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Human Resource Management Practices and Their Effects to

Faculty Performance in Selected Private Tertiary


Educational Institutions
in the Philippines

Catalino Noceja Mendoza, DMS, PhD, DBA (c)


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DEDICATION

This work is lovingly dedicated to my Family:

My Mother,

Leonora Noceja Vda. de Mendoza;

My Father,

Cesario A. Mendoza (Deceased);

My Siblings,

Fely, Greg, Nick (Deceased), Beny, Gany, Inday, Jing, Rizal, and Lyca;

My Siblings-in-law,

Jessie, Vivian, and Marie;

To my cute baby,

Juriz;

My nephews and Nieces.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is with deep feeling of appreciation that I acknowledge the assistance, guidance,

encouragement, support, and prayers of the following for making the completion of this

intellectual work possible:

My loving mother and my model of courage and strength, Mrs. Leonora Noceja Vda. de

Mendoza, for her patience, moral support, and nurturing care;

My sisters, Fely, Inday, Jing, and Lyca for their criticisms which positively or negatively

made my decision firm to pursue this endeavor;

My brothers, who even without their knowledge of what I am doing, have inspired me

to prove to myself that I can win this battle, and I won, thanks to them;

To my new home, the University of Batangas, for giving me the opportunity and trust to

grow and be part of the family, especially to Dr. Hernando B. Perez (University President), Dr.

Abegayle Machelle P. Chua (VP for Academic Affairs), Dr. Editha M. Mission (AVP for

Academics, Recognitions, Accreditations and Awards and Dean of the Graduate School) and

Mrs. Irene R. De Villa (Dean, CTHM and Chief of Staff), thank you very much I will never fail

you;

My friends in San Beda College, Mars, Menie, Rey and Jonel who have been with me in

my ups and downs, in happiness and in sadness and in good and in bad times. A million thanks to

you for your prayers;

My TUP friends who made me feel welcome when I am there especially when I am using
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their computers, Gemma, Nini, Libay, Tess, Shiela, Jo, Matt, Engr. Charlie, Engr. George and

Boss Perry. Thanks for your concern and prayers;

Dean Rudy Garcia and the rest of the CBAA family of La Consolacion College Manila

for the prayers, encouragement and for allowing me to conduct the survey.

Tita Branzuela, Vice Dean College of Arts and Sciences San Beda College, Dean Ronan

of PCU, Dean De Guzman of San Sebastian College and Dean Cabulay of FEU, for allowing me

to conduct a survey;

Students from San Beda College, La Consolacion College Manila, Philippine Christian

University, San Sebastian College, and Far Eastern University for answering my survey

questionnaires;

To Mrs. Priscilla Mizpah Santillana for the grammar editing of the final draft of this

wonderful work, a million thanks to you;

To my cute, pretty, loving and sweet dog, Jasper, for her presence during overnights

while I am preparing the drafts;

To everyone who in one way or the other touched my life and has been an instrument to

my present being, a million thanks;

And above all, to my friend GOD ALMIGHTY, thank you for the strength and good

health you have bestowed upon me to face all the trials and problems I had encountered in the

course of finishing this study.


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Table of Content
Dedication ………………………………………………………………………………..2
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………………………..3
Table of Content ………………………………………………………………………..5
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………..6
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………..6
Statement of Objectives ………………………………………………………………..9
Research Coverage ……………………………………………………………………….10
On Human Resource Milieu ……………………………………………………….11
Human Resource Management Framework ……………………………………….29
Research Paradigm ……………………………………………………………………….31
The Human Resource Propositions ……………………………………………………….32
Assumptions on Human Resource ……………………………………………………….32
Human Resource Terminologies ……………………………………………………….33
Research Method ……………………………………………………………………….35
The Participants ……………………………………………………………………….35
The Instruments ……………………………………………………………………….36
The Procedures ……………………………………………………………………….37
The Statistics ……………………………………………………………………………….38
The Demographic Profile ……………………………………………………………….38
The Human Resource Management Practices ……………………………………….43
The Faculty Performances ……………………………………………………………….58
Predictors on the Faculty Performance ……………………………………………….68
The Findings ……………………………………………………………………………….79
The Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………….83
The Recommendations ……………………………………………………………….84
References ……………………………………………………………………………….85
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ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the prevailing human resource management
practices and their effects to faculty performance in selected private tertiary educational
institutions in the Philippines.

Keywords: Human Resource Management Practices, Faculty Performance, Tertiary

Educational Institutions

INTRODUCTION

Human Resource Management is challenging and often an amazing work. It focuses on

issues, problems, and principles involved in the management of people at work and which are

common to all kinds of organizations such as factories, offices, retail stores, hospitals,

government agencies, and educational institutions. Hence, the common human resource

management practices include: Job Organization and Information, Acquisition of Human

Resources, Maintenance, Development and Research.

Job Organization and Information are the primary functions of human resource

management. In analyzing a job, factors such as duties, responsibilities, and qualifications of the

jobholders are taken into consideration. It also includes job design and evaluation. The

succeeding human resource management practices related to people are acquisition,

maintenance, development and research on human resources. The outputs are determined by

performance level as to whether these factors as human resource management practices are

outstanding, very satisfactory, satisfactory, fair or poor.


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The acquisition or procurement function starts with the planning of human resources in

relation to available jobs. The quantity and quality of the present staff guide the organization in

determining how many people are needed and how good the workforce is. This phase includes

recruitment, screening, selection, placement and orientation of the employees.

The maintenance function comprises motivation, compensation, administration, rewards

and sanctions, performance evaluation, benefits, services, maintenance of discipline and

working conditions that are necessary for worker retention.

On the other hand, the development function includes training and education which aim

to upgrade knowledge and skills and improve attitude of both the managers and rank and file. It

also includes career planning and counseling which assist the individual in his growth and

development in the light of his and the organization’s needs and values and gives guidance when

beset with problems.

Likewise, the research function supplies facts, theories, and principles on human

resources management that are needed to improve the policies and practices of human resource

management.

It is undeniable that organizations exist because of people. People are the most

important and essential factor for the growth and progress of an organization. Through and by

men, the seven “M’s” of a company such as: manpower, money, machines, materials, methods,

market, and minutes are utilized. This suggests that these “M’s” should interact to ensure

effective management.

On the other hand, the aim and challenge of having and creating competent managing

organizations come from people-related problems, which are often caused by the mistaken belief
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that people are alike. Cascio (1995) puts it, “no two people are exactly alike, and everyone

differs physically and psychologically from everyone else. The point is that these differences

demand attention so that each person can maximize his other potentials, so that organizations

can maximize their effectiveness and so that society as a whole can make the wisest use of its

human resource.” Thus, a manager’s human resource management practices adhere that each

employee has a role to play in the management of the company.

Employers indeed have great concern in their employees’ performance of their jobs that

is why managers implement the effective practice of managing human resource for employees to

do well in their jobs. How they implement and assess their human resource practices are the

main concerns of this study. Effective and efficient implementation of their practices will surely

lead to the attainment of both individual and organizational goals.

This study is important because it attempted to give a clear understanding on the role of

human resources in the organization and their importance as pointed out by both the

academician and the practitioners in the management field. Likewise, the findings would give

rise to the need for evaluating their current practices to determine organizational effectiveness.

Studying the different human resource management practices in the different educational

institutions is significant because it would provide better understanding on the effective

management of people and organization for the attainment of individual and organizational

goals.

It is also a firm belief that this country has large and competitive organizations to

develop and maintain, especially in the education sector. It is worthwhile to know the effective
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and efficient practices in human resource management in order for the employers, employees

and the company as a whole to achieve progress and success.

Also, the study, as well as the results, would provide Management and Human Resource

Developments students of all levels an additional knowledge regarding management styles and

their implications to new leadership model. It Results may definitely give a clearer view of

quality leadership.

Lastly, this study provides the readers additional knowledge, inputs, and a wide

understanding on the significance of human resources in making an organization productive and

successful especially in the educational institutions to which every nation is dependent on the

types of training these institutions would give their future leaders and managers.

Researchers believe that in order to establish good, effective, efficient, and significant

management practices; a need to identify management practices of managers must be elucidated.

STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES

This study attempted to present the prevailing human resource management practices in

Selected Private Tertiary Educational Institutions in the Philippines.

Specifically, the research determined the profile of the faculty members in terms of

educational attainment, age, gender, civil status and length of service. Also, faculty members’

manner of assessing the present human resource management practices based on Job

Organization and Information, Acquisition of Human Resources, Maintenance, Faculty

Development, and Research was identified. The researcher also recognized if there are

significant differences in the human resource management practices and in the students’
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assessment of the faculty performances in Selected Private Tertiary Educational Institutions in

Metro Manila. The manner how students assess the effectiveness of the faculty members in

terms of Knowledge of the subject matter, Effectiveness in communication, Classroom -

management and organization, Effectiveness in teaching, Interaction with the students was also

studied. The predictors of Faculty Performance among the elements of the Human Resource

Management Practices in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Philippines were

also studied.

RESEARCH COVERAGE

The researcher identified and compared the human resource management practices of

the different educational institutions in the Philippines. Randomly selected from tertiary

educational institutions, a sample size of one hundred (100) faculty members who are 25-years

old and above; single or married, with full-time or part-time teaching experience in no less than

a year to 25 years and above, are the respondents who evaluated the Human Resource

Management Practices in the selected tertiary educational institutions.

One hundred (100) students at random selection in selected private tertiary educational

institutions in Philippines were asked to identify the effectiveness of their faculty on the

following components: Knowledge of the subject matter, Effectiveness in communication,

Classroom management and organization, Effectiveness in teaching, and Interaction with the

students.

The researcher delimited his study in determining and identifying the five practices of

human resource of the institutions with regard to job organization and information, acquisition
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of human resource, maintenance, development, and research as well as the effectiveness of the

faculty members on the following components: knowledge of the subject matter, effectiveness in

communication, classroom management and organization, effectiveness in teaching, and

interaction with the students in five different institutions in Philippines

Differences on the perception such as educational attainment, age, gender, length of

service, expertise, and civil status of the faculty members were also considered.

The Human Resource Management Practices Questionnaire (HRMPQ), attempted to

evaluate the human resource management practices of the institutions as regards job

organization and information, acquisition of human resources, maintenance, faculty

development, and research. The Personal Data Sheet (PDS), which is a questionnaire checklist,

attempted to identify the name (optional), gender, the educational attainment, age, civil status,

length of service, and the salary of the respondents. The researcher validated the questionnaires

used in this study in order to elicit information about the personal characteristics of the subjects

and to determine the prevailing condition in the organization.

ON HUMAN RESOURCE MILEU

In the corporate world, it is very important to know the importance of the Human

Resource Management practices played by the key players in any business organizations, profit

or non-profit, the “Managers”, whether male or female.

In educational institutions, the success of the students, future leaders and managers,

really rely on the hands of those people who will mold them as to what they will be in the future.
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According to Mikovich and Boudreau (1985), human resource managers make

decisions that affect the relationship between employees and employers, how many people to

hire, what levels of skills and experiences are needed, who to promote to which jobs, who to

train for which skills, how to pay, and how to handle dissatisfied employees, are examples of

these decisions.

The above statement manifests that leaders of an organization must know the necessary

actions to take in dealing first with the ones who would make everything possible for the

attainment of human resources - man.

Martires (1991) pointed out that human resource management just like personnel

management involves only man. Therefore, the condition of an organization whether it is

improving or not depends on the people working at it. A successful organization is a

manifestation that leaders or managers manage human resources effectively and efficiently.

Sison (1991) asserts that the personnel or human resources department is a creation of

modern business management with the objective of developing good employee relations. It

coordinates the personnel functions in every level of management.

Recent American economic findings reveal that increasing salary and upward mobility

are becoming a thing of the past for many people (Hoggets, 2002).

According to him, over the last three decades, employees’ values have changed, and they

are still in a state of flux. In particular, during this period, employees’ loyalty in many companies

have declined.

This is true in large and medium-sized firms, where workers report lower levels of job

satisfaction, opportunity for advancement, and challenging work than do their counterparts in
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small companies. And also according to him, women report that their opportunities for

advancement are fewer than those for men; and African-American employees feel that they are

underpaid and given limited access to higher-level jobs.

One among the common perception problems is that of stereotyping, which is

generalizing a particular trait or behavior to all members of a given group. The effective

manager, however, tries to evaluate each person as an individual and to remain aware of his or

her own stereotypical beliefs so as to reduce the effect on his or her judgments.

In fact, based on survey responses from more than 6,500 middle and upper–level male

managers, recent research shows that the higher the educational level of the manager, the more

likely it is that he has a high acceptance of women in managerial positions (Hodgetts, 2002).

Additionally, according to him, men who work for women generally have a higher

acceptance of them as managers than do men who do not have such experience.

Chan (1995) pointed out that in today’s complex world of business, woman emerges

with the purpose of improving her employees to perform well in their jobs.

With such a viewpoint, it emphasizes that growth, success, progress, and development

of an organization on its leaders whether male or female does not matter. What is significant is

the way they handle their employees to achieve organizational goals. Indeed it is conspicuous

that women managers can also exhibit good management styles and human resource

management practices for the most important resource.

It is commonly believed that efficient management of human resource in any

organization can spell the difference between its success and failure to attain its objectives or

goals. In short, putting it bluntly, all the management team, from the President down to the level
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of the first line supervisors are responsible for the success or failure of human resource

management within their respective areas of supervisions (Abaloso, 1985).

In this particular area, Abaloso identifies the importance of human resource for the

following reasons: complicated job of the manager; labor laws that have to be complied with,

changing equity and consistency in personnel requiring expertise, and cost of handling personnel

problems.

Employees will be motivated to continue working for an organization when there is an

acceptable work environment. The work environment is favorable when personnel are safe,

physically and mentally healthy, and are able to enjoy the conveniences of the modern living as

can be noted in the following essentials for successful maintenance of personnel:

1. Employee compensation is acceptable.

2. The physical and mental health and safety of employees are well attended to.

3. Employees’ complaints and grievances, if any, are heard and properly channeled

by the company;

4. Disciplinary actions against employees are carried out in accordance with the

policies, practices and procedures, in accordance with the law;

5. The organizational climate must be conducive to the maintenance of good

supervisory-subordinate relationship;

6. Good communication is practiced at all levels, and

7. Comfortable working conditions and physical facilities are provided (Abaloso,

1991).
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Harris and Brannick (1999) once said, that, “employee-focused cultures walk the talk of

placing the employee’s needs at the forefront of the operations. Their uniqueness is based upon

a simple premise: The best way to take care of business is to first take care of the people. In this

way, as the company meets the needs of the employee, the employee is then better able to meet

the needs of the business.”

Realize, however, that employee-focused culture is not country club environments

where employees are endlessly pampered. Actually, most employee-focused cultures are

incredibly demanding operations with high standards of excellence. Why is this case? Thanks to

their concerned efforts to take care of the employees needs first, employee-focused cultures are

able to ask for and receive enthusiastic employee performance (Harris and Brannick, 1999).

Rosenbluth International, the Philadelphia-based multi-billion-dollar travel company,

epitomizes as an employee-focused culture. CEO Hal Rosenbluth believes that “the highest

achievable level of service comes from the heart, so the company that reaches its people’s hearts

will provide the very best service.” (New York: Morrow, 1992).

With this in mind, spirit-driven companies hold dear the precept that you must first build

the person before you can ask the person to excel. Spencer Hays, CEO of South-Western/Great

American Company in Nashville, a $600 million diversified publishing, clothing and insurance

company, says “you can’t build a business; you build people.” (Barrett, 1997).

Also, at Timberland, the New Hampshire-based footwear manufacturer, they proudly

state, “we are investors: we invest in employees.” This build-people-first philosophy becomes a

powerful connection between employees and the company (Barrett, 1997).


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According to Silberman, a seasoned compensation and benefits executive and currently

president of Green Tree consulting in Seminole, Florida, “in building world-class retention

strategies, it is far more important today to focus on intangible benefits of the company

membership (pride in organizational brand, pride in being part of some thing important, career

development, team spirit) than on tangible benefits (traditional pay benefit plans).” (Harriss and

Braannick, 1999).

Further, he says that a well-crafted strategy of intangible benefits demonstrates that the

organization values than employee’s professional, physical, mental, and spiritual well being

which is a powerful and effective retention technique for great employees.

In line with the same findings, ”individuals are motivated by a wide variety of social and

psychological factors, not just earnings,” The following are some of the factors; feelings,

sentiments, and attitudes because they believed that people, after all are not just machines

(Timm and Peterson, 2000).

With regards to safety managers, Keaton (1985) states that safety managers need to use

their resources in order to be successful as managers. The most important of these resources is

the proper utilization of upper management, first-line supervisors, and company employees. In

order to do this, safety managers should ask themselves, “What can I do to become a more

effective and efficient manager?” Managers should assess their inputs. Such assessment will

show a need to increase their inputs into the decision-making process itself. If safety

professionals can increase the status and recognition of the safety function and of themselves as

managers, there will be less resistance to proposed changes and programs. Increasing their value

in the organization means that they must become more influential or better leaders of the safety
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program efforts. However, before they can become better leaders, it is necessary to understand

the influence they already possess. This influence is the power to guide employees and

supervisors to perform job function safety.

Today, human resource executives should have immediately made available a survey of

organization’s human resources in depth. This should be in the form of manpower inventory that

details each employee’s education, experience, specialized training, salary history, and career

interests as well as performance appraisals and ratings of profitability and potential. The

manager can then match manpower availability with current and anticipated needs with regard

to expansion, new markets, new technology, changing business conditions, and governmental

and labor relations. With systematic manpower planning, manpower development can go on

continually and not be curtailed in bad times (Andres, 1991).

On the other hand, Jansen, (1990) had formulated the following set of management

principles:

1. Management development is self-development;

2. The most effective teacher is the immediate supervisor;

3. The manager should be given responsibility and made accountable;

4. Every manager should participate in a management program (course);

5. The manager should be taught the tools of managing;

6. The manager development staff man is most influential when he develops consulting

relationships with managers, and

7. More improvement comes through team teaching and organizational development

than from courses.


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As a whole, management enterprises today can no longer be considered in isolation.

Executive development programs can provide opportunities for the exposure of personnel to the

international or global environment of business. The choice of training to use depends on budget

for training, skills, and knowledge to be taught, size of the company, industry classifications and

the number of trainers.

Nevertheless, top management is frequently concerned about the attitude of their

foremen. They often say that the foremen are incompetent and need more training. They think

that they do not identify with management, do not understand and accept the aims of

management and do not carry out decisions. Top management’s ideal of a foreman is one who

thinks much as they do, who understands their problems sufficiently to accept their decisions

without questions and is a “good soldier” that is, one who accepts orders and carries them out

without questions and reservations.

Closely related to the foregoing is the role of managers. Some managers hoard their

good talent. They have spent much time and effort in developing good employees and they are

reluctant to let them move on to bigger and better jobs. Top management again, sets the policy

and the climate in this regard. Lower level managers should not be allowed to block the progress

of their people. If these managers are rewarded for developing strong contributors, they need

not fear having them move on (Beach, 1985).

The human resources approach therefore, is supportive. It helps employees become

better, more responsible persons, and then it tries to create a climate in which they may

contribute to the limits of their improved abilities. It assumes that expanded capabilities and

opportunities for people will lead directly to improvements in operating effectiveness. Work
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satisfaction will also be a direct result when employees make fuller of their abilities. Essentially,

the human resources approach means that better people achieve better results. It is somewhat

illustrated by this ancient proverb: “: Give person fish, and you feed that person for a day; teach

a person to fish, and you feed that person for life.” (Miles, 1985).

In light of the need for innovation and productivity improvement in a globally

interdependent economy, more and more firms are trying to institute some form of

high-employee-involvement strategy. One of the most popular among these, in recent years has

been job design (Lawer, 1988).

On the other hand, Newstrom and Davis (1993) suggested that surveys of manager’s

satisfaction are just important as survey of employee satisfaction. Managers have human needs

just like other people, but organizations sometimes ignore that fact. If managers are dissatisfied,

their unhappiness can spread throughout a whole department because of their broad influence.

Their feelings may also filter in their communities through both families and their many public

contacts outside the company. Job satisfaction surveys should also be distributed to managers to

diagnose deficiencies in their satisfaction and to serve as a foundation for corrective action.

Therefore, managers like employees also need to be complimented, given support and

just like their employees should also be given proper training in leadership in order for them to

spread and implement their leadership wisely and effectively. The result of such managerial

leadership would lead to the making of successful leadership, which is beneficial for employees

and the organization as well.

Likewise, training as noted by Sison (1985) in one form or another must go on in every

firm. Since training increases the skill and ability of employees to perform specific jobs,
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management particularly needs it because the latter naturally wants to get the best out of every

employee in its payroll. He further discussed that firms having a systematic employee training

program find this to be sound investment in the development of their employees.

Relative to the foregoing ideas, personnel management is people-oriented. However, in

practice, “traditionalism” is a byword in personnel management with priorities on the welfare of

the proprietors and managers of the organization. In contrast, human resource management is

people-based and is characterized by its human treatment of and respect for the individual and

society’s well being. This is reflected during severe economic difficulties (Martires, 1990).

Jackson and Schuler (1990) agreed that there is a growing recognition that the different

types of strategies require different types of human resource practices. Training, a key Human

Resource practice is critical to the implementation of several competitive strategies. The

important lesson is that human resources represent a competitive advantage that can increase

profits when managed wisely.

Therefore, effective human resource management is needed for the accomplishment of

both individual and organizational goals. Employer-employee relationship should likewise be

harmonious in order to carry out company plans effectively. Proper training and exposure to

various jobs should be given for employees’ job satisfaction and interest.

An examination on the effort of human factors and the profile of the Filipino worker on

productivity was made by De Jesus and Teodoro (1985), from twenty large-scale

labor-intensive manufacturing companies in Metro Manila. The results indicated that no

significant relationship existed between work productivity and the socio-demographic variables;

the payment is the only one, which is related significantly to work productivity.
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Working along the same line, Lim (1991), discussed that factors are not effective unless

the basic financial needs of the workers are met. He further recommends that more attention

should be given to employee recruitment training procedure. This is important because

“workers who do not possess the right attitude eventually turn out to be unproductive.”

On the other hand, Arce (1986) sought some explanations for job attitudes and behavior

in Metro Manila factories. Results show that the workers’ concepts and attitudes toward their

jobs are found to be functionally related with their concepts of the company.

Cabigao (Unpublished Thesis, UE, 1989), delved into the influence of personal

background, and social status on job satisfaction and job performance of the nursing staff of the

Philippine Heart Center of Asia. The results revealed that factors such as civil status, educational

attainment, and the living accommodations were found to be strong predictors of job

satisfaction.

A study conducted in 1986 by Magno-Miguel on the relationship of organizational

climate and job performance and job satisfaction in the Ministry of Education, Culture and

Sports (MECS) revealed that when organizational climate is viewed in terms of its reward

levels, the effect of security needs on the job performance is deemed significant. The author

concluded that more than the total MECS organization, the local organizational environment

within its sub-units has stronger influence particularly on superior-subordinate relationships.

In a similar study, Tulio (Unpublished Thesis, 1988) conducted a survey of the

organizational climate in Rizal Technological Colleges during the school year 1987-1988. She

concluded that significant differences prevail in the organizational climate as to the perceptions
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of the faculty members by age group, length of service, highest educational attainment, monthly

income, academic rank and college or department.

Likewise, Fabro (1985) conducted a study on career development and performance

levels of first line supervisors in a food-manufacturing conglomerate in 1980. The results of the

study revealed that the respondents who have at least one year of college education performed

better when compared with the rest. Benefits, promotion, developmental training, refresher

training, getting feedback and job training were the top rival factors, which affect the

performance of the respondents.

In a paper prepared by Abaloso (1986), a study on human resource management

practices of selected top corporations in the Philippines confirms that on-the-job training is the

most commonly used method for training rank-and-file or non-managerial employees.

Lastly, according to the report of Nancy Calauor-Carvajal (Philippine Daily Inquirer,

1998), Emil Armas, general manager of Blue Circle Farm Corporation, which is an Agribusiness

Company of Jaka, the flagship firm of Juan Ponce Enrile, has curious way of instilling discipline

among his employees. Armas wants them out of the office by exactly 5 p.m. strictly no

overstaying allowed. He said that he wants his employees to have a family life. He explains that

a happy person is an inspired person. He concluded that an inspired person is a better worker.

Nevertheless, some organizations in the Philippines have been conducting institutional

studies on the human resources. Most of the results are held confidential which use is limited

only to the organization, unlike in the United States and other progressive countries where the
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findings of most institutional investigations including those of the private sectors are open for

public study and analysis.

Studies and the evidence of the other researchers, consultants, and management training

and development, to be effective must begin with the top executives of a firm. The latter is said

to implement good practice of management for the morale and satisfaction of employees.

One survey of corporate training and development practices found out that four

characteristics seemed to distinguish companies with the most effective training practices.

Training is tied to business strategy and objectives and is linked to bottom-line results; a

comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists; training and retraining are done at all

levels on a continuous on-going basis (Sirota, 1989).

On the other hand, research studies show that employees who are not given the

opportunity for close social contact find their work unsatisfying. Elton Mayo is in agreement

when he observed that textile plant workers who worked isolated from each other were highly

dissatisfied and consistently failed to meet production standards. When allowed rest periods as a

group, both production and satisfaction increased (Martires and Fule, 1993).

Buchlow (1985) explains why groups are “worth considering as fundamental building

block.” First, membership and activities needs are satisfied by groups which provide needed

support especially during stressful and crisis period; Second, it develops innovation and

creativity; Third, better decisions are delivered by groups; Lastly, groups can control and

discipline individuals better than an impersonal, formal and quasi-legal system


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However, Mitchell (1985) points out that the research and analysis of Buchlow does not

support the contention that groups can do a better job than people working alone. He added that

groups are riskier than individuals. They take longer time to solve the problem. Groups may loaf

and may be less effective.

A recent survey of 500 companies revealed how factors such as the source of resumes,

type of position, geographic location, and time constraints all can influence recruitment success.

Results show that seven (7) percent of incoming resumes seem to be worth routing to become

hiring managers. Generally, candidates for technical and lower-level positions had the highest

invitation rates. Non-technical positions generated twice as many as geographical location,

positions requiring relocation generated fewer acceptance to interview requested and not

surprisingly, fewer employment offers (Lord, 1989).

Evidence indicates, unfortunately, that the evaluation of recruitment activities by large

organization is honored more in the breach than in the observance. Few firms link their

recruitment practices to post hire effectiveness, and evaluation is more subjective than

quantitative (Kolenko, 1990).

On the other hand, since the industrial revolution, the manager’s authority has been a

primary means of social control in the workplace.

However, in the self-directed organization, the focus of authority needs to shift from the

bureaucratic, manager-driven system constitutional rules, to the values consensus of team

members. In reality however, many organizations retain a managerial hierarchy at the upper

levels of the organization. The situation sets up a double bind that requires the team leader to
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share authority with the team, but to relate to upper management in a traditional, hierarchical

fashion.

Employer-employee relationships are more established and harmonious if they agree

with the vision-mission goals of the organization. Vision is derived from values. Mission follows

a vision. At the corporate level, a vision is needed to provide direction, plan efficiently for the

future and work toward goals. A vision is created to inspire, motivate, and foster success, it

helps build esprit de corps and create a sense of shared ownership in a collective future. In

training team, vision provides direction and builds teamwork (Training Development, May

1981).

The leader must exhibit an unusual combination of impatience and patience. On the other

hand, he or she must be possessed by restlessness, an inability to accept status quo, an urgency

to get things done quickly. At the same time, the leader must persevere and not lose hope despite

obstacle and setbacks. If there is a single word that captures an effective leader style, it is

restlessness. A single-minded drive to make things happen no matter what is what distinguishes

a truly committed leader from just another empty suit parroting the latest faddish buzzword

(Hammer and Stanton, 1995).

In the Philippines, where the per capita income (a nation’s total Gross Domestic Product

over its total population) is a mere $700 (www.freeessays.cc, 2005), which is nothing compared

to the United States’ $22,000, the financial fears of its citizens cannot be ignored.

This is true even in the higher educational institutions in Metro Manila such as Southville

International School and Colleges, Philippine Christian University, St. Paul University, De
26

Lasalle University, Ateneo University, Adamson University, and a lot more, wherein tuition fee

levels play at between P20,000 to P50,000 on the average per semester. Simply speaking, as

stated in the world history site www.fsmitha.com (2005), where wealth distribution in the

country is grossly disproportionate, 31.9% for upper 10percentile of the population and a mere

2.3% for the lower 10 percentile-the wealth levels of any individual or family can be shifted

tremendously in unexpected intervals.

Adding to the financial woes of the Filipino, again according to Sevilla, is that the

Filipino has strong family-oriented values, which include close family ties even after reaching the

age of sufficient maturity for independent living.

We are now, according to Dessler, in the midst of the fourth phase in the human

resources evolutionary chart. This phase is characterized by a shift in the role of human

resources from the usual functions, now incorporating the ideas of strategic partnership and

change agent- the father and mother of career management.

The strategic partnership is usually defined as “A relationship between two or more

organizations that involves building mutual long-term goals and commitments”, but strategic

partnership, as Dessler puts it, is concern with the partnership not of organization but of an

organization and its human resources. (ww.glencoe.com, 2006)

Consequently, in the same light, a change agent isn’t simply “The catalytic force moving

firms…” but the act of the human resource effort in changing an employee for the better.

(www.vmec.org, 2006)

In fact, in a study of 377 CEOs (Chief Executive Officers) from the world’s 2000 largest

companies, it was discovered that there really is a recent surge in the way corporate
27

management perceives business management.

Based on the study, 48% of CEOs from the United States and Canada bloc and 45%

CEOs from the Europe and Asia bloc (a cumulative total of 47% pinpointed that “Reshaping

corporate and employee behavior” received their personal attention as compared to the 47% and

43%, respectively, they attributed to the choice “Monitoring corporate financial information.

This shift in the perspective of CEOs in the role of human resources is even more

prevalent in another study which states that 70% of companies with above-average financial

performance considered employee development as the critical factor in corporate success.

No other CEO can personify this paradigm shift in human resource thinking than the man

they call champion of human resources, Jack Welsh, CEO of General Electric (GE), a firm

whose 1991 market value just barely exceeded $60 billion and is now close to reaching $300

billion market value.

He said: “This place runs by its great people…the biggest accomplishment I’ve had is to

find people, an army of them. They are all better than most. They are big hitters, and they seem

to thrive here.”

And sure enough, Jack Welsh’s reliance on comprehensive human resources

development isn’t just his own. CEOs around the world have started to embrace this new-found

process and the bandwagon appears to be unstoppable.

The underlying element to all this is, career planning management. Career planning

management is “the process of planning one’s life work, involves evaluating abilities and

interests, considering alternative career opportunities, establishing career goals, and planning

practical development activities,” as said by Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin (1998).
28

This function as stated by Dessler, is one of the strategic partnership involving both an

individual and an organization.

Moorhead and Griffin also stated that:

Organization have vested interest in the careers of their members,


and career planning and development programs helps them
enhance employees’ job performance and thus the overall
effectiveness of the organization.

B. J. Gopta reinforces Maslow’s claims, famously saying that, “Man is a social animal.

Without society he is nothing but an animal.” (quoteworld.org, 2006)

Therefore, we realized that man has a constant desire for social recognition, and that this

desire precipitates his need to take, seek, and indulge influence from others that he sees as of

higher societal relevance or stature than him.

Man’s hopes in society are a perennial aspiration or objective. As the social philosopher

Fredrick Hegel puts it, “The active nature of the consciousness was from the very first related to

man’s social essence,” and that this fundamental characteristic of man leads to the final “human

activity,” – or that which man does to have a spot in a structured society.

An individual can thus be influenced directly (by outright persuasion or convincing by

others), or indirectly (when an individual catches jealousy, envy, admiration, or plain mimicry of

a peer’s occupation).

Man’s vulnerability to societal influences also manifest in culture, environment, and

tradition.

E.B. Taylor, an English anthropologist, defines culture as “a complex whole which

includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by
29

man as a member of society.”

The sociologist James Henslin (1991) proposes that, “Culture is important for a people’s

very existence.” It is a force that man will find inescapable and inevitable as culture exists in

television, media, family values, strong beliefs, architecture, etc.

Culture is the lens or looking glass through which we see the world and our basis for

constructing reality,” adds Henslin.

Therefore, a huge chunk of a person’s career decision-making process can be possibly

linked to culture-by what a person hears, sees, and gets accustomed or attached to in his life.

The cited relevant concepts and studies, both foreign and local, provided the researcher

insights in the conceptualization of the present study. The researcher strongly believes that these

could serve as rich sources of materials in the interpretation of the results.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

The study was anchored on the viewpoint of the different prominent theorists pertinent

to human resource management practices in the field of management.

In analyzing the work of management, Middlemen, Hitt, and Gielv (1985) stated that the

total task of management can be divided into planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and

controlling.

Harbison and Myers (1985), have attempted to include the frames of reference of both

economists and industrial management writers by listing the functions of management as


30

undertaking risk and the handling of uncertainty; planning and innovation; coordination,

administration, and control; and routine supervision.

In fact, it is aptly said that human resource is the most important asset in the

organization. President Ferdinand Marcos has underscored the importance of the human

resource. On his keynote speech before the seminar workshop on Human Resource

Development on July 24, 1978 he said:

“If today there is much talk of harnessing human resources for development and

nation building in our part in the world, it is perhaps a reflection of the times of change and

challenge that have visited the world in out time. It is the mirror of urgency of the development,

and all that we have come to recognize to be the circumstances and capacities for our

developing societies, have led us irrevocably to the appreciation of the potentials of our human

resources.”

This study was anchored on the following theories, concepts, and models of human

resource management developed by pertinent theorists and authors.

According to Martires(1991), the acquisition, material, technological, and market

resources which maybe exhaustible are dependent on human resources. If the latter is available

and capable, the other factors can be of great use to the organization. It is through people that

they can be either harnessed and developed or dissipated or lost.

Quite succinctly, as expressed by Peters and Waterman (1985), companies are truly

unusual in their ability to achieve extraordinary results through ordinary people. A common yet

typical commitment has been heard, “People issues take up all my time…this business would be
31

so easy if I weren’t for people…People are why these managers are there, and they know it and

live it… The point then is the completeness of the people orientation in the excellent.”

Just like what De Leon (1993) says, “Managers play a very important role in the

development and progress of an organization. The most effective managers do not seek power

for personal gain. Rather their power need is directed toward the intuition for which they work

and the achievement of organizational goals. As a result, they are successful in establishing and

maintaining a good work climate, high morale, and team spirit among their subordinates. And

yet, the performance made and established in every institution like in the educational system are

acquired through the human resource management practices particularly in the following areas:

Job organization and information, acquisition, maintenance, development, and research.

Independent Variables Dependent variables

Human Resource Performance Faculty


Management
Practices Knowledge on the subject
matter
Job Organization and
information Effectiveness in
communication
Acquisition of human resources
Classroom management and
Maintenance organization

Faculty Development Effectiveness in teaching

Research Interaction with the students

Research Paradigm

The Relationships between Human Resource Management Practices and Faculty Performance
32

The paradigm indicates that the Human Resource Management Practices were

considered as Independent Variables, which can possibly result to faculty performance (taken as

dependent variables) in the Selected Tertiary Private Educational Institutions in Metro Manila.

It is assumed that the Institution’s characteristics such as number of faculty, number of students,

faculty-student ratio as well as the exclusivity of the institutions’ act as the intervening variables,

which affect both the dependent and independent variables.

THE HUMAN RESOURCE PROPOSITIONS

The researcher had the following propositions. There is no significant difference in the

Human Resource Management Practices of the institutions in terms of Job organization and

information, Acquisition of human resources, Maintenance, Faculty development and Research.

There is no significant difference in the Faculty performance based on: Knowledge of the subject

matter, Effectiveness in communication, Classroom management and organization,

Effectiveness in teaching and Interaction with the students. Faculty performance has no

predictors from the elements of Human Resource Management Practices in selected private

tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.

ASSUMPTIONS ON HUMAN RESOURCE

While conducting the study, the researcher had the following assumptions. Human Resource

Management is an essential management function in any educational institution. There are

various HRM practices of the institutions that are related to Job organization and

information, acquisition of human resources, maintenance, faculty development, and


33

research functions. Differences in HRM practices can be attributed to institution

characteristics such as types of institutions, number of students and faculty-students ratio.

HUMAN RESOURCE TERMINOLOGIES

Human Resource Management. It is the art and science of acquiring, motivating, maintaining,

and developing people in their job in light of their personal, professional, and technical

knowledge, skills, potentialities, needs, values, and in synchronization with organization

philosophy, resources, and culture for the maximum achievement of individual, organizational,

and society’s goals.

Management. It is the process of utilizing material and human resources to accomplish

designated objectives. It involves the organization’s direction, coordination, and evaluation of

people to achieve goals.

HRM Practices. These are the actions usually done by human resource managers for the

development, application, and evaluation of policies, problems, materials, and progress relating

to that individual in the organization.

The following are the conceptual definitions of the terms used in this study, taken from

Human Resource Management, C.R. Martires, 2005 and 1991.

Job organization and information. It is the analysis and evaluation of each job that exists

within the organization.

Acquisition. It is the function of human resources management, which involves planning,

recruitment, screening, selection, and placement so the organization will have the right number

of the appropriate kind of people, at the proper time, and in the right place.
34

Maintenance. It is the supportive function of human resources management which includes

work orientation, physical working condition, motivation, and morale building, performance

evaluation, movement, and management relations.

HR Development. It refers to the process by which the actual and potential labor force is made

to systematically acquire greater knowledge, skills, or capacities for the nation’s sustained

economic and social growth (Sison, 1991).

HR Research. It is the formal and scientific investigation on the people component of an

organization. It furnishes management with data that will help in the formulation and

implementation of policies and procedures (Sison, 1991).

Knowledge of the Subject Matter. This is the ability of the faculty to deliver the lessons with

utmost confidence and articulation.

Effectiveness in Communication. It is the ability of the faculty to deliver the lessons using the

appropriate words/languages in defining the topics.

Classroom Management and Organization. It is the ability of the faculty to set guidelines,

disciplines, and orderly manner in the presentation of the lessons.

Effectiveness in Teaching. It is the ability of the faculty to use the different styles and use of

different resources in teaching in order to deliver the lessons and be understood by the students

easily such as multimedia, visual aids, overhead projector, television, and others.

Interaction with the Students. It is the ability of the faculty to win the attention of the student

by being approachable, understanding, shows respect to the students, and by asking critical

questions to arouse their minds to give and share their ideas to other students.
35

RESEARCH METHOD

This study used the descriptive research method to establish the profiles of the

respondents in terms of educational attainment, length of service, expertise, civil status, and age.

This method is concerned with the prevailing human resource management practices in selected

private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.

Descriptive research includes studies that purport the present fact concerning the nature

and status of anything. This means that the method gives meaning to the quality and standing of

facts that are going. For instance, information about a group of persons, a number of objects, a

set of conditions, a class of events, a system of thought, or any other kind of phenomenon or

experience which one may wish to study (Broto,2006, Young, 2003, Good and Scates, 1987).

The particular descriptive method used is the normative survey. This method purports to

know the group typical, condition of situation and characteristics of individuals.

Hence, it could be claimed that the descriptive research method is the most appropriate

approach to this research in that it aims to determine the existing human resource management

practices in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.

THE PARTICIPANTS

This study used a sample size of 100 faculty members that were selected at random from

the different institutions. Respondents are 25 years old and above, single or married, has been in

the service for no less than one (1) year, full-time or part-time status. A sample size of 100

students was selected at random from the different institutions.


36

The respondents are faculty members and students from selected private tertiary

educational institutions in Metro Manila.

THE INSTRUMENTS

This study used the Human Resource Management Practices Questionnaire (HRMPQ).

This is a validated instrument which seeks to measure the human resource management

practices implemented by the human resource department of the institutions in terms of the

following factors: Job organization and information, acquisition of human resources,

maintenance, faculty development, and research. The responses to each statement of the

HRMPQ may be:

Always - 5 points

Frequently - 4 points

Sometimes - 3 points

Rarely - 2 points

Never - 1 point

The numerical values assigned to responses of each item in each sub-test are added and

the means are to be derived. To get the sub-test mean, the number of items in the sub-test is

divided by the sum of the item means. The norms are then used in the interpretation of data.

The norms are as follows:

4.51 to 5.00 - Outstanding


37

3.51 to 4.50 - Very satisfactory

2.51 to 3.50 - Satisfactory

1.51 to 2.50 - Unsatisfactory

1.00 to 1.50 - Poor

This study also used the Personal Data Sheet (PDS) which is also a validated instrument

designed to draw information about the profile of the subjects. The educational attainment,

length of service, expertise, civil status, and age are the variables used to describe the faculty

respondents and for the student respondents, the variables are the following: course, year, and

age.

Interviews were also used to check the accuracy of the data gathered from the above

instruments including some of the faculty performance results from the students.

This study made use of the t-test in order to determine the reliability of the instruments

used both for the students and faculty respondents.

THE PROCEDURES

The researcher sought permission from the authorities of the educational institutions to

administer the questionnaire to the respondents. Sufficient copies of the questionnaire were

provided so that the administration of the first instrument is done simultaneously.

The researcher also made use of the unstructured interview to determine the veracity of

the information and responses given by the identified group of respondents.


38

THE STATISTICS

Data collected were then treated statistically using the following statistical tools:

1. Percentage (Broto, 2006 and Young 2003)

It is the process of determining the position/share of each data in the entire

presentation of the results.

2. Weighted Mean

It is the process of determining the coverage of each data in the presentation against the total

population.

3. One-way ANOVA analysis (SPSS program)

It was used in order to determine if there are significant differences among the human

resource management practices and the faculty performance in selected private tertiary

educational institutions in Metro Manila.

4. Multiple Stepwise Regression Analysis (SPSS program)

It was used in order to determine if there are predictors on faculty performance among

human resource management practices in selected private tertiary educational institutions in

Metro Manila.

THE DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE

Respondents basically are the participants in the conduct of one’s research or study and
oftentimes considered as the group of interest to the researcher, the group to whom the
39

researcher would like to generalize the results of the study. And identifying their profile gives
light to a certain study specifically on how their characteristics and characters affect the results
of the study and affect the behavior of the people who in one way or the other contributed to the
results’ findings.
Table 1
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Faculty Profile
According to Educational Attainment

Educational A B C D E Total %
Attainment
College 4 2 1 5 6 18 18
Graduate 8 16 13 14 7 58 58
Post Graduate 8 2 6 1 7 24 24

Table 1 represents the frequency and percentage distribution of the faculty according to

educational attainment.

It can be gleaned from the table that majority of the faculty finished graduate programs

as indicated by the frequency of 58 or 58 percent while a frequency of 24 or 24 percent finished

post graduate programs and the least has a frequency of 18 or 18 percent that finished

undergraduate programs.

The data connote that most of the faculty regardless of gender are educationally

qualified to perform their functions, roles and responsibilities as teachers competently. It also

defines that faculty members are well equipped with what is expected from them (the

knowledge, skills and attitude).


40

Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Faculty
According to Age

Age A B C D E Total %
25 – 34 7 4 6 5 2 24 24
35 – 44 5 4 7 5 4 25 25
45 – 54 4 10 2 7 10 33 33
55 – Above 4 2 5 3 4 18 18

Mean 44.00 Std. Dev. 10.67

Table 2 represents the frequency and percentage distribution of faculty according to age.

Data show that the majority of the faculty members are between 45 – 54 years of age as

manifested by the frequency of 33 or 33 percent followed by a frequency of 25 or 25 percent

with faculty belonging to ages between 35 – 44 years. A frequency of 24 or 24 percent

represents faculty whose ages are between 25 – 34 years, followed by a frequency of 4 or 4

percent for those faculty whose ages belong to the range of 55 – above years.

The mean value of 44.00 and a standard deviation value of 10.67 show that most of the

present faculty are in the middle age and thus manifests their responsibility and maturity to

undertake the delicate tasks assigned to them. Furthermore, most of the faculty members have

grown with years of experience, which is one among the factors that are considered by the

management of the institutions.


41

Table 3
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Faculty
According to Civil Status

Civil Status A B C D E Total %


Single 10 10 12 7 10 49 49
Married 10 10 8 13 10 51 51

Table 3 represents the frequency and percentage distribution of faculty according to civil

status.

The data show that the majority of the faculty members are married having a frequency

of 51 or 51 percent while a frequency of 49 or 49 percent are single.

The data imply that most faculty members are married which could be attributed to their

age maturity and stable mind-sets. These clearly show that their career paths do not affect their

personal lives.

Table 4
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Faculty
According to Length of Service

Length of Service A B C D E Total %


(years)
1–5 12 9 6 3 9 39 39
6 – 10 3 1 6 1 5 16 16
11 – 15 1 5 2 1 1 10 10
16 – 20 0 3 3 10 3 19 19
21 – 25 2 2 3 2 2 11 11
25 – Above 2 0 0 3 0 5 5

Mean 11.15 Std. Dev. 8.19

Table 4 represents the frequency and percentage of faculty according to length of service.

Data show that the majority of the respondents have been in the service for almost 5

years as exhibited by the frequency of 39 or 39 percent, followed by those in the service for
42

almost 20 years as manifested by the frequency of 19 or 19 percent. Those in the service for

almost 25 years have a frequency of 16 or 16 percent followed by the next group of respondents

with a frequency of 11 or 11 percent. Ten among the group of respondents or ten (10) percent

have been in the service for almost 15 years and 25 years and above with the frequencies of 5 or

5 percent.

The mean value of 11.15 and a standard deviation value of 8.19 for the length of service

imply that most of the faculty are on the height of their career and possess fresh ideas, new

techniques, new tactics, and an up-to-date know-how in sharing learning to the students

effectively and efficiently. It shows also that faculty are well equipped with modern technology

in teaching.

Table 5 represents the frequency and percentage distribution of faculty according to

salary bracket.

The data show that the majority of the faculty received salary between 10,000 – 19,000

as manifested by the frequency of 52 or 52 percent followed by the faculty who received salary

between 20,000 – 29,000 as exhibited by the frequency of 31 or 31 percent.

Table 5
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Faculty
According to Salary Bracket

Salary Bracket A B C D E Total %


10,000 - 19,000 6 11 6 17 12 52 52
20,000 – 29,000 12 7 5 2 5 31 31
30,000 – 39,000 2 2 9 1 3 17 17
40,000 – 49,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50,000 – Above 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Mean 21,499.50 Std. Dev. 7,571.21


43

The last among the group of faculty received salary between 30,000 – 39,000 as manifested by

the frequency of 17 or 17 percent and no one among the faculty received salary ranging from

40,000 – 49,000 and 50,000 – above with zero frequencies respectively.

From the table, the mean value of 21,499.50 and a standard deviation value of 7,571.21

for the salary brackets only imply that most of the faculty are satisfied with what they are

receiving and yet still pursuing further studies in order to receive what they really want to

receive. But they do believe that even though the salary is not that much, it is not the only basis

in satisfying their needs and wants. Yet, it really affects their lifestyle as well as the performance

so much so they look for another job or teach in other institutions as part-time.

Table 6 represents the frequency and mean distribution of the faculty assessment on the

human resource management practices according to job organization and information.

THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Organization’s success can be attributed to the effective and efficient ways of

implementing policies in the organization and one of the policies that can be considered is their

practices in acquiring the best people at the right time and place but most of the time the way

they treat people as part of the organization- treating them as part owner.
44

Table 6
Mean Distribution of Human Resource Management Practices According to Job
Organization and Information

Job Organization and A B C D E X Rank Interpretation


Information
Prepares job 4.10 3.30 3.15 1.90 2.70 3.03 3 Satisfactory
description and job
specifications
Develops and 4.30 2.80 3.10 1.70 3.00 2.98 4 Satisfactory
administers job
evaluation program
Assist and coordinates 4.30 3.75 3.30 1.70 2.35 3.08 2 Satisfactory
with the Deans

Keeps, organize 4.60 3.20 3.80 1.40 3.10 3.22 1 Satisfactory


functional files
Advises the 4.55 2.90 3.70 1.45 3.20 3.22 1 Satisfactory
administrators and
other managers

The data presents the human resource management practices according to job organization.

It can be gleaned from Table 6 that most items got a rating of satisfactory. This means that

human resource management practices of respondents include advising the administrators and

other managers at rank 1 while developing and administering job evaluation program is the least

in rank. The data show that the human resource management practices in selected private

tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila did their job well as to job organization and

information with a mean of the means value of 3.06 and with a descriptive rating of satisfactory.

It means only one thing; that faculty members of the institutions are satisfied with the kind of

services that their human resource department give or extend to them. It also shows that their

human resource practices are familiar and that there are already implementing policies leading to

the achievement of their organizational goals and objectives, most specifically to satisfy the
45

needs and wants of their clientele - the faculty as well as students.

Table 7
Mean Distribution of Human Resource Management Practices According to
Acquisition of Human Resource

Acquisition of Human A B C D E X
Rank Interpret-ati
Resource on
Conduct human 4.10 2.90 3.30 1.90 3.40 3.12 5 Satisfactory
resource planning
Recruits human 4.40 3.15 3.60 1.60 2.95 3.14 4 Satisfactory
resources needed
Screens applicants for 4.45 3.40 3.60 1.55 2.90 3.18 2 Satisfactory
teaching
Recommends its 4.05 3.45 3.55 1.70 2.55 3.06 6 Satisfactory
choice/s to the deans
Assign the selected 4.25 3.20 3.60 1.90 2.80 3.15 3 Satisfactory
applicants
Develops sound 4.20 3.30 3.50 1.75 2.55 3.06 6 Satisfactory
recruitment policy
Maintains a complete 4.70 3.00 4.15 1.30 3.00 3.23 1 Satisfactory
records system

Table 7 represents the mean and mean distributions of human resource management

practices in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila according to

acquisition of human resource.

Among the components, maintaining a complete records system of all human resource

of the entire institutions proves to be the most important practice in human resource

management while conducting human resource planning was considered as the least practice

satisfactorily performed.

It simply means that one among the most important functions of the human resource

departments is the process of maintaining complete records of all human resources in order to
46

facilitate the processing of papers whether for promotions, demotions, salary increase,

terminations, and retirements. It is also one of the aspects of processing of papers in compliance

with the government rules and regulations such as payment of taxes and other related benefits

that those people will need in the future. The mean of the means value of 3.13 means that the

faculty is quite satisfied with the kind of services that the human resource department is

rendering and of the proper and effective execution of their functions. The data also suggests

that the human resource department is doing their part to the best of their knowledge in order to

satisfy their customers: the faculty and other human resources.

Table 8 represents the mean and the mean distribution of the human resource

management practices according to maintenance.

The data shows that “sees to it that every decisions as much as possible is made in light

of labor laws and government regulations” ranked number 1 with a mean value of 3.12; followed

by “takes care of management negotiation over labor contracts” ties with “develops a sound

compensation program for the entire institutions” in rank number 2 with a mean value of 3.08. A

mean value of 3.07 to “makes/administers performance evaluation tools in coordination with the

deans and department chairs/heads” ranked number 3; followed by “prepares and recommends

budget of human resource operations” ties with the “formulates, recommends, and evaluate

policies and practices regarding faculty welfare, health, safety, insurance, housing, children’s

benefits, etc” for rank number 4 with a mean value of 3.04.


47

Table 8
Mean Distribution of Human Resource Management Practices
According to Maintenance

Maintenance A B C D E X Rank Interpret-at


ion
Develops a 4.20 2.15 3.40 1.8 3.85 3.08 2 Satisfactor
sound 0 y
compensation
program
Administers 4.20 2.05 3.45 1.8 3.95 2.29 7 Satisfactor
wages, salary, 0 y
and benefits
Formulates, 3.40 2.40 3.20 2.6 3.60 3.04 4 Satisfactor
recommends, 0 y
and evaluate
policies
Act as signatory 2.10 2.35 2.60 3.9 3.65 2.92 8 Satisfactor
for approval of 0 y
loans
Formulates 4.30 2.35 3.10 1.7 3.65 3.02 5 Satisfactor
performance 0 y
evaluation tools
Administer 4.75 2.60 3.35 1.2 3.40 3.07 3 Satisfactor
performance 5 y
evaluation
Prepares and 2.27 2.40 3.10 3.2 3.70 3.04 4 Satisfactor
recommends 5 y
budget
Assists the 3.75 2.65 2.95 2.2 3.35 2.99 6 Satisfactor
deans/chairs/ 5 y
heads
Sees to it that 4.70 2.40 3.60 1.3 3.60 3.12 1 Satisfactor
decisions 0 y
conform with
labor laws
Takes care of 4.10 2.15 3.40 1.9 3.85 3.08 2 Satisfactor
management 0 y
with labor
contracts

“Formulates performance evaluation” ranked number 5 with a mean value of 3.02


48

followed by “assists the deans/chairs/heads take care of the faculty movement, promotion,

layoff, resignation, transfer, retirement etc” with a mean value of 2.99 to make it rank 6. In rank

7 and 8 are the components, “act as signatory for loans approval and other benefits given to the

faculty and administer wage, salary, and benefits scheme” with mean values of 2.92 and 2.29

respectively.

It shows that the faculty members are satisfied with the kind of services that the

departments are rendering except the second elements which is “administers salary, wages, and

other benefit schemes” with a mean value of 2.29 and a descriptive ratings of unsatisfactory. It

means that they are well versed with the latest salary, wages and other benefit schemes. Even

though that salary is just one among factors that affect performance of the workers, this is the

area in which human resource department must focus on, remembering that the attainment of

organizational goals and objectives is dependent on the organizations’ members, more

particularly the workers.

With the overall average of 2.995, it seems that faculty are quite satisfied and though

there are some loopholes, there are policies being implemented in any organization.

Table 9 represents the human resource management practices according to faculty

development.
49

Table 9
Mean Distribution of Human Resource Management Practices According to
Faculty Development

Faculty Development A B C D E X rank Interpret-a


tion
Prepares short and 3.40 2.85 3.2 2.60 3.1 3.04 4 Satisfactor
long range plans 0 5 y
Prepares criteria for 3.35 2.85 3.4 2.65 3.1 3.08 3 Satisfactor
the selection of 0 5 y
applicants
Announces available 3.45 2.85 3.3 2.45 3.1 3.04 4 Satisfactor
training and education 0 5 y
Helps screen the 3.15 2.85 3.3 2.65 3.2 3.04 4 Satisfactor
applicants 0 5 y
Develops career 3.35 2.60 3.2 2.90 3.4 3.10 2 Satisfactor
planning program 5 0 y
Implements the 3.15 2.70 3.4 2.85 3.3 3.08 3 Satisfactor
career-planning 0 0 y
program
Provides a counseling 3.40 2.65 3.6 2.60 3.4 3.14 1 Satisfactor
program 0 5 y
Prepares the budget 2.60 2.55 3.1 3.20 3.4 2.98 5 Satisfactor
for the program 0 5 y

It can be gleaned from the table that “provides a counseling program for those who needs

the counseling service” ranked number 1 with a mean value of 3.14; followed by “develops a

career planning program for the entire organization” with a mean value of 3.10. A tie for the

third rank with a mean value of 3.08 for “prepares criteria for the selection of applicants for the

program of the faculty development” and “implements the career planning program together

with the deans and chairs” followed by a triple tie for rank 4 with a mean value of 3.04 are

“prepares short and long range plans for training and education for the entire institution from

administrators to the faculty, announces available training and education program within and
50

outside of the institution and helps screen the applicants for these programs”. The fifth and the

last is “prepares the budget for the program” with a mean value of 2.98.

From the data, an overall mean rating of 3.063 shows that faculty are quite satisfied with the

kind of services they received from the institutions they belong. It also shows that the human

resource departments are doing their functions well in order to satisfy the needs of their human

resources to be developed for them to become competitive in the academe and in rendering

services to the students.

Table 10 represents the human resource management practices according to research.

The data shows that number 1 among the components of research is “conducts research studies

on human resources of the entire institution” with a mean value of 2.74 followed by “acts as

information group to external research groups” with a mean value of 2.66.

A mean value of 2.64 rank 3 is “recommends to the administrators some external institutions

that can be commissioned to conduct studies that the institutions may not be able to perform”,

followed by “prepares periodically a list of possible research projects on human resources that

can be conducted by the institutions and by external group” with a mean of 2.61. The fifth and

sixth ranks are “prepares budget for the program” and “helps the information and/or public

relations division and/marketing department put out a paper/organ disseminating information on

human resource policies, practices, programs and projects” with a mean values of 2.60 and 2.54

respectively.

A mean of the means of 2.632 and a descriptive interpretations of satisfactory shows that

faculty are quite satisfied with the kind of services they received from the institutions as regard
51

to research. It seems that institutions are giving priority on how to improve the quality of their

human resources through their researches in order to satisfy the needs and wants of their

clientele: the faculty and of course the students. It is also one sign or factor that the institutions

keep on researching how to improve and maintain the images of their institutions for it is a firm

belief that the employees, most specifically the faculty are the role models of any institutions

who are being followed by their students.

Table 10
Mean Distribution of Human Resource Management Practices According to
Research

Research A B C D E X Ran Interpretatio


k n
Prepares list of 3.2 2.25 2.8 2.8 1.9 2.6 4 Satisfactory
project 0 5 0 5 1
Conducts research 3.4 2.20 3.3 2.6 2.2 2.7 1 Satisfactory
studies on human 0 0 0 0 4
resource
Recommends 3.2 2.10 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.6 3 Satisfactory
possible research 0 5 5 0 4
Acts as information 3.3 2.20 3.1 2.7 2.0 2.6 2 Satisfactory
group to external 0 0 0 0 6
research
Helps the 3.5 2.35 2.6 2.5 1.7 2.5 6 Satisfactory
information and 0 5 0 0 4
marketing
department
Prepares budget 3.1 1.95 3.0 2.8 2.0 2.6 5 Satisfactory
5 0 5 5 0
52

Table 11
Mean of the Means Distribution of
Human Resource Management Practices

Human A B C D E X Ran Interpret-a


Resource k tion
Management
Practices
Job 4.37 3.19 3.41 1.63 2.87 3.09 2 Satisfactor
Information y
and
Organization
Acquisition 4.29 3.20 3.61 1.67 2.88 3.13 1 Satisfactor
of Human y
Resource
Maintenance 3.83 2.35 3.22 2.18 3.66 3.05 4 Satisfactor
y
Faculty 3.23 2.74 3.32 2.74 3.29 3.06 3 Satisfactor
Development y
Research 3.29 2.18 2.98 2.68 2.03 2.63 5 Satisfactor
y

Table 11 represents the faculty assessment on human resource management practices in

selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.

It can be gleaned from the data that the mean of the means value of 3.131 that rank number

1 among the practices is the “acquisition of human resource”; followed by “job organization and

information” with a mean of the means value of 3.094; 3.063 rank number 3 is the “faculty

development” and then followed by “maintenance” as rank 4 with a mean of the means value of

3.045. The last among the components of the practices is the “research” with a mean of the

means value of 2.632.

The data show that one among the most important functions and activities of human

resource of the institution is the acquisition of the human resource while among the practices
53

that research function plays the last priority, simply means that once they already hired employee

they almost forgot to develop those people. Remember that those people are very important in

any organization at which considered as the most precious resource among the resources. So,

the attainment of the organizational goals and objectives can be done through these people.

Based on the results of the interviews, the human resource managers/directors in selected

private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila confirmed that they all follow the same

procedure on the strategic staffing: from recruitment to placement of the employee have no

difference. Also, they invite exemplary graduates from their respective institutions to teach. But

most of the time, they (the graduates) turn down the offer because of unattractive salary,

compensation and other benefits since they do understand that those people are yet idealistic

about the salaries they will be getting from other organizations once they work. There is ten to

ten (5-10) percent of the invited graduates who accept the offer and ninety to ninety-five (90-95)

percent goes directly to the different industries.

On the interview, they said that they really want to apply what they have learned from their

respective fields of interest and at the same time learn some techniques that the institutions failed

to give in the actual situations. From the records of the institutions during the exit interview it

shows that ninety-five (95) percent of the graduating students do not want to teach for they will

not get rich in teaching. That is the mere fact that most of the invited graduates do not want to

teach, instead, consider such, as an alternative if they will fail in the industry.

And yet, based on the records of the five institutions, effective teachers are those who failed

in their chosen career in the industry for they believed that those teachers are well experienced
54

people who in one way or the other, want to change/correct the things they have done in the

industry. They are very eager to impart their gained experiences to the students to make them

realize the importance of education.

The strategy that these institutions are using are all the same in the sense that to facilitate the

transition from the theoretical world to actual practice, they invite people from the industry as

well as from different professional organizations to share their expertise to the students and they

did this strategy through their people who are members of professional organizations. Another

thing is by joining professional organization to become affiliates of these. And the results are

“very satisfactory” ratings from the evaluations/assessment of the students on the following

components such as: knowledge of the subject matter, effectiveness in communication,

classroom management and organization, effective in teaching, and interaction with the

students. It simply means that their strategy is very effective.

Aside from the strategy in staffing, their career development programs also helped their

faculty to become effective. In some cases, they coincide with each other but most of the time

they do not.

College A, in Manila created programs in order to train their faculty members develop their

career in teaching. Among them is personality development which is accomplished by sending

their faculty to different organizations to participate and learn some techniques on how to

improve themselves. Another program is the exchange program with different countries such as

China, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia and Switzerland to gain and learn multi-cultural

developments to bring to the Philippines new technologies in teaching, strategy, tactic, and even
55

methods that can be applied. Others are attending seminars, both local and international.

University B is giving educational assistance to those who want to pursue advance studies

such as masteral or doctoral programs to develop as well as to upgrade their ability and

capability as teachers as well as their educational qualifications and competencies. Another

program is sending their faculty as exchange faculty to their local and international branches to

teach and study new techniques, strategies, and tactics for teaching in the new setting. They

implement these programs for they believe that gaining experience in other institutions or

locations enhances one’ personality and foresight in the future.

In College C, the traditional way of ability, capability and learning development are still

practiced such as sending their faculty to local and international seminars in their own fields.

Another is by giving incentives to those who want or are willing to study advance courses such

as masteral or doctoral or diploma course to produce output such as research. The newest

among the programs is attending international conventions, seminars, and conferences of

international business affiliates for those who are qualified after the evaluation of the committee

on professional development.

College D is different among the five institutions. They send their qualified faculty to a six

(6) month hands-on-training program with an affiliated company such as San Miguel

Corporation in order to gain experiences and integrate such learning to their students in the

school. It is a firm belief of the institution that through that program, they will gain extra

knowledge and exposure in order for them (faculty) to become competitive. They also have their

faculty enrichment program given every end of the second semester for one week, which
56

includes personality development, training/workshops, team building, and planning. There are

also incentives for those who will attend the program at the company’s expense aside from the

usual benefits that the company is giving.

University E is also doing the same as the usual practice of developing their faculty such as

giving them privileges to study advance courses such as diploma, masteral, and doctoral

programs for free or under scholarship programs as well as sending them to seminars,

conventions, and conferences, both local and international. They also give points for every

research output they (faculty) produce with financial equivalent. They also give incentives to

those faculty with no absences and with an outstanding rating from the students’ evaluations.

From the above analysis, it really shows that the human resource management practices in

selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila differ from one another and as

a result of the computation of the chi-square their differences were determined. The results also

show that every institution, even following the traditional way of motivating and developing

their faculty, seem to be different in the implementation, strategy, tactics, and methods used and

applied.

Table 12 represents the One-way ANOVA analysis on Human resource management

practices in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.

It can be gleaned from the table that the computed F-ratio is greater than the tabulated

F-ratio (probability) reason to accept the null hypothesis which is “there are no significant

differences among the human resource management practices”. And therefore reject the

alternative hypothesis which is “there are differences among the human resource management
57

practices” in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.

Table 12
One-way ANOVA analysis on the Human Resource Management Practices as assessed by
Faculty in Selected Private Tertiary Educational Institutions in Metro Manila
Group Mean N
Job information and organization 3.094 5
Acquisition of Human Resource 3.131 5
Maintenance 3.045 5
Faculty Development 3.063 5
Research 2.622 5
Grand Mean 2.991 25

Source Sum of D. F. Mean Square F-ratio Prob.


Squares
Treatment 0.872 4.00 0.218 0.885 0.4951
Block 7.501 4.00 1.875 7.612 1.238E-03
Error 3.942 16 0.246
Total 12.315 24

The results connote that every institution implements different processes, styles, policies

and strategies in their human resource management practices. However, when it comes to

proper implementation there is no significant difference, meaning there is a unity or oneness on

the assessment of the faculty in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.
58

THE FACULTY PERFORMANCES

The heart and the soul of every educational institution are its faculty members. They are

the ones who serve as the bridge between the clientele and the stock holders of institutions since

they are the ones who create an avenue for the students to learn and share their expertise in the

field they are in and as the profit generator since they are the ones who maintain the contact with

the students and serve as the silent marketers for the organization. If the faculty is not effective

in their teaching, students will never like them and eventually hundred fold be spread to people

not to market the services the organization is offering and if they are the other way, it works

hundred folds as well to market the same services.

Table 13 represents the assessment of the students on the performance of the faculty

according to knowledge of the subject matter.

It can be gleaned from the data that “relates the topic being discussed to concepts

previously learned by students in the same course” ranked number 1 with a mean of the means

value of 3.92, then followed by “explains the subject matter with depth” with a mean of the

means value of 3.77. A mean of the means value of 3.69 is a tie in rank number 3 between

“relates the latest developments in the areas under discussion” and “faculty is able to integrate

topics discussed in the lesson”. “Relates the subject matter to other related topics” ranked

number 4 with a mean of the means value of 3.65 and then followed by rank number 5 and 6

respectively with a mean of the means values of 3.63 and 3.61 for “explains the subject matter

without completely relying on the prescribed reading” and “raises problems and issues relevant

to topic(s) of discussion”.
59

The data simply show that faculty members from the selected private tertiary educational

institutions are well versed when it comes to the subject matter or the lessons they are handling.

Among the components, “relates the topic being discussed to concepts previously learned by the

students in the same course” has a descriptive interpretation of very satisfactory. It means only

one thing, that the faculty is well equipped with the technical know-how of the learning process

and procedure, as well as knowledge of the subject matter.

Table 13
Faculty Performance
According to Knowledge of the Subject Matter

Knowledge of A B C D E X Rank Interpret-


the Subject ation
Matter
Relates the 4.55 4.40 3.85 2.45 4.35 3.9 1 Very
topic being 2 satisfactory
discussed
Relates the 4.55 4.25 3.50 2.40 3.75 3.6 3 Very
latest 9 satisfactory
developments
Relates the 4.60 4.00 3.35 2.45 3.65 3.6 6 Very
subject matter 1 satisfactory
to others
Raises 4.35 3.95 3.50 2.65 3.80 3.6 4 Very
problems and 5 satisfactory
issues
Is able to 4.40 4.20 3.50 2.60 3.75 3.6 3 Very
integrate 9 satisfactory
topics
discussed
Explains the 4.75 4.25 3.75 2.25 3.85 3.7 2 Very
subject matter 7 satisfactory
with depth
Explains the 4.15 3.75 3.55 2.85 3.85 3.6 5 Very
subject matter 3 satisfactory
60

Table 14 represents the faculty performance as assessed by the students according to

effectiveness in communication.

The data show that “uses an appropriate language(s) in explaining the lesson” is ranked

number1 with a mean of the means value of 3.76 then followed by “uses appropriate words in

explaining the subject matter” with a mean of the means value of 3.71.

Table 14
Faculty Performance
According to Effectiveness in Communication

Effectiveness in A B C D E X Ran Interpret-a


Communication k tion
Uses 4.70 4.45 3.55 2.30 3.55 3.71 2 Very
appropriate satisfactor
words y
Uses 4.70 4.20 3.80 2.30 3.80 3.76 1 Very
appropriate satisfactor
language(s) y
Visual aids as a 3.70 3.45 3.20 3.15 3.55 3.41 5 Very
medium satisfactor
y
Articulate in the 4.25 3.95 3.40 2.75 3.85 3.64 3 Very
use of words satisfactor
y
Defines 4.40 4.05 3.05 2.45 3.75 3.54 4 Very
technical words satisfactor
y

A mean of the means value of 3.64 given to “articulate in the use of words in explaining

the ideas of the subject matter” ranked number 3 followed by “defines technical words in a more

acceptable manner or in a layman’s definition” with a mean of the means value of 3.54. The last

among the components is “visual aids are being used as a medium and as alternative in
61

explaining the subject matter” with a mean of the means value of 3.42.

It shows that faculty is articulate in communication in order to deliver the lesson

effectively and to be understood by the student easily. They also use different languages or

materials in order to send their message to the students effectively. It also shows one thing, that

the learning of the students is dependent on the capability, ability, and articulation of the faculty

to deliver effectively the lessons or subject matter to their students the best way they can,

through and by the use of different medium of instruction.

Table 15
Faculty Performance
According to Classroom Management and Organization

Classroom A B C D E X Rank Interpret-ati


Management and on
Organization
Disciplines the class 3.90 4.20 4.25 3.10 3.80 3.8 1 Very
5 satisfactory
Begins and ends 4.10 4.20 3.65 2.90 3.80 3.7 5 Very
class promptly 3 satisfactory
Incorporates the 4.40 4.20 4.20 2.60 3.80 3.8 2 Very
lessons 4 satisfactory
Commands respect 4.45 4.30 4.15 2.55 3.70 3.8 3 Very
from the students 3 satisfactory
Presents the lesson 4.65 4.15 3.75 2.35 3.85 3.7 4 Very
in an analytical 5 satisfactory
manner
Explains the syllabus 3.95 3.80 3.30 3.05 4.00 3.6 6 Very
2 satisfactory

Table 15 represents the assessment of the students on faculty performance according to

classroom management and organization.

The data show that “disciplines the class when necessary” ranked number 1 with a mean
62

of the means value of 3.85 then followed by “incorporates the content of the previous lessons

within the current discussions to ensure continuity” with a mean of the means value of 3.84.

“Commands respect from the students” ranked number 3 with a mean of the means value of

3.83, and followed by a mean of the means value of 3.75 which is “presents the lesson in an

analytical manner”. A mean of the means value of 3.73 for “begins and ends the class promptly”

makes it number 5 and then followed immediately by “explains the syllabus at the beginning of

the term/semester” with a mean of the means value of 3.62

Table 16 represents the assessment of the students on faculty performance according to

effectiveness in teaching.

According to the data, “speaks in a clear and well-modulated voice” ranked number 1

with a mean of the means value of 3.85 immediately followed by “uses words which can be

understood” with a mean of the means value of 3.82. Rank number 3 is with a mean of the means

value of 3.69 which is “supplement textbook materials with other references such as journals,

researches, hand-outs, etc.”, then followed by a tie in rank 4 between “accomplishes the

objectives of the course through the lesson” and “summarizes lessons effectively” with a mean

of the means value of 3.64. The 4th and the 5th ranks with the mean of the means values of 3.63

and 3.60 respectively are “organizes resources and materials for effective instructions” and

“explains lesson clearly and to the point”. The least among the components of effective teaching

is “uses various techniques to make the presentation of the lesson as interesting as possible” with

a mean of the means value of 3.58.


63

Table 16
Faculty Performance
According to Effectiveness in Teaching

Effectiveness in LA B C D E X Ran Interpret-a


Teaching k tion
Explains the 4.65 4.25 3.40 2.35 3.3 3.6 6 Very
lesson clearly 5 0 satisfactor
y
Accomplishes the 4.70 4.20 3.40 2.30 3.6 3.6 4 Very
objectives 0 4 satisfactor
y
Organizes 4.30 3.95 3.15 2.70 4.0 3.6 5 Very
resources and 5 3 satisfactor
materials y
Uses words which 4.70 4.60 4.10 2.30 3.4 3.8 2 Very
can be understood 0 2 satisfactor
y
Speaks in a clear 4.85 4.40 4.25 2.15 3.6 3.8 1 Very
and well 0 5 satisfactor
modulated voice y
Summarizes 4.40 4.05 3.20 2.60 3.9 3.6 4 Very
lessons effectively 5 4 satisfactor
y
Uses various 4.40 4.10 3.10 2.60 3.7 3.5 7 Very
techniques 0 8 satisfactor
y
Supplements 4.55 4.15 3.45 2.45 3.8 3.6 3 Very
textbook materials 5 9 satisfactor
y

The result shows that the most effective tool in effective teaching is the modulation of voice

which is common to all faculty; that one among the qualities of an effective faculty is the quality

of voice in teaching that seems to attract students to listen to their teachers. It also shows that

the least among the components of effective teaching is the use of various techniques to make

the presentation of the lesson as interesting as possible with a mean of the means value of 3.58

because most of the faculty who are in the academe for more than 10 years do not want to learn
64

more in order to make their presentation effective, such as the use of computer, multi-media and

overhead projector to name a few. They do not want to change their traditional way of imparting

knowledge.

Table 17
Faculty Performance
According to Interaction with the Students

Interaction with A B C D E X Ran Interpret-ati


the Students k on
Shows that he/she 4.25 4.50 3.7 2.7 3.5 3.75 2 Very
is approachable 5 5 0 satisfactory
Gives feedback to 4.35 4.30 4.0 2.6 2.1 3.48 5 Very
the students 0 5 0 satisfactory
Shows respect for 4.85 4.25 3.6 2.1 3.3 3.64 4 Very
the students as 0 5 5 satisfactory
persons
Allows time for 4.55 4.40 4.2 2.4 3.6 3.85 1 Very
each student to 5 5 0 satisfactory
answer his/her
question
Challenges the 4.45 4.65 3.5 2.3 3.3 3.65 3 Very
students to do their 0 0 5 satisfactory
best
Simplifies difficult 4.70 4.35 3.7 2.3 3.6 3.75 2 Very
topics 5 0 5 satisfactory

Table 17 represents the assessment of the students on faculty performance according to

interaction with the students.

It can be gleaned from the data that “allows time for each student to answer his/her

question” ranked number 1 with a mean of the means value of 3.85 and immediately followed by

“shows that he/she is approachable” tied with “simplifies difficult topics” with a mean of the

means value of 3.75. Rank number 3 is “challenges the students to do their best” with a mean of
65

the means value of 3.65 and a mean of the means value of 3.64 followed by “shows respect for

the students as persons”. “Give feedback to the students” is the least among the components

with a mean of the means value of 3.48.

Data show that faculty members are well versed when it comes to establishing rapport

with the students. They know how to win the heart of the students through proper questioning

and answering the questions given to them by the students. This is not possible if they are not

equipped with the techniques as well as experiences to share with their students. And yet one

among the most important components of the interaction with the students, faculty received the

least mean of the means value of 3.48. It seems that faculty members are not fond of giving

feedback to their students about their standing in the class. It is one way for the student to

prepare them for the second time if they were not able to pass the previous examination or even

their class standing or when to double their effort.

Table 18 represents the student assessment of faculty performance in selected private tertiary

educational institutions in Metro Manila.

The data show that among the components of faculty performance, “classroom

management and organization” ranked number 1 with mean of the means value of 3.76 followed

by “knowledge of the subject matter” with a mean of the means value of 3.71. “Interaction with

the students” ranked number 3 with a mean of the means value of 3.69 and then immediately

followed by “effectiveness in teaching” with a mean of the means value of 3.68. The least among

the components is “effectiveness in communication” with a mean of the means value of 3.47.

It can be gleaned from the data that most of the components of the faculty performance
66

received a descriptive interpretation of very satisfactory from the student assessments. But

students are more satisfied with the classroom management and organization. It simply means

that faculty can be trusted being the second parents of the students when they are within the

vicinity of the institutions they belong. They also act as guides when they assumed their

functions and responsibilities to take care of their students. Even though faculty are well versed

with the kind of training in the classroom management and organization, they are yet to know

that effectiveness in communication is one among the most important equipment that they

should always remember. Effective communication, if not well utilized, might lead a person to

the wrong direction.

Table 18
Students’ Assessment of Faculty Performance

Faculty A B C D E X Rank Interpret-ati


Performance on
Knowledge 4.48 4.11 3.57 2.52 3.86 3.71 2 Very
of the subject satisfactory
matter
Effectiveness 4.35 4.02 3.4 2.59 3.70 3.47 5 Very
in satisfactory
communicati
on
Classroom 4.24 4.14 3.88 2.76 3.77 3.76 1 Very
management satisfactory
and
organization
Effectiveness 4.57 4.21 3.51 2.43 3.69 3.68 4 Very
in teaching satisfactory
Interaction 4.53 4.41 3.81 2.43 3.26 3.69 3 Very
with the satisfactory
students
67

Table 19
One-way ANOVA Analysis on Faculty Performance
as Assessed by the Students

Group Mean N

Knowledge of the subject matter 3.708 5

Effectiveness in communication 3.612 5

Classroom management and organization 3.759 5

Effectiveness in teaching 3.681 5

Interaction with the students 3.686 5

Grand Mean 3.869 25

Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean F-ratio Prob.

Square

Between 0.056 4.00 0.014 0.025 0.9986

Within 11.073 20.00 0.554

Total 11.129 24.00

Table 19 represents the One-way ANOVA analysis on students’ assessment of faculty

performance using SPSS.

It can be gleaned from the table that the computed F-ratio is less than the tabulated

F-ratio, reason to accept the null hypothesis that is “there are no significant differences among

the faculty performance” and reject the alternative hypothesis that is “there are significant

differences among the performance of the faculty” in selected private tertiary educational
68

institutions in Metro Manila.

The data reveal that every institution has its own norms and styles in teaching. It also

shows that individual has their unique way of giving lectures and techniques in teaching. Every

institution follow only one method of giving lectures and learning such as the use of computer,

visual aids, overhead projectors, multimedia or the traditional way of learning through the chalk

and blackboards.

PREDICTORS ON THE FACULTY PERFORMANCE

Stepwise Regression Analysis

Further statistical treatment using the stepwise multiple analysis regression analysis

reveals that some of the independent variables, singly or in combination are strong predictors of

the human resource management practices. The following subsection presents the specific

findings.

Predictors of Knowledge of the Subject Matter

Table 20 shows that only one out of five specific independent variables predict

significantly, the knowledge of the subject matter of the faculty which is the acquisition of

human resource.

A beta value of 0.350 between the acquisition of human resource and the knowledge of

the subject matter of the faculty with a t-value of 3.705 was significant at 0.000 levels.
69

Table 20
Regression of Knowledge of the Subject Matter
on the Independent Variables

Independent Variable Beta Coefficient t-value Significant t

Acquisition of human resource 0.350 0.3705 0.000

Adjusted R square 0.114


F (ANOVA) 13.725
Significant F 0.000

Empirically, this means that faculty members who have undergone the process of hiring

and selection under human resource management program and implementation possessed a

higher degree of knowledge of the subject matter they are handling. Statistically, this finding

leads to a generalization for this particular population of the study that as the acquisition of

human resource increases its level in hiring personnel, the knowledge of the subject matter of the

faculty increases.

The positive effect of the human resource on the subject matter of the faculty in selected

private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila can be traced to the “willingness”

attitudes of the individual who have been in the teaching profession for so many years, especially

if there is an acceptable compensation package.

Abaloso (1991), found out in his study that employees, either manager or rank and file,

are well motivated when there is an acceptable working environment as a whole which include,

an acceptable compensation package, physical and mental health and safety of the employees,

employee complaints and grievances mechanism, conducive organizational climate, good


70

communication at all levels and comfortable working conditions and physical facilities.

The adjusted R square indicates that acquisition of human resource accounts for 11.40

percent variations of the knowledge of the subject matter of the faculty.

Predictors of Effectiveness in Communication

Table 21 shows that two out of the five independent variables predict significantly,

singly or in combination, the effectiveness in communication of the faculty in selected private

tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila. The first variable among others that entered

into the equation with significant influence on effectiveness in communication is the acquisition

of human resource with a beta value of 0.485.

Table 21
Regression of Effectiveness in Communication
on the Independent Variables

Independent Variable Beta Coefficient t-value Significant t

Job information and organization 0.052 0.349 0.728

Acquisition of human resource 0.485 2.584 0.011

Maintenance 0.245 1.259 0.211

Faculty development -0.539 -2.467 0.015

Research 0.042 0.264 0.792

Adjusted R square 0.110


F (ANOVA) 3.456
Significant F 0.007
71

The positive beta value of 0.485 between the acquisition of human resource and the

effectiveness in communication with a t-value of 2.584 was significant at the 0.011 levels.

Empirically, this means that the more effective the acquisition of human resource of the human

resource management practices is, the more effective the communication is among the faculty.

Findings can be explained by the fact that who was hired through proper procedures was

examined critically. Remember that every individual is subject to competition whether working

in the industry or in the academe.

In the academe, the faculty is also confronted with challenges much like in the industry

that is why in order for the faculty to receive what they want, they must do something like

pursuing a higher education or be an expert in a chosen field and also as part of the requirement

issued by the Commission on Higher Education.

It is for this reason that most educational institutions whether public or private have to

establish their Research and Development units as a source of any innovative techniques

particularly in methods of teaching. Those who teach feel this kind of environment.

Incentives and promotions are always given to those who can gain points in rendering

services or finish any advance course for additional competencies.

Some faculty, full timers in particular, are given chances to study local/abroad to acquire

knowledge and skills in the latest teaching technology such as the use of computers as teaching

aids in the learning process of the students.

For the second step, the faculty’s concern for faculty development has a significant

effect on their effectiveness in communication. The beta coefficient of –0.539 obtained with

–2.467 t-value has probability asserting a low level of statistical significance.


72

This means that increasing the effectiveness of the faculty development decreased the

effectiveness in communication. From the findings of Salas (2000), the negative influence of

faculty development in the effectiveness in communication of the institutions can be traced to

“burnout” feelings of the individuals who have been teaching for many years.

In the study of Salas (2000), in effective management, access to data and information

leads to sound decision-making. Thus, problems are usually identified through analysis of

current trends or based on statistical analysis of data as reported and these can be done after the

programs have been evaluated for the faculty.

Hence, the effectiveness in communication is one among the elements of faculty

performance that needs to be addressed to gain the faculty expertise in this area.

The adjusted R square value indicates that all those variables that entered into the

regression equation account in combination for 11.00 percent of variations of the effectiveness

in communication of the faculty in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro

Manila.

Predictors of Effectiveness in Teaching

Table 22 shows that there are three out of five independent variables that contribute

significantly in predicting the effectiveness in teaching of the faculty in selected private tertiary

educational institutions in Metro Manila.

There is a great significance between the effectiveness in teaching and the acquisition of

human resource at 0.024 level for a beta coefficient of 0.431 and a t-value of 2.293

The finding connotes that the acquisition of human resource affects the effectiveness in

teaching of the faculty in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.
73

Table 22
Regression of Effectiveness in Teaching
on the Independent Variables

Independent Variable Beta Coefficient t-value Significant t

Job information and organization -0.008 -0.055 0.956

Acquisition of human resource 0.431 2.292 0.024

Maintenance 0.389 1.997 0.049

Faculty development -0.627 -2.863 0.005

Research 0.037 0.231 0.818

Adjusted R square 0.108


F (ANOVA) 3.399
Significant F 0.007

The positive effects indicate empirically that those who have been in the teaching

profession and hired under the procedural activity/process are more effective in teaching than

those who are hired through invitation or by referral.

This finding can be explained by the fact that faculty hired through the process have to

deal with competition. They have to do something for them to become permanent and /or

maintain their status in the institutions. Oftentimes it is also a basis for promotion, either in

position or salary increase, or of other benefits but most of the time; it intends to satisfy the

customers, both students and the administration.

A beta value of 0.389 with a t-value of 1.997 is significant at level 0.049 between
74

effectiveness in teaching and maintenance.

It is evident in the result that effectiveness in teaching of the faculty is also dependent on

the maintenance of the human resource management practices. It also implies that effectiveness

in teaching can be traced from different programs pertaining to maintenance.

This finding implies that those faculty members who experienced and received good

compensation packages and other benefits are more effective in teaching compared to those

who did not receive such.

This can be attributed to the study of Abaloso (1985), that employees will be motivated

to continue working for an organization when there is an acceptable work environment which

include compensation packages.

Faculty development plays significantly on the effectiveness in teaching of the faculty

with a beta value of-0.627 and a t-value of –2.863 at 0.005 levels.

It implies that if the effectiveness of faculty development increases, the effectiveness in

teaching decreases. It is for the reason that after the program had been experienced by faculty,

expectations come in. There might be difficulty in attending the program because of required

output. Some faculty must render services in exchange of the program they will be attending.

Planning for effective teaching of the faculty and of the institutions requires more

creative, fresh and strategic ideas and putting these things to work require techniques and

appropriate tactics. Faculty members who are concerned with this activity have to exercise their

leadership and managerial skills inside the classroom and within the organization.

Yet, faculty development affects the implementation of those ideas because training and

seminars must be given to the faculty in order to obtain skills and abilities to manage effectively
75

their day to day activities but decreases their time to formulate their own. This way, faculty who

are competing with themselves are the one who attend most of the time, trained effectively

through effective communication, and persuade their student to follow them.

The adjusted R square value indicates that all the independent variables account in

combination for 10.80 percent variations of the effectiveness in teaching of the faculty.

Predictors of Interaction with the Students

Table 23 shows that there are two out of five independent variables that predict

significantly the interaction with the students of the faculty in selected private tertiary

educational institutions in Metro Manila.

Faculty is affected by the acquisition of human resource showed by a beta value of 0.465

and a t-value of 2.492.

This finding implies significant at 0.014 level, and yet connotes that faculty are well

screened, which fosters a significant positive result in interacting with the students.

Table 23
Regression of Interaction with the Students
on the Independent Variables

Independent Variable Beta Coefficient t-value Significant t

Job information and organization 0.186 1.257 0.212

Acquisition of human resource 0.465 2.492 0.014

Maintenance 0.214 1.109 0.270

Faculty development -0.642 -2.950 0.004

Research 0.006 0.035 0.972


76

Adjusted R square 0.120


F (ANOVA) 3.702
Significant F 0.004

Establishing rapport with the students is one among the difficult tasks for an individual

especially to a group of young people. That is why faculty is one among the agents of education

that needs to be trained as modifier or intermediary between and among the student themselves.

This finding simply means that those faculty members who went through the process of

selection and hiring procedures are more effective than those who have not experienced the

same because they underwent several testing to determine their capacity to deal with the

different types of people or specifically the students.

This means that increasing the effectiveness of the faculty development decreases the

effectiveness in communication. From the finding of Salas (2000), the negative influence of

faculty development in the effectiveness in communication of the institutions can be traced to

“burnout” feelings of the individuals who have been teaching for many years.

A negative beta coefficient of 0.624 with t-value of –2.950 is significant at 0.004 levels.

It only implies that a negative beta coefficient negatively affect the faculty in interacting

with the students. It simply means that if faculty members are sent to faculty development, they

are not effective in interacting with the students. The more effective faculty development is the

less effective the faculty is in interacting with the students.

The finding shows that the more faculty development are being conducted, the more

ineffective the faculty members are in interacting with the students. This is so because more of
77

the faculty members today are less tempered when it comes to dealing with different types/kinds

of student personalities. That is why in order to avoid such, faculty members are commonly sent

to different innovative activities/seminars, training and symposium, local or international.

An adjusted R square value connotes that all the independent variables account in

combination for 12.00 percent of the variations in the interaction with students of the faculty in

selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.

This study was centered on the testing if there are predictors of faculty performance

from the elements of the human resource management practices that affect their effectiveness

and efficiency in private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila. The human resource

management practices under job organization and information, acquisition of human resource,

maintenance, faculty development, and research, were tested using stepwise multiple

regressions with the faculty performance under knowledge of the subject matter, effectiveness in

communication, classroom management and organization, effectiveness in teaching, and

interaction with the students.

This study considered the mean of the means of the items, for table 13 and table 19 as X

and Y values respectively to determine the relationship of the two variables.

It can be gleaned from the foregoing analysis using stepwise multiple regression that

there are certain number of independent variables that can only predict the identified dependent

variables such as knowledge of the subject matter can only be predicted by acquisition of human

resource. The second independent variable which is the effectiveness in communication can only

be predicted by two variables namely the acquisition of human resource and the faculty

development. The third variable at which even a single variable can predict is the classroom
78

management and organization. The fourth dependent variable is the effectiveness in teaching in

which predicted by acquisition of human resource, maintenance and faculty development. And

the last one is the interaction with the students was predicted by two independent variables

namely the acquisition of human resource and the faculty development.

The present findings can be related to studies made by De Jesus and Teodoro (1985)

about the 20 large-scale labor-intensive manufacturing companies in Metro Manila. The results,

however, indicated that no significant relationship existed between work productivity and the

socio-demographic characteristics except age. It was further revealed that from among nine

job-related variables, pay is the only one, which is related significantly to work productivity.

Clearly, pay or remuneration is a motivator among employees, whether rank and file or

managers.

The present findings also put essence to the concept advanced by Jackson and Schuler

(1990), that there is growing recognition that the different types of strategies require different

types of training. Training, a key to human resource practice is critical to the implementation of

several competitive advantages that can increase profit when managed wisely.

The results clearly show that implementation, assessment, and proper practice of human

resource management do not differ in all institutions particularly in Selected Private Tertiary

Educational Institutions in Metro Manila in managing human resource effectively in making

their organization productive.

Therefore, the findings indicate that exclusivity and the number of students with respect

to a faculty are not guarantees of leadership competency in teaching, in particular at selected

private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.


79

This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions, and recommendations based

on the data gathered from the respondents of the study.

Business executives have found out that it is often more difficult to solve human

relations problems than technical ones and that personnel management is essentially a human

relations problem-solving job involving the whole gamut of human emotions and experiences.

Somehow, the intricacies of today’s business enterprises and education have evolved

new concepts of leadership, of managers. Widening its scope, it now transcends as entire

organization or industry. Now, management experts refer to human resource management as a

comprehensive approach geared toward meeting those ever-growing needs of the enterprise and

its people.

This research explored the human resource management practices of selected private

tertiary educational institutions and their effects on faculty performance in Metro Manila. The

study purported to find out the differences in the perceptions of the faculty with regard to human

resource management practices particularly in areas such as job organization and information,

acquisition of human resource, maintenance, faculty development, and research; as well as the

perceptions of the students with regard to faculty performance particularly in areas such as

knowledge of the subject matter, effectiveness in communication, classroom management and

organization, effectiveness in teaching, and interaction with the students.

THE FINDINGS

Majority of the faculty obtained the graduate program as shown by the frequency of 58 or 58

percent.
80

Majority of the faculty are between 45-54 years of age as shown by the frequency of 33 or 33

percent. The results indicate that most of the faculty who are in the middle age show more

maturity and responsibility to perform tasks given to them.

Majority of the faculty are married having a frequency of 51 or 51 percent. Data imply that

most of the faculty are married which could be attributed to their age maturity and stable

mindset.

As shown by the frequency of 39 or 39 percent, many of the faculty have rendered teaching

service for almost 5 years. The result implies that the faculty are of the height of their career.

Most of the faculty received salary between 10,000-19,000 pesos as shown by the frequency

of 52 or 52 percent. The results imply that they are quite satisfied with the salary they are

receiving.

As shown by the weighted mean of the means score of 3.094 for job organization and

information, 3.131 for acquisition of human resource, 3.045 for maintenance, 3.063 for faculty

development, and 2.632 for research with a descriptive interpretation of satisfactory, means that

human resource management practices as assessed by the faculty is satisfactory.

The over-all weighted grand mean of the means score of 2.989 suggests that the human

resource management practices in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro

Manila is satisfactory.

There is no significant differences as observed among the human resource management

practices in selected private tertiary educational institutions as manifested by the tabulated and

computed f-values using One-way ANOVA analysis under SPSS program.


81

As shown by the weighted mean of the means score of 3.708 for knowledge of the subject

matter, 3.472 for effectiveness in communication, 3.759 for classroom management and

organization, 3.683 for effectiveness in teaching, and 3.686 for interaction with the students,

with a descriptive interpretation of very satisfactory, means that faculty performance as assessed

by the students is very satisfactory

The over-all weighted mean of the means score of 3.662 suggests that the faculty

performance in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila are very

satisfactory.

There are no significant differences as observed among the faculty performance as assessed

by the students in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila as manifested

by the computed and tabulated f-value using One-way ANOVA analysis.

Predictors of the Subject Matter

Acquisition of human resource with beta coefficient of 0.350 predicts significantly the

knowledge of the subject matter of the faculty. The adjusted R square indicates that 11.40

percent of the variance is knowledge of the subject matter of the faculty.

Predictors of Effectiveness in Communication

Acquisition of human resource with beta coefficient of 0.485 and faculty development

(beta = -0.539), predict significantly the effectiveness in communication of the faculty. The

adjusted R square indicates that these independent variables in combination account for 11.00

percent of the variations in effectiveness in communication of the faculty.


82

Predictors of Classroom Management and Organization

There are no predictors that affect the classroom management and organization of the

faculty in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila.

Predictors of Effectiveness in Teaching

The following independent variables predict significantly the effectiveness in teaching of

faculty. These are acquisition of human resource (beta = 0.431, maintenance (beta = 0.389, and

faculty development (beta = -0.627).

The adjusted R square indicates that 10.80 percent of the variance can be attributed to

the faculty in their effectiveness in teaching.

Predictors of Interaction with the Students

Acquisition of human resource and faculty development are the independent variables

that predict significantly the interaction of the faculty with the students. The following are the

beta coefficients that show their significance respectively, 0.465 and -0.642.

The adjusted R square indicates that these independent variables in combination account

for 12.00 percent of the variations in interaction with the students.


83

THE CONCLUSIONS

The faculty in selected private tertiary educational institutions showed a good profile of their

educational attainment, age, civil status, length of service, and salary bracket that further

indicates they are good educators and very much qualified to be called mentors, role models, and

teachers of our youth.

The human resource management practices in selected private tertiary educational

institutions in Metro Manila are performing satisfactorily based on the assessment done by the

faculty.

The faculty performance in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila

is very satisfactory as assessed by the student respondents.

There is a significant difference in the practice of human resource management in selected

private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila. Hence, it is indeed a fact that every

institution has its own styles, ways, tactics, and strategies in the implementation of human

resource management practices, which are beneficial for the attainment of the organizational

goal.

There are significant differences in the faculty performance in selected private tertiary

educational institutions in Metro Manila. Hence, it is indeed a fact that every individual has

his/her own styles, methods, tactics, and strategies in delivering lessons and services to his/her

students, which are beneficial in the attainment of both individual and organizational goal.

Generally, there is a predictive effect of the human resource management practices on the

faculty performance in selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila. Hence,
84

it is indeed a fact that faculty performance is dependent on the human resource management

practices of the institutions in order to render effective services to the students.

RECOMMENDATIONS

After a careful review of the findings and analysis of the data, these recommendations

are presented to selected private tertiary educational institutions and to other educational

institution in Metro Manila as well as in other side of the Philippines.

Develop and disseminate available career opportunities in the institutions and align the needs

and abilities of faculty with their career opportunities.

Determine the supply and demand of faculty and plot the training needs of the institutions.

Job satisfaction surveys should be distributed to faculty in order to detect any dissatisfaction

in them and at the same time to serve as foundation for corrective action.

Institutions must review their current policies and strategies in the implementation of human

resource management practices.

The present study actually evaluated the human resource management practices of the

selected private tertiary educational institutions in Metro Manila. It is therefore strongly

recommended that a replication of the present research be conducted using other locale and

period for a more reliable effects of the treatment used.

Other research writers may conduct as research proposal on the correlation between the

faculty performance rating and their socio-economic status.


85

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91

DR. CATALINO N. MENDOZA “Know-Well” has been in the academe for the last
17 years. An academic consultant, module designer and developer, writer, professor/lecturer
and thesis and dissertation consultant, he has to his credit three doctorate degrees-Doctor of
Management Science, Doctor of Philosophy in Human Resource Management and Doctor of
Business Administration.

Dr. Mendoza as an HR, Management and Effective Communication consultant (both in


government and private companies) was formerly the as the Director for Research and
Development at the GNOSIS Global Knowledge Centre under the Bansec-Kontico Training
Center, a member of the Bansec-Kontico Group of Companies, Coordinator of MBA
(Organizational Development and Hotel and Restaurant Management) programs of the St. Paul
University Manila (St. Paul University System), Head of MBA at Jose Rizal University, College
Dean of ABE and visiting professor/lecturer both in the graduate and undergraduate schools in
the Philippines. He also served as resource speaker, panel discussant and participants in various
seminars in the graduate and undergraduate programs and in the government and private
agencies/companies.

He is also an awardee in the 2009 International Business and Economics Research and
International Teaching and Learning Research Conferences held in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
last October 5-7, 2009.

He is now working as the Associate Dean cum program head of MBA and PhDBM
programs of the graduate school, professor in the college of business and accountancy, college
of engineering and college of tourism and hospitality management in the University of Batangas,
Philippines.