but due to the complexity of the encryption, they may mean decreased network performance. We have chosen to utilize WEP so improve the security of your most important documents, particularly financial and any donor information. Each PC is individually configured on the network and shares a unique 128-bit encryption code and is followed by a required Passphrase. The 128-bit encryption code for the Hope Center workstations is depicted below. Most machines are running around 75% Signal strength and 75% Quality.

Without this WEP encryption key the Hope Center would be wide open for attacks.

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Each PC is connected with a Linksys Wireless-B PCI Adapter, part number WMP11. The computers running Windows XP are from left to right; Hope 1, Hope 2, Hope 3, Hope 4, Hope 5, Hope 6, and Hope 7 laptop.

Windows XP comes with a driver for the network cards installed but does not allow for true 128-bit encryption. The installation cd for the WiFi adapters comes equipped with a true 128 OEM encryption configuration package. This is what is depicted on page 27 Section VIII--WiFi Networks in relationship to the Hope Center. Each node or PC’s connection quality will vary from time to time depending on existing atmospheric weather conditions outside.
• • • •

Wireless-B (802.11b) connectivity for your desktop PC Data rates up to 11Mbps in the 2.4GHz radio band Put your PC wherever you want, with no cabling hassle Included Setup Wizard takes you through configuration, step by step

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Section IX – Barricade Router with VPN endpoint Windows XP Professional is perfectly suited for the Barricade Plus Router. Below is a list of benefits the router offers the new Hope Center network.

Features

Benefits

Compatibility

• Robust Stateful Packet Inspection firewall feature • Access control based on predefined scheduled time, IP address filtering and MAC address filtering • Limit access to certain web sites by entering a full URL address or a keyword of the web site • Hacker prevention and logging capability prevents DoS and common hacker attacks • Built-in VPN tunnel (IPSec/PPTP Client and Server) support • 4-port 10/100 Mbps switch versatility plus one 10/100 Mbps port for the WAN connection

• Firewall - Stateful Packet Inspection firewall feature protects against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks and only allows permitted incoming packets to the LAN • Parental Control - protect your family with URL blocking capability • Security – multiple VPN tunnels provide convenient and secure remote access for telecommuters and travelers attempting to gain access to their corporate network • Flexible - IP routing supports a wide range of popular applications • Easy Configuration - webbased management allows for configuration through any networked PC’s web browser

• Platform independent –works with PC’s or Mac’s • IEEE 802.3 and 802.3u compliant

Troubleshooting the router can be done by testing your internet connection. If your internet or email fails to connect or respond then the DSL connection has crashed. Unfortunately xDSL lines have noise in them and when connections are needed on demand the router will not connect because the DSL line has reset its self and the router has not seen the change, hence the crash. To fix this just pull out the black power wire on the back of the SMC Barricade Router and then wait 30 seconds. Plug the wire back in and wait for 15 more seconds for the network to synchronize again. The connection will be back up.

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Section XI – Security Today network security is the most severe kind of issue amongst small to large enterprise networks across the world. Everyday networks are hammered by intrusions to virus threats. Hackers from all over the world spend most of their time coming up with new cracks and ways to get into network. Whether the malicious acts are done for fun or for more mischievous reasons the underlying facts do not change. You data is important to you and you do not want to have unfettered access to it. The first step in reviewing security procedures is to understand the business you are in or running. The entire company and senior level management must have a complete understanding of the companies’ needs, requirements needs to know what needs to be secured. Several options exist in the market place for firewalls. Listed below are some companies that provide firewalls. Zone Alarm Professional Edition www.zonelabs.com Norton Internet Security http://www.symantec.com/smallbiz/nis_pr/ McAfee Internet Security Suite http://us.mcafee.com/root/package.asp?pkgid=144 For purposes of this look into security we will use Norton Internet Security. Below are the settings for an IP Address range which the administrators of your network setup so that authorized users would not be cut off from access.

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To make the above example more secure we would simply allow known and authorized addresses to gain access across the network. The addresses would appear in the screen above but would just contain such IP addresses as 192.168.1.1 thru 192.168.1.23 and three separate IP addresses for remote access from 192.168.1.198 thru 192.168.1.214. The known workstation would have to be configured with a static IP address for this to work since Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) automatically assigns an IP address and there is no way of knowing what it would be. The following depicts the settings for Personal Firewall Settings:

Here we have checked Enable Security and then click on the Custom Level button on the bottom of the window. Do not choose default level because this level is for easier access across the network and does not provide the ultimate in protection that Norton Internet Security was designed to provide.

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After clicking the Custom Level button on the previous example the Customize Security Settings windows appears. Appearing below are the settings made by the administrator of your network to provide the best security available. Personal Firewall is set to High: Block everything until allowed and this is important to prevent hackers from trying to take over the system leaving the user helpless. Next is the Java Applet Security. Java is another form of source code or script written by professional programmers. Programmers write java for many different companies for many different reasons. The same is true for hackers. Hackers will write malicious code in various languages such as C, C++, Machine language and Java. Basically if the code works then a program can be made compromise the systems integrity leaving the whole network vulnerable to attackers. Finally, there is ActiveX Control Security. ActiveX is much like any other code it is either healthy or unhealthy code. Either way it is best to know what program you are using that utilizes ActiveX controls and use your own digression with this one. The Hope Center Administrator has allowed ActiveX Controls for this example because during this writing these controls were needed to gain access to and control certain items on the system. Always leave checked Enable Access Control Alerts and Alert when unused ports are accessed. This will help the administrator to better service the network through the reports that are made. Click Ok and you are done.

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Below is another example of what happens when intrusion is detected from an outside source. Since enabling and turning on certain threat level indicators. Norton detected the writer of this manual freely running about on HOPE1 Workstation. Simply click the field for Permit this application to access the Internet, and you are set. Place a check in the Always use this action for this application. Click OK and you are done.

Built into Norton Internet Security is Intrusion Detection. Intrusion detection detects common attackers on the network and blocks them from the source and then adds the information collected to a file for evaluation later. Afterwards Intrusion Detection blocks any further attempt from the source location. Of course with any good Internet Security application their must be a good virus software with continuous live updates of its virus definitions. This is automatic and setup during the installation process. If asked to get updates just click yes.

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Security Alerts Example Security Alerts appear when someone attempts to access your computer. It may be a hacker or someone on your own network. Read the alert and evaluate the risk. You can get more information about this kind of attack. Most Security alerts trigger Auto Block, preventing the computer from communicating with your computer for 30 minutes. Ensure that the alert describes a real attack and not a legitimate attempt to access your computer. If the attempt is legitimate, add the computer that is attempting to connect to you to the Trusted zone or use Internet Access Control to allow the type of connection described in the alert. Don’t assume that every security alert represents an attempt to hack your computer. There are many more-or-less harmless events on the Internet that cause security alerts. This alert is warning you about a possible remote access Trojan horse program. A Trojan horse program masquerades as a legitimate program and damages or compromises the security of your computer. Some Trojan horse programs perform malicious actions on the computer on which they are run, while others, such as Back Orifice, provide remote-control capabilities for hackers. Conclusion This manual covered the basics on how to use Windows XP Professional in your office environment, connecting to the network through the VPN, sharing and creating files and folders. Also discussed security implementation and how security affects daily business. Getting help for Windows XP Professional has been proven to be a very affective tool in troubleshooting some of the essential aspects of small issues. For the larger issues that cannot be resolved Microsoft Help Support System can connect to Microsoft Technet system which is a large knowledge base for all technical issues within Microsoft XP. This concludes the Hope Center Training manual.

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