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Analysis of energy production with different photovoltaic technologies in the Colombian


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2014 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 59 012012


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angle inclination of the arrangement. PC: 680003. Barranquilla. 4 Renewable Energy. Polycrystalline silicon. angle inclination of the array. • Bogotá – Cundinamarca. knowing specifics of losses by temperature.Boyaca). D Zafra2. journal citation and DOI. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. GIS. The selected cities have different characteristics in different areas of the country. in order to obtain a clear idea of what is the most appropriate for each city or region studied. • Leticia – Amazonas. Energy and Sustainability (GIRES). • Bahía Solano – Chocó. E-mail: ymunoz294@unab. Monocrystalline Silicon. Universidad de la Costa CUC. • Barranquilla – Atlántico. mismatch. • Bucaramanga – Santander. among others 1. wiring. efficiency.The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf. efficiency. Faculty of Energy Engineering. Using PVsyst simulation software. V Acevedo3 and A Ospino4 1-2-3 Research Group in Resources. Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd 1 .edu. mismatch. Colombia. Y Muñoz1*. among others. (Riohacha . Introduction Colombia is a country with a great diversity of scenarios in both climate and energy from the solar perspective. • Tunja – Boyacá 1 *To whom any correspondence should be addressed. Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga (UNAB). Cadmium Tellurium and Amorphous Silicon. This research has analyzed the photovoltaic technologies.0 licence. • Abstract. An analysis of photovoltaic technologies in the different cities of the Colombian territory can give a clear idea of which photovoltaic technology is most suitable for each city or region studied. PVsyst simulation software has been used to study in detail each photovoltaic technology. by analyzing the energy performance and not the area according to efficiency[2]. climates. and hydrological conditions [3]. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work. wiring. it is possible to study in detail each Photovoltaic (PV) technology [1]. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10. for an installed capacity of 100kW knowing the specific data of losses by temperature. in eight cities of the Colombian territory. Bucaramanga. The cities are located in places ranging from almost desert. The selected zones in this study are: • Arauca – Arauca.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012 Analysis of energy production with different photovoltaic technologies in the Colombian geography. Colombia.Guajira) up to plateaus of low temperature (Tunja .

so it is expected that the energy production there would be higher than in the rest of the cities studied.5 6.27 BOGOTA 4.3 3. Description of the study Characteristics and coordinates of places taken as the basis for this analysis.15 GUAJIRA 12.01N 71.5 5.4 2650 1769 4.76 3.08N 70.4 4. analysis of the behavior of each technology with variables such as temperature and incident radiation are available in the PVsyst software [6].7 1.4 90 1670. PVsyst allows different variants of simulation. and leaving photovoltaic technology as the only variable.3 1.9 5.03 Table 1 shows valuable data when determining in which region a photovoltaic installation would work better.9 1.75W 24. The characteristic curves for each photovoltaic module.8 60 1530. the following considerations have been taken [4]: • Installed capacity of 100W • Inverters for grid connection KACO POWADOR 36TL • Constant losses: dirt.49 LETICIA 4.6 5. The study of La Guajira region presents the highest value at Peak Solar Hours.5 4.13N 73.49W 15.19 SOLANO BARRANQUILLA 10.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012 This study shows that a photovoltaic system in a city with a low radiation can produce more energy per square meter than other with higher radiation.2 360 1762. ohmic.54N 73. heat.36W 12.7 965 1881. Table 1.The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf.23N 74.2 30 2370. This means that there is an opportunity to apply this technology in different thermal conditions of the Colombian geography.1 6. The analysis has been made with 2 variants of design: with and without the speed of wind.7W 26.8 2780 1837.78W 27.13W 23.29N 77. The photovoltaic modules used for this study are shown in table 2.9W 27. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10. Meteorological data of studied cities.4 50 1922.58 TUNJA 5. ANNUAL AMBIENT WIND ELEVATION SOLAR PSH CITY-REGION COORDINATES TEMPERATURE VELOCITY IRRADIATION (C) (m/s) (masl) (kWh/year) (h) ARAUCA 7. For the study of the behavior of photovoltaic technologies in different cities. As starting points for PV evaluation.5 4.83 CHOCO-BAHIA 6.5 1.21S 69. 2.98N 74. the main photovoltaic modules used in the market have been taken as object of study [5]. 2 .85 BUCARAMANGA 7.7 4. miss match.47W 24.

1. When comparing Bucaramanga and Tunja. In terms of the amount of power generated. 3.564 -0. Case study A: 100kW without influence of wind speed 3. being the low temperatures of Bogota more favorable for the performance (produces 4% more in monocrystalline technology and a 1. On the other hand. the smallest photovoltaic energy production of the studied areas is Bahía Solano in the department of Chocó. As for Bogota and Arauca.635 -0. the department of La Guajira has higher energy production in all technologies. they do not have equal energy production results due to the difference of temperature between these regions. Photovoltaic modules used in the study Panel Temperature Power Module Panel Fabricant Technology area coefficient of (w) efficiency (m2) panel (%/c) JAM6- JA SOLAR Monocrystalline 250 1. the case A presents the conventional analysis of PV energy production without consider the wind speed. it can be said that despite Bucaramanga has higher radiation.635 -0.52% SOLAR DA100.25 6.228 -0.8% more energy than in Bucaramanga) and thin-film technologies. Performance ratio (PR) is defined the relation between the energy actually produced and the energy that would have been produced by an ideal system operating continuously at standard conditions under the same irradiation [7] (Global incident on the plane).44% FRONTIER Two case of study are analyzed.25 12.31% 60-250 FIRST FS-390 Cadmium telluride (CdTe) 90 0. The figure 2 shows the performance ratio of case study A.54% 60-250 JAP6- JA SOLAR Polycrystalline 250 1. DUPONT Amorphous silicon (a-Si) 100 1. that are completely opposite.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012 Table 2. Energy Production The figure 1 shows the amount of energy produced by the arrays in case study A.     3 .7% more in CdTe technology) and behavior of photovoltaic modules regardless of the type of technology used. There is a great difference between monocrystalline production (in Tunja produces 3.31 13.72 -0. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10.The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf. oppositely the case B shows the effects of consider the wind speed. corresponding to the data of lower incident radiation and high temperatures in the region.40% A1 APOLLO SOLAR SF165S CIS 165 1.69% more than in Bucaramanga).44 15. especially type Telluride CdTe (0.45 15. Tunja presents greater energy production on behalf of the temperature. making this last technology more suitable for warm climates.

9C.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012     Figure 1. which explains why it is the technology with the highest production of energy per installed kilowatt. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10. followed by Bogotá and Bucaramanga. and the opposite case Tunja. 4 . Produced energy of the arrays 3. The PR increases in places of low temperatures. the technology resulting with higher performance ratio is the Cadmium Telluride type.2 Performance ratio Figure 2. the region with the highest temperatures. with an average temperature of 12. Performance ratio of different arrays The city with the highest PR is Tunja.3 Temperature losses The figure 3 shows the comparison of losses by temperature in la Guajira.The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf. which are the 3 cities with the lowest average temperatures respectively. In general terms. followed closely by two other thin film technologies. 3. so it is safe to say that this parameter is greatly affected by the temperature of the region where the photovoltaic array is installed.

so it proceeds to a comparative analysis between the 2 cases in order to study only the effects of the wind in the production and the performance ratio (case B).The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf. wind speed has been taken into account as a factor of thermal dispersion of the active surface of the photovoltaic modules. 5 . as seen in figure 5. The figure 4 shows the comparison of energy produced of case A and case B in La Guajira.1 Energy production Figure 4. 4.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012 Figure 3. Case study B: 100kw influenced by wind speed and comparison In case study B. Comparison of studied cases in La Guajira Taking into account wind speed. Temperature losses in Guajira and Tunja 4. all of them maintain the same relationship between regions and technologies. Even though the wind speed affects the indicators mentioned in the previous case of study (case A). Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10. the temperature of the surface of the modules is affected in a positive way since photovoltaic panels increase its open circuit voltage as temperature decreases.

Stands out in particular La Guajira by having the best percentages of increase. PR comparison in Bahía Solano The figure 7 shows the PR comparison of cases A and B in La Guajira city.2 Performance ratio The figure 6 shows the PR comparison of cases A and B in Bahía Solano city. 4.The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10. 6 . due mostly to the high average wind speed in the region. Figure 6.2 m/s. which is around 6. Comparison of studied cases in Tunja Cities that have higher temperatures presented a higher percentage of increase in energy production because there is higher heat dispersion in trying to reach a thermal equilibrium between the surface of the module [8] and the wind.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012 Figure 5.

Analyzing the behavior of the losses by temperature in Tunja and La Guajira.The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf. it is clear that the effect of wind reduces these losses. being evident again the importance of the coefficient of temperature [9] in the behavior of photovoltaic modules. Temperature losses comparison in Tunja 7 .3 Temperature losses The figures 8 and 9 show the temperature losses in of the arrays in Tunja and La Guajira cities respectively. Figure 7.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012 4. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10. PR comparison in La Guajira Figure 8.

New York.pdf?sequence=1 [5] Mermoud. pvsyst. This analysis has shown that La Guajira is one of the places in Colombia with the greatest photovoltaic potential for photovoltaic energy production.2% in thin film modules. 347 1-16. like Bucaramanga. Temperature losses comparison in La Guajira 5. 8 . Kothari D and Singh M 2010. due to low levels of incident radiation. Determining energy production of the photovoltaic system.03kWh/m². Simic Z and Vrazic M 2013. Pvsyst: Software for the study and simulation of photovoltaic systems. M. Photovoltaic energy systems: Design and installation. With this consideration. In this study was shown the importance of consider the effect of wind speed in the calculation of the performance and energy production of a photovoltaic array. Conclusions It was observed that thin layer technologies generally produce between 3 and 9% more energy than crystalline silicon technologies per installed kilowatt. Jungle areas in Colombia. com. that due to the effect of the temperature in the PV energy production. [2] Petrovic I.15kWh/m². http://e-archivo. [3] Buresch.2% for polycrystalline modules. This study has shown. as Leticia and Bahía Solano. References [1] Lalwani M. [4] Delgado J. than the same installation in a warm city with major solar resource of 5. Comparison of pv plant energy generation prediction tools with measured data. (1983). [6] Slamberger J and Virtic P 2013. University of a PV system in a cold city like Tunja. and high temperatures which meet the necessary conditions so that the photovoltaic arrays show low yields compared with other cities. Izlazi u samo elektronickom izdanju (Nehterlands) 121-124. the estimated production rises in average of 3.8% more energy per square meter. McGraw- Hill Book Co. (2012). thanks to high levels of radiation and wind speed. ISE. since they are less affected by temperature which as seen in this document is one of the factors that affects energy production.The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf. with an average of 5. are the regions with the worst photovoltaic performance. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10. Investigation of solar photovoltaic simulation softwares International journal of applied engineering 585-601. and 2. http:// www. et al 2009 Measurements and analysis of a 20 kw grid-connected PV-system.uc3m.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012 Figure 9. can generate a 3. A.

2006 Performance ratio and yield analysis of grid connected clustered PV systems in Japan. Kitamura K. 753-760. Pavanello D. Miyamoto Y. Conings B. Effect of temperature on the morphological and photovoltaic stability of bulk heterojunction polymer: fullerene solar cells. [7] Ueda Y.1088/1757-899X/59/1/012012 Przeglad Elektrotechniczny. Kurokawa K. Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on 2. Cleij T.84-87. Itou T. 2296-2299. Friesen G 2010 Overview of temperature coefficients of different thin film photovoltaic technologies 25th European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition/5th Conference on photovoltaic energy conversion 6-10. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion. 92. Gadisa A & Vanderzande D. 2008. [9] Bertho S. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. Janssen G. 9 . [8] Virtuani A. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 59 (2014) 012012 doi:10. Moons W. Yokota M & Sugihara H.The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences 2013 IOP Publishing IOP Conf.