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# Formula Sheet for all Wastewater Operator Exams

Revised 8/15

F001
Surface area of a pond, acres = Length, ft x Width, ft
43560

F002
 Surface area, sf   Bottom area, sf   7.48 
Volume of a pond, MG =    Depth, ft    
 2   1,000,000 

F004
 Influent BOD, mg/L  Effluent BOD, mg/L 
BOD removal efficiency, % =   X 100%
 Influent BOD, mg/L 

F008
Theoretical detention time of a pond, days = Volume of the pond, MG
Flow rate, MGD

F011
 Influent concentration  Effluent concentration 
Removal efficiency, % =    100%
 Influent concentration 

F012
Solids, lbs= (Volume, MG) x (MLSS, mg/L) x (8.34)

F016
Average flow rate, MGD = (Final flow, MG) - (Initial flow, MG)
Time elapsed, days

F017
BOD loading, lbs/day = (Flow rate, MGD) x (BOD, mg/L) x 8.34

F018
 Influent TSS  Effluent TSS 
TSS removal efficiency, % =    100%
 Influent TSS 

F020
1200
Volume of sample needed for a BOD test bottle, mL =
EstimatedBOD of the sample,mg/L

F021
BOD, mg/L = (Initial D.O., mg/L - Final D.O., mg/L) x 300 mL
Sample volume, mL

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48 gal/cf  12 in/ft 2  F032 Desired suspended solids. mg/L  Effluent P. gal) x (Total solids. inches  7.34) 100% F035 MLSS.F022 Chlorine feed rate. %) x (8.inches2     0. mg/L) x (8. mg  TSS test results.785  Velocity. ft) x (Draw-down. mg/L  2 . lb/day) F033  0.48 Time of draw-down in minutes F030B Increased flow = (New pipe diameter. gal Flow.48 Volume per stroke. ft/sec   60 sec/min 1440 min/day  7. inch)2 (Old pipe diameter. ft) x (Length. days) x (Primary effluent solids. mL  F030 Pump capacity. mg/L  Phosphorus (P) removal.inches 2   Stroke. gpm = (Width.34) F023  Net dry weight. mg/L =   X 1000 mL/L  Sample volume. lbs = (Aeration volume. mg/L) x (8. gpd F038  Influent P. gal/stroke =      2  12 12 F034 Total dry solids. ft) x 7. inch) 2 F030C Flow rate in a pipe. lbs = (Raw sludge. lbs = (Sludge age. gpd =  Pipe diameter. MG) x (MLSS conc. lbs/day = (Flow.34) F037 Digestion time. days = Digester volume.785  Diameter. MGD) x (Dosage. % =   x 100%  Influent P.

in) x (7. mg/L) x 8.785 L/gal) 453. mg/L) x (3. %  Efficiency of solids removal. or actual. %  3 . % =   x 100%  Influent SS.600 mg/lb F043 Chemical application rate. MGD = (Calculated WAS flow. hr/day F048 Solids produced. sf F047 New. gpd) x ( Pollutant conc. sf F053 Solids loading to a centrifuge. %  Effluent SS.34 F045 Flux.Effluent SS.34 lbs/gal 100% F054  Influent SS. lbs/day) x (Yield factor) F050 Primary sludge. MGD) x ( Chemical dosage.. MGD) x (Inflow SS.34 F052 Hydraulic loading of a DAF unit. mg/L . gpm) x (60 min/hr) x (24 hr/day) Surface area of membrane. WAS flow rate. sf) x (Depth of application. lbs/hr = (Sludge flow rate. mg/L) x 8. gal = (Area. gpd/sf = (Inflow rate.F039 Sludge applied. lbs/day = (BOD removed. lbs/day = (Flow. MGD) x (24hr/day) Actual hours of sludge wasting. gpm) x (1440) Liquid surface area. lbs/day = (Flow rate. gpd/sf =(Flow rate. gal/hr) x (Sludge conc %) x 8.48) 12 in/ft F040 Pollutant emission rate. lbs/day = (Flow.

MGD) x (Residual chlorine.34) Surface area. days = TSS wasted.lbs/day  TSS in effluent. mg/L) x (8. mg/L) x (8. lbs/day =(Flow.34) 4 .gal   Polymer concentration. MG   8. lbs Sludge age = TSS in primary effluent. gpm = (Volume. mg/L + SO2 overdose. lbs/day MLVSS. lbs = Volume of solution. MGD     RAS concentration. sf F063 TSS in aerator. %   8. cf) x (7. mL x (Flow. lbs/day F068 BOD Loading from primary.34  F066 MLSS in aerationtion tank. gpd Surface loading.F055 Dry polymer. MGD = Settled solids.34 lb/gal  100%  F058 Pumping rate. min F061 Flow. MGD) (1000 mL .Settled solids. sf F062 Solids loading. lbs/day/sf = (Flow. MGD) x (TSS. mL) F073 S02 feed.34 F069 Return sludge rate.48 gal/cf) Time. lbs/day F064 F/M = lbs BOD/day to aeration tank lbs of MLVSS under aeration F065 Waste sludge pumping rate. gpd/sf = Surface area. lbs MCRT. mg/L = F/M Ratio  Aerator volume. mg/L  8. lbs Current pump rate. MGD =  Difference in aerator sludgeinventory.

% =    100 %  Initial volatile matter.000. lbs  Final volatile matter. gpm) x (1440) x (8. lbs/day) x (Sludge age.Out) x (100) In . mg/L = (Chlorine dose. sf) (8. lbs/day) x (1. gpd = (Sludge removed. mL of seed in bottle and  Initial DO.0 mL of seed = Initial D. lbs/gal) x (1. lbs % reduction of volatile matter. lbs/day = (Raw sludge volume. % = (In . days) 5 . mg/L  Final DO. mL = (Target normality) x (Target volume. gpm) x (Polymer.[(In) x (Out)] (“in” and “out” in fraction.(Chlorine residual. mg/L) .%)x(8. mg/L = (Polymer feed rate.34) F077 Polymer dose. lbs/day/sf) x (Surface area. mg/L BOD5.gal)x(Solid conc. MGD = (Thickener loading. gpm) x (8. MGD) x (1000) F082 % reduction of volatile matter.34) F078 Volume of seed sludge. lbs  F087 Seed correction per 1.000) (Flow. not in %) F083  Initial volatile matter. – Final D.%)x(Volatile fraction.O. mg/L  Seed correction. mg/L =    300 mL  Sample volume. gal) x (% seed) F079 Solid loading. mg/L) F076 Polymer dose.34) F081 Total settleable solids to pump to digester. gal = (Volume of digester.000) x (% solids) F092 Desired lbs of solids in aeration tank = (Daily solids addition.000.O.F074 Chlorine demand. mL) x (Flow. mg/L = (Polymer delivery rate. mL  F088 Volume diluted.34) x (10. mL) Stock acid normality F091 Sludge flow.000) (Flow.

mL/L) x (Influent flow rate. lbs/day = [BOD lbs/day x P/BOD (desired ratio)] – (P in wastewater. mL) x (Dosage. gpm) x (8. mg/L  100% Retentate conc. psi = (Inlet pressure.000) (Sludge flow rate..000. lbs/gal) x (1. mg/L  8. MGD) x (1. mg/L) (Stock solution conc. days = Tank volume. mg/L = (Polymer pumping rate.000.%-Initial sludge conc. lb COD/day per lb MLVSS = Flow. mg/L F106 F/M. gal)x(Increase in sludge conc. %) x (10. psi + Outlet pressure. psi 2 F103 RAS. days = (Digester volume.F094 New digestion time. MGD   COD.%) (Initial sludge flow. mg/L Inflowrate.000) F097 Chemical feed rate. mg/L F101 Average transmembrane pressure. lbs) 6 .000 gal/MG) (Diameter. MGD) (1000 mL/L) . gph = (Flow.lbs  Volatile fraction F108 Phosphorus to be added. gpd/sf = (Flow rate. MGD) x (Dosage. gpd) x (Initial sludge conc. MGD = (Settled volume. mg/L) x 100% (Solution strength. mg/L  Permeate conc.. gpm) x (Polymer conc. MG   MLSS. mL = (Beaker volume. %) F096 Volume of working solution. ft)2 x (0. psi) – Permeate pressure.785) F099 Polymer dosage. MGD   Primary effluent SS.34 lbs/gal Solids under aeration. mL/L) F105 Sludge age. %) x (24 hr/day) F098 Surface loading rate.34 lbs/gal) F100 Retention % = Retentate conc.(Settled volume..