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R B EGT^i N E R ^

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David Smith «Se
Melinda Gebbie

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. About the Illustrator: Melinda Gebbie is a painter and political cartoonist whose works have been published both in Europe and in the United States. and Who Rules the Universities? An Essay in Class Analysis. A new collection of her art is slated for publication in Germany this year. First Edition 1234567890 About the Author: David Smith is the author of Orwell for Beginners. Simultaneously published in the United States of America and Canada by Writers and Readers Publishing Inc.. London. All rights reserved under international and Pan-American Copyright Convention. To N^^ F/\»Al«_^ ^r<Oti Text copyright © 1984 David Smith Illustration copyright © Melinda Gebbie Set in 14/16 English Times Roman by Crimson Copy. PubHshed by Writers and Readers Pubhshing Cooperative Ltd. ISBN 86316 065 1 A Writers and Readers Documentary Comic Book © 1984 Manufactured in the United States of America. Marx's Kapital for Beginners.

Qtn^ZY^s "The Reagan Revolution" ^ Welcome to 17 Starring Ronald Reagan 27 The Salesman 30 The Star 37 The MiUionaire 42 The Politician 56 The Millionaire Backers 65 The Far-Right Stuff ^^ Nemesis in the White House ^^ The Warfare/Welfare State Post-Liberal Capitalism? ^^ 1^^ Reaganomics and the Supply Side 124 The Tax Cut 138 Discriminating Tastes Women ^^^ New Right/No Rights: 153 Proletarians. Unite? 156 The Demopublican Party ^"^^ The Empire Strikes Back ^^^ The Salvadoran Revolution Reagatomics: Apocalypse Now? l'^^ ^° Fast Forward .

Reagan promised to close the nuclear "window of vulnerability" and assure renewed U. welfare.Welcome To The ''Reagan Revolution''. He offered an economic strategy so novel it was dubbed "Reaganomics" — a program for evading the usual cycle of inflation and joblessness by stimulating business ("the supply side") while assaihng bureaucracy.S. . The means to these ends Reagan identified as the promotion of nuclear war-fighting technologies and redoubled commitment to military spending. and labor with unprecedented energy.. military superiority after "the dechne" of previous years. He rebuked previous presidents for their policies of detente and coexistence with the Soviet "evil empire" urging a return to vintage Cold War politics.. RONALD WILSON REAGAN entered the United States presidency in 1980 promising a stunning departure from previous policies.

. He spoke up for a "return to traditional values" — patriotism. renewed faith in the U. no Equal Rights Amendment for women.. fundamentalist religion.S. economy will be amply rewarded. and fewer environmental safeguards. Reagan announced that prosperity is just around the corner — that happy days are here again — that shining. Reagan promised to cut taxes. no abortions. the family — endorsing New Right calls for school prayers. Finally. The whole package was quickly greeted by the media as a veritable "revolution" — the "Reagan Revolution"..At the same time. the crusading new president promised glory and new national pride. Sword in hand. balance the budget. and reverse the growth of government. ..

anti-Soviet platform. And Margaret Thatcher's Tory admistration in Great Britain has served as a virtual prototype for the Reagan administration. Is This Really New? Is Reagan Unique? In some ways. the Swedish Social Democratic Party had been vanquished. After the summit con- ference at Williamsburg. anti-welfare party. after 54 years in power. Ronald Reagan is no farther right than several other current heads-of-state. Thatcher has proven equally illiberal: "steely" in her opposition to social services (as the media likes to say). anti-labor. Reagan knows who his friends are. determined to assure Western mihtary superiority and com- mitted to reducing inflation by promoting record employment. Earlier. not particularly. by a stringently right-wing. an interviewer asked him: "Who do you hke best?" Reagan repUed: . Elected before Reagan in 1979. Helmut Kohl of West Germany ousted a long-standing Social Democratic regime in 1982 on an anti- welfare. Although an ideologically militant conservative.

push guns instead of butter — and so far. elderly. Reagan. they've been able to have their way. Liberalism Reaganism . consists of a general trend in Western nations away from the welfare state. personified by Reagan in the U.. conservatives in triplicate. and unemployed.Reagan is not entirely unique because he is not alone. away from services for the disabled. away from "guns and butter" hberahsm.S. Reagan and Co. and Kohl are virtually carbon copies. Thatcher. The present flight from liberalism.

as his policies take effect. and then surging forward again The problem is that voters see no future in the welfare state — and no alternative besides Reagan's. o o o o o ^ ." that they are open to conservative blandishments. for example. shifting from half-hearted liberalism to "neo- conservatism. Margaret Thatcher. Reagan. His Democratic rivals vacillate." No clear alternative is posed. but they are sufficiently disoriented. too. sufficiently persuaded that old-fashioned Hberahsm "just doesn't work. shows great resilience in public polls — first fall- ing. The near-loss to Argentina of the colonial Falkland Islands (the Malvinas) was converted by Thatcher into a sensational propaganda coup — restoring her once- plummeting public esteem.Lf »»»»»»W«»gi »»»»«» »»»»W»»»»»^ Voters may not be in love with Thatcher-style reaction. has shown remarkable abihty to sustain Tory popu- larityeven in the face of joblessness unprecedented since the Great Depression.

we will explore several of these possibilities. taxes. in the name of pros- perity and security. Budgets are less balanced than ever. fewer unemploy- ment benefits. it may be the problem. taxes have not fallen for ordinary taxpayers. abandoning social services is even less helpful. security. Reagan in particular. Skillful politicians.Joblessness. As we examine Reagan's anti-Uberal assault on the welfare state. spiraling prices. But there are alternatives to liberalism which are also alternatives to Reaganism. and fewer ser- vices for the truly insecure. Reagan is right — old-time liberalism is exhausted. The State grows wildly. One argument of this book is that. They tend to feel that if the welfare state is not the answer. and global conflict make voters insecure. freedom — by means of less — less government. The irony is that. . Wars have not become less likely. Reagan and his friends have been able to lead the public into higher joblessness. On one point. Meanwhile. offer an ingenious equation: He promises more — more and prosperity. although welfare solves few major problems.

by floating $20 billion in unsupported paper bonds to finance the unpopular Vietnam war.War iO . Rush-To. too. of course. Has the economy suffered frostbite under Reagan? It was also blighted under Carter (1979). ^mm^^^^mmm^.S. Johnson contributed. and Eisenhower (1957). presidents. When "supply-side" budget-balancing proved unworkable in 1981. Eisenhower. Mt. always be linked to the 1929 stock market crash and the ensuing Great Depression. Reagan reverted to more orthodox Republicanism — focusing on the substitution of unemployment for inflation a la Hoover. Nixon/Ford (1974-75 and 1969-71). Even Franklin Roosevelt presided over a serious economic downswing — in 1937 — and Herbert Hoover will.Nor is Reagan entirely different from previous U. and Nixon.

This will be shown later. has always been well ahead in the arms race. Virtually every president in this century has sanctioned U. and many other places with Democratic presidents in office. the U. both world wars (Wilson and respectively) as well as Roosevelt).Is Reagan warlike? So were his predecessors. Democrats were in power when the U.) // . entered wars in Vietnam and Korea (Kennedy and Truman. Democratic presidents in particular have authorized a vast quantity of fighting. And the U. the Dominican Republic.S.S." (In reality. Reagan's claim that the Soviet Union is ahead in the arms race —that a "window of vulnerabihty" has opened up — is an unmistakable replay of Kennedy's spurious 1960 rhetoric about "the missile gap. participation in some foreign war or another. toppled governments in Brazil.S. and has never relinquished arms supremacy as a strategic aim.S.

sending the Nicaraguan dictator Somoza $50 million between January and July. despite its human rights talk: reintroducing the draft. promoting Rapid Deployment Forces. neutron bombs. pushing for the deployment of Pershing 2 and cruise nuclear weapons in Europe. introducing the MX missile system. and laser warfare from outer space.. Stealth jetfighters... while Somoza bombed his own civilian population. M . Reagan may have embraced these positions so ardently that they seem like his alone — but they were urged by Carter/Mondale first. 1979. urging $1 triUion in war budgeting over a five-year period..Even the Carter/Mondale administration played a formidable military role. .

and Chad — to avert revolution in El Salvador. and to support pro-West factions in Central Africa. Grenada. Still. Reagan has sent aircraft carriers. and "justifies" his saber-rattlingeverywhere by allega- tions of Soviet expansionism (some- times real. thousands of troops. but often imaginary). Ronald Reagan has been the most anti-Soviet President to date. and zillions of dollars to places such as Central America. J n Ronald Reagan is easily the most of modern U. Reagan is an extremist — an exaggeration of the norm — virtually a caricature of other warlike. In the words of the old song.So Reagan does resemble his predecessors. Reagan has pushed the deployment of first- strike nuclear weapons-systems directed at the Soviet Union. with a penchant not only for decrying "the evil empire" of Communism.S. pro-business politicians. presiding over the largest "peacetime" expansion the war budget has ever seen. but for securing military superiority. to overthrow left-wing Nicaraguan and Grenadian governments. /3 . to support the ultra-right Phalangists in Lebanon. Lebanon. bellicose leaders.

. 14 . Reagan sponsored the most recessionary economic policy since Hoover's in 1928/1929 —a pro gram of bitter austerity for workers and the poor.. and of generous aid to big business. throwing white-tie-and-tophat galas with old-fashioned fervor. the pin- nacle of economic wisdom. And for big business Reagan has been far from shy about his business connections — accepting lavish gifts of White House china. Reagan withheld from the needy ("the de- mand side") to give to business.Reagan has been the most openly pro- business president in a decade of Sun- days — in fact. Meanwhile. Reagan has made it a virtue. Car- toonist Paul Conrad aptly calls him "Reagan Hood". etc. since Calvin Coolidge announced that "the business of America is business" in the 1920's. to give to "the supply side" (business). The result has been windfall capitalization on a giant scale. More systematically than any previous president.

Overall. Reagan has also been more anti-environment than any other memory..'IT'S PLJ8UC LANP I DON'T JJKE/ Abroad.. slashing countless programs wliich evenNixon expanded or left untouched. Reagan has also been the most anti-welfare president by far. rushing (through James Watt and William president in Clark) to overturn environmental protection legislation while leasing wilderness and coastal lands to business. Reagan has antagonized even his "allies" — alienating countless Europeans over the deployment of Pershing 2 and cruise missiles. NOW. angering Argentina over the Malvinas. 15 . and vastly higher budget deficits than ever before.. the highest prime interest rate in history (above 20 percent at one point).. PRIVATX PROPERTy \S 5T FIME. the highest pover- ty rate in nearly two decades. winning few friends by aiding dictatorships in Central America.. "Reaganomics" has yielded impressive results: the highest unemployment level since the Great Depression.

has a U. Reagan is highly unpopular among women. for example. less popularity among women than men. just 34 percent of women found him acceptable — two women for every three men. Never before have political figures held as much power as U. the heart throb of the old matinees — faces utterly unprecedented disap- proval from women. that is.S. Never before. with first-strike weapons. Blacks. In mid-1983. presidents do. Reagan's arsenal is deadlier still.. Ronald Reagan — the screen idol. And Blacks like Reagan even less.. president governs the use of an awe-inspiring nuclear arsenal equipped. a gender gap.S. Above all. /6 . Truman's readiness to go to war was proportionately more deadly than Woodrow Wilson's because Truman had access toatom bombs. Ronald Reagan is the most dangerous world leader. president experienced a "gender gap" of more than three percentage points (i. Reagan's policies — even his whims — are therefore significant for anyone exposed to potential nuclear holocaust. for the first time. and others significantly affected by domestic cut- backs and escalated war dangers. when 51 percent of men lik- ed Reagan. of 77 percent. This particular U. or vice versa).S.e. and Reagan shows fewer qualms about the strategic deployment and potential use of nuclear weaponry than any president before him..At home. Hispanics.

To understand Reagan's policies. especially true with tion. Nevertheless. Mystery Hour. II . it would help to understand his motives.. Even in the best of cases it is hard to distinguish im- age from reality with a politician.S. It is easy to be gulled. an exceptionally private man with a television persona.. This is are unknowable by defini. starring Ronald Reagan! The U. a consummate actor married to an actress. there is a great everyone's shared political temptation to feel that you reference point. politicians know a politician. Ronald Wilson Reagan is the difficult. known. The president seems like public property. Shadow and substance: which is which? In some ways. publicized ficient evidence about a for virtu£illy every statement stranger's character. This is however. they make. most Sphinx-like of presidents — far more so than people tend to realize. their names on gratiating manner are insuf. presidents — universally A flashing smile and an in. everyone's lips. and Reagan is a particularly tough nut to crack: a shimmering mirage fading into the distance as you approach him.

do we hear belief or make-believe? ONCE UPON A TIME -PH ERE WAS A WONPROUS HERO- BRAVE. But can we believe the image-makers? When a politician speaks. reverent. UP. It is an illusion to believe that a remote — whether Reagan or Carter. Naturally. friendly. STKCHG. and Reuters. etc. ANpTROt. politicians carefully cultivate this illusion — after all. /S . their entire success depends on convincing us that they are brave. hurling thunder bolts and news flashes courtesy of AP. trustworthy. Everyone is deluged with information about the president — yet almost no one knows him. the president is an Olympian figure — Zeus on the mountain top. politician Nixon or Kennedy — can be straightfor- wardly understood by a media-taught public. Some reliable information is available from tape recorded conversations and from intimate memoirs by real confidantes. thrifty.With the rest of us more or less in the shade. HANP50ME.

if not decisively reversed. "But what's he P U PPET F WS M I Ul OK?Cl RE backers.^ really Uke?" is bea6an 5ince-re or insincere? compassion/ ate or HEARTtHSS^ DOES HE UNDERSTAND POES He B^EYC THE <20NSEQUENCE S WHAT HE SAYS? OF HISFOUTICS? COULD HE/^/S^^XBE-Lltyt IN OR rwosr G? what NUCLEAR WAR^ SAYS? Questions about Reagan matter. in part. Two of his former secretaries wrote IS MEAGIFTEP books to explain him. because Reagan's charismatic finger rests on the nuclear button. his policies.But even on this level Ronald IS KEAGAH Reagan is uniquely hard to pin 3HKEWP OR down. one with the LEADER OR THE V> revealing title.y^^) MINDLESS? him carefully are sharply divided on the most basic questions. Even if Reagan were personally out of the picture. could still bear poisonous fruit. Even people who follow . 19 .

In the words of Lear. later. the poor... Why? Supposedly. reassuring. from Shakespeare's great King Lear: 3l0 . no mat- ter what he does to estrange labor.Although despised by many. a shadowy smiling Hollywood actor with harsh rhetoric has managed to win the hearts. Somehow. His image is warm. Reagan's bitter words fall softly on public ears. Many people are convinced that beneath Reagan's sunny exterior there beats a heart of arctic tundra. of tens of millions of people. let's see what we can say about Reagan the man — to see what basis in fact his image and popularity may have. soothing. and minds. the public has grown cynical about poHticians. Much of the pubhc likes Reagan. But first. but vastnumbers of people show some degree of susceptibility to Reagan's manufactured media image. etc. Reagan remains an exceptionally resourceful and resilient politician. This merits attention in its own right. even now. with a seemingly inexhaustible fund of public good will. Yet.

. He — and claims the loyalties of millions millions of dollars — as his just reward for baseball-and-apple-pie virtues. Senator Paul Laxalt from Nevada started a 1976 book with these words: "Ronald Reagan is one of the great national leaders of our time. who rises to political heights in the big city. Ronald Reagan was acclaimed by his supporters in unqualified superlatives. Even before he became president.." A central part of Reagan's appeal is his image as a man who — in Laxalt's words — "has risen from humble beginnings to touch the hearts and claim the loyalties of millions. At ." Reagan strikes a Norman Rockwell pose — the image of the earnest young man from a classic small town.THE FAIRY TALE LIFE. The mighty empire is led by a plain man.... Reagan portrays himself and is accepted as the hero of a veritable rags-to-riches story.. handsome and patriotic with homespun virtues. In the process he shows that clean Uving and decency are better than all the vaunted sophistcation of Washington lawyers and Georgetown professors. perhaps of any time.

saying "there's a trace of Blarney green in the blood of every son of the sod. m The fairy tale starts on February 6.creatures." Chicago (briefly). hunting and fishing. Reagan announced that he town to another — had lived "the best Ufe possible. moved Dutch. Reagan. Illinois. 1911. Small town life agreed with young Dutch's parents. After great-grandfather Michael O'Regan left County Tipper ary for England during the famine of the 1840's. and final. is a corruption of O'Regan. life Galesburg. he signed marriage papers as "Reagan." migrating from Tampico His childhood he calls "a rare (population 1. in Tampico. where.. In his rhapsodic autobiog- from one small Illinois raphy." ly. The family name. jj^^ proud parents nicknamed him 'Dutch'..200) to Huck Finn-Tom Sawyer idyll." O Jack and Nelle Reagan. Dixon (popula tion 8. in 1920. and death among the small Tampico again. Ronald Wilson Reagan is born." The young Dutch later credited his Irish ancestry for his gift of gab. then to full of "woods and mysteries.000) ^3l . Monmouth.

Neil.. for a pretty girl's affections. typically.) ^ '^^ <33 . Iowa. After college Dutch became a sports broadcaster on radio station WOC — World of Chiropractic. Dutch became "Ronald Reagan.. Grimm Tales The Reagan family was just prosperous enough to send Dutch and his older brother. founded by the eccentric B. In 1940 the young star married starlet Jane Wyman after a story book romance. the quarterback. the Errol Flynn of B-pictures. Signed to a $200 per week contract. to Eureka College in Illinois. as a valiant young reporter on the phone saying. Palmer — in Davenport." He played Secret Agent Brass Bancroft in a series of movies. served as a basketball cheerleader. (They met on the movie set of Brother Rat and did a 9-week vaudeville tour sponsored by gossip columnist Louella Parsons.J. where he took a screen test. Dutch accompanied the Cubs to Hollywood. studied little. presided over the Booster Club and the Stu- dent Senate. and recalls starring. Dutch played football. Assigned to cover the Chicago Cubs baseball team in the spring of 1937. and defeated his friend.

But times had changed. did Reagan begin to receive a wide hearing. Disenchanted with Reagan's union preoccupation. While Jane Wyman's career blossomed.After serving in the Second World War — in a non- combatant role — the screen star returned to his wife and career. Not until the mid-1950's. Reagan married another young starlet — this time one who shared his passion for public life. Reagan became widely known as a smooth and beguiling speaker. Four years later. Jane Wyman divorced him. with an ever more conservative philosophy. Speaking in GE factories and at dinners around the nation. a4- . A plum job fell to him — that of corporate spokesman for General Electric as host of the pioneering TV show. Starring in four shows a year and hosting the rest. GE Theater. Ron's career in politics started in 1949. Reagan's faded. Reagan stayed with GE until 1962. eventually serving six terms as president. when he spoke against Hollywood radicals in testimony before a government committee. He became active as president in the embattled Screen Actors Guild. however. wide-eyed Nancy Davis.

From the breathtaking heights of White House power. Conservative Republicans urge Reagan to seek election himself." leaving room for a new war on the poor. He delivers a fiery. After briefly hosting! the TV Western Death Valley Days. Governor Reagan decides to seek the presidency. Ronald Reagan establishes himself as a political leader. Then. Even Grimmer Tales What happens next is common knowledge. candidate Reagan nearly unseats the conservative Republican in- cumbent. nationally- televised speech in support of Barry Goldwater's 1964 presiden- tial candidacy. So the fairy tale is Tom Sawyer ascends complete. im as . Gerald Ford. in 1980. Ronnie and Nancy feel "dizzy. The Illinois to the mightiest post on earth. to initiate the most far-reaching policy changes since the New Deal of the 1930's — in opposi- tion to New Deal policies. as the promise of liberalism seems increasingly Inflation and recession cap the so-called "war on poverty. awed" by their great good fortune. He agrees. in 1976. After two terms in office. His far-right populism comes back into fashion as welfare-stateprograms generate a property owner's backlash and washed out. Reagan over- whelms a faceless Democrat. Heralding this cause. and becomes California governor in 1966.

and the overall impression we receive is skewed: a Hollywood version of the truth.Accurate in broad outline. King's Row). and supporters. Tell-tale details which yield insight into the president and his social base are typically left out. chatty 1965 autobiography (called IVhere's The Rest Of Me? after the best line in his best movie. Reagan inaugurated this fairy tale himself. a millionaire. the Fairy Tale version of Ronald Reagan's life is misleading in crucial ways. 36 . and Reagan's innumerable personal anecdotes have given many people a vague sense of the fairy tale plot line —in the same way that millions of people who missed Star Wars still grasp its flavor from the ad campaign. Also crucial will be an examination of his views. Ronald Reagan must be carefully scrutinized in his principal real-life roles: as a salesman. To see the Fairy Tale in proper perspective. and a politician. prettified beyond recognition. values. in his glowing. Many publicists blithely echo this autobiography. a star.

Neil." At other times. John Edward ("Jack") Reagan was a salesman most of his life. punctuated at regular intervals by moments of suspense and editorial comment. This is not sur- prising when we review his bloodline. too.C. where the elder Reagan sold shoes. winding up as an executive vice-president ofMcCann-Erickson Advertising. The Salesman Viewed from the right angle. one of the industry leaders. improving box office sales. Ronald Reagan's life is a non- stop commercial break. His second son was born in a five-room flat above the H. the paterfamiliaswas part owner of "Reagan's Fashion Boot Shop. Pitney General Store. entered college. Birth of a Salesman. Boraxo. Whether serving GE. Neil Reagan became a salesman. Virtually nothing Reagan has ever done has been unrelated to sales. By the time Dutch and the seniorReagan brother.. Reagan has labored mightily to lure dollars and votes from audiences favored by his presence. 57 .. and radio sponsors. or selling his image and ideas in political campaigns. Jack Reagan worked as a travel- ing salesman and in sales at Marshall Field's in Chicago.

Stumbling time and again. To overcome this weakness.Dutch Reagan faced his first performing challenge in connec- tion with sales. Toasters. freezers — if GE made it. W^ KNOW STATISTICS ARE DROVE HIMTO THE UTMOST 'B0R1^4GBUT|REACHEP UNITS /WE SAT. he estimates that (besides hosting GE Theater) he spent two years doing GE flack work on the road.THE15F6E punts' URATED HIM IW . This first emerged when Reagan had to read radio ads for station woe. Reagan sold it. Reagan actually jeopardized his job. etc. refrigerators.). Of the eight years Reagan spent with General Electric.Even now he finds it difficult to speak naturally when reading (from a teleprompter. coffee pots.000 EMPLOy--> EE5ANP WITH SPEECHES RUNNING \iV A DAY/ WAS ON MY FE^T f=OR 550^0 MINUTES.^ THE 130. The pinnacle of Reagan's success as a salesman came with his efforts on behalf of General Electric. AU. AND PERSON Auy MET MIPDLE AMERICA. <^9 . Reagan concentrated on memorization — something which comes easily to him and which allows him to sound fresh and spontaneous. a 3" x 5" card.

.wise." aq . speaking about politics as well as products.. But I enjoyed every whizzing minute of it!." Even Reagan's athletic accomplishment as a salesman merits comment. but as human as the corner grocer. HAP TOWALKTVIE NIGHTSHIFT." And it was rewarding to see the result: "Back in the upstairs office. Reagan signed 10.TDO. It was wonderful to encounter the honest affection most people had for the familiar faces of Hollywood.000 photos in two days! At a plant in Louisville.. 'AFrEK^GM(LE5 Ot^ CONCRETE HAPToCUrm/ UCESTO GETfViy SH0V. the reception was equally heart-warming — the execs were ecstatic: they knew how to evaluate the lost pro- duction time against a shot in the arm morale. a happy warrior on the GE trail:"The trips were murderously difficult.After Reagan's years on *'the sawdust trail" for GE. Kentucky.5 OFF Reagan was a cheerful salesman. he remained a loyal OE booster — saying. in his autobiography. the assembly-Hne snaked 46 miles in length.. Hke a giant maze: WALKEPALL ^G MILES TWICE. that ''GE was a truly good sponsor. In one factory. a vast corporation.

Later, Reagan was equally diligent in service to Twenty Mule-
Team Boraxo. He even plugged Boraxo as California governor
— saying, when asked about the bloodshed his campus policies
I'll wash it off

with Boraxo!

As recently as 1983 Reagan authorized a British beer com-
pany to use his picture on advertising billboards.

The supersalesman later went into poUtics. But political
saleabihty, like his conventional sales ability, derived
from yet another source: his craft as an actor. Let's look,
now, at...

oooo o o o oooooo coo
o o o
TheEml/Thaf *

Ads Like aKmiily
Acting, too, was
in Reagan's
green blood. Is it

a surprise to
learn that
Dutch's mother
coached a local
drama group?


At one time or another
Reagan has performed in top
dramas as well as
melodramas; on the No major
vaudeville circuit; in a medium — radio, televi-
Las Vegas night club act; sion, film — outside
as a television master of his range.
ceremonies, and as a
public speaker.

When Reagan movie career in the waning years of
started his
the depression, he was a hot commodity: a pleasant new face
with a near-photographic memory, ideal for the assembly-line
style of production Jack Warner had developed for his con-
sistently money-making B-movie division. Reagan could
memorize his lines as fast as the Warner stable of writers could
crank them out. Under director Byrnie Foy, Reagan appeared
in no fewer than 20 B-movies in the late 30's —
films turned out
at blinding speed, with small concern for quality (to put it mildly).

Brass Bancroft, Brass Bancroft Brass Bancroft
secret agent saves the day stops 'em dead


Even Reagan was dizzied and a little disillusioned by the inar-
tistic speed of B-movie production, "They didn't want it good;

they wanted it Thursday." He felt similarly in 1956, near
the end of his movie career, when he starred in a movie with
Nancy, Hellcats of the Navy.


ve'ke in love/

During the Second World War, Reagan served in the Army Air
Corps — in a movie-making unit its stars (such as Alan Ladd)
called "Fort Wacky." The immortal films this unit produced
include Rear Gunner, For God and Country, and the Irving
Berlin musical This Is The Army.

fljOat down IAf£ff/CAKm?tll\U


"In college I majored in drama. Nancy dated Clark Gable — long enough to worry her mother — and acted on television in addition to the stage. Nan. of course. then sued for divorce. Lillian Gish.Nancy Davis was a young veteran of eight movies with an impressive acting pedigree. and the Huston family (Walter.The seven-year Ronald The divorce was pure itself Reagan. and early film idol Alia Nazimova (who became Nancy's godmother. 33 .Jane Wyman marriage Hollywood: Wyman won an produced two children Academy Award for Johnny (Maureen and adopted son Belinda. Her mother had starred on Broadway with Spencer Tracy. Nancy grew up with a fascination for acting. Michael) and a few movies. Reagan's second dream marriage was another all-Hollywood event. Nancy made eight Hollywood movies (before her 1952 marriage). and John).) Family friends in- cluded theater stars Tracy. While in New York. Nancy too performed on Broadway — most notably in The Lute Song with Mary Martin and Yul Brynner. Starting in 1949." After leaving Smith College. George M. Cohan.

Million Dollar Baby. but. KONNIE FOR BE5TTR1EMP. Reagan's career was lightweight. on the whole. typecast as the best man at the wedding. Some of Reagan's films are widely respected. After the early salad days of Brass Bancroft heroics. That Hagen Girl. in print. the hero's best friend. Tropic Zone.. Though the Reagans are very sensitive about his reputation — both list. Reagan settled into comfortable semi-stardom. The Winning Team. Reviewers typically called his performances "casual". the films in which Reagan "gets the girl!"— the obvious truth is that Reagan was a pleasant second-lead. and Night Unto Night. Gardenia Jones?^ The calvalcade of Reagan pictures also includes the unforgettable Cattle Queen of Montana.. The Girl from Jones Beach.All in Ronald Reagan all. — who stopped calling himself Dutch at Warner request — performed in 54 movies. International Squadron. 3>H . vv- That's what Jack Warner supposedly said in 1964. RONNIE FOR SOVEKMOR? WRONG CASING/ JIMMY STEWA!^ FOR GOVERNOR. Who can ever forget Law and Order? Bedtime for Bonzo? The Bad Man? John Loves Mary? Mr.

Gable. he enjoyed the money and the fame.. Reagan's unsurpassed ability to speak acidly in a quieting voice is a mar- velous asset. reassuring leader — not a sneering Bogart or Brando on the prowl.! POINGWHAT^IU- ANOTHEK PERSON -fOLp ME TO PO.But the which left Reagan unsuited for starring plezisant presence roles requiringmagnetism and a degree of quirkiness the — qualities which made Brando. Reagan felt unfulfilled as an actor taking direction from others. The public wants a friendly. /but FEP-UKEA I SEMI-AUTOMATON 'CREATING' A CHARAa^R AHO- DIERHAPWRITIEN. Bogart. And Reagan showed all the good sense you might expect from a semi-automaton.. Yes. 55 . and Tracy so compeUing — qualify Reagan beautifully for the part he now plays. pleasant. MR. HOLLYVOOP GOZ^ TO WASHINGTON ^^-i^^^^^^^^-y.

I swam with the villains supposedly shooting at me from a railroad bridge. the bullets. . were in reality metal slugs from a slingshot wielded by a prop man riding the camera dolly. I did a lot of things I'm too smart to do now." When Reagan went looking for his missing half. Always careful to accentuate the positive. there must be a built-in the director asked guarantee that nothing could go wrong. I feel he is only half a man — no matter how great his talents. but in those days I feh if you to do it. he found a millionaire — a millionaire who represents other milHonaires on the political stage." Still. 3<o . hit- ting the water six inches from my face. Reagan stresses "I regard acting with the greatest affection. I even let them shoot a bottle out of my hand with a slingshot. . he adds: "If a man is only an actor.

But his movie career dwindled to practically nothing in the early 50's. 37 . At the peak of his movie career. It seemed hardly fair that a movie star who had succeeded so beautifully should be so strictly taxed. Reagan commanded the regal salary of $3. Reagan once credited his shift to bedrock conservatism to resentment over progressive taxation..THE MILLIONAIRE Vaguely liberal until the start of the Hollywood anti-Commu- nist crusade in the late 1940's. inone phase ringing up monthly $750 nightclub bills at the Mocambo and the Tropicana.500 per week.. This concern with his own personal fortune later generalized to a concern for all the afflicted wealthy. He grew used to a posh lifestyle.

. Wearing up a lot of shoe leather on GE's behalf.. Reagan grew wealthy in the process. kept the family solvent. But the offer from the Last Frontier Hotel proved irresistible: The G. Nancy." COURAGE.PEAH. The plain man of the people was riding high.E. in her 1980 autobiography. When the stream of television income slowed in the mid-60's after Reagan shifted to politics.000. the sale of Yearling Row. soon to become $150. a 236-acre ranch in the Malibu Hills. We simp- ly could not afford the luxury of a ranch. Nancy. Investments in real estate proved golden for the Reagans.000 in debt — that he had started a Las Vegas night club act shortly before.Ronnie had taken a large cut in income when he left television to become governor.000 a year. expressed sorrow over the sale of Yearling Row: ". offer was even better: $125. PUBUC PUTy CAUS 3^ .Salvation came in the form of the anthology series. GE Theater. So broke had Reagan been — nearly $18.

" In 1970. Governor Ronald Reagan paid no state income taxes.Even his meager $49." Reagan's evil loophole was a tax credit for "agricultural preserves. however. still I invested a relatively small amount of money in breeding bulls. This was the man who had said "Taxes should hurt." for which Reagan qualified by grazing 22 cattle on his 667-acre Santa Barbara ranch.." As recently as 1979. from taking advantage of what he later referred to as "my evil loopholes. Reagan's tax bill for his ranch totaled just $862. Reagan agreed this was a very modest investment for a man of his means: "Wanting to at least have a feeling of being active in agriculture. This did not prevent him. No wonder he's bulUsh on private pro- perty! 3i .000. If this ranch had been fully taxed at the rate set for an estimated value of $1 million. Reagan would have paid $42. Yes..000 governor's salary (just one-fifth his previous income) did not qualify Reagan for state relief.

is a Spanish-style adobe amid 688 wooded acres at an altitude of 2. WEVER took A GIFT HOUSE. N THE MOUTH/ That was the governor's bon mot when his milUonaire backers purchased a $150. This was not the first time Reagan had ac- cepted a housing rebate from wealthy supporters." The home itself. GE converted this home into what Reagan calls "the most electric house in the country.000 private home dL' in Sacramento for ren- tal to who had the Reagans.400 feet. with a foreman on hand to raise Arabian and quarter horses. when the Reagans built their Pacific Palisades home high atop the Santa Ynez mountains over- looking the Pacific Ocean. Rancho del Cielo... ." "GE played with it Hke a Christmas toy and we benefited no end. In 1956. decided \ X the governor's mansion was a fire trap.

Reagan's finances soared after he left Sacramento in 1974. In
1975, Reagan made up to ten speeches per month at $5,000 per
speech. 174 newspapers carried Reagan's column, and more
than 200 radio stations played his taped comments.

Although very reluctant to reveal his finances — so reluctant, in
fact, that both the Federal Election Commission and a parallel
California agency have sued him to disclose his assets — Reagan
did issue a net worth statement in 1975 while seeking the
Republican presidential nomination. His total: $1,455,571,
More recently, the New York Times estimated Reagan's fortune
to be in the vicinity of $4-5 million. This total is not surprising
if we consider Reagan's late-70's income: in 1979, Reagan
reported earnings of $516,000; in 1981, $741,000.

With such stellar income, the
Reagan penchant for lavish living
ishardly a mystery. In the early
1970's, Reagan grew so carefree
about money that he stopped car-
rying cash all together, (Aide
Michael Deaver handles the bills.)
As president, Reagan thinks
nothing of showing reporters four
new pairs of $1,000 boots im-
printed in 14-karat gold with the
presidential seal — amid the
trauma of a recession...


Reagan's path to the presidency was highly unusual.

ji //

Absolutely unpolitical until his mid-30's, Reagan's
first semi-political activity came in the Screen Actors

Guild (SAG) after World War II. Hollywood was
then in a small postwar tailspin which deepened as
television and Hong Kong competition cut into the
market. Reagan shifted his energies to SAG as
employment difficulties mounted.

SAG had been founded in 1933, and it had 15,000
members by the time Reagan ascended to its presidency.
Most were effectively penniless; "the famous men of the
business" whoso impressed Reagan when he first walked
into aSAG board meeting were a very small part of SAG

Reagan's politics as a six-term union president were
those of a moderate anti-Communist. He campaigned
lightly on radio for such Democrats as Harry Truman
and Hubert Humphrey, but stood out principally by
supporting the McCarthyite inquisition in Hollywood.

At the age of 43,on the verge of Reagan's start with GE, his
political views were remarkably unformed. His marriage to
Nancy Davis had placed him in a conservative context —
Nancy's step-father. Dr. Loyal Davis, was an arch-conservative
who clearly influenced Reagan in this period —
and Reagan
was unhappy about progressive taxation. But it was his tenure
as GE spokesman that confirmed Reagan as a rightist.


GE president Ralph Cordiner was Reagan's mentor in this
metamorphosis. Cordiner, for whom Reagan professes great ad-
miration, felt that Reagan could go places with a definite
world- view. He recalls telling Reagan: "Get yourself a
philosophy you can stand for and the country can stand for."

GE: We bring good things to life

The ever-modest Reagan agrees with Cordiner that
this was the crossroads in his swing to the right...


He Reader's Digest anecdotes. Reagan nevertheless accepted guidance from his near- monopoly employer whenever GE questioned his rhetorical sallies." only to find that GE conducted $50 million in annual business with TVA. BELIEVEP. Posing as the scourge of everything unwelcome to free enter- prise. SOMETHING soon became an . ties sparkling.IM WHICH I ardent spokes. man for cor- porate interests? Merging a fond concern for business with fashionable fif- anti-Communism. TTTT Is it altogether surprising that 1HAD TO HAVE the chameleon SOMETHING I actor. proud of WANTEpTO his corporate SAY. Reagan had attacked the semi-public Tennessee Valley hydroelectric power system (TV A) as New Deal "socialism. Once. soon evolved what he refers and semi-facts that rightist to as The Speech the — audiences have thrilled to for 30 years. virtually without pause. for example. Hi4 . AND connections. Reagan promptly withdrew all references to TVA from The Speech. crowd-pleasing Reagan toured the country pastiche of patriotic rhetoric.

showed the wisdom of paying homage to the powers-that-be. freedom-loving logic! If you step on powerful toes. she says." As always. Reagan's primary concern was public safety. and said the airhnes would consider it tactless if GE told umpteen million potential passengers they might land the hard way. nest-ce pas? . sold them to the airlines. Sternly. Reagan. Nancy beautifully summarizes the Reagan doublethink justify- ing censorship. His dinner theater act won immense popularity — so much so that a GE executive told Reagan that in the late fifties no one except President Eisenhower was more in demand as a public speaker. "we came up with an exciting half-hour play based on the danger to a planeload of passengers lost in the fog with all instruments out of whack. you have only yourself to blame when you are ground underfoot in return . for an episode of GE Theatre. ^5 . . meanwhile." "We needed someone to remind us that GE made those in- struments. "The very people who criticize censorship are inviting by not censoring themselves." Ex- it cellent. Another time.

^«^ ^|» He was 51 years old. Reagan finally joined the J/^ g::^^ s capitalized on his new-found ] tf ff J|>^ eminence. Reagan quickly supporting Republicans. Republican party in 1962. Catapulted into the public eye as an articulate At first dramatizing his spokesman for conservative status as a Democrat S*'^ campaign for Goldwater c^^^°r>^'!^^'' on national television — an election-eve speech (October 27) in a hopeless I cause —underwritten by wealthy California -a: Republicans to showcase 4lt their new star. :d[ banning 1 •J?^*^.. Two years later. . as the California co-chair of Citizens for Goldwater. Reagan was invited to .

new Governor quickly set m and lost the general elec- sailfor still loft ier positions. G. The very night of the 1966 Reagan's supporters rS^aTre backers per. ^Lon in a landslide. Buoyed into 1966 against ' . I I I I I I I I nair'r^f I 1^1 . cameras. election run fo unfurled a "Reagan For suaded him to Governor in President" banner before the 'California Democrat T.V. Reagan ^^vS^ political viability a so>lidified candidate and new as the his position theiideological darling n ght. power by home-owner anti- Edmund white tax sentiment and by Brown undjeresum^ i ' opposition to the new law Reagan^^|^[HJSt^^ banning racial discrimination ^V^S HeReagan's concentrated in housing — a law Reagan m his fire on vehemently opposed the — m leading Republican rival. Tat' Brown. _._ I .

S. since Theodore Roosevelt's bid in 1912.000 in the primary alone. The 1976 incumbent.7 per- California popularity cent of eligible voters (a total thanks to his spendthrift of 44.000. ran an victory. Reagan Richard Nixon was assured then resumed his quest.." "All the world's a stage". Reagan them cam. "the first real run at an incumbent Repub- lican President. Reagan was forced to outspend his 1970 democratic guberna torial opponent by a giant margin — $3.000). paign in 1980. and became the fortieth U. After leaving Califor- nia office in 1974. disregard for the disen- franchised.208. in 1975-1976. Reagan's challenge but not til it became clear that Democrat Carter's. averted and campaigned actively un. ^^ . president upon Faced with declining receiving the votes of 26.000 to $1.and Ronald Reagan is now the leading actor. far-right Republican. without a primary ill opponent! —to eke out a relatively narrow margin of victory (four hundred thousand votes smaller than in 1966).000 votes to Carter's budgets and his abrasive 35. exceptionally effective cam- paigned for Nixon. He was a favorite son can. also a didate for President in 1968.550.500. Reagan once again em- barked on a presiden- tial campaign — pur- suing. within his party.. .

in the nuclear age. If Punch and Judy are on the verge of warfare — who pulls the strings. ^ . posing the nuclear question.. or not to be?'' This is indeed the question. it is perhaps worth asking who writes Reagan's script.. the world's most powerful nation is guided by a profes- sional actor —a veritable modern Hamlet.So. Given our fragile global balance. a pubHc spokesperson for views and policies formulated by others. in large part. and to what end? Abundant evidence indicates that Ronald Reagan is. **To be.

When he started his campaign for California governor in 1965. Reagan was woefully ill-prepared for the discussion of policy issues. winning Reagan renown. Anti-Communist cliches were fine for whistle-stop oratory." Reagan has never entirely abandon ed his early habits. it proved in- adequate for Reagan's stepped-up speaking obligations. run by. but it also represented the sum total of his knowledge about public issues. though. Ronald Reagan has spoken Hnes writ- ten by others. which had served ad- mirably "for six years during the Eisenhower administration" and for four years after- wards. His barn-burning 1964 television speech had been a great success. Unhappy though he may have been as an acting "automaton. Once again." said Reagan. but insufficient for question-and-answer sessions with the press. Reagan needed something to say. 50 . It was "the same speech.Since the 1930's.. The millionaire king- makers who had enlisted him for the governor's race supplied the answer: the services of a specialist firm. Suddenly. Behavior Science Corporation (BASICO).

and to tell him which issues the voters cared about most.. with BASICO help. Kenneth Holden of San Fernando Valley College.Dr." This. Stanley Plog of UCLA and Dr. Holden was later understandably proud that.. the Reagan team "looked at the campaign as a problem in human behavior. I NEVER WORKEP WITH VOTERS/ Ivan Pavlov John B. was unprecedented. Plog and Holden. TRUE. Dr.. were given a two-fold assignment: to supply Reagan with infor- mation. according to Holden. Watson SI .. both psychologists. a very complex problem.

As Washington Post columnist David Broder commented. from eminent philosophers and pundits. "We needed statistics to buttress Reagan's ideas. too.Plog and Holden analysed Reagan's basic speech. "You should have seen those newspapermen jump when Ron first quoted Jefferson to them. TO GET MORE NFOKMATIONAL INPUT INTO REAGAN'S SPEECHES ANPTO PROVIPE A PHlLOSOPfl- . 5a .... WE WERE Hi REP.1 ANP HISTOKICA u FRAl^E WORK CA1_ ^ POK HIS BEUEFS. identifying 17 key issues which they assigned assistants to research.. which Reagan then used as the basis for his 3" x 5" speechmak- ing cards." Plog and Holden prepared eight binders full of facts and quotes on 5" x 8" cards." said Plog — and they provided quotations.. this was "a sort of wisdom-by- association technique." laughed Holden afterwards.

.) "That mouthpiece thing bothered him throughout the campaign because he had been doing his own research for years. he took us to his house and showed us piles of clippings in boxes. As were insufficient if all this —leaving nothing to chance — either Plog or Holden accompanied Reagan on every public tour he took for six months.. never leaving his side. 53 . If questions came up that Reagan felt unable to handle. Reagan once again found himself in unfamiliar surroundings. talking ventriloquist's dummy (an im- pression not lessened by Edgar Bergen's help during the campaign. Though this saved Reagan considerable em- barrassment.. he conferred briefly with his experts. he still resented the inference many journalists drew that he was a walk- ing. and he was pretty proud of his collection." nSEE? OVER HERE arc: THE DOWNl Upon his election.

.5PECIFIC?R06RAM6.. Campaign manager Lynn Nofziger points out just how innocent Reagan was at this point. ." 5i . R0NALPREA6AN. Even Reagan's most loyal staffers are unable to say unequivocally that Reagan played an important part in formulating poUcy. PIPN'T EVEN RUN HIS OWN CAMPAIGN. what po we do now?J Once again Reagan's milUonaire backers sup- pUed an answer..1 WISii I COULP REMEMBER ALLOF THEM BUT IT WAS NOT UNUSUAL FOR HIM TO COME IN CUJTCHIN6 A MAGAZINE. all but a few of Reagan's major appointments were made this way.SA/INGVhATABOITTTHI LET'S SE£\F WE CAN'T DOTHAT.^ Reporters who study the Reagan archives on the Stan- ford campus find Uttle evidence to support Meese's claim. Reams of inter-office memos reveal "an ad- ministration full of con. BUT HEALSO OR161NATEP A LOTOF IDEAS HIMSELF." initiated few of them.THEf^E' FORE^WHEN HEWA5 ELECTEtT^THE BIG Question y/^] My gop..! CANT REMEMBER SPECIFIC IDEAS. BUT HE WOULD SAY/I'VE BEEN THINKING ABOUT -miS.WHAT DO yOUTHlNK OFTHATf HE DEVELOPEP A LOT OF PEAS H MSELF. WA/5 OF POI N 6 I I TH1N65. HIS CAMP/\IGN WAS RU N By H REP PEOPLE WHO 1 THEM WAlKEPAWAYANP LEFT IT. At Reagan's request they nominated people to fill 40 staff positions... Bill Boyarsky: "But Reagan troversy and rich in ideas.. Edwin Meese tries: ITHINK HE LOOKEPFOK PEOPLE WHO HAP PEAS AMP 1 (THATHE^ACTEPON THOSEIPEAS AS THEY CAME BEEOKE HIM.

To discover the source and nature of Reagan's predispositions. But the specifics ofReagan's poUcies are more likely to emerge from his advisors than from the President himself. 55 . paign manager Jeffrey Bell. him. P^CENTRAUZATION/ He's a borrower E-NPOKSE IT/ and endorser. He has no fixed moorings in any particular program. just a bias in favor of right-wing solutions. We'll start with the group of advisors RIGHT who.. so I hit appreciates the on decentraliza- nuances of what tion as his vision is proposed to of the future. He's not a conceptualizer. hostility to "bleeding hearts" and "freeloaders". ideas. we will examine several items: EXIT STAGE the people who influence him.. until dubbed "the Kitchen Cabinet.<^^ There is absolutely no question that Reagan has long- standing views which are really his: antagonism to Soviet Russia. the views which motivate him. He to say... A key 1976 Says 1976 cam... speech writer.. faith in capitaHsm. . John Sears: found that "Reagan had ab- 'He's not a solutely nothing stupid man.. It's just that he's not the originator of P IS FOR.. and the policies he defends." were called.

to be worsening.---' - ••''S'^• with the Republican Party..IV? .. incompetent.- of the public identified 'A sj. Soon. at a 1980. * 'thought of the Republican Party as un- trustworthy. Impressed by the apparent Rockefeller image. just 21 W^ percent of those polled con- sidered Reagan anti-worker. Sio . . THE FAT'GAT IIV1A6E WITH POLLAR- SI6NS ON OUR V^STS/^ This was Reagan's com. Reagan perfected a new approach to Republican cam- and fade still further. suffer from the traditional Carnegie. and closely allied with big business. Ronald Reagan already had a far better reputation than his party. In January. An ear. H>AVEN'TB£EN . paigning which eventuated. did. the image of fat-cat most U. and the situation appeared ^ -^-. The Millionaire Backers WE IN-T>1Ef?EPUBLICAW PARTY. citizens Republicanism began to fade." Only 18 percent . in a rejuvenated image time when the RepubHcans for the party in general.S. ABLE TO SHAKE THE CR^ATEP FOR US 40 YEARS AGO. 1976. grassroots populism of ly1975 poll by pollster Reaganite anti-government Robert Teeter showed that rhetoric.. indeed. in plaint in the mid-70's.

Reagan was courted by a variety of would-be king-makers. and a director of Rexall Drug and Chemical Company. Senate (twice) and the governorship (once).owner of Holmes Tuttle Enterprises. Rubel. These were the prime movers and shakers at the start.C. founder of the Western Geophysical Company Holmes Tuttle. ^. Chairman of the Board. as well. And our lives. -^-.S." After minor arm-twisting. V Henry Salvatori. 57 .^ \ '^ 1 />7. an oil developer. two other Ford dealerships. Nancy reports that in the early 1960's Reagan was asked to run for the U.After embracing GE and showing the drawing power of his salty after-dinner patter. Union Oil Company. Reagan was such a smash success that his business patrons rallied to form a poHtical campaign committee on his behalf. Reagan was talked into a try for the governorship. /^ Who sponsored Reagan? The answer is a \ of the wealthy Goldwater constit- roll call V uency in industry-rich CaUfornia: ) Vi '/ A. Holmes Tuttle Ford. "The Friends of Ronald Reagan.

parent Pictures. Leland M. Edward Mills. Justin Dart — president of Rexall Drugs joined — former CIA chief John R. we should go out :." Frustrated by the debacle of Goldwater's cam paign and credibility in 1964.. We gathered people around who had a common interest and decided to help Ron. and Decca Records. Their view. Rubel and Co.. A year later. McCloy among new entrants to the Reagan inner circle. respectively)."Friends of Ronald Reagan" set up shop in Rubel's Union Oil headquarters in downtown Los Angleles. looked for a fresh approach... The inner circle of Reagan's "Friends" was completed with the addition of the following people: Leonard Firestone. wealthy San Francisco industrialists Jaquelin Hume and Arch Monson. Kaiser. Jr." Strange coincidence — the people with "a common interest" in Ron's candidacy were all millionaires. Said Salvatori: "When I saw Ronnie on television. is that "Reagan is the man who can enunciate our principles to the people. in 1966. We believed in the free enterprise system. 58 . instead of going around bellyaching about it. Dunn and Crutcher. Inc. We felt that if it was going to be preserved.. we knew we had to do something. company of Universal Inc. vice president of MCA. Universal Studios. president of the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company. (of Basic Vegetables and Autocall. and William French Smith. vice president of Holmes Tuttle Enterprises._and do something about it. Taft Schreiber. as Rubel put it.. I knew he was our boy!" Said Tuttle: "After we took that terrible defeat in 1964.. multimillionaire former Board Chairman of Insurance Securities. partner in the Los Angeles law firm of Gibson.

" ac- cording to Holmes Tuttle. "It didn't take a real smart man to know that we had a viable candidate for Gover- nor. an ideologically pure firm that will not serve Democrats. they helped make Ronald Reagan what he is today."Everyone of them is a self-made man. 5S ." T/\T>|AT = TRE^ _^y' yy yy yy yy yy A political public relations firm was employed to promote Reagan — Spencer-Roberts "the best. Very early. the millionaire backers foresaw the pro- spect of becoming a White House Kit- chen Cabinet. Together. and if he did a good job he would be presidential timber." said Holmes Tuttle about the original millionaire backers.

Reagan was candid: "My administration makes no bones about being business-oriented. "By ed for the communica- early 1968 Salvatori had tions network alone at assembled a smoothly the Miami Beach con- running Presidential vention. . .557 for Reagan's 1968 cam- Reagan's 1968 foray into paign. This proved to machine. 60 . Still. they shunned official positions. recommendations.500 was rais- Presidential poHtics. the millionaire Salvatori coordinated backers raised $366." Meanwhile. Henry All told. virtually everyone ap- pointed to an official position was an employer or an executive.". in all but one or two cases he did. be an expensive lesson in big-time politics — but one which finally paid dividends to the milhon- aire backers in 1980. $72." (Tuttle) Though the millionaire backers remained active.five " "He didn't have to accept our . Once in the Governor's Office in Sacramento. but I'll say this. or forty of the top jobs. Reagan solicited recommendations from his miUionaire backers for "thirty.

Caspar Weinberger of Bechtel. Reagan won friends and influenced — people i. after the 1980 election. Henry Salvatori. — Emulating Dale as well as Andrew Carnegie. the business groups. Verne Orr. disarmingly concedes Reagan's bias: "It is natural that the type of special interest group that puts you there [in office] is the one that you're going to listen to more closely. Edwin Meese III. that put this administration in. and four others. Wick." New faces from this constituency joined the Reagan team in the years leading up to 1980. the lateAlfred Bloomingdale. Senator Paul Laxalt. Chicago businessman Daniel Terra. Theodore Cummings. Charles Z. Holmes Tuttle. president of Diners Club. Justin Dart Headed by William French Smith. They are our constituency. Earl M. Reagan formed a "transition team" to identify potential appointees. an 18-member team included the late Justin Dart (who had become perhaps the most influen- tial millionaire backer).e. ^1 . Reagan's finance direc- tor.. president of Jorgensen Steel Company. In our case it was the conservative groups. When. a steel and aluminum magnate. Jorgensen. businessmen while in Sacramento. Kitchen Cabinet members were prominently represented.

Justin Dart expressed a characteristic sentiment.) Though Holmes Tuttle also stayed out of the limelight. saying: "I could have probably had prettymuch whatever I wanted." ^WOUR KITCWEN CA6IN£T Preoccupied with the 1980 merger which produced Dart-Kraft Inc. 6a . Donna. — Dart accepted only a minor directorship with the Communications SatelUte Corporation.S. but I thought I could do more good this way [as a private Reagan adviser] than by calling up the secretary of stateeveryday to ask when I could go to the toilet." This was an assignment Kitchen Cabinet members were eminently suited to fulfill. from self-nominations.Reagan's mandate to the appointments team was to attract "some of the big names in business —men who make $100.000-a-year commerce undersecretary for travel and tourism. became a $70. — the 27th largest industrial firm in the U. his son. top Kitchen Cabinet members stayed aloof from of- ficial positions. Dart accumulated between $20 and $200 miUion. Robert became a special presidential assistant.000 a year. Their great success sprang. and his daughter- in-law. (Dart's estate is immense: after making his first million seUing "medicinal whiskey" during Prohibi- tion. As usual. in part.

Wilson also ran an "Office of the Kitchen Cabinet" in the Old Executive Office Building across from the West Wing of the White House.anpmr.000 gift of gilt-edged china. With help from their friends. William French Smith became Attorney-General. Bloomingdale. Charles Wick became U. gl-OOMiNGPAl£.S. Still. Edwin Meese became presidential counselor. Caspar Weinberger became Defense Secretary.3 . several millionare backers set up permanent quarters in Washington — Dart. And WilUam Wilson became Vatican Ambassador. and (at this writing) Attorney- General designate. Nancy regally dis- missed a postcard depicting her as Queen Nancy.rhagah goes td wash into N anp50 poes mr[?at^.High appointments were common. Concurrently. Jorgensen. the Reagans reintroduced high fashion to Washington. Society reporters eagerly recounted Nancy Reagan's $822. quote: 4. among junior members of the Kitchen Cabinet. and a $209. AN P ROCKy. however. Paul Laxalt became chairman of the Republican Party.000 plan to refurbish White House living quarters. mr. Information Agency chief. A NP For a while.

1981. by Reagan. giving the jet set carie blanche in Washington had proven a bit rich for the public's blood. Camouflaged better. Reagan's views are nevertheless extreme. and vice versa." Reagan was so good to business. In February.. Another key weakness is Reagan's affinity for the ultra- right." Dart-Kraft reported a 47 percent gain in after-tax income during the first nine months of 1981. "but so far we have been fortunate not to have been affected at all. This has always been a vulnerable point in Reagan's propaganda armor. 64 ." said Earl Jorgensen. business boomed for many of Reagan's cronies. Henry Salvatori crowed that "business hasn't been this good in my lifetime. that Reagan's hard-won image as a friend of the people began to slip away. than by any other spokesman for the right. And Jorgensen Steel felt no pain: "We know the recession is out there. The fat-cat image began to reappear. this percentage had more than doubled — rising to 52 percent. by September.. in the middle of a spreading recession. Apparently. only 23 percent of the public felt that Reagan favored the wealthy. Meanwhile. in fact.

commented in 1981 that "Reagan is underestimated. Eisenhower. by any means — but most voters have fallen for him most of the time for 20 years. to say the least. Sunday-school-manner contradicts print. He supported Democrat Harry Truman in 1948 only because Truman had distinguished himself by immaculate anti-Communism. he's terribly pleasant. there beats the heart of a gen- uine far-rightist. however. program and speeches: "He doesn't look like the message of his a mad bomber. People like him. these days were short and wintry. a former Edmund Brown advisor and long- time power broker." says Hedrick Smith. Though Reagan loves to reminisce about his "Hberal" post-war days. It didn't work." Not everyone likes Reagan. scolding. as Jimmy Carter did in 1980. Reagan has no harsh edge. WE ARE FOR THE FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM/ In 1952 Reagan supported Republican Dwight D. We tried to make him out a sinister figure. SAG President Reagan quickly emerged as a leading Hollywood anti-Communist. The Far-Right Stuff Polls consistently show that Ronald Reagan appears less reac- tionary to his audience than his words and deeds seem in cold His warm. and we didn't understand that. Frederick Dutton. Underneath the facade. 0>5 .

was well posi- tioned to assume his mantle. "Isn't it a shame what happened to McCarthy and Roy?" (Roy Cohn was McCarthy's assistant. Encouraged by GE.) . injuring the innocent along with the guilty. Reagan turned to say. To this day Reagan retains a lingering fondness for McCarthyism. hisbroadsides should not be used today to infer that all who opposed Communist subversion were hysterical zealots. Reagan made the following remark: It's true the Senator used a shotgun when a rifle was needed. Reagan became a McCar- thyite par excellence. With McCarthyite anti- Communism in its glory. On the radio in 1979. After Goldwater's defeat. Nevertheless. The versatile actor thus found a path to pubUc influence in a time of stormy reaction. After Senator McCarthy's death in the late 50's. A more personal. less guarded statement came at a presidential dinner. The 1950's were halcyon years for Ronald Reagan. Reagan shifted from Cold War lib- eralism to industrial-strength rightism. when hard-right counselor Meese toasted McCarthy as a great senator. Reagan's claim to far-right leadership was rarely disputed.

(ol . The next year Reagan testified before HUAC. Reagan was awarded an honorary doc- torate for "understanding and exposing Communists and their influence as president of the Screen Actors Guild. when he returned to Eureka College to crown the Pumpkin Festival queen. As early as 1947. Reagan's name was conspicuously absent from the list. When 500 Hollywood directors and actors protested the 1947 ef- forts of the House Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC) to punish unpopular views." That same year he lectured Hedda Hopper on the Red Menace.Reagan's record as a zealous anti-Communist goes back even to his ostensibly left-leaning phase in the 1940's.

6^ .

The McCarthyite inquisition in the early fifties was only peripherally concerned with national security.S. At stake. He saw U.A." This missed the point." ^ .U.C. the right to free speech without penalty. in reality.Reagan's McCarthyite career was off to an auspicious start. ticing treason.S.— Kli-LfNG In January. Though he may have feh that he lacked a developed worldview. there was no doubt about his animosity to Communism and the Soviet Union. testimony in favor of banning the Communist party: "Although I have never read Karl Marx and don't know the basis of communism beyond what I have picked up from hear- say. BEWARE. free enterprise endangered: "Free now of the Nazi wolf at their throat. Reagan wrote |j\SSO CIA T 1 Nf that Communists are "traitors prac. Reagan condemned "the class warfare boys" — "the Httle Red brothers" — at every opportunity. HA! MAl! . were human-rights issues: the right to employment without poUtical discrimination.S. the Communists gathered themselves to turn against the U. Typical of the cogent SAG and its president came down arguments offered by squarely in opposition to these Hollywood anti- rights. from what I hear I don't like it because it isn't on the level." U. Communists was Gary Cooper's H. 1951. as the citadel of capitalism.

. As GE spokesman. the SAG directors declared that "All participants in the international Communist conspiracy against our na- tion should be exposed for what they are — enemies of our country.) Though described by Nancy as "a leader in the industry drive against Communists and their sympathizers. Clearly a right-wing Democrat.' What did Reagan say in this speech On foreign affairs.. Reagan was not yet an extremist.In 1951. Some of our foreign aid funds provide extra wives for Kenya government officials. foreign aid "finances sociahsm all over the world. Reagan reassured him: There isn't one kooky THING IN THE SPEECH. Reagan took on the protective coloring of corporate ideology." Reagan was still. voting to require all SAG members to sign non-Communist affidavits (thus clearly signaling its willingness to shunt aside actors opposed to political hiring and firing. irs THE SAME ONE I've been 6IVIN6UP DOWN THE COUfSTRy FOR YEARS." SAG also gave tacit consent to the industry blacklist of dissidents. When the idea of his televised 1964 pro-Goldwater speech was proposed. "We are asked to buy our safety from the threat of the Bomb by selling into perma- nent slavery our fellow human beings enslaved behind the Iron Curtain. "We are at war with the most dangerous enemy ever known" — Communism. at this juncture. That came next. no more than a neophyte conservative.. Goldwater showed some reluctance." lO . fearing that Reagan might say something imprudent.." U. His speeches nosedived far to the right.S.

. 'If a visitor 07j from Mars looked at our tax policy." "Lowell Mason has written 'American business is being harassed. the assault on freedom carries on. t^ ed by a Communist spy to make free '//." r/«%. he would conclude it had been design- // rT^Sr. bled. ^\. "The greatest good for the greatest number is a high-sounding phrase but contrary to the very basis of our Nation. and criticized welfare in his usual anecdotal way 7/ ." Reagan also deplored the United Nations." "We have a tax rate that takes from the private sector a percentage of income greater than any civiHzed nation has ever survived. unless it isaccompanied by recognition that we have certain rights which cannot be in- fringed upon." "Under Urban Renewal. even t. "Have we the courage and the will to face up to the immorality and discrimination of the progressive sur- tax. . and demand a return to tradi- tional proportionate taxation?. questioned the wisdom of Social Security policies./: black jacked under a preposterous ^% crazy quilt system of laws'. Sumner Slichter has said. enterprise unworkable. Private property rights have become so diluted that public interest is anything a few plan- ners decide it should be..'" /->^ "The doctor's fight against socialized medicine is your fight. ^1^_ :^ii»V On domestic affairs.

very difficult." 7a .." This particular leopard does not change his spots.. Reagan reaffirmed his Goldwaterite orthodoxy: "My beliefs now are the beliefs I held when I first ran for of- fice.. Reagan paused.. is that: "We are at war. Goldwater's main point. finally responded. in 1974. "I think it would be very. Since Reagan emerged from Goldwater 's shadow.. In 1962 Goldwater published a programmatic book called Why Not Victory? Victory over what? Chapter 1 offers a clear answer: "The World-Wide Communist Menace.. a death stuggle with an enemy which is waging a new kind of total war. it is worth remembering what Goldwater stood for.. not a cold war but a real war — we can call it the Communist War.... reiterated constantly. when I campaigned for Barry Goldwater in '64. We may well be now engaged in a phase of World War III." Similarly." Stirring martial rhetoric echoes on every page. war of a more dead- ly nature than any we have fought before. Once in early 1980 Reagan was asked if he could think of any issue debated by Barry Goldwater and Ted Kennedy on which he would support Kennedy. smiled.

. then Algerian freedom must be postponed. then material sacrifices will have to be made. peace for Russia means defeat for the United States. in the sense of self-determination."Russia is the aggressor nation determined to conquer the world.. but if granting self-determination to the Algerian rebels entails sweeping that area into the Sino-Soviet orbit." in favor of nuclear war. What did Goldwater's defense of the free-world entail? Very little freedom: "Freedom. is to persuade "We are against disar- the enemy that we would mament... We are against rather follow the world it because we need our — we to Kingdom Come than armaments all consign it to Hell under presently have and more. communism.. Prosperity is a worthy objec- tive. first and foremost. then the Bantus must be prepared to carry their identification cards yet a while longer.. that I would make war the prime instrument of our policy.I can't im- agine what makes them think that. ^. 73 . but if providing higher Hving standards gets in the way of producing sufficient weapons to be able to resist possible Communist aggression. Justice is a worthy objective. We will We need weapons for never reconcile ourselves both limited and to the Communists' unhmited war." _ . but if justice for Bantus entails driving the government of the Union of South Africa away from the West... is a worthy objective.. My op- possession of power of ponents adroitly try to any kind in any part of make it appear that I am the world. Our job. ." This is admirably clear..

Consistently, Goldwater urged "whatever action is needed to
dislodge communism from the front yard of the Western Hemi-
sphere" — Cuba —
and described the 1954 CIA overthrow of a
left-leaning Guatemalan goverment as "our single full-fledged
triumph... We served our national interests, and, in so doing, we
saved the Guatemalan people the ultimate misery."

At home, "We must avoid economic collapse by scaling down
extravagant and useless domestic programs, and the squandering
of our money on unrealistic world-wide aid programs."

Reagan never faulted Goldwater 's views, but he did feel that
Goldwater's tactics left something to be desired. Voters were
not calmed when the Senator from Arizona suggested, on the
campaign trail, that it might be useful to "lob one into the
men's room of the Kremlin." Fear of war played a large part in
the huge anti-Gold water vote in 1964. Enter Reagan.


People criticize
Ronnie for having
no political ex-
perience. But he
has a great image.
Look at the
Goldwater ex-
perience. His
philosophy was
sound, but he
didn't articulate it


"Reagan has a similar philosophy, but he can express his
thought." Salvatori

From the debacle of Goldwater 's campaign Reagan learned
a vital lesson: Never sound like an extremist. Writing in the
far-right National Review, Reagan summarized the 1964
RepubHcan failure —
Goldwater had allowed himself to be
seen "as advancing a kind of radical departure from the
status quo." How to rectify this?

"In short —
time now for the soft sell to prove
our radicahsm was an illusion."


This sales judgement put Reagan in harmony with the ad men
hired to fine-tune his image, Spencer-Roberts and BASICO.

Initially, Bill Roberts felt some misgivings:

"We had reservations about Reagan. We had heard
that Reagan was a real right-winger and we thought
that a right-wing kind of candidacy would not be a
successful one."

But Reagan proved flexible, authorizing Roberts to
quarantine him from extremist supporters:

"Any people we knew who were Birchers or were
real Birch sympathizers or even strongly conser-
vative, we deliberately excluded from positions in
the campaign."


Not that Spencer and Roberts were politically moderate — on
the contrary, Hke Reagan, they had worked in 1962 to keep the
national John Birch Society PR director John Rousselot in
Congress after his Birch membership won him negative publicity.
But this time Spencer and Roberts were aiming for the gover-
nor's office, and they didn't want to misfire.


Rousselot. Nixon had scorned the far-right in 1962. he nevertheless refrained from repudiating the Birchers (or. Reagan wanted to eat his cake. (In 1980. too. the Birch Society. Reagan repudiated a Ku Klux Klan endorsement.. and it rightism did become a campaign problem. "Johnny Rousselot is a terrific fellow.) 77 . As turned out. for that matter. the Birch Society's PR director would do. Rousselot later became a Reagan congres- sional liaison and Western states coordinator for the 1984 Reagan for President campaign. who also praised Reagan). thanks to Reagan's indiscretion. and had demoralized many followers. At a RepubHcan gathering Reagan unwisely en- thused that. He called Stu Spencer and offered all his help in the cam- paign. though. In fact.. Though publicity about his Rousselot remarks injured Reagan. he said he would do anything from calHng me names in public to endorsement — whatever we want." Whatever would serve Reagan best. the Minutemen or the Soldiers of the Cross.

' It just sounded too harsh." Also helpful at this stage was the right-wing radio pastor W.. His basic speech was too negative. so we provided him with creative alternatives to com- bat that Far Right image.S. was first mentioned by Karl Marx — but I favored it because I said it was an alternative to the Great Society.. Dr. 'totaUtarian ant heap. McBirnie. One of the first things I got Ron to do was to stop using that ter- rible phrase. Said Reagan: "We discussed the putting over or you might say the selling of this philosophy. McBirnie came up with the phrase 'Creative Society.BASICO also worked to camouflage Reagan's militant outlook: "We made certain that Reagan came across as a reasonable guy. in- cidentally. not as a fanatic.' Some people objected to it because they said it sounded too much like the term 'Great Society' — which." The reason for all this caution? Said Roberts: I'S .

. Beneath the smiling celluloid exterior we find an angry ideologue — "the most overtly ideological Presi- dent in the nation's history." And this. representative. under him or alongside him. and I would say that." When the fell ERA short of passage. Barry Goldwater extended approval: . has come to pass. I don't think you could deny that he would be the leader. Reagan reasserts his ultra-conservative leanings whenever the opportunity arises. the basic outlines of Reagan's views were clear to the discerning. if he con- tinues in his successful political career. Still. very gladly serve with him.j j^^^^ always looked on Ronald Reagan as one of the leaders of the conservative movement in this country. too." Anti-feminist crusader PhylUs Schafly. After three years as president very little has happened to suggest that Ronald Reagan is any less right-wing now than ever. Jeane Kirkpatrick to "in. intended — in the words of Reagan's U. — clude the 'populist' followers of George Wallace and the 'con- servative' Republicans. Though he has shown a talent for bending with the wind. long an ardent right- winger — the author of a 1964 pro-Goldwater tract sum.And so they did. And I would very. National Review pubhsher WiUiam Rusher toyed with the idea of an "Independence" party. — marized her view of Reagan's first term by calling Reagan "a wonderful man with all the right instincts.N." Eight years later Rusher pronounced himself entirely satisfied with the present RepubUcan leadership: "Genuine conservatives are by and large overjoyed by Reagan and rightly so." 79 . "Schafly praised the Holy Lord and Ronald Reagan." says chronicler Laurence Barrett of Time. In 1976.

For poor and working people. injury. Reagan's far-right pro- gram tramples everything in its path. Reagan's program has spelled danger. It matters. and insult. 80 .Like a thundering herd of elephants. here and abroad.

patriotism. He campaigned for the White House as "an outsider. wasteful." Characterized by the fVall Street Journal as "a foe of Washington's big government." The IVall Street Journal smiled that he "sings the praises" of finance and industry.. He campaigned as "a firm advocate of the private enterprise system. this president rose to power on the wings of big business support. Opposed to New Deal pohtics.S.and called mandatory school desegregation by means of busing "the most serious threat to education I can remember. bureaucratic mess." "It is disorganized." urged the severance of payments to 1. bureaucratic. this president radiates warmth for business. Nemesis In The White House Test your knowledge — see if you can identify the president profiled below. He indicted the U. «/ .3 million welfare recipients. and religion." he proclaimed the Federal government to be "a horrible. tax system as a bloated "disgrace to the human race.." WHOISTHATj MASKEP PRE6iPEN-i. With practiced charm. centralized planning you get in Communist countries." vehemently opposed to the "rigid. this president campaigned for fiscal conservatism. and its poHcies — when they exist — are incomprehensible or devis- ed by special interest groups with little regard for the welfare of the average American citizen.j Cold to the public sector. has no purpose. work." With glowing faith he extolled the family.

his 1 1 cabinet officers averaged a yearly income of $211. Ninety percent of a capital gains tax cut benefited the top 1% of the nation.000. his ad- ministration took many decisive pro-business steps: 1 Aided by the Business Roundtable. Pre-appointment. X formulated tax cuts which dropped the effective corporate tax rate to 13%." 2. g3L . Arguing of "less burdensome" environmental and in favor safety regulations. (Figures courtesy of the government. and truck transport. Overall. . communications. and finance. Thanks to decontrol. And builders of new factories were rewarded with an investment tax credit — whether they created new jobs or not. As X told the Business Council. rail. Does all this sound familiar? Our mystery president — we'll call him X — proved to be a devoted friend of big business.) Also lifted were regulations in the fields of air. X deregulated natural gas and eliminated crude oil price controls. while paying on- ly $7 billion in new windfall profits taxes. "We evolved the tax proposal in a way that I think you would have had you been in office. Eighty- five percent of his tax breaks accrued to the upper half of the income scale. the energy in- dustry stood to gain $57 billion over six years.

firms were sitting pretty — "atop a record $80 biUion pile of cash.6 billion in projected domestic cuts included reductions in job training. His vice- president told the Business Council that there is "no higher priority than controlling infla- tion.S." Business Week reported that U. Said the New York Times: "No president in living memory has courted big business as ardently. while a new merger movement (one colossus buying another) subsituted for new investment. Volcker — he encouraged the Fed to strictly limit the money supply. After appointing a majority of the seven-member Federal Reserve Board — including chairman Paul A." (Inflation hurts business by making exports costlier and hence less saleable).. (A total of $27." Does your living memory begin to recall this mystery president? Consider the following: President X proved himself ready to decertify striking Federal unions. Social Security.3.." X's stated goal had been to stimulate investment and production. Not surprisingly. and other programs. Citibank reported "the highest return on equity in the more than fifty years Citibank has compiled these figures. Chabman Paul Volcker S3 . He increased both deficits and defense spending while cutting back on domestic spending. instead. was that produc- tivity fell. while supporting all business anti-unionism. profits soared.) X sparked a planned recession. What happened.

raises the cost of im- ports. A policy of contraction ("tight money") limits borrowing. For the pubhc. recession). disinflation lowers the price of products sold domestically. the price of money rises (i. productivity fell. Basically. the Federal Reserve Board expands or contracts the national money supply. The purpose of a tight money policy is to lower prices. unemployment rose steeply. since less totalmoney is on hand. disinflation lowers some prices. When investment falls. For business. both by individuals (consumption and by firms (investment). but ups the volume of export sales..e. the interest rate). employment falls. [End digression] Encouraged by X... When less money circulates.. For the first time since 1933 the Fed raised its discount rate by a full point. Volcker's Fed triggered a serious recession. and ups joblessness (i. The prime rate skyrocketed. and spending falls. WITW MONEyHARPTO \T5PRICE 6-0E5 UP you 3ET'' THE FEWEK the: THE TlG'HTER THE CO U-AR5 FOP CONSUMERS ANP DEBT? / SH- . and a two-year fall in real median incomes ensued.Economic Digression.e. This works if sellers cut prices to compete for the reduced money in circulation.

« « II II The rationale for heightened war production was X's accusation « II that the USSR had carried out a military build-up "excessive II « far beyond any legitimate requirements." who (said the NY Times) sees II everything "in terms of the rivalry of the Soviet Union and the II I II U." NATO II II II X persuaded governments to emplace nuclear weapons II aimed at the USSR. he initiated Operation Libertad (aimed at Cuba) and sent scores of military "advisors" to prop up the tyrannical. -rm II II and envisioned "rolUng back" II Soviet power in East Europe. that X's recessionary policy harbored II K I II dangerous new inflationary impulses: both Federal deficits and II II defense spending rose. over three II years. II « I II II II II II II I « II I « X urged Japanese rearmament.S.S. Meanwhile. will never per- mit a new Nicaragua. etc. to increase total war spending by $60 billion. em- II II II barked on 5*^0 yearly military increases — projected. "The U." II II « II Always an unyielding supporter of the II II Vietnam war.S. failing government of El Salvador. Con- « fronted by revolution in Central America. and to increase military spending 3^o per I II year (after inflation) for five years. II « II I I K His foreign policy was guided by a National Security Adviser II II self-described as "a hawk. the U. even if it must take the most reprehensible « I » measures to prevent it." I n §5 . It became clear. however. the USSR. X initiated stern economic sanctions against Vietnam. According to his National Security Advisor.

Militarism flowered. Revived civil defense plans went to Congress.S.S. and the Phillippines). .0 « ^»»»»»»»B» t »»»»»»»» W^ : 86 . arms sales nearly doubled overall. X expHcitly discussed "Umited nuclear war" outside U. a drive was launched to improve non- nuclear U. Chile. A special force was readied for lightning raids to global trouble spots. Virtually every weapon the Pentagon proposed was pegged for production. and a renewed commitment to mihtary conscription was urged. military supremacy. U.S. Nuclear weapons were produced at ac- celerating rates.S. »» »» » »» » »^^^^ All this reflected a drive to assure U. In Western Europe. while U. borders.S. forces. Finally. arms shipments worth many billions of dollars went to the world's ten leading violators of human rights (including Zaire.

X's public rating fell until the approach of the next election. 1960's praise for segregationist George Wallace). His pollster had advised this. X cast himself as the outsider. still at odds with the bureaucracy.. X was voted into the White House by 28% of the eligible pubhc. /THEPR05LEM WITH POUTICAL JOKES IS THAT V THEY GET ELECTEP/ Running for re-election.) At first quite popular." Ready to cast your ballots? The time has come. . . when he recorded a 29*^0 jump in public approval (from 32% to 61%). saying: "It is crucial that President X keep the image that he is not part of the tradi- tional political estabUshment. Though X was never universally loved. he did fare well in many polls.g. (Just 54<Vb of the electorate voted. §7 . Successfully downplaying his early politics (e. X the — mystery president — the masked man in the White House — is none other than .

. Where Reagan talks military "greatness. . Where Reagan is unabashedly warhke. Reagan poses as prudently tight-fisted. man who would pinch a penny until it bled . Carter seems to be a man of peace. Carter and Reagan are in fact surprisingly alike. MFHYPELGOESPUB The surprise element in the Carter/Reagan equation stems from the fact that Carter and Reagan conjure up highly opposed im- not coincidental. . Despite their best efforts to pose as night and day." Reagan castigates Carter for spendthrift ways. the sort of contrast. ^ . . ready to turn the other cheek." Carter talks "human rights. by Fervently.. . While Reagan slams every form of "evil Communism. James Earl Carter! Any resemblance between Carter's record and Reagan's." Carter tilted against Russia but befriended China .

Kennedy et. . The Warfare/Welfare State Starting in 1933 the U. Though this strategy per- mits tactical differences. their importance has been greatly overrated by most commentators. These differences are very real. To fully grasp the Carter/Reagan strategy requires a brief detour through recent history . it is otherwise unitary. But unlike Nixon. Carter and Reagan are effectively warlike and pro-business. Like all recent presidents." 8^ .al.. Nevertheless. Apples and oranges differ. too.S. The hallmark of this 45 -year period was a special strategy for attracting power and profits — popularly called "liberalism. embarked on a vital new political course (largely uncontested until 1976-1984). . Jimmy and Ronnie share something new and unique — a post-liberal strategy.

in the special conditions of Roosevelt's U. but permitted global U. Liberalism proved to be the perfect strategy for the moment. "liberalism" had denoted a government policy of laissezfaire (non-interference in business).S. The U. the term ac- quired a diametrically opposed meaning.S.S.. The 1930's were a period of unprecedented global depression and militarism. out of the Great Depression. 10 . if in modified form). ascendancy (lasting without in- terruption from 1945-1975 and con- tinuing to this day. Consider the situation. 20th century liberalism promoted worldwide U. War spending not only Ufted the U.S. A solution was needed. In the 19th century. power by means of a double commitment to government spending: for warfare ("defense") and welfare. was mired in a spate of business failures and jeopardized by the rise of expansionist German and Japanese regimes.S. however.

S. war spending created a giant permanent market for industry —and a giant borrower for banks. business gained immensely from military ascendancy: the foreign investment climate vastly improved. is "Aggregate demand" for U. '?/ . business products rose both domestically and globally. Add — to Umit unemployment and shield domestic spending the unemployed — and the liberal equation complete. Profits.S. With a stake in the overall warfare/welfare strategy. and U.U. and wages went up.S. labor grew more pliant as its share of the expanding pie grew Izirger. working people became the basis for the fabled "Roosevelt coaHtion" which made liber ahsm elector ally viable. employment.

the for public spending came from business. Financial markets had seemed perilously unstable and bankers hoped that Federal regulation could limit monetary anarchy. Hoover relented and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was formed (to loan public funds to private business). Initially. The 1929 stock market crash proved the need for much sterner measures. In thesummer of 1932. . demand An had been the formation of the Federal Reserve early step System in 1913." The Chamber of Com- merce and the National Association of Manufacturers chimed in with similar requests in 1931. . . SUNSPOTSWAf 3 ^Ar IT IS/ 3UNSP0T5 President Hoover initially resisted an active Federal role in the reconstruction of the economy. HA . He had a somewhat unusual explana- tion for the collapse. Elite financiers promptly demanded government help to reduce "uneconomic competition. however.

Medicare and Medicaid were funded. In 1951. the food stamp program started. welfare eligibility ruleswere relaxed. Finally. 93 . public work projects set a precedent for direct Federal action to reduce unemployment. In 1935. the blind. and poor elders ineligi- ble for pensions. After Franklin Roosevelt's 1933 inauguration a wave of new programs began. About the same time. and funds for dependent children. authorizing price and product regulation by industry representatives. and job training programs got underway. disability. and various housing. unemployment insurance. First came the National Industrial Recovery Act.under Kennedy/Johnson and Nixon. under Truman. the Social Security Act was passed —mandating social security retirement pensions. welfare aid was granted to the per- manently and totally disabled.

Spurred. 9V . Meanwhile. mihtary spending rose at an amaz- ing rate — so fast that even General Dwight D. «?^ '^ Though war spending fell as a percentage of the 1960's budget. it continued to grow in absolute terms. warfare was not neglected." ^/> ^ ^ < ^ ^ ^s ^^"'^'^xyy-^'i '^'.This was the welfare half of the equation. Thus was born "the affluent society" — not in spite of liberaUsm. but thanks to it. Eisenhower issued a memorable warning about the power of the "military- industrial complex.'V. in part. by wars in Korea and Vietnam. <>.

Uberals push for relative parity between guns and butter. Generally. the curve of liberaHsm since 1933 looks Uke this. Neither side of the usual debate between "liberals" and "conservatives" calls for an end to public spending. In this spectrum of debate. while conservatives emphasize a "mostly-guns" approach. Though Eisenhower. for half a century pubUc spending has been a massive and unmistakable fact of contemporary life. Essentially. That was left for Carter — with Reagan hot on his heels. did not stress welfare. And not even Reagan has yet succeeded in undermining the relative parity of war and social spending — though this is clearly his goal. . most presidents since Roosevelt have hewed essentially to the liberal strategy. • Roosevelt (until 1945) BIG JUMP • Truman (until 1952) MODEST JUMP • Eisenhower (until 1960) STANDING AT ATTENTION • Kennedy (until 1963) MODEST JUMP • Johnson (until 1968) GREAT LEAP FORWARD • Nixon (until 1975) MODEST JUMP • Ford (until 1976) ASLEEP • Carter (until 1980) MODEST REVERSAL • Reagan (until . In other words. for example. however reluctant- ly. he did not actually reverse the welfare trend. . ) BIG REVERSAL ^t) .

they had little luck for several decades. still. The Inflation Party The success of the hberal strategy sprang in large part from the longevity of the famous Roosevelt coalition. unionized labor. thanks to thepower of business money. . and elements of the poor coalesced into an effective voting bloc. labor and the poor have typically won enough concessions to remain example. The is set by basic direction of the warfare/welfare state business. . And productivity rose steadily . Far-sighted business. % . In the late-1940's for agreements guaranteed unionized labor a share of the revenues arising from enhanced productivity. industry-wide productivity loyal. Though as early as 1938 "Dixiecrats" (conservative southern Democrats) allied themselves with northern Republicans to oppose the new liberal majority.

Liberahsm has an inherent economic contradiction — that it promotes inflation in Ueu of unemployment. was a middle-of-the-road politician who had been courted for the presiden- cy by both parties before embrac- ing Republicanism. But the very success of the liberal bloc pro- duces heightened inflation fears. In some ways. (Public spending liftsnot only productivity and employment. When Dwight Eisenhower made serious inroads into the Democratic elec- torate — winning 374 northern counties that Roosevelt and Truman had previously held five times in a row — it seemed possi- ble that a change was at hand. Eisenhower.) Ris- ing prices do not jeopardize the liberal coalitionwhen the public worries more about unemployment than about inflation. but also prices. however. it retained its grip on pubHc policy. Not until 1964 did a genuine right-wing challenge emerge —when Barry Goldwater carried the fallen McCarthy's torch to the White House steps. conditions in 1964 were ripe for a right-wing victory. ^1 .Though the Rooseveh coalition weakened in the 1950's.

WS . This. is the conventional Republican prescription: Chill the economic fever with a recessionary ice- pack. it is highly rational to favor reduced public spending.As early as 1952 political scientist Samuel Lubell felt that the Democratic constituency had won enough prosperity to fear the erosion of its gains through inflation: "No new governmental benefits could be pressed for any of the Democratic voting elements without threatening to take something away from other Democratic voters. until recently.e. most Republicans resisted the impulse to carry this view to an extreme. The once-poor find that the aid needs of the still-poor contribute to high taxes and prices. They may have wanted less spending — i. Hence the appeal of Republicanism.. Yesterday's ragged CIO worker who now owns a home may not want to share prosperity with today's frail elders or unemployed single mothers with depen- dent children. If you no longer fear unemployment." In brief. to a certain degree. But. class differences tend to tear the liberal bloc apart. less employment and inflation — but within limits.

is "to find and maintain the perfect amount of unemployment. enough pent-up fear of inflation had accumulated to permit a true conservative challenge to the liberal majority. Reagan later told reporters that "Barry proved you can't run against Social Security." (Lubell).. "the goal of economic policy." Democrats usually prefer a few less percentage points of joblessness than Republicans do. rattling.In corporate society. most dramatically proven by the success of an $11 billion tax cut. 9^ . gave elders "a stake in an in.. however.." says Frank Ackerman." Johnson. the addition of new elements to the old liberal coalition (elders and Blacks). prevented a 1964 conservative victory: persisting prosperity. and Barry Goldwater's buccaneering style. promising Medicare. Several factors. And Goldwater frightened flation they had lost hope of millions with rash saber- halting. By 1964..

despite Goldwater's smashing defeat. Johnson won 133 counties and 460 New England towns that Roosevelt had never captured.. The time seemed ripe for an even Newer Deal — which Johnson obligingly furnished in the form of "the Great Society. Democratic presidential can- didates had been able to win just one county Roosevelt had not won. Democrats also won 46 ex- tra seats in Congress." Act II and screenstar Ronald Reagan were waiting in the wings. Johnson's Great Society offered even more guns and butter than the Rooseveltian original. In seven elections since Roosevelt. /OO . Nevertheless." Mix- ing the war in Indochina with redoubled welfare. Lubell commented at the time that "the final act of this drama has still to be fought out.So inept was Goldwater's challenge to liberalism that the liberal bloc gathered considerable new strength. disrupting the Republican /Dixiecrat bloc..

and the Comprehensive Employment and Train- ing Act passed. there was a definite Uberal side to Nixon's administration. food stamps were Uberalized. A What went wrong during Nixon's semi-liberal administration? From the standpoint of business. . Though Nixon was a seasoned anti- Communist. Nixon's McCarthyite mania for FBI skullduggery is legend. almost everything. since many Rooseveltian contradictions crystallized during Nixon's tenure in office. (Eisenhower had style prompted three. Social Security payihents ac- celerated. In time-honored Republican Nixon staged two recessions. Medicaid expanded.) Meanwhile.Richard Milhous Nixon is a central figure in the crisis of liberalism. Few people would casually call Nixon a liberal. Under Nixon. he defied his Russophobe instincts to pioneer detente. Still.

(This is another way of defining stagflation. this price was $36. auto com- panies. steeper recessions now yielded smaller cuts in inflation. Also in 1971. etc. /oa . the U. four times the 1947 to 1966 rate. petrochemicals. partly as a result of the Vietnam inflation. In oil 1973. A series of recessions did littleto abate rising prices. the Bretton Woods world monetary agreement collapsed. the oil-producing countries were dictating to Western powers. the OPEC price coup jolted inflation upwards. the U. Less eager to police the high seas. the CIA had engineered its overthrow.when an Iranian government had nationahzed U. the U. was shipwrecked in Vietnam and Cam- bodia. This was a major blow both to the stability of world money markets and to the dominant position of the dollar.S.S.In 1971. however. (In 1981. record- ed its first trade deficit of the century (more imports than ex- ports).S. Earlier. Now. yearly inflation averaged 8%. agribusiness. companies.) From 1966 to 1980. To make matters worse.) All oil-dependent industries were hit: airhnes.S. in 1953. passively watched as the price of oil rose from roughly $2 a barrel to more than $8. In 1973.

productivity began to fall. business felt alarmed. It is natural. Highway construction fell to 3*^0 of the Federal budget. Meanwhile. it fell to just 14% of the total 1978 budget. This spelled an end to unambiguous U. All in all.9% annual growth from 1966 to 1980. The size of the pie — GNP per worker — slowed to just 0. supremacy in world politics. pressures on wages fell correspondingly. The situation spoke for itself. while other new construction also slowed impressively. thus keeping wages higher than they might otherwise be..The crowning blow to liberalism came in 1975 — the loss of In- dochina. after growing at an annual rate of 2. No Reagan or Goldwater was needed as Cassandra. Plagued by infla- tionary locusts and uncertain of future profits. (If more people compete for the same number of jobs.S. it was less than a pretty picture. invincibility dissolved. that business leaders began to rethink the liberal strategy.) With total welfare benefits rising in value at an average annual post-inflation rate of S^^o from 1965 to 1972. Meanwhile. The aura of U. though military spending rose absolutely.S. Finally. then. The link between the two is that welfare limits competition for jobs. /<93 .. wage-levels fall. wages and welfare rose to historic highs in 1972-74.6% from 1947 to 1966.

the Trilateral Commission held its 180-member founding conven- tion in 1973. labor costs. Third World pressures. unless current trends change.. One supported Carter. Committee on the Present Danger. and avoidable competition were targeted for reduction. key architects of the new post-liberalism were leading multinational businessmen in search of a more stable profit en- vironment. It is " trilateral" in the sense that its members are key financiers and industrialists from the three main centers of the capitaUst world: Western Europe. Welfare. Proposed in 1972 by David Rockefeller (then chair of Chase Manhattan Bank). liberahsm is on the way out. Nevertheless.Post-Liberal Capitalism? It is clearly premature to say that the Hberal era is over. the other Reagan.S Well.S. « hat . Commission and the Trilateral Till BO-. The Trilateral Commission formed first. Initially. the U. Two primary committees formed with these aims in mind: the Under the Thumb. JOH- . Few current reversals of liberal poHcies are irreversible. and Japan.

an IBM direc- tor and president of the Cahfornia Institute of Technology.. etc. a Wall Street lawyer and NY Times director. W. TOWN CA Job .. chair of Coca-Cola. J.The purpose of the Trilateral Commission is to formulate com- mon solutions to joint trilateral problems of inflation. The Trilateral Commission quickly attracted many prominent invited members. originally a Hubert Humphrey protege. chair of the Bendix Corporation. Besides Rockefeller. Senator Walter Mondale. President Carter once enthused that World War 2 might never have happened if the Trilateral Commission had existed before 1940.W. Cyrus Vance. and various others. Paul Austin. labor management. Michael Blumenthal. the North American section in 1973 included such men as Zbigniew Brzezinski (a close Rockefeller associate and later Commission Director). Harold Brown. now World Bank president. Bank of America president A. Clausen.

Carter probably would have remained an obscure regional poHtician. /06 .1975. Accepted into the Trilateral fold in mid. because the Trilateral Commission was vital to Carter's success. Brown became Defense Secretary. and (perhaps most im- portantly) a post-Hberal rhetoric and strategy. Mondale became Vice- President. a favorable press. Carter emerged as a figure of na- tional stature. Blumenthal became Treasury Secretary. Without Trilateral aid. Vance became Secretary of State. All told. Brzezinski became Carter's hard-line Na- tional Security Adviser.Most of these names should be familiar from the Carter Ad- ministration. Why did so many Trilateralists win high Carter positions? In brief. With Trilateral support. Carter gained financing. 20 members of the Trilateral Commission became high Carter appointees.

" Seeing a "high risk of global anarchy" in the post-Nixon years..Zbigniew Brzezinski had written in 1973 that the 1976 Democratic candidate "will have to emphasize work." Samuel Huntington. religion... the fami- ly. added a crucial proviso: "." Trilateralists feared that in some capitalist countries "the existing social and political system could be endangered.The inside road to political office" belongs to "the 'outsider' in poHtics. if he has any desire to be elected. patriotism. Brzezinski's close col- laborator and later security planning coor- dinator for Carter's National Security Council. and increasingly. with an inherent potential for "long-term disaster. or the candidate who could make himself or herself appear to be an outsider." 101 ..

what its problems are. Free Carter had been travelon Coca-Cola executive jets brought Carter to meetings abroad and around the country in the early 1970's. whose Coca-Cola Company is based in Georgia. the Commission hoped to promulgate poHcies and educate poHticians to influence governments.. This they achieved... Said Carter in 1974: "We have our own built-in State Department in the Coca-Cola Com- pany. recommended Carter. TrilateraUsts have held high posts in many key Western countries. "Do you know me?" groomed by Coca-Cola for some time. penetrating analyses of what the country is... Director Brzezinski agreed. They provide me ahead of time with. With this in mind... David Rockefeller decided that the Commission needed a "New South" pohtician.S.. Austin. and when I arrive there. In the U. provide me with an introduction to the leaders." JO^ .

Trilateral Brzezinski wrote many of Carter's campaign speeches. Time magazine and the New York Times were particularly influential. however. JOH . Prior to 1975. This made him not just a Republican in Democratic disguise — the typical judgement of many critics — but an incipient post-liberal. Carter. virtually no one outside Georgia knew of James Earl Carter. Significantly more than Nixon. All other Democratic nominees of the recent past have been classic liberals: McGovern (1972). After joining the Commission in 1975. Kennedy (1960). Humphrey (1968). Carter rose from obscurity to become a popular sensation in early 1976. Johnson (1964).The Commission picked up where Coca-Cola left off. What made Carter unique was not just that he was an "out- sider" — the first president from the Deep South since Zachary Taylor in the 1850's — but that he jettisoned traditional Democratic politics. and Trilateral-owned media gave Carter's words special attention. 1952). Carter tried to shiift the balance from welfare to warfare. Stevenson (1956. tried to meld a tough foreign policy with a "fiscally conservative" domestic policy.

Comparable to the Trilateral Commission in some respects. the Present Danger group takes a harder. Jointly. Whether the U. unionism. business and its allies.S." They also want to put new limits on wages. Every kind of "takeback" that business can impose on labor is applauded. Never- theless. the two committees seek several objectives: Internationally. ^<Sc» . no .S. Nationally. '- ''^^ The result is a post-liberal poHtics with very tangible consequences. is to be in- controvertibly supreme (the Present Danger goal) or "first among equals" (the Trilateral goal). more iUiberal line both at home and abroad. the overlap between Trilateralists and the Present Danger group is closer than might be imagined. the motive is essentially the same: ascendancy for U. Says Fortune: employers want to "put a moratorium on social programs designed to redistribute income.Not one Carter appointee came from the 141 -member Commit- tee on the Present Danger — an oversight which Ronald Reagan rectified with a vengeance. etc. all business leaders endorse the employers' offensive against labor now underway. all business leaders now want restored power and stability for multinational capital.

the minorities. placed tenth. placed first in worldwide living standards (gross domestic product per capita).As a labor leader commented in 1978. Poverty rates. have chosen to wage a one-sided class war in this country — a war against working people. the very young and the very old. under Carter. under Reagan.S. the unemployed. In 1970 the U. Ill . Labor unions have been trampled. In 1980 the U. this portrayal of the employers' offensive is doubly true for the U.S." War spending has spiralled into the stratosphere under both Carter and Reagan. While median family earnings from 1972 to 1980 kept even with inflation only because so many families enrolled a second wage- earner in the labor market. **I community.S. as one contract after another has been revised to better serve the profit motive.S. have skyrocketed under Reagan. which began to increase under Carter (after a long slow decline). with few excep- believe leaders of the business tions. even many in the middle class of our society. average corporate profits in the same period rose 95*^0 after inflation. True for the U.

Carter's administration was in some ways a post-liberal experi- ment. If Carter gets the economic slowdown early. Carter appointed Trilaterahst Paul A. Policies were started which still prevail. called this "a stroke of genius. did what he was asked. . Starting too late in Carter's term. In the economic sphere. JJ^ .perhaps even . 1980. Volcker." Unfortunately for Carter. so that a recovery would be underway by the 1980 election. with mixed results. it did not generate a recovery by November. Washington Forum president Edwin Garlich. a Republican business leader. formerly a Rockefeller employee at Chase Manhattan. The idea was to stage Carter's recession at just the proper moment. the makings of a two-term presidency. but Carter's personal approach to these policies was rebuffed. Volcker to preside over a recession as Fed chair. Voters were not amused. this recession was mistimed. then a pickup in late '79 and '80 and he brings inflation down. he'll look terrific in an election year.

A poor villager claps a hand to his forehead in despair. R£AGANOMIC$ (and the Supply side) The pivot of Reagan's program was a "supply-side" miracle cure for stagflation — the ostensible "success" of which has helped Reagan stay popular. the villager asks his rabbi." /-/3 . Volcker served Reagan just as he had served Carter. Two weeks later the man returns in great distress. Reagan started and finished a deeper. . "My hut is so crowded I'm suffocating! Tell me. . what can I do?" "Remove the ducks and the goat. . Reagan showed his debt to Carterism by reappointing Volcker as Fed chair . "Do as I say. His wife and five children are crowded into a tiny hut. "What can I do?" The rabbi answers: "Bring in your ducks. Depressed. please. your goat. Reagan learned Carter's lesson well. This brings us to ." "But I shall go mad!" the man protests. . The din is maddening. your geese. Then wait a few days and come back. Is Reaganomics in fact successful? A story from a Russian Jewish village of the Tsarist era offers an analogy . . ." the rabbi orders. longer recession in time for the 1984 election.

and deficits of astronomic proportions. "No ducks! No goat! Rabbi. After worsening the economy drastically. then take credit for the single forward step which follows. Similarly with interest rates. His modus operandi is clear: push the economy two steps back. this return was greeted as a victory. profit gains without productivity gains.The poor villager returns beaming. Overall. thank you — your advice worked wonders. higher interest rates than ever before. Joblessness rose so high under Reagan (to 10. the results of Reaganomics are clear: inflation temporarily slowed by an average unemployment rate un- precedented since the Great Depression.8% at one point) that when it returned to levels just slightly higher than when Reagan started. the consequence of military spending hikes even larger than the savage cuts in social spending." Reaganomics eliminates a few ducks. Take unemployment. Reagan then describes a weak ensuing recovery as a new dawn. .

despite Reagan's claims. The twin dragons of inflation and recession are still kicking . Reagan trumpets his modest "victory" over inflation. Inflation. //5 . So will interest rates. Joblessness. as inflation "bracket creep" eUminated most pubhc gains from Reagan's 1981 tax cut. .) Has Reaganomics stimulated sav- ingand investment? No.4<^o when Reagan entered office. . a scandal at 7. temporarily sluggish. The wealthy and big business — the big gainers from the 1981 tax cut — chose not to invest in new production. is now celebrated at 8%. Even key Reagan aides concede this. . Is the economy profoundly healthier now than in 1980? No. Con- sumer saving fell low to a 33-year and tax in 1983. . seems to be redefining "full employment" as 7-8% unemployment. All this to the contrary notwithstanding. will accelerate anew when the ef- fects of Federal deficit spending arefelt. Top-flight corporate mergers substituted for new products and jobs. (One prime Reagan objective. in fact.

But when you read that 50." To win the presidency. . . Recessions are only the pockmarks that come from the disease. though. The roots of this pose go back into Reagan's past.Reagan needed a line better suited to appeal to working voters. lib . you begin to wonder how much great distress there was. Supply-side doctrine filled the bill. . .000 of the laid-off Michigan auto workers had their unemployment checks sent to them in Florida all winter. Once upon a time Reagan was unabashedly pro-recession. Though the author of an orthodox trade-off between jobs and prices — spiced by a shift from welfare to warfare — Reagan poses as a magician capable of restraining both inflation and recession." At this stage Reagan made light of joblessness: "It's a traumatic thing to be without a job and need and want one. As late as 1975 he pushed traditional Republicanism: "We have to be able to accept that unemployment is going to rise before we can get over the disease of inflation .

. reduced business taxes lead to expanded investment by "the sup- ply side" (business). Wanniski then publicized the famous Laffer Curve. . The so-called was sketched by USC theoretical basis for this line economist Arthur Laffer on a napkin in November. Reagan became an early supporter." and both dragons of the economy will be slain . at an ideal point. Promising gain without pain. for the benefit of Wall Street Journal writer Jude Wanniski.ww^VJ. The beauty of the supply side scheme is that it promises rewards to business without (at first) seeming to jeopar- dize labor or the poor.Wlk»\VM WI^.: H v» v. which purports to show that. So went Reagan's campaign line. When Jack Kemp and William Roth developed a 1977 Senate tax proposal predicated on this idea. supply-side rhetoric is just what the doctor ordered for gifted poHticians in search of supporters. 1974. Said Reagan upon election: "We don't have to choose between inflation and unemployment — they go hand in hand. r„^mi^i." Just trust "the magic of the marketplace.tllWii I mfm^^ y/7 .

telling Con- gress that investment would rise 11 'Vo faster than inflation for at least five years. . reduced taxes. higher private saving. with no joint plan for revitalized produc- tion. IPEN SESA MEn. . sharply lowered prices. Stockman felt that the ills of yn the economy sprang from pro- w**j essentially duction anarchy. and raised living standards. firms acting in- dividuaUstically. . would yield 'renewed op- timism" and "robust growth" — specifically.e. Reagan quickly linked Kemp-Roth tax cuts to a dou- In office. The sun and the moon were nigh .. ble dose of defense hikesand social service cuts. 1981. This package. .lp'pfentr''''' lice The wizard of Reagan's supply-side binge was budget David director Stockman. "milHons" of new jobs. //? . * he promised in February. Treasury Secretary Regan was even more specific. i. His hope was that windfall tax breaks would prompt business to open its doors for coor- dinated new invest- ment in line with Reagan administra- tion plans .

of historic proportions." they are ab- solutely perverse.Stockman's supply-side faith in business was clearly mystical. You have a bull market in '81. His poker chips on the table are what happens in the short run. Stockman was buoyantly confident: //^ . "That sets off adjustments and new changes in perception that cascade through the economy." "Stockman is gambling on his ability to induce structural social change in the long run." "The whole "The markets thing is will respond to premised on that. Senate majority leader Baker called the 1981 tax cut a "river- boat gamble." In the short run. a la Keynes)." Reagan's pollster Richard Wirthlin agreed: "It /5 a gamble. Unless faith.' This would be "a fiscal revolution:" priming supply (business) rather than demand (public and private buying. after April. business was expected to respond to the tax cut with investments.

1981 — less than a month after Reagan proclaimed "the begin- ning of a new renaissance in America" with the passage of his so- called "Economic Recovery Tax Act. Predicting a recession.5% in August. not a boom. Wall Street felt so sure that Reaganism did not portend a secure investment climate that the banks lifted the prime interest rate to 20. But Stockman's economic millenium did not come. Instead." are the expansion plans?' Far more than a coin went down the well. When the dust had settled. and auto sales disappeared.Supply-side tax policies did work on one level — business enjoyed an unprecedented season of tax breaks. 'Where is the down a well. business took its tax breaks and ran. Promised new investments never materialized. real- estate sales collapsed. Two million people lost jobs in the six months after Reagan's tax cut. All I'm hear- business response? Where ing is an empty clink." A stock market slump. Interest rates went through the roof. IQO . was the immediate result of the Kemp-Roth tax cut. but the economy still did not revive. Treasury Secretary Donald Regan was frustrated: "I must stand here today It'sUke dropping a coin and ask. the economy had fallen lower than at any time since the Great Depression. the housing industry fell to a new low.

too. /ol/ . Laffer." as Reagan. 1981. . On October 18. Now. Supply-side miracles were in short supply. Just months earlier Stockman had given the self-described "wild men" of the supply-side — Laffer. . Wealth and Poverty. Gilder. had been de- scribed by Stockman "Promethean in its intellectual power. JU6T A TASTE OF^ REAGAN'S the Reaganauts BITTER MEPICINE^DOESV/OHDEfiS decided to aim for POH AN AIUNG ECONOIviy STEP an election-year RIGHT UP^ COME ONE/COME ALlf recovery. MAGIC EUXIR/MIHACUE CURE/ and saddled with a major recession." A slight and short hope! Starting with a pro-recession bias. pushed Gilder. displaying Wealth and Poverty on national television. That is. stock Market 1. Gilder. Reagan of- ficiallyconceded the arrival of "a slight recession and I hope a short recession. but most Reaganauts agreed that the ex- periment was over. Kemp — unqualified praise. you could go from what was really a mess to nirvana in about a year and a half without any missteps . and others stayed true to the faith. David Stockman finally learned wisdom. Gilder's supply-side bible. . Stockman When the supply-side bubble burst in autumn. Stockman retreated: "The supply-siders always had this magic view of the economy. 1981. .

1981. Reagan fi^^L Carter ^0^\ Blame ^M^ little liver ^oo^' Sr^v Bad! /^J/:^* ^y\Carter's Ta^ y^V pills! /oia .Apparently he had forgotten. . that the . Reagan resisted. every key Senate supporter. Managing this depression was not made easier by Reagan's stubborn refusal to abandon supply-side panaceas.Reagan . wondered aloud why the Fed did not simply reduce the prime rate. deficits were sure to soar — stimulating in- terest rates and depressing production. . At issue were the vast deficits prompted by Reagan's tax giveaway to business. "Once. could convince Reagan that deficits would not fall by themselves. Among Reaganauts. . In Gambling With History. Reagan was the last to give up on Gilder's gilded age. Reagan's depression now proved exceptionally deep. hoping that deficits would fall even with giant war spending and smaller tax revenues." they do." Nearly two years passed before Stockman et al. . Without spending cuts commensurate to the 1981 tax cut. Stockman. journalist Laurence Barrett shows that virtually every Republican luminary tried to dissuade Reagan of supply-side fantasy — top aides. Typical was the September. private banks rather than the Fed set the prime rate. "Carter's Depression" — this was the phrase Reagan had used in 1980 to encapsulate the situation Carter created with his tight money pohcy. or did not know. IVe think that . Laxalt. and most Cabinet members. Wall Street was the first to reject Lafferomics. . comment of a Dean Witter executive: "The new supply-side view is that deficits don't matter.

Thatcher did embark on such a journey. liberal or conservative. "Reaganomics" has consisted of monetarism — tight money policies forcing interest rates and joblessness up to keep demand and prices down — not (after the first fling) supply-side gambles. though. In the spring of 1979.4% unemployment: "I think the Federal Government has created this recession in its attempt to fight inflation by doing what the Presi- dent swore up and down he would not do — by using unemploy- ment as a tool. His 1980 platform "specifically re- jects the philosophy of the Carter administration that unemployment is the answer to inflation. too.During his 1980 campaign Reagan had chastised Carter for 7. encouraged or ordered its central bank to pursue price stability at all costs. At the start of 1981. Mrs. swore up and down that he would not use unemployment as a tool." Reagan." By 1983. no democratic government. Ronald Reagan joined her. The precedent for this. Paul Volcker expressly admitted had that inflationary trends briefly subsided only"under the heavy pressure of deep recession." /^^3 . as Robert Lekachman points out. Volcker forced interest rates so exceptionally high that potential new production and employment were strangled in the cradle." Above all. was Margaret Thatcher as well as Jimmy Carter: "Until very recently.

and unprecedented war spending. service cuts for the needy.The have come as no sur- severity of Reagan's recession should prise. public.4% unemploy- ment." NBC TV refreshed his memory by showing a film clip of the remark —which remains just as accurate as it is un- palatable for Bush. Thanks to several factors — low income-tax breaks for workers.S. The victims of Reagan's voodoo are clear: all poor and working people who neither gain from the tax cut nor profit from social service cuts. but Reagan's special extras: tax cuts for business. Who did gain from the 1981 tax cut? Not the majority of the U. What makes Reaganomics unique is not just monetarism and recession per se. upped gas and Social Security taxes. The Tax Cut Vice-President George Bush once denied that he had call- ed Reagan's supply-side talk "voodoo economics.000 received zero or negative net tax gains. /5^ .Thatcher had already presided over 12. England's worst rate since the 1930's. and "bracket creep" — 1981 taxpayers who earn- ed less than $30.

000 and $50. with 1981 incomes above $30.^»^<-^^^^^^^:-:?::'^m$ipri^mm^mf^ Projections at the time of the 1981 tax cut made it clear that 48% of the public would have higher tax liabilities in 1984 than in 1981.000.000 one year and $13.500 four years later — exactly keeping abreast of 35% inflation —pays a higher rate of real taxes in the latter year than in the former (5.7%).) Only the remaining 21% of the public. Hence a net loss results — you can buy less now than before. Far and away the majority of Reagan's income-tax breaks — worth an estimated $9 billion — accrued to people with annual incomes above $50. for example. that your annual income rises exactly in step with inflation. Though your effective real income does not rise — you can buy no more than before — your taxes do rise. /ae? . . taxes rise as a pro- portion of income. were expected to gain from Kemp- Roth. while31% would experience no real change. And even here average gains for people with 1981 in- comes between $30. -•-. Say. (Reagan's claim was that by 1984 taxes would be significantly lower for almost everyone. A family which earns $10.5% compared to 3.000 were projected to total just $84 per person.^--.^'>*^^^---'. In this way.000. Bracket creep is all too familiar. .

the rest of it is secondary. trickle-down amounts to "feeding the horse so that pretty soon the sparrows will get something to eat. Kemp-Roth became law. jobs." With Reagan's powerful support. Said Stockman: "It's kind of hard to sell 'trickle down.This was hardly an accident. The top rate did indeed fall from 70% to 50%. too.' so the supply-side for- mula was the only way to get a tax policy that was really 'trickle down. The idea was that a fat bonus for the wealthy would "trickle down" to the public at large in the form of new investments. etc." I^Llo . "Kemp-Roth was always a Trojan horse to bring down the top rate." "The hard part of the supply-side tax cut is dropping the top rate from 70% to 50<^o. As David Stockman conceded.'" As a leading Democrat once said.

Since 1981. . An estimated $750 billion in Federal tax cuts over five years has streamed almost entirely into business coffers. just got out of control i3n . .S. Though the top 1700 U. The rich get richer. Said David Stockman: "Do you realize the greed that came to the forefront? The hogs were really feeding. It may be doubted whether Reagan's investment and tax credits were strictly calculated to optimize production.Whatever may have descended from Reagan's Trojan horse to the public. precisely these firms received 80% of Reagan's corporate tax breaks. mergers have con- tinued with spectacular regularity.and the big get bigger. firms have created just 4% of the new jobs in the last 20 years. The greed level. the level of opportunism. most visibly in the oil and steel in- dustries. These firms then neglected new produc- tion for a merger spree which accounted for 1807 transactions worth $61 billion in the first three quarters of 1981 alone. at least one thing is certain: corporations and the wealthy came out smelling like roses.

the flint-hearted opposite. Scrooge didn't exploit Bob 1983. but he doubting the existence of wasn't unfair to anyone. by expanding war production ultra-profitable — Reagan is equally zealous about zapping the poor. "Rarely has compassion Scrooge — and that even been so mistaken for its Scrooge. He had his faults. The War on the Poor Giving to the rich requires taking from the poor. This was Edwin Meese's "If you really look at the facts. when Reagan and Cratchit. complaint in December..S. Zealous about serving the wealthy — above all.. gets "a bad press". the Reagan administration enjoys only one form of spending restraint: slashed services for the needy." U." villain of A Christmas Carol. Committed to $750 bilHon less in Federal intake (thanks to the 1981 tax cut) and to an over 50*^0 hike in war spertding from 1981 to 1985. So let's be fair to Meese came under fire for Scrooge. Meese pro- tested that Reagan is no How about Reagan? /oig . hunger.

Volumes could be written about Reagan's frenetic assault on the
poor. The main points are these: Overall, Reagan has cut social
programs by $110 biUion since 1981. The Congressional Budget
Office reports that40% of all losses were suffered by families
with than $10,000 in yearly income. 70% of total losses ac-
crued to households with incomes under $20,000.

How much is $110 billion? Listen to David Stockman:

"Do you have any idea what $40 billion means? It means I've got
to cut the highway program, milk-price supports, and Social
Security student benefits. And education and student loans. And
manpower training and housing and the synfuels program.

"I put together a hst of 20 social programs that had to be zeroed
out completely, like Job Corps, Head Start, women and
children's feeding programs, on and on. And another 25 that
have to be cut by 50%... I mean really fierce, blood-and-guts stuff
— widows benefits and orphans benefits, things like that. And
still it didn't add up to $40 billion."

$110 biUion is really fierce.


Exceptionally important to the
poor, programs to promote
health, education, welfare, and
employment are also relatively
cheap. Furnishing nearly 50%
of the 1981 income of the bot-
tom 20% of the population,
social services use just 10% of
Federal resources.

Few other programs benefit so
many for so little. Yet precise-
ly these programs have borne
the brunt of Reaganite cuts. In
1982, low-income people lost
IVi times more services than
other households. So too in
1983 and 1984, in myriad ser-
vice fields.

Poverty levels which began rising in 1978 continued to rise

steeply under the impact of Reaganomics. The Census Bureau
reported in late 1983 that 34.4 milhon people —
15% of the
population —
fell a total of $43 billion below the official 1982

poverty line for a family of four ($9862). Not since 1965 had
the situation been worse.

Just four years earlier, the poverty rate had been 11.4%. The
increase to 15% meant that 10 million people had newly fallen
into official poverty.

Reagan's policy bears special responsibiUty for increased pover-
ty since Reaganism unequally affects not only the poor, but
people just above the poverty line. In 1982, 20-25 million peo-
ple just over the poverty line lost either income, in-kind
benefits, or public jobs. When CETA job training was can-
celled, 400,000 people left the "working poor" to join the poor
in one fell swoop.


Reagan's anti-welfare pas-
sion is wellknown. In
friendly company, Reagan
even cracks jokes about it.

When David Stockman
was scheduled to present
Congress with the propos-
ed 1981 service cuts,
Reagan kidded: "We
won't leave you out there
alone, Dave. We'll all
come to the hanging."
Presidential counsellor
James Baker also poked
fun at Stockman's image:
"We saved a lot of air-
conditioning in the White
House this summer. We
kept cool by huddling
around Dave Stockman's

One budget proposal was
nicknamed the "rape,
pillage, and burn option."

As California governor, Reagan declared what Ed Meese called
"all-out war on the taxtaker." Sharp reductions in innumerable
programs —mental health, food aid, etc. —
were complemented
by classic Reagan Hnes: Welfare recipients, he said, are "a
faceless mass waiting for handouts." "Unemployment insurance
is a pre-paid vacation for freeloaders."

Reagan now accuses of "greed and envy." Criticized
his critics
for lack of compassion, Reagan is quick to strike back: "I've

heard all that crap. We haven't thrown anyone out in the snow to
die." In May, 1983, Reagan unburdened himself: "I get a Uttle
irritated with that constant refrain about compassion. I got an
unsigned valentine in February and I'm sure it was from Fritz
Mondale. The heart on it was bleeding."


$18 billion.g. it makes scant economic or moral sense." still. veterans pensions. Social Security old-age benefits. the ma- jority had received aid for less than three years. Very of the Federal budget goes to AFDC. almost all with single mothers. accounting (in aggregate) for just over 1% of the Federal budget. given Reagan's campaign rhetoric about "welfare queens in designer jeans. school meals. vanished from the Federal health budget taken— mainly from Medicare." Seven pro- grams ("the safety net") were defined as immune from Stockman's flashing knife: Medicare. Take his famous pledge to protect "the truly needy.. home relief. 63 •^o of AFDC recipients were children. e. Head Start. with little states localities bearing part of the cost. That equaled about $4500 per year for a family of four. 11 million AFDC and recipients received an average of $93 per person per month. In 1979. Almost without exception these programs were later cut. /3A . This is not surprising.Reagan's heart clearly does not bleed for poor or working people. and summer youth jobs. Many of Reagan's sharpest cuts have been directed against AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children).

11 Average daily benefits in 1981 equaled just 44" a meal. Later years saw even sterner measures. with funding cuts for another 14 million. M!^ fi il Food and nutrition Food stamps have programs have been been remarkably another key Reagan target — again with cost-effective — i.. In 1983. dm? underfunded.e. with roughly a million people terminated. meager tion justifica. Reagan was merciless with food stamps. Of the six million people aged 21-63 who received disability pay in 1980. .3 billion food stamp reduction. Is it a surprise that the deaf sign for "Reagan" is a revolver pointed at the head? ^i'SV i(i/ji?ti. . Year one of his budget cuts saw a $2. /33 . for example. Reagan asked for the termination of 3 million recipients. more than one million were targeted by Reagan for outright termination . Cost- of-living increases were postponed and levels of income eligibility fell.. which (though tiny) meant a great deal to recipients averaging just $3900 in 1981 income.

S.Meals for schoolchildren have also been slashed. said Meese — but simply to take advantage of the free food. Earlier. hunger. Reagan joined Ed Meese in claiming that people go to soup kitchens not because they're hungry — there is no "authoritative" evidence of hunger. Still earlier. Catsup in combination with other things was classified as a vegetable. Reagan's Agricultural Secretary responded: "I think would be a mistake to say it that catsup per sewas classified as a vegetable. Reagan won renown for a remark about a free food giveaway forced by a terrorist group: "It's just too bad we can't have an epidemic of botuhsm!" /3^ . the Federal lunch program was cut on the basis of an ab- surdly flimsy pretext — that catsup counts as a vegetable for health purposes! When asked about this." Small wonder that Reagan declared himself "perplexed" when presented with evidence of U. Intended to give poor children meals meeting at least one-third of their nutritional needs." What other things? "French fries or hamburgers.

they proposed $40 billion in cuts. Supposedly to prevent the "most devastating bankruptcy in history. /35 . including the elimination of minimum benefits for 3 milHon people. $3 billion from AFDC and the food stamp program. Even more radical is another ad- ministration plan. . floated on March 15.7 billion from Medicare and Civil Service retirement programs. This too proved unacceptable to the public. 1982. when this proved unpopular. Reagan then pretended that he had never challeng- ed Social Security: "I will not stand by and see those of you are dependent on Social Security deprived of your benefits. .on or about November 3. Undaunted. and $3 billion from other domestic programs. . proposed $82 billion in Social Security cuts. 1984 — calling for $43 billion in new domestic cuts. turned out that just one branch of Social it Security had been cash-poor . At least one major Reagan budget cut misfired badly — a bold effort to slash Social Security." Reagan and Co. Reagan's 1985 budget projects $9 bilhon in cuts: $2." 1982's "devastating bankruptcy" was completely averted by an interfund transfer. .

inany event. and social services — by $14 bilUon through 1985. and rather than whine and carp and com- plain. • The increase in this interest since 1981 exceeds the total saved by all Reaganite cuts in health. the misery merchants should get on board." Once a promise. education. YOU \S<^ / TRYING (/ 1^ L /3{^ . Instead. . 1982. he authorized profligate war spend- ing leading to unprecedented budget deficits. In November. welfare." Is Reagan's recovery train on track? Judge for yourself: In 1980.49 trillion. Reagan promised a balanced budget by 1984 and budget surpluses afterwards.7<7o of total Federal outlays.6 billion — higher than the sum total of all U. Balance Sheet Reagan's economic rhetoric has been consistently euphoric. Reaganomic realities have been another matter. deficits since George Washington. the balanced budget is more distant now than ever. Interest on the national debt (paid to banks) now commands 12. . In September. Reagan changed his tune on budget- balancing: "I've never said anything but that it was a goal. 1983.S. now a goal. • Reagan's projected 5-year deficit from 1981 through 1985 is $727. Reagan railed at his critics: "We've got a recovery train going. • The Federal debt rose so fast — 51% from 1981 to 1984 —that Reagan was forced to raise the Federal debt ceiling to a record $1.

or is responsible for high interest rates or the decline on Wall Street. characteristically blunt." For Reagan. he was caustic on the same subject: "When George Meany testifies to Congress that this country can afford a $100 bilhon deficit to solve the unemployment problem.It's going to destroy our competitiveness." . Stockman. Business is finally beginning to worry. If we overspend by $100 billion now. When government uses a deficit to create work. it also creates inflation. Chrystler Corporation presi- dent Lee lacocca complains about the deficit: "It's screwy. According to the AP on February 16.. The beat goes on. IF I EUMINATE AUTHE NOTJUSr FEDERAL cor Assistance miutarv SPE. ." Very few people agree. . it now seems likely to en- tail unpleasant consequences. Volcker and almost all Wall Street analysts say precisely the opposite. verging on bankruptcy). he'll be back asking that we overspend by $250 billion the next time. Though Reaganomic revelry has been a profiteers' delight. it seems that using a deficit to create weapons is not inflationary.S. may soon be in the "position of many companies on the eve of Chapter 11" (i. says that the U. Reagan himself repeatedly claimed that inflation arises from "government spending more than government takes in. LETS SEE. it's obvious that he's been the victim of bad advice. In 1980. His proposed 1985 war budget is $313 billion.NPING FR0GRAtvi5. it's out of control. 1984: "President Reagan said yesterday that he does not think the projected $180 billion budget deficit next year poses a serious threat to the economic recovery." In 1975..e. BY A FEW BILLION? /37 . . apparently.

. this an aberrant comment. Said strategist Stuart Spencer: "We knew Ron wasn't going to get . 1979-80. ." Thus spoke an aide in Reagan's 1966 gubernatorial campaign.5 miUion Black citizens counted by the 1980 Census. Discriminating Tastes The Black Community has been especially hard-hit by the reces- sions of 1974-75. Black unemployment rose from an already steep lO. The pleasure is all his . labor. /3S .9 million were officially poor (34<^o). given his record . "We'll settle for the white vote. Affected harshly and unequally by Reaganomic austerity. 8. Black family income fell 8.3%. From 1972-1983. the poor. these groups have attracted special Reagan attention.2%. . anywhere with Negroes.S^^o to 20. women. " Unpleasant consequences are nothing new for Reagan's primary scapegoats: racial minorities. . the plight of Blacks has grown measureably worse. Of the 26. For a campaign largely premised on racial was far from polarization. This is less than surprising. . With Reagan in office. and 1981-82.

e. stopping racial discrimination in housing.. Reagan opposed the Federal Civil Rights acts of 1964 and 1965." Rising to philosophic heights. the U. When he ran for governor. when in truth there was no real intention of rent- ing. With a ten- fold increase in the Black population of Los Angeles and similar increases elsewhere. a dual movement arose: against racial discrimination — and for it. was enmeshed in an upsurge of racial tension. he charged that Blacks who alleged discrimina- tion "staged attempts to rent homes. A Black exodus from the south in the 1950's had brought near- ly 1." i. Roughly a quarter of these emigrants had come to California. the most hotly contested California issue was "fair housing.Acute tensions resulted both from insurgent political organizing and from spontaneous inner-city riots (in Watts.S. Reagan posited that the "right of an individual to the owner- ship and disposition of proper- ty is inseparable from the right of freedom itself.5 million Black workers into new labor markets. When Reagan spoke to the California Real Estate Association. etc. Ronald Reagan opposed fair housing. only of causing trouble. Like Gold water. Reagan's political identity crystallized at a time when right politics and white backlash were practically synonymous." /3^ . Detroit. "Civil rights" militancy met "white backlash" in a head-on collision.).In 1966.

shoals In a candidmoment.As governor.The average Bircher looks. would you?'' In short. strategist Bill Roberts contended that Reagan's campaign was superior to that of his Democratic opponent: "The Democrats showed they were out of touch by going so hard on right-wing extremism. Though Reagan once denied the very existence of white backlash. say. acts and talks pretty much . for Reagan. When CaUfornia was worried about Negro rioters. Reagan told a group of Black legislators: "You wouldn't want to sell your house to a red-headed Kiwanian if you didn't want to. Uke everybody else." Ronald Reagan did not talkabout Birchers. property rights take precedence over civil rights. If you meet him. . In 1966 the Birchers weren't throwing Molotov cocktails and hitting policemen. the Negroes were. Pat Brown was talking about Birchers. at a cocktail party you're not going to start looking for a bomb shelter. /^O . freedom to discriminate is more vital than freedom from discrimination. he navigated its and rapids with great success.

" "These are no longer riots connected with civil rights in any way.the jungle still is waiting to take over. are jungle paths after dark. "Our4:ity streets ." ran a radio ad. "Man's determination to live under the protection of the law has pushed back the jungle down through the centuries. But the jungle is always there. Reagan's imagery began to grow lurid." So Reagan pontificated after the 1967 Detroit riots. . . On several occasions he used "jungle" metaphors: "Every day the jungle draws a little closer. He once compared Black miUtants who jeered Hubert Humphrey to the "jackbooted young monsters" of the Hitler Youth Corps. The man with the badge holds it back. he showed little interest in the poverty and oppression which spark riots. and somehow it seems much closer than we have known it in the years preceding. Typically. These are riots of the law breakers and the mad dogs against the people." HI . ." The answer? Law and order: "With all our science and sophistication.

when civil rights hero Martin Luther King was assassinated during a 1968 Memphis labor dispute. civil rightist." Reagan recent years has offered Negroes of athletic ability unparalleled chances for fame and success. . . pursuing the presidency. Reagan Hnk- ed King's death to civil disobedience: this "great tragedy. . But I would have to say [that] he showed no opposition particularly to great programs of Federal aid and spending programs and so forth." In other words. In 1968. I am pleased that it is now time to play ball. "began when we began compromising with law and order and people started choosing which laws they'd break. Reagan was asked: "Which views of George Wallace do you disagree with?" (In 1968 Wallace's name was synonymous with white bigotry. he said he hoped the new baseball season would "turn our minds to the better side of our national life." Strike three? Ncyi." Stern words! Ronald Reagan. Reagan was less than eloquent. . King was partly at fault for his own murder! On the day of King's funeral. . Baseball.) Said Reagan: "Well. lately on the basis of his speeches that would be kind of hard to pin down because he's been speak- ing a lot of things that I think people of America are in agreement with. Earlier. now.

More serious is presidential policy. Two weeks later. Never before in the 26-year history of the commission had something similar occurred. Housing and Urban Development) and the Equal Employ- ment Opportunities Commission. Only a last-minute compromise kept the Commission alive at all. Commission on Civil Rights.Civil Rights Reagan often lets the cat out of the bag on racial matters — tell- ing tasteless jokes about African cannibals. giving a televised 1976 address from the town where three civil rights workers were murdered.S. etc.. praising South Africa. Education. calling anti-slavery martyr John Brown "a madman". Specifically. the Commission reported that the enforcement of civil rights laws had declined precipitous- ly since 1981. Reagan has been bad news for racial minorities. 1983. In 1980. she wished aloud that Reagan could "see all these beautiful white people. by amplified phone hookup from Chicago to New Hampshire. Chinese laundries. A bird's-eye view of Reaganite civil rights policy is available through a glance at Reagan's conflict with the U. Reagan fired three Civil Rights commissioners." An occasional faux pas is one thing. and so on. the Commission called attention to a 21% slide in the civil rights enforcement staff of six agencies: five Departments (Justice. too. /V3 . Nancy Reagan is equally unsubtle. Here. Labor. On October 11. Health and Human Ser- vices.

When this move proved unpopular.Eastern Europeans! • New staff director Linda Chavez persuaded the Commission to study "reverse discrimination" against the white European males instead of the effects of Reaganite cuts. Pendleton sug- gested. and other groups. In the words of a White House aide. and told the press that discrimination is not one of the major problems fac- ing Black people. . "Now that we have the Civil Rights Commission on our side. was asked in January 1984 which groups are most victimized by discrimination. Black. Reagan's civil rights track record is abysmal. Hispanic. when a Reagan letter favoring the exemptions came to light Reagan said: IHH ." No wonder.Reagan now moved to pack the Commission. In 1982. Later. Conference leaders denounced the Chavez plan as something that "reads hke the civil rights agenda of the Radical Right. we can make use of them to run some interference for us. She also in- itiated a study of the "radical" idea that men and women who perform equal work should receive equal pay. a conservative San Diego businessman. the Justice Department announced major tax exemptions for 100 racially segregated schools and groups. White House aides denied that Reagan had been responsible for it. . • New chair Clarence Pendleton." Strong but unavailing objections came from the Leadership Con- ference on Civil Rights — a coahtion of 160 women's.

•. Educa- is tion Secretary: "The courts may soon be after us for not enfor- cing civil rights laws and regulations. You cannot write them off and the Blacks and the Hispanics and the Jews and assume that you're going to build a party of white Anglo-Saxon males over forty. /V3 ." Reagan opposed strengthening the Voting Rights Act.••. Non-enforcement of civil rights laws is a Reagan specialty.•'. then chair of the Senate RepubHcan Campaign Committee. There aren't enough of us left.:•.'. We are losing them in droves. and my obligation to enforce them is against my own philosophy." . there was one less. Packwood was dismissed from his RepubUcan leadership post. So extreme Reagan's approach to civil rights that even key is Republican do not uniformly assent to it. slashed affirmative actionand bilingual education. expressed a telling fear: "The RepubHcan Party has just about written off women who work for wages in the marketplace. attacked voluntary as well as mandatory school busing.. It seems that we have some laws we shouldn't have.*• Soon.::•. and (by January.•"••? . 1984) had initiated just one school desegregation suit. Typical the view expressed in a letter by Terrell Bell. Senator Bob allies Packwood.'.<.

5 million women have fallen below the poverty line.New Right/ No Rights: Women Reagan is very bad news for women and children.1 . . 2. .and I think that was where . and so on. Reagan has never had a totally enlightened view of women. What I'm saying is not against women. all the trouble started. battered women's centers. love women . 69*70 of all foodstamp cuts. Virtually all AFDC cuts have the same effect. affect members of households headed by single women. As California governor. etc. Since Reagan's election. from one of Adam's ribs. Eve. But I sneer at their current drive for liberation . sharply reducing welfare payments to women. — whatever the hell that means. for example. he once received a remarkable diatribe qua letter: "Women need to be liberated like a humming bird needs a flight manual. legal ser- vices.God made the first woman. . Similarly with cuts in public housing. And Reagan has deleted funding for innumerable other programs important to women: child care. . It all boils down to simple jealousy!" 1% . .

I want to ." With Reagan's help. "the Easter Bunny at the White House Easter egg roll" (press secretary Larry Speakes)." Reagan's one brief lapse as an anti-feminist — brief 1972 support for the Equal Rights Amendment — was righted so completely that." Reaganaut vengeance was swift: Honegger was disparaged as a "low-level munchkin" (Thomas DeCair). the ERA fell. when Reagan entered office in 1981. The Justice official assigned to review Federal laws for evidence of gender-based discrimination (Barbara Honegger) said in late 1983 that Reagan's promise to revise discriminatory laws is a "sham. It's not easy to dress up in that hot bunny suit. Reagan has also been an ar- dent anti abortionist. Not a single law has been changed. Reagan is characteristically lax about sex discrimination." IHl .and above all. Speakes added: "It's quite an admirable thing to do." "He has reneged on his commitment. I've never done it and I'm ashamed to ad- mit it. . Phyllis Schafly rejoiced that this "kills the ERA.Responded Reagan: "I am pleased to tell you that I share your views about women's Hberation. thank you from the bottom of my heart for your letter.

For every dollar a working man earns. SAME WORK. /^S . etc. Sexual pay disparities are one of the most striking facts on the economic scene. sees a direct connection between business gains from low pay and Reagan's hostility to the ERA. Among sales workers. women earn just 52% as much as men ($190 per week vs. $547). equal pay. And so it goes. Eleanor Smeal. Not one trade association or chamber of commerce sup- ported the ERA. a work- ing woman makes 59^ Women engineers make 68% of what male engineers earn ($371 per week vs.Perhaps most telling of all is the Reaganaut decision in early 1984 to challenge a Federal court order instructing the State of Washington to compensate women for wages below the "full evaluated worth" of their work (using Washington criteria of "worth"). show not the slightest desire to rock this boat. former president of the National Organization of Women. Reagan is nothing if not pro-business.SHAMEFUL PAY Reagan and Co. $366).

business was willing to share with labor to ensure the political stability of the Rooseveltian coalition. Few objections to war production came from relatively privileged war industry labor . into world preeminence.S. business could pay rising wages to unionized labor without jeopardizing rising profits. always ready to endorse "police actions" abroad. 2. Until the 1970's. The AFL-CIO thus became a pillar of the war estabUshment. U. Profits Before People The ferocity of Reagan's campaign against welfare. and women becomes more comprehensible when we view it through the prism of his general pro-business bias. Business pursues expanding profits. 3. the size of the post-war economic pie rose so fast that U. Keep a few basic points in mind: 1. . minorities. As long as the pie grew faster than labor's share. Wages tend to contract when welfare falls. Profits tend to expand when wages contract.S.S. Permitting unions a degree of prosperity gave them a stake in the exploitation of nonunion and foreign workers. the profit picture stayed bright. which had vaulted the U. . /^ .

. ISO ." As president.depression" (a phrase he later tried to retract).. Reagan recreated this Depression mentality by — plunging the economy into what he once called "great depths of. where there were no menial jobs. A job was a job. workers will be forced to beg for jobs. ." as Frank Ackerman says. more costly. It is a shift that favors management by making strikes less likely. Reagan urged precisely this: "Maybe we need to get back the Depression mentality." In 1975. "There is. to work for less than before. **A historical shift appears to be looming in the balance of power between labor and management.. and in general less effec- tive." Fortune magazine Reagan's vendetta against welfare makes special sense in the lightof the employers' offensive against labor. **a method to this meanness: deprived of government benefits.The 1970's economic crunch changed this capital/labor equation. and anyone who got one felt lucky.

or underemployed (7. an ominous lesson for all public workers unions (PATCO was one of the few unions to support Reagan in 1980. Thanks to recent enactments: • The Professional Air Traf- fic Controllers Organization (PATCO) has been decer- tified for striking . (Continental Airlines did just this. Reagan administration support for anti-labor efforts has been unwearying. 1982.) • Firms may now cancel labor agreements simply by moving from union to nonunion plants.3%). In 1982. including 1.6 million "discouraged" workers omitted from unemployment statistics for failing to seek work). /5/ .. 25% of the workforce went officially without work for some part of the year. • Firms may now declare bankruptcy to void labor contracts — and then reorganize on a nonunion basis.6%. laying off half its workforce and then cut- ting wages 50%!) • Reagan aides proposed a Labor Department rule change that would allow state employment agencies to supply scab replacements to firms with striking or locked-out workers. Both social services and living standards have fallen. 20% of the labor force was either unemployed (12. this is on- lyforbidden if existing agreements explicitly preclude such moves. At the peak of the recession in December..

S. a record low. . already below 20% of the a 'strident voice of the ." back to employers gains the unions had previously won. 1980's "Big Labor" is neither fat. Considering the number of AFL-CIO givebacks. just 4. These figures would be unremarkable in much of the world. Reagan found himself denounced "at the top level of the AFL-CIO. and Atomic Workers union says. "Workers can see you don't need a union card to hold up a white flag. As Anthony Mazzocchi of the Oil. unions — the royalty of global labor — they represent a stunning blow." /5c^ . Chemical. Merrily-Lynch 'Em (Labor Consultants) Bullish on Profits Is itany wonder that. "Fully half the union contracts signed since 1982 have given . right-wing lunatic fringe'"? Labor clearly has no reason to like Ronald Reagan. Union membership.l^Q below the 1982 level —the steepest decline since recordkeeping started in 1967. but for U. . nor aggressive. all union workers in 1983 negotiated con- tracts X. . Only 43. long ago. . happy. (Newsday) In toto.8% of these elections were won by labor.320 union elections were held — 59% of the 1980 tally. is still falling. In 1983. Contrary to popular mythology. this decline is no great mystery.

As recently as 1940. All this hasnow changed. The pace and tempo of the business offensive. when Marx and Engels exhorted "the pro- few lands outside Europe letarians of all lands" to unite. /55 . . today's working class ever. is global. In a nutshell. workers are on the defensive. . Unite? In many respects. Multinational business increasingly has a multinational labor pool at its disposal. No crystal ball is needed to predict the outcome of a situation in which friends fall out and foes link hands . Proletarians. after more than a century of capitalism (mass production for private profit). Labor weakness springs from two sources: the great disunity of the working class. the global working class is more vital and ir- repressible now than To begin with. fast under Carter. very were populated by proletarians (wage-workers). and the growing unity of the business class. has quickened under Reagan. wage-workers were still concentrated largely in Europe and North America (with outposts but few heartlands elsewhere). In 1848.

organized labor had prospered from Big Business ex- ploitation of disorganized labor. . Little Labor displaces Big Labor. . Big Labor gloried in its relative privilege. employers feel in- creasingly free to assail Big Labor. They know that 'Little Labor' will do comparable work for less pay. Strong enough to wring concessions from Big Business — thanks to its 1930's organizing drives — the AFL-CIO long ago realized that union fortunes depend on business success. Profits can only be shared when they accumulate . . secure in the knowledge that an ever more diversified pool of low. It succeeded perhaps too well. Until recently. the benefits they confer become vanishingly small. But now. Multinational business is on the warpath against high- wage labor.wage labor can be called upon. Big Labor thus tried to keep the big majority of world labor outside its ranks. And when profits are shared too widely. /54 . As a result. Steel workers in Brazil and computer assembly Hues in Hong Kong make Youngstown and Silicon Valley expendable . Big Labor is out- numbered. For years. .

Japanese. If the Soviet Union had been unable to intervene.. Solidarnosc would almost certainly have won state power.S. and Third World workers would have immense potential. between U. Collaboration between PoUsh and Russian workers could still make this possible. Unity now would mean cross-national and cross- industry solidarity in opposition to giant employers. in "high tech." low tech. Western Euro- Similarly. The working class extends far beyond unionized North American factories. /55 . The union movement has been so narrow for so long that the very word "labor" now conjures up a narrow image. This will be anything but easy. collaboration pean. Increasingly. workers in all lands are now subjected to the same employers. wage- work for Big Business is performed by Asians. "Workers" are pictured in stereotyped terms as card-carrying blue-collar unionists. Few images could be less valid. high pay and low pay industries. Solidarnosc in Poland was a major step in this direction. and Latin Americans. Africans. by women and children. Qualitatively more than ever. workers need vastly expanded global unity. Big Labor and Little Labor need to acceptand assist each other. To fight back.

but business is on another wavelength. The difficulty with this vaudeville two-step is that neither party stands for a real alternative to war. Similarly.S. the public has grown accustomed to a very narrow spec- trum of poHtical debate. but against the U. With Democrats in of- fice. I^h .S. or poverty. With Republicans in of- fice. Libya. Both Democrats and Repubhcans are committed to Big Business a — commitment which is increasingly dangerous in an era when Big Business pursues a global offensive not only against labor. The union Old Guard daydreams about past glories. exploitation.. To confront multinational capital. a multinational labor movement is called for.S. Democrats wait in the wings.. We have seen that both Democrats and Republicans walked the warfare/welfare Une. both a Democrat (Carter) and a Republican (Reagan) initiated post-liberal policies knitting— wildly militarized anti-communism together with anti-welfare. etc. Republicans pose as an alter- native. Nicaragua. Such a movement will not be created easily — but what alternative do workers have? The Demopublican Party In the U. anti-labor domestic pohcies.R.

winning the Republicans popularity. . dared Krushchev to risk war during the Cuban missile crisis. etc. Democrats have been slightly more warlike than Republicans. Carter and Reagan introduced a new step — a tap dance from mild to extreme recession . sent troops to Vietnam. accelerated the nuclear arms race. Internationally. Republicans then spark recession. out of control . /5"7 . If stagflation and Uberalism. . swinging the pendulum back to the Democrats. but it makes a myopic strategy boosting basic underlying problem: the short-term profits without persistence and decreasing solving problems of warfare manageability of inflation. the reigning Democratic saint. sponsored the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. ed —while the economy and neither party will be able to the nuclear arms race careen save the situation. JFK. the Democratic-Republican tango is the longest run- ning show off Broad- way. etc. Big business is serv- war trends grow too serious. recession. . This Demopublican jazzercise Both parties now pursue a is ingenious. or human welfare. . fired propaganda salvos over the Berlin wall. Domestically. the nuclear arms Post-liberalism is still close to race. Democrats spark recession.

" The final bill. the thrift banks .) House majority leader James Wright Finally. the original 70/50 proposal for reduced upper bracket taxes came from the Democrats." Did the Democrats whistle a different tune years later? Not in November. (The final vote was 206 to 203. 1983." Thus spoke House Speaker Tip O'Neill when budget deficits began to run riot. Heads or tails. said Treasury Secretary Regan. We're not running the govern- ment. . for example. So had many other aspects of the tax cut. Reagan's 1981 tax package. in 1984.The Democrats have pursued a dual path with Reagan in office: supporting the post-Hberal business offensive while trying to assign all blame to Reagan. . "includes 95*^0 of what the president wanted. The Senate voted 89-11 in support of Reagan. . Medicare! /f)8 . the NY Times reported this Demopublican scene: "For every tax break the White House offered the rich and powerful. there isno anxiety about the final vote on these bills. sometimes two . when 67 House Democrats voted not to restore $1 billion in slashed education and social service funding. and those looking ." Watch out. they win. the Democrats offered one of their own. Just three days before the final vote.r^': "He's running the government.For the oil industry. while 48 Democrats gave Reagan a 43-vote margin of victory in the House. The truth is quite different. . As David Stockman observed. attracted wide Democratic sup- port. the (D-Texas) announced a Democratic plan to "recommend cuts in entitlement programs. to duck estate taxes.

S. Gary Hart opposed the Nuclear Freeze and wants what the media calls a "meaner. Like Republicans. Senate "doves" Alan Cranston and Christopher Dodd. sea-based missiles) have been ignored for at least a decade. For an alternative. Democrats accept both miUtary anarchy and the business offensive. the arms race continues faster than ever. the arms 2000% 5000% race. and Edward Kennedy responded to Reagan's 1984 request for an "emergency" $62 million for El Salvador —after protesting "giving a blank check to death squads and despotism —by urging a $21 million check! After more than 6000 U. working and poor people must rely on themselves. /Russian arms meetings since World War II. Carter's SALT II approach was no more serious than Reagan's stalled START proposal (also endorsed by Carter). support the Bl nuclear bomber and the Neutron bomb. overkill overkill /S-^ .Democrats talk more readily about slower war spending than Reagan does. but few leading Democrats stray far from militarism: Walter Mondale supports the Stealth bomber. and a 4% annual war spending increase (just l^o less than Carter proposed in 1980. leaner" military. Carter now supports Mondale). most central questions of arms limitation (e.g. As Daniel Ellsberg has shown. Neither post- liberalism nor liberalism offers a viable response to en- vironmental crisis. the Midgetman missile. respectively. or economic insecurity. Verbal "freeze" pledges conceal a which very few situation in Demopublicans reject present levelsof firepower. Not one leading Demopublican with a prayer of gaining party power offers the slightest real hope of disarmament..

"The Man with the Gold makes the Rules. Reagan complained (unfairly): "Why does half the business PAC money go to can- didates who may not be friends of business?" Echoed Laxalt: "We found that our 'friends. So is the Golden Rule especially to —i." Reverend Jerry Falwell This Moral Majority gospel is music to Demopublican ears." In 1980. . By the Rich "Material wealth is God's way of blessing people who put Him first. Of the Rich. but he's not.e." Says a former aide: "Reagan's support is popuHst. For the Rich." In 1978. All his instincts are pro-big business.. Reagan and Paul Laxalt were irked that Big Business PACs (political action committees) had given Democrats and Republicans roughly equal funding. were playing both sides.' the Fortune 500. that's a little hard to swallow. When you push water for them as long as we have. . Reagan saw little reason to com- plain: his buckets (and pockets) overflowed. Ronald Reagan. l(oO .

"Jim's a pretty good Joe. drill more. After resigning. Watt called Reagan's new Interior Secretary (William Clark) "a fan- tastically fine guy. . ." /^I . Soon. Watt has an unquenchable zest for making enemies. Watt once distinguished two kinds of people — "liberals and Americans. ultimately forced from office for a careless remark. A high- octane rightist. cut more timber. But behind Watt stood Reagan." When Watt came under fire. Reagan defended him zealously." Watt assailed his opponents with all the fervor of a ge- nuine religious fanatic." CalUng environmentaHsts "a left-wing cult." This was James Watt's prophetic promise at the start of his years as Interior Secretary . *'We will mine more. Watt personally became a major issue. As Reagan once told photographer Ansel Adams.

/6a . and Clark are at and Regan earned salaries at Bechtel millionaire ranchers. . Shultz and Merrill-Lynch just under $1 million a year. and by purchas- ing war commodities on a stupendous scale at extravagant prices. . and lumber). Bush. After his election. but with bargain-basement prices for resources (above all land. Ten of his 1981 Cabinet members held assets which (combined) were valued $38 million. The Reagan administration rewards its supply-side friends not just with tax breaks. Baker. oil. Reagan recruited a fabulously wealthy team. coal.

. 1981.29 milHon bid for three similar tracts. Does the term "giveaway" seem too strong? In December. The social result of Watt's extremism? Violence to the environ- ment —with potentially irreversible consequences. 17 months later. after Watt had changed the bidding rules.2 million for an offshore oil tract.92 milHon less than the rejected 1981 bids. . . coastal waters — 1 billion acres. Watt's legacy is enduring. Shell Oil offered $15. The tale of Watt's kindness to business is too vast and varied for detailed recounting here. Shell and Gulf got what they wanted — for a total of $16.S.7 billion tons of governmental coal. /63 . Watt sold mining companies leases to 1 . Gulf Oil made a $14.!" (Lou Cannon) Watt also leased three times more onshore land for oil and gas exploration than Carter did. In 1982 alone.S. He gave oil and gas companies a 5-year opportunity to lease vir- tually all offshore land under U. But con- sider one typical item . "more than ten times the amount of offshore acreage offered for oil ex- ploration leasing in the entire history of the U. The director of the Bureau of Land Management said approvingly that Watt had converted the Bureau into a "one-stop shopping" center for the mining industry. . Both bids were rejected.

the supply side cashes in. . the Audobon Society and seven other national groups compared Tip O'Neill and other key James Watt. Reagan once declared: "We must have more guns and less butter. 1983." David Stockman reports. IQM . .6 trillion in war dollars over five years . . **No American wants the arms race to continue. "They got a blank check." Reagan urg- ed the largest peacetime arms buildup ever — $1. Unintentionally echoing Nazi Marshal Hermann Goering. or form. .the average . . Making the world dangerous for democracy — and everything else — is the heart of Reagan's foreign policy. . shape.'* Has the Democratic party capitalized on Watt's departure to un- do his mischief? Just the contrary. Said the director of the League of Conservation Voters: ". believe me. Democrat is for the pork barrel in any way. In December." Pushing water for Big Business is a two-party effort . Here. too." How many more guns? The defense numbers got out of control. .

there's a kind of swamp of $10 to $20 to $30 billion worth of waste. and $1485 to buy an ordinary $5 wrench. Plastic caps for chair legs have brought in as much as $1000 each. Profits rise even higher when the Pentagon permits superinflated arms prices.. e. Vast war spending gives business a nearly insatiable customer for its most expensive products." Typically. "It's just more of the same. . "Much more. On average. Through 1989. . $7410 to buy a 3" wire pin worth pennies. Said Stockman: ". The Navy.The 1984 war budget ($264 billion) exceeds the 1981 war budget by $104 billion. . /65 . buys tape recorders at 47 times the usual price. . Reagan projects another 75% rise in war spending. The result: pumped up profits. " from 1981 through 1983 (after infla- Military spending rose 48 •^o tion). the inflation rate for weapons systems (20% in 1981) is double that for commodities in general. a frequent practice. The Air Force spends $9600 to buy a 12' Allen wrench. Reagan's kindness to the Pentagon serves Men with Gold as well as top brass." said a senior Pentagon official.g.

CPD chair).the Present Danger faction urges very hard-line steps both against Russia and against all radical movements (which it sees as expressions of Russian influence). For years Reagan has represented a faction of the business class which seeks unquestioned U. Assistant Secretary of Allen. Is this enough? Not for Reagan. CIA director WiUiam trol staff Paul Nitze. iCo^ . A single Trident sub- marine carries enough firepower to destroy every major city in the northern hemisphere. Perturbed by the Indochinese defeat and determined not to repeat it. Late in 1976. Navy chief John ward Rowny. top Arms Con- Shultz.S. most nuclear firepower is American. former National UN Ambassador. this faction founded the Committee on the Present Danger (CPD). Ronald Reagan is a CPD director — as are many of 1000% overkill (?) his top appointees. Jeane Kirkpatrick. Fred Ikle. Reagan is perfect for the CPD — not their creation.Nuclear weapons now in ex- istence have 100. but an ideal represen- tative. business to stay on top by completely unsubtle means. hierarchy" (to quote Charles Undersecretary of Defense Tyroler. and Eugene Lehman.000 times the explosive power of all World War II weapons — the equivalent of three tons of dynamite for every person alive. global supremacy. Worldwide.S. irritated with Trilateralism. and "the whole Defense. Rostow. past and present: Secretary of State George for PoHcy. Ed- Casey. CPD members want U. Richard Security Adviser Richard Perle.

only be one end . there wouldn't be any hot spots in this world. strength — dominance so overwhelming that the U. If they weren't engaged in this game of dominos. . victory or . "on the question of Russians and Com- munism.?" 'War was declared a hun- dred years ago by Karl Marx and . Reagan subscribes to a demonology in which the Soviet Union is "the focus of evil in the modern world" (as he said in 1982).. defeat." "The Soviet Union underlies all the unrest that is going on." So Ronald Reagan told the Wall Street Journal in 1980. Reagan takes giant strides. there can . As a theory of world politics this has little to recommend it. His 1980 and 1976 press secretary confirms that.S.. the answer is yes.S. Carter/Brzezinski took steps in this direction. will be able to intervene anywhere in the world without fear of Soviet retaliation." "How do you compromise withl men who say we ^^ have no soul. no doubt about it. "Russia is still enemy number one. The ultimate CPD goal is not nuclear parity but a new springtime for U. ." y<fc7 . Ronald Reagan is a true believer. Would there be no South African tumult over apartheid without Soviet meddling? No Irish resistance — after 200 years? No Cen- tral American revolutions amid great poverty and oppression? For Reagan. apparently.

if they push it any farther. . pave it over. . m . and be home for lunch. Reagan also explicitly urged the use of "any and all weapons up i to and including tactical nuclear bombs.. .what we fully expect . Present Danger ideologues want to intimidate the Soviet Union above all else. they'll have to confront us nose to nose.. Reagan." A Reagan aide later said the best idea would have been to put "90'^o of the country under water" by bombing the 1 North Vietnamese dikes.... . anyway. "The plain truth of For Reagan. the Vietnam war was "a noble cause" which should not have been lost. We could invade the place." Rostow and others agree: the "present danger" is that the U.S. He wants ". WWIII fears are a sign of weakness. will feel reluctant to crush new Vietnams. Reaganauts are willing to risk World War III." This Reagan slogan there to counter the master encapsulates his Third World plan of the communists for agenda. will not be a warlike showdown. no more the matter is that we were Taiwans. Reagn expects the Soviet Union to back down. "No more Vietnams. an American president feeling he cannot af- ford to take action in a crisis [for fear of] Soviet nuclear forces ." . To dispel this reluctance. .. Says Richard Perle: "I've always worried less about what would happen in an actual nuclear exchange than . That's the theory. but a political face-off in which the Soviet Union and the other communist nations will realize that. He urged "a declaration of war on North Vietnam. . . Indochina infuriated world conquest." When push comes to shove. ." For Reagan.

.I'd . In 1975. At various times Reagan has plumped for an "eyeball to eyeball" confrontation with Angola. In May. . Iran." meaning both Soviet power and popular revolu- tions. I go all the way. the White House acknowledged "a cam- paign aimed at internal reform in the Soviet Union and shrinkage of the Soviet empire. . 1982." 82-year-old Laurence Beilenson." still. it will. former SAG general counsel and now Reagan's foreign policy mentor. etc. The Soviet Union is ready to collapse and if we just apply a few more sanctions. try to overthrow the government of China. North Korea. Reagan's rhetoric grew so sulphuric that even Barry Goldwater dissented — accusing Reagan of "a surprisingly dangerous state of mind. takes a radical stance: "We ought to try to overthrow any Com- munist government. I include Yugoslavia." which he summarized tersely: "Anything Marxist is evil and must be destroyed. Then-Secretary of State Haig termed this "the Perle. /^ . Ecuador." Though Haig expressed unease about "brittle confrontational pohcies the outcome of which we might not be prepared to face.Weinberger hne. when the opportunity arose (in El Salvador) he pressed for- ward with just such policies." Reagan's strategic objective is clear — to "roll back communism. too. which is that he will not seek alternatives to a military solution when dealing with complex foreign policy issues. criticizing Gerald Ford over the Panama Canal issue.

. ' terror. . however.(XX)-troop Rapid Deployment Force (RDF) has doubled in size with Reagan in office (receiving $4 billion in yearly funding and $20 billion for special enhancements)." Reagan's special operations test case has been Central America . Carter's 200. sabotage.S alhes with training ••III in "guerrilla opera- IT. In 1982. only by Reaganite standards. It is mild. and r.. The Empire Strikes Back It seems likely that Reagan's adventurism thus far is mild com- pared to what he might do in a second term. Reagan also formed a Special Operations Com- Urii mand to supply U. no .. tions.

massacre. After stopping rebels led by Augusto Sandino. . In both Nicaragua and El Salvador intense resistance to dictator- ship and exploitation percolated to the surface in the 1970's.000 insurgent workers and peasants. ni . Nicaragua. I helped ..a high-class muscle man . . . for big business. I helped make Mexico safe for American oil interests in 1914. 1933 was also crucial for neighboring El Salvador — the year of the great Matanza. . and Honduras have been invaded by the U. troops left Nicaragua in 1933 (following several 1920's invasions). U.S. many times. conscience-stricken Marine General Smedley Butler confessed that he had been " . . in which General Hernandez Martinez presid- ed over the slaughter of 30." No doubt! Indeed. . I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-12. for Wall Street . Explains the unflappable Jeane Kirkpatrick: "To many Salvadorans the violence of this repression seems less important than the fact of restored order. I helped rape half a dozen Central American republics.S. . some . .. " . El Salvador Guatemala." Hernandez Martinez Brigades. save Haiti and Cuba for the National Bank boys. order-loving Salvadorans now belong to "traditionalist death squads that pursue revolutionary activists and call themselves . In 1935.

Opposition is permit- ted. Although not democratic enough — with a tendency to restrict popular self-rule — the Sandinistas are not one-party rulers. the Sandinistas are infinitely better than any previous Nicaraguan leadership. They are also light-years from the "communist dictatorship arm- ed to the teeth" that Reagan raves about. Profoundly hated. etc. Dedicated to literacy and im- proved hving standards. He failed. the Sandinistas are a far cry from the rapacious rulers of Guatemala. i^t^_ Though far from perfect. The Sandinistas took power in 1979. unable to prevent the of the vastly popular Sandinista Libera- rise tion Front. capitalists retain far more power than many workers would Hke. support.S.) IIA . the regime of Anastasio Somoza was legendary for itsgreed and brutality. El Salvador. (In fact. Somoza grew desperate. Towards the end. Neither workers nor capitalists are denied all access to power. trying to terrorize the Nicaraguan public with indiscriminate bombing. Somoza remained in power only by the grace of U. Still. Somoza's National Guard was despite lavish funding. Chile.In Nicaragua.

Reagan's "justification" for his war against Nicaragua is alleged Cuban/Nicaraguan support for the revolution in El Salvador — support the Salvadoran revolution completely merits. Their tactic: ter- rorism." Carter still "agrees with the administration that it is proper. Carter responded to a guerrilla offensive with a prompt supply of arms and ammunition. drive. Nicaraguan repertoire." In September.000 con- tras (counterrevolu- tionaries) have been hired as mercenaries. In Reagan authorized the CIA to undertake anti- Sandinista operations. . oil depots. air- ports. the CIA added the burning of sugar fields. The consequence has been the largest CIA effort since the Vietnam war. then. . 15. All this — to overthrow a popular government . In 1982-83 a total of $81 million in avowed CIA funding subsidized raids on villages. perhaps in the world. and industry. 1981. Most are former National Guards- men. The Salvadoran Revolution: in April. support the Salvadoran government" (AP sum- . . This. Reagan com- plimented Carter: "Near the end of his presidency. bomb- ings and rocket attacks. In 1984. harbor minings to its assassination attempts. etc. mary). Carter returned the compliment: though the Salvadoran government is "one of the most bloodthirsty. The guerrilla offensive failed but not America's will. but which (apparently) has been negligible. is the regime against which Reagan has chosen to mount an in- creasingly brazen war November. /'73 .

nearly 50. head of the Treasury Police. Reagan's advisory group proposed $700 milUon in Salvadoran military aid through 1985. tiny El Salvador is the industrial heart of Central America. involvement. This is open pubhc spending. "To an extent unusual even in Latin America. n^ . "El Salvador has been dominated by a relatively small aristocracy. When superexploited Salvadoran workers and peasants tried to organize politically in the 1970's.157 billion to Central America in 1982-83. The U. $260.S. Congress sent a total of $1. In 1984. To date. Ultra-right leader Roberto D'Aubuisson acknowledges that the death squads come from the Salvadoran army. D'Aubuisson is widely regarded as the death squad organizer." admits Kirkpatrick. . has been unstinting in its support for Salvadoran terror. a government official also J confirmed that the CIA secretly pays Nicholas Carranza $90.000 a year. . .3 miUion went to El Salvador." Called the "Tom Thumb of the Americas" by .000 Salvadorans have been murdered by death squads called "fascist" even by Reagan's envoy. they were greeted by a wave of repression so rabid that the 1933 Matanza was soon eclipsed . With Nicholas Carranza.S. Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral. Recently. D'Aubuisson should know. Few situations are as straightforward as the Salvadoran war. Despite polls showing massive opposition to U.

A total of 100+ U. the Salvadoran army began taking orders from six senior U.S.The arc of U. Starting June 10. with Col. 6000 Salvadoran troops tried to resettle people in the central provinces into "strategic hamlets.S. Southern Command in Panama supply in- telligence.S. lately (to prevent imminent victory by the popular Salvadoran rebels). military aid is justified by "improved human rights. Along with firepower.S. 1983.S. involvement in El Salvador is clear. advisers entered combat headquarters throughout El Salvador. where a permanent training center. bombers.S. "assault airstrips. and that the Salvadoran government is freely elected. troops into the region.000 U. n^ . day- to-day leadership. Three Reagan canards deserve quick refutation: that U. A Vietnam-style "pacifica- tion campaign" was Preceded by A-37 Dragonfly initiated. has supplied military training and." and an 11-mile tank trap have been constructed at Puerto Castillo. destroyers. the U.S. while big military exercises bring aircraft carriers. John Waghelstein of the U.S. strategists who met daily with the Salvadoran High Command.S. and up to 33. "Milgroup" (Military Group) in overall command." Field teams of U. Two thou- sand more are stationed in Honduras. troops are now in El Salvador." that the rebel FMLN is "also responsible" for death squad murders. Aerial reconnaissance flights from the 9000-troop U.

A rival leader had arrested. Bishop and the NJM failed to share top-level deliberation with the pubhc. and candidates who whisper pro-labor or anti-miUtary sentiments wind up dead. . Maurice Bishop's New Jewel Movement (NJM) ousted a corrupt regime headed by Eric Gairy and the feared Mongoose Gang. An impressive series of reforms went into effect. . Reagan set a precedent for this in Grenada. in October.S. the FMLN is famous for releasing captured troops — troops the government then considers potentially subversive and will not redeploy. efforts. Stunned. when a violent faction fight broke out at the top of the NJM. Fact: The Salvadoran government makes failure to vote a criminal offense. in early 1979. intervention grows daily. In the months that followed. the danger of U. Nevertheless. With Salvadoran troops demoralized and ineffective. The pacification campaign failed. the angry Grenadian population was unwilling to protect Bishop's killer. the Grenadan public was caught off guard and Reagan saw an ideal opportunity to invade. The New Jewel Move- ment won great public confidence. NJM gains were radically reversed. nio . 1983. Thus. the Salvadoran revolution is clearly winning. Fact: Amnesty International and other observers agree that revolutionaries are almost entirely the victims. then executed charismatic Maurice Bishop. Grenada is a tiny Caribbean island with an English-speaking Black population of 1 10.000 which. So much for "democracy. votes are plainly visible on thin paper ballots in Incite ballot boxes. Winning in the field. of death squad terror. Fact: The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Salvador confirm- ed an increase in death squad murders in the second half of 1983 — from 211 to 218 per month. not the agents. underwent the start of a social revolution. Reagan sent in the Marines.S." Despite U.

His ob- ject: to defend the governing right-wing Phalangists — originally an avowedly Fascist party — from left-leaning pro- Palestinian forces. ni . Reagan could find no alternative to with- drawal. however.S. anti-Phalangist. Finally.S. Dangers of war do not seem to haunt Reagan. . Reagan's "peace. etc. Israel drove the PLO out of Lebanon. No clear purpose had been served by U.S. ending the embargo on arms aid to Guatemala. with U. servicemen keeping force" stumbled from were blown up by a Muslim one misstep to another. when 250+ U. The Grenada invasion also diverted public attention from the bombing in Lebanon — which had shaken Reagan just days earlier . . too. clear agenda. Lebanon is central to Reagan's Mideast poHcy: hard- line support for IsraeU expani- sionism and opposition to the Palestine Liberation Organiza- tion (PLO). as Reagan swam out of his depth into the Byzantine cross-currents of Lebanese Lacking a politics. and $25 milUon to an unpopular regime in Chad. This plan quickly proved short- sighted. troops. Reagan has shown an appetite for careless military adventurism: shooting down Libyan planes. In 1983. Reagan decided to fill the vacuum in Beirut with U. But securing Lebanon proved to be another matter. After Israel withdrew to Southern Lebanon. Red-Eye rocket launchers. Elsewhere. sending AW ACS jets.S. backing. interven- tion.

. .man . I turn back to Evangehcal Christians are your ancient prophets in the surely entitled to views of Old Testament and the signs this kind. . on." Reagan resolves "to show Europe that we have no intention of leaving the pages of history with a whimper ." This is a central Reagan anxiety. ." fr^ Iff Reagan also seems to believe that Armageddon is near. 1981." view nuclear war as a confirmation of his religious ideas? ll'S . has used every weapon poised at each other.S. Shortly after the Beirut bombing Reagan told a supporter: "You know..with this kind of tended that ". . but with a whimper. Reagan Western tradi. . Similarly in May. Eliot. fears that tions may end "not with a bang. but a U. In May. speak. foretelling Armageddon. It takes no some fool or some crystal ball to perceive maniac or some acci- that a nuclear war is dent triggering a likely sooner or later. .S. Reagan con. Like T. Is it comforting to that is going to see that think that Reagan might come about. he has ever without some day devised . ing on foreign policy 1983: "I can't believe for the first time as that this world can go president. president has the power and I find myself wondering to make Armageddon if — if we're the generation real. ' Reagatomics: Apocalypse Now? "I fear that what some Europeans are predicting will come to pass: that all of Europe and Western Asia will unite in a grand socialist alliance in the next 10 or 15 years. weapon on both sides.

Well. Watt: "I do not know how many future generations we can count on before the Lord returns.Defense Secretary Weinberger and James Watt have expressed similar feelings. you know. Reagan indicated eyes on television. a headshrinker. I believe the world is going to end — by an act of God." Freud once wrote a book Reagan seems to feel that on Woodrow Wilson in the present generation may which he explained his be among the last: "There "antipathy" for Wilson by have been times in the past arguing that "a man who when we thought the end is capable of taking the il- of the world was coming. Weinberger: "I have read the Book of Revelation and. . I want to tell you." looking at the pupils of my n^ . Once. lusions of religion so but never anything like Uterally" is "unfitted" for this. it will he's probably sitting there be to take a nap." . He can that psychoanalysis holds see me on the couch now. if no terrors for him: "Well. I get on that couch. yes. I hope — but every day I think that time is running out." Ominous! serious decision-making.

" A gun collector. and cities. Reagan recalls with excitement "the an- nouncement of a fantastic bomb that had just fallen on Hiroshima.' As if to prove the point. we want to send the very best. Reagan enthuses about the cruise missile: "You can shoot it down a pickle barrel at 2000 miles. A supporter of Truman's decision to level two Japanese cities with atomic bombs. close friend Ed Meese chimes in with a joke: Why is the MX like a Hallmark greeting card? Because if we go to war." 1^60 . towns.Reagan shows an unseemly enthusiasm for weapons. About bomb Reagan the Neutron talks in T/RANOSAUKUS glowing terms: MX ^ "Very simply it is the dreamed-of death ray weapon of science fic- tion." About the MX Reagan quips: "Some of my best friends are MX missiles. It kills enemy soldiers but doesn't blow up the surrounding countryside or destroy villages.

! The president entrusted with jurisdiction over these weapons is a football fanatic — something very ordinary in itself." disarmament. Two key VtHAT WAV associates." When would that be? "In ten years. It's a kind of clean hatred. op- pose arms treaties on princi- ple. universal ." "I know of no other game that gave me the same feel- ing football did. but expressed by Reagan in revealing terms: "Football is the last thing left in civilization where two men can literally fling themselves bodily at one another and not be at war." /^/ . I've sat there crying." Reagan is far more positive f^OWTLOOK about arms than about arms [ AT ME negotiations.. — founder of the Present Danger group with Eugene Rostow — pours cold water on the idea of negotiations: "There could be serious arms con- trol negotiations. That's why you can look at thebench when the TV camera comes over and see the fellows cry- ing. . the chief arms negotiator and co. Assistant Defense Secretary Perle and Assistant Secretary of State Burt.. but only after we have built up our forces. witches. Paul Nitze. Jeane Kirkpatrick sneer- ingly dismisses "the most farfetched phenomena — unicorns.

the production of 100 MX missiles — each 71 feet long. and former CIA deputy director Scoville issued a statement calling Reagan "far less informed on nuclear weapons . LASER WARFAKEJHAT^ THE TICKET/ Eisenhower's science advisor. /sa . renewed after a seven year hiatus. and plans for 'Star Wars' lasers designed to attack nuclear weapons from space (a bargain at just $27 billion). secret nuclear testing." What one critic calls "nothing less than a conscious commitment to beat our plowshares into swords" entails many specifics. renewed nerve gas pro- duction. and equipped with 10 nuclear warheads. weighing 195. Kistiakowsky. including: plans for 8458 cruise missiles. the Neutron bomb is just a hydrogen bomb which destroys less property per person than the average nuclear weapon.000 pounds. since the nuclear age began. . Actually. after a 14 year moratorium. 1300 Neutron bombs. the deployment of 572 land-based missiles in Western Europe. Reagan's ignorance here is characteristic. . . than any president . SPACE CAPET RAYGUN REFOFTriNe FOR PUTY^SfR.

Expecting a U." This sounds less like a call for closing "the window of vulnerability" than for opening one into the Soviet Union. In a clearly inferior situation. . the Pershing 2. leaders would constantly put forth reasonable-sounding disarma- ment proposals which the Soviets were unhkely to accept" {Washington Post summary).S. we are talking about a first strike. Reagan's first Arms Control director." The 1980 Republican platform explicitly urges "overall mihtary and technological superiority over the Soviet Union. clearly. beheves that " . In 1950. first strike would not be unreasonable. and the D-5 (not yet deployed) all boast the capaci- ty to penetrate hardened nuclear silos with deadly accuracy.S." Two former CIA directors (and many others) agree. Nitze drafted a cynical paper for Truman urging the falseappearance of a desire for arms control. before the Soviets have launched their ICBM's. . we are living in a pre-war and not a post-war world. Eugene Rostow.S. Therefore. the Trident 2. first strike. Says Kistiakowsky with ir- refutable logic: "There is no point in destroying empty silos. since the MX. the Soviet Union might be tempted to strike first to — pre-empt an expected U. where "U. /^5 .

Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for strategic nuclear research." "You've got to be in a hole . Army must be prepared to fight and win when nuclear weapons are used. and Carter entertained similar notions. answered affirmatively when asked if key institutions would survive total war. everybody's going to make it. has so much credence been given to the idea of post-war survival." And Reagan in 1981 signed a . "If there are enough shovels to go around. and others insist that nuclear war would not yield common ruin for the contending parties. The Defense Department has long wanted what Deputy Defense Secretary Carlucci calls"nuclear war-fighting capabiUty. As I say. Never before. You know. but it wouldn't be unmanageable. "I think they would eventually. Reagan is from the first president to contemplate a nuclear far first strike — Truman. . yeah. dirt is just great stuff. Kennedy. Amazingly. Nixon. The flip side of Reagan's Armageddon fatalism seems to be a fatal optimism about post-war recovery. Johnson. /S^ . . The IRS and the Post Office both have plans for post- war operations . this iBt lunacy is common among Reaganauts. Bush. director of Reagan's civil defense program. projects a two-to-four year recovery from full- scale nuclear war.K." Rostow. however. . WiUiam Chipman.^^ secret National Security document urging a strategy for prolonged nuclear war- fighting. the ants eventually build another anthill. . ." A military Field Manual from the Carter era (1980) states flatly that "The U. T. The dirt really is the thing that protects you .S. Jones. ." Federal Emergency Manage- ment director Giuffrida agrees: "It would be a terrible mess.

the drive to ac- from far deeper roots. The consequence is the production of weapons. life-threatening com- how dangerous Reagan can be. The principle of this But the woes and contradic. competition is the "profit tions of present society spring motive. people are treated as if they were costly and unruly machinery. toxic foods. Reagan is the beginning and liberals and post-liberals — all end of all present dangers. to be rigorously controlled for the greater glory of the employer. 12^ ." i. alike are impUcated in a system Evidence in plenty shows just of global. petition. • More generally.R. production seems to be inspired by a demonic dementia — with profit rather than human need the ruHng pas- sion. unsafe cars.S. It makes no fundamental difference whether the employers who control production are private individuals. and the U..S. etc. As long as profit is the name of the game. FAST FORWARD It would be enjoyable to The U.e. No cumulate capital" by means of single politician or business employer-controlled commodity strategy bears responsibility production and exchange. for more than a fraction of to- day's ills. monopoly corpora- tions.. social needs are vandalized: • In production.S. or state bureaucracies. report that Ronald Wilson Democrats and Republicans.

As it hap- will pens. just maybe... Though people generally assume that the status quo is basically unchangeable — that production will always be for profit. This is where politicians enter in.. Normally.. Na- tionalism and rationahty clash. The result is a chaos of firms and nations in permanent rivalry. but over markets and governments. Firms compete — nations fight. Anything that yields a profit be produced." Each firm. corporations and cooperation are antithetical. The central principle of the world economy is what Marx called "production anarchy. looks out for itself — period. Employers exert power not only over firms. Prices and production are pro- foundly unregulated. For complex reasons. fine. prices and unemployment rise like helium balloons. many of the most pro- fitable commodities are also deadly — war products and tainted consumer goods. It is hoped that what Marx called "the Fetish economy" — the uncontrolled juggernaut which results from economic anarchy — will be tamed by the charisma of a special leader. The results are well known. and each nation. a leader will come along with enough wisdom and magic ("the right stuff") to reverse stagflation and war trends. J'Bh . War products — sought by the richest buyers — attract disproportionate invest- ment. though. with no employer capable of restraining them. with competing employers in command — it is also hoped that maybe.Trade wars spark shooting wars. If sweet harmony results.

"moving the chairs around on the deck of the Titanic" (in the words of a former official). /"SI . The choice is ours. Changing the overall direc.e. poUtical officeholders can do little more than what Keynesian economists call "fine tuning" — i. My alternative? World democracy without bosses or generals — socialism in Marx's sense. to difficult to achieve. they will speed us into the abyss. Nothing will ever be more difficult to attain — but if employers and governments are not stopped. Very rarely does the public recognize that. short of hypnotizing Big Business and the superpowers. coax Big Business and the superpowers to give up Superpower and employer their evil ways.Time after time these hopes are disappointed — but time after time they spring eternal. tion and war — a public tion of society — putting decision is required: to the Titanic on a better produce not for profit. but course — is vastly more for pubUc benefit. No cooperate instead of com- charismatic leader can peting.. stagfla. us all. For an end must be stopped rivalries — to social anarchy — and before their fallout stops its consequences.

S. So Demopublicans have not failed either completely or far. arms legitimate Russian arms (to the Russian public). and war danger_can be reversed (at least partly). but still. "Just vote Demopublican!" Typically. Nobody stands to win in the end — but there seems to be no way out. the cycle of inflation. Big Business and the world economy seem irresistible. fewer wars. however. public) while U. /T^3 . Reagan is doing his best. The Demopublican pro- mise is that. after a surge of hope. The vast effort this requires. restrained inflation. Differing just enough to give the public a slight degree of choice. people settle for hopes: a job. the public either accepts the deflation of this promise or searches for a new 'charismagician.. Russian arms seem to justify U. Enter the Demopublicans. the obviously enough to prompt a public rethinking of the political equation. Meanwhile.. With basic change seemingly ruled modest out. recession.S. each party claims charisma for its candidates and traditions. this time.S. Working people feel weak and isolated. arms (to the U. makes the prospect seem remote.Only the wage-working public can take the revolutionary steps needed to move us beyond our present impasse.

or all three. Death Valley Days? Anyone who finds this analysis convincing will probably have mixed feelings. the public may wind up following the Demopublicans in- to war and economic crisis." HOW TO STAY FIT By Ronald Reagan Evidently. Sometimes. people identify with leaders valued for their presumed "strength" rather than for their moral qualities. A remarkable 1984 poll showed.It may also be the case that the public is too pessimistic or authoritarian to reject even suicidal misleadership. Reagan's support derives partly from power-worship of this type. (c) fight back. . This support is alarming to the extent that it reveals voluntary submissivenes — at a time when resistance is vitally needed. m . for example. Either you'll want to (a) stop reading and never think about politics again. (b) move to the Australian bush coun- try. to compensate for feelings of personal weakness. Most people identify with something greater than themselves. many people who are not entirely fooled by Reagan support him anyway. that well over 50<^o of the public "approved" Reagan's presidency while less than — I'^o defined Reagan as a "compassionate" leader and just one quarter of the respondents felt that Reagan "cares about people like me. If apathy prevails. . The same result is people prove to be excessively wedded likely if to authoritarianism.

Few eras scales can be tipped. The change is possible. every in history have witnessed contribution helps. But without history shows that crisis the widest possible effort. Twentieth-century and holocaust. the profound and bitter Far more is possible and— struggles of the likely mid. . Fighting back may seem like a forlorn venture with little chance of success. it often prompts response — is a virtual certainty that and that even revolutionary disaster will befall us. is there an alternative? Is there a bet- ter response to tyranny than resistance? No one can guarantee that Don't be too discouraged. . but (late-breaking news flash) that's Ufe. Western and Eastern Europeans have taken pathbreaking steps. comparable upheaval. signaling the possibihty (as well as the need) for joint East. likely —than most people term future will avert crisis imagine. The giant European anti-war movement — involving tens of millions of people — is Few struggles have ever very encouraging. It seems likely that this movement will survive for some time . IHO . been so genuinely and completely international.West resistance. Several promising current trends deserve mention. With war and disaster on the horizon.

Defeat at the hands of the combined Soviet/Polish bureaucracy does not alter the fact that a new type of movement has been born . . /^/ . In the U. restlessness and disaffection are clear. men will have a lot of catching up to do. . stays out. If the U. . and whether resistance will take effectively organized forms. and mine into one giant union. The Salvadoran people have shown unmatched heroism and unity an insensate reign of terror. the Salvadoran and Polish examples also bear mention. . Polls recently have shown that significantly more women than men oppose militarism and inequaHty. At the national level. The question. office. a mass movement of unprecedented breadth and depth brought workers from virtually every factory. among women. the in resisting Salvadoran people will almost certainly win. Finally. similarly. and in the ranks of Big Labor suggest the possibihty of greater mihtancy and unity ("a rainbow coaHtion") in the not-too-distant future.Reagan has inspired demonstrations of un- precedented size: the "Solidarity Day" labor demonstrations and the 1983 March on Washington (commemorating the 20th an- niversary of the great 1963 civil rights march). Itseems likely that women will play an ever more central role in future resistance. now. is whether disaffection will translate into sus- tained resistance. we must be prepared to lose every battle — except the last one.S. In Poland. Solidarnosc. stirrings in the Black and minority communities. At the community level. As the great Polish revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg once wrote.S.. If this trend continues.

Cloward. Goldwater. David Christiano and Lisa Young. Boston: South End Press. 1%8. Where's the Rest of Me?. 10-27-83. Pacific Coast Publishers.and Succeed. 1980. New York: Harper and Row. New York: G. Poor Ronald's Almanac. 1968. 1982. 1968. Delmatier. Good luck.. Greed Is Not Enough: Reaganomics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.. books which deserve especially wide attention include those by Frank Ackerman. From the following selected bibliography.. Palo Alto. 1983. New York: MacFadden. The Carter Presidency and Beyond: Power and Politics in the 1980's. 1983. The Rumble of California Politics. 33rd Governor of California. 1901 Que Street. and the Environment. With the exception of a small number of punchlines in balloons. NJ: Citadel Press. Jules Witcover. The Education of David Stockman and Other Americans. Washington: Institute for Policy Studies. the excellent human rights directory by Christiano and Young (below) furnishes a clear and extensive Ust of human rights groups — and many others. (Pat) Brown and Bill Brown. Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency. 1980. Sloan and Pearce. Ronnie Dugger.S. George H. Reagan the Man. Michael Klare el al. Clarence F. The Way the Worid Works: How Economies Fail. Elliott Smith Lack of space makes it impossible to document the many quotes and facts cited in this book. Reaganomics: Rhetoric vs. Hedrick Smith. Who is Ronald Reagan? New York: Pyramid Books. Secaucus. Why Not Victory? A Fresh Look At American Foreign Policy. Robert Scheer. Typesetting lovingly done by the Krieshok sisters without ever any complsiining. Nancy Reagan.O. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Smith. N. William Greider. 1980. The Future of American Politics. Robert Lekachman. 1983.W. eds. Winchester. . Washington. 184«-1970. Robert Lekachman. Kathy Randall Davis. 1972-1976. 1965. 1982. Joseph Lewis. Bush and Nuclear War.. Dictatorship and Double Standards: Rationalism and Reason in Politics. Berkeley. Human Rights Organizations and Periodicals Directory. Jonathan King and Steve Rees.. el al. New York Review of Books. Kirkpatrick. 1980. For readers who might Uke to become politically active.New York: Pantheon. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. (415) 848-0599. DC. "Reagan: The Fruits of Success". some citations are slightly condensed.S. P. 1983. New York: Thomas Nelson Inc. Charles D. 1982. Thanks to one and all for trailblazing work. CA: Meiklejohn Civil Liberties Institute. Robert Scheer. CA 94701. Barry M. Lou Cannon. 1982. Grossman. Myths and Realities of the 'Soviet Threat': Proceedings of an IPS Conference on U. New York: Praeger Pubhshers. Laurence H. James Fallows. The New Class War: Reagan's Attack on the Welfare State and Its Consequences. CA 94717.. 1983. IfekreMde^ Thanks to the following for pictures: Adam Cornford. Diablo Press. New York: William Morrow and Company Inc. Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward. 1963. A Mother Jones Magazine Sourcebook. 1977. but readers whowish to trace a specific point can write to the author (in care of the publisher) for a reference. Bui What's He Really Like? U. New York: Pantheon Books. Ronald Reagan. . Jude Wanniski. CA: Ramparts Press. Reality. New York: Pantheon Books. 1983. 1983. Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Ronald Reagan's Call To Action. Doug McClelland.. Fear at Work: Job Blackmail. New York: Duell. Hobbs. 20009 (202) 234-9382. New York: Random House. Samuel Lubell. New York: Basic Books Inc. Edmund G. Ronald Reagan. Hollywood on Ronald Reagan. Mark Green and Gail MacColl. 1981.P. Tony Thomas. 1976. New York: The Viking Press. Reagan. Royce D. Jeane J. There He Goes Again: Ronald Reagan's Reign of Error. The Political Chameleon.-Soviet Relations. 1982.. ed. and in plenty of time. For reasons of space. 1982. On Reagan: The Man and His Presidency. What Makes Reagan Run? A Political Profile. and Earl G. Box 7084. With Enough Shovels: Reagan. A New Democracy. His Life and Rise to the Presidency. 1970. New York: Simon and Schuster. New York: MacMillan PubUshing Co. Labor. Putnam's Sons. New York: William Morrow and Company Inc. Mcintosh. Bill Boyarsky. Richard Kazis and Richard L. 1976.d. Reagan. Box 673. 1978. eds. all citations in this book are genuine. New York: The Pilgrim Press. Nancy. I Goofed: The Wise and Curious Sayings of Ronald Reagan. William Greider. Gary Hart. The Films of Ronald Reagan. Berkeley. 1982. Frank Keifer. and Laurence Shoup. the President. New York: Dutton. n. New York: Random House. Frank Ackerman. 1965. Waters. 1970. Shoup. Ronnie Dugger. Berkeley. Massachusetts: Faber and Faber.


cowboy. Writers i David Smith and Melinda Gebbie plunge us into the man ^ behind the image. broad- caster. and will we be here next year? A Writers and Readers Documentary Comic Book United Kingdom £2. corporate spokesman. President of the United States. NY 10110 ©1984 by VW-iters and Readers . the Blacks.•7i'v:. rightist ideologue. the Planet. Hollywood actor..95 U S A $4. and creator Reaganomics and Reagatomics .yf-=^» ISBN 86316 065 4 Distributed in ttie USA by W W Norton and Company 500 Fiftti Avenue. F Reagan O ECTm R B N E R S Welcome to "the Reagan Revolution" Who is Ronald Reagan? Is he Unique? Athlete.. the Women. politician. of n In this and Readers Documentary Comic Book. the politics behind the man and raise questions like.95 . what about the Poor. the Elderly Central America. the Hispanics.