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E3S Web of Conferences 31, 06008 (2018) https://doi.org/10.

1051/e3sconf/20183106008
ICENIS 2017

The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With
Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional
Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia)
Endang Setiyani1, Martini Martini2, and Lintang Dian Saraswati2,*
1
Animal Borne Disease Control Unit Banjarnegara, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health of
Republic of Indonesia, Jl. Selamanik 16A, Kutabanjarnegara, Banjarnegara, Indonesia, 53415
2
Department Epidemiology and Tropical Diseases, Public Health Faculty, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275

Abstract.The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases
(reported in human with seven infected and one dead) in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the
association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study
design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over
three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped
rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with
Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After
that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was
taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77
houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used
goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was
analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps
as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection) and
Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection). The proportion of male and female rats were
almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833,
95%CI: 1.565-105.261) and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012–0.769) with Leptospira sp.
infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and
poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping
rats.

1 Introduction acquired in 2015 reported 7 patients and 1 died (CFR =
16.67%). Higest case found in Petompon and
Leptospirosis is neglected infectious disease caused by Sampangan Village. Both area was passed by river
Leptospira bacterium infection, in group of Spirochaeta streams of West Flood Canal which made it possible as a
[1]–[3]. The advanced molecular techniques allowed the vehicle of transmission of leptospirosis.
identification of 14 pathogenic and intermediately
pathogenic species, and 7 non-pathogenic species, Leptospirosis is a good example of the interaction
distinguishing three clades in Leptospira genus. These between humans and their environment, and particularly
clades comprise more than 260 serovars. Among these, 7 human interface with domestic animal. In the tropical
species: L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. santarosai, climatic zone, where environmental conditions are most
L. noguchii, L. weilli, L. kirschneri and L. alexanderi are favourable for survival of leptospires and the highest
considered as the main agents of leptospirosis [4]–[9]. morbidity is noted, extreme weather events such as
Portals of entry include cuts and abrasions or mucous cyclones and floods occurring in recent years with
membranes such as the conjunctival, oral, or genital increasing frequency and greater intensity, may
surfaces. Exposure may occur through either direct potentially result in an upsurge in the disease incidence,
contact with an infected animal or through indirect as well as the magnitude of leptospirosis outbreaks, such
contact via soil or water contaminated with urine from as our previous study [11]–[15]. Exposure to animals
an infected animal [8], [10]–[12]. could be a potential risk factor for the disease. In the
present study, rearing domestic animals at home was
In 2015, Gajah Mungkur district was one of highest identified as a risk factor with an unadjusted OR of 1.21
case in Semarang within leptospirosis case. The data (95% CI: 1.02-1.43) [9]. The presence of rodents and

*
Corresponding author: lintang.saraswati@live.undip.ac.id
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

0 65 89. The data is processed and 56 a female. [24]–[26]. the means that the sexes of mice not a risk factor for the existence of food storage.2 Study Sites [22]. village located in Gajah Mungkur Sub-District in The mean life time of in days of the males rats Semarang City.019 0.E3S Web of Conferences 31. inside and outside of the house. 2.3 Population and Sample Leptospira has longer [23]. squirrels and other were taken and themselves [15]. confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospira with using PCR techniques. Rattus tanezumi 8 11. 1).769) 2 . An analytic observational cross sectional study was From the two variables was studied.750 1. the infection of bacteria Leptospira sp. Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg. these animals will installed with four traps.02 to Reaction) with high sensitivity which reaches 90-100% 0.38) Gender . This further increased the Leptospira bacteria in The study site were in Petompon village and Sampangan mice.012–0. Every house region. the sex of mice (Table undertake further observations on house sanitation. the mother ready to marry male rats 2.org/10. Practices such as use of PCR test. [24]. Rattus norvegicus 4 14. 100 rats caught split by mostly presence of ventilation. Based on the presence of the ceiling. of rats in a residential area.2 27 100 0.It can be said the life span of female mice longer than male rats. the presence of trash. recognize the environmental situation especially The traps which caught rats or other animals like a preferred feeding areas. and shelter to save shrew.7 44 100 0. Population of the study were all rats lived at or nearby The genders of mice that were caught in this study.095.3 and the female rats 707±15.05 and value OR = 0. One to two days after giving birth. with rat's urine surrounding home were found to be highly associated as an independent factors [9]. Gender mice with p≤ 0. 2 Methods 3 Results and Discussion 2.05 mg / kg body weight of rats continued with approximately [4]. Identification of captured rats and Leptospira sp Bacterial Infections in Rats at Petompon and Sampangan Village 2016 Leptospira sp bacterial infection in mouse OR Total Value Variable and Category Positive Negative (95% CI) (n=12) (n=88) f % f % f % p Species . Petompon village and Sampangan village.9[22]. so the possibility of female rats exposed to the bacteria 2. there is one variable conducted to estimate bacterial infection in rats and other that showed a significant relationship with the bacteria related factor.0 73 100 (0. The existence of Rats. This is in line with previous studies. 628±17. so the female rats had higher activity than statistically analyzed using the chi-square test to male rats.1. then replaced with empty traps which has been washed and dried. [13]. (estrus ability mother after giving birth). it which includes the existence of used goods piles. Female 11 19. Male 1 2. mongoose. and orientation of the range three consecutive nights afterwards. windows condition and the results of catching rats. and then Table 1. Body weight of This study aims to determine the relationship of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it The house sanitation and density of rats with bacterial anaesthized rats were identified by species and gender infection by Leptopsira sp in the subvillage Petompon then undergoes a surgery.3 43 93. drinking.4 Laboratory Testing [18]. and vegetables ate by rats. Activities of mice is usually We installed 308 trap in 77 houses on location over aim for eating.389–5. contact with contaminated soil the trap was immediately washed. density of mice with bacteria Leptospira sp infection in Female rats have the nature of post-partum oestrus mice. Study Design 3. The trap installed in 77 houses which later Leptospirasp infection in mice. Other animals that caught were released. 06008 (2018) https://doi. During the orientation area. The caught rats put into a cloth bag. Determination of Leptospira bacteria presence in mice are tested by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0. [17]. in mice.413 . Samples were can be used to determine the mobility of the population captured at research sites using live traps. sex.8 23 85. water.1.4 56 100 * (0. female determine the relationship of home sanitation and rats were more common than the male rats [19]–[21]. Kidney sample was taken to and Sampangan in Gajah Mungkur District of Semarang.095 .1051/e3sconf/20183106008 ICENIS 2017 seeing more than five rats per day at home or work place brought into field laboratories for the identification and were found to be risk [16].6 45 80.

which Leptospira sp infection in mice that the density of the had just left the nest. Advice to the leptospirosis disease.460) Garbage can a. especially leptospirosis.529-10.090-2. diseases transmitted by rodents either through rodent possibly through infectious milk. Yes 9 13. High (> 7%) 12 29. No 3 27. [21]. House Sanitation and Leptospira sp Bacterial Infections in Rats at Petompon and Sampangan Village 2016. will be easily affected leptospirosis case in Based on the results of the analysis can be seen that there human .org/10.4 66 100 (0. Covered 2 13. [25]. 0.0 10 100 (0. House Sanitation of mice in residential areas.203-15. With the [29]. Gender of rats (p = 0.250 b.3 29 70. contamination 4. in mice. Yes 10 14. [3]. potential transmission of leptospirosis. Low (< 7%) 0 0 36 100 36 100 * (1. [15].3 13 86. [24]. or by other routes faeces (salmonella). Open 11 16.653 b. the success of catching rats (Trap success) diseases are likely to be having debilitating effects which is as high as 11%. Not tightly fitted 1 11.173-2. With the discovery 3.073-5.0 6 75. Covered 4 20. [21]. can illustrate that the serious attention. have with humans in these environments.508 b.833 b.2 57 83. only one variable that of bacterial infections Leptospira sp. Leptospira sp bacterial infection in mouse OR Total Nilai VariabledanCategory Negatif (95% CI) Positif (n=12) (n=65) f % f % f % P Piles of used goods a.05 and value OR = 12.0 20 100 (0.0 16 80.0 41 100 0.1 8 88.4 56 83.661) Window a. in mice. is a significant correlation between the density of rats (p The high density of the mice in this study. Open 10 16.0 57 100 0.0 8 100 (0. where the The existence of mice in the house is very dangerous to windows and the presence of bacterial infection humans because rats was the main reservoir of ventilation with Leptospira sp. [28]. rats and mice in the house proliferate [13]. Indeed. means that the house is solid rat has a 12.375 b.9 0.261) Infection at a very young age (>2 months) suggests that (Weil’s syndrome) [1].6 67 100 0.8 68 100 (0.5 69 100 0. Open 8 14. many rodent In this study.7 15 100 (0. and severe cases can become a breeding ground for rats and mice catching lead to liver and kidney failure and internal bleeding efforts regularly and continuously to reduce the rat 3 . [13]. showed a prevalence of up to 30% mice in the house. Tightly fitted 11 16.768 b.0001 12.0 49 86. used to store food.7 11 100 0.8. in rats and there was no with poor sanitary conditions so that the house can live significant correlation between rat species. A recent showed a significant relationship with the bacterium study indicated that young non reproductive rats.9 1. habitat is when more than 7% [4]. Considering the close proximity rodents by the dam [22].9 9 100 0. may increase the occurrence Of the seven variables studied. [27].5 59 85.E3S Web of Conferences 31.9 62 100 0. 06008 (2018) https://doi.8 times greater risk of occurrence of Tabel 2. piles of junk.3 8 72. trash.883) Food storage a. [22].648 b.6 57 86.9 1.0001). Leptospirosis can be debilitating.The presence of rats in a residential area needs success of these arrests rate. Covered 1 10.414) Ceiling a. Conclusion by rat urine. it is possible = 0.244-6.603 0.498 0.565-105.402) Population density of mouse/rats a. No 2 25. Community to keep the house in order clean for not to particularly for the young and old. The density of rats with p≤ value of of kidney colonization [4]. [29]. urine (leptospirosis) airborne viruses within the nest including close contact with an infected (haemorraghic fever) and vector insects (plague and mother via fomites or uro-genital cleansing of neonates murine typhus). there are many transmission may occur also in utero or to neonates. where the ceiling.1 52 83.0 9 90.2.1051/e3sconf/20183106008 ICENIS 2017 Leptospira positive bacterial infections in mice compared to a house without mouse. The success of catching mice at home reduce productivity and cause mortality [9].363 2. Leptospira bacteria infection occurred because a lot of rats were found in residential areas so in this case. as a form of awareness of disease research sites have high density rats population as a transmission.019) with infection of for a distance of one another house huddled together bacteria Leptospira sp.711) Ventilation a.

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