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1部分 Revision notes
Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本

第 溫習筆記
Chapter
Chapter
第 28120
章 Common acids and alkalis
Air and burning
常見的酸和鹼
28.1 Common acids 28.1 常見的酸
Q1 What substances commonly found in daily 日常生活中有甚麼物品含
life contain acids? Suggest some examples. 有酸?又有甚麼例子呢?
A1

 Many drinks and foods that contain acids  日常生活中許多飲品和食品都含有
taste sour. 酸,它們都帶有酸味。
 The figure below shows some examples of  下圖展示一些含有酸的飲品、食品和調
drinks, foods and seasonings that contain 味料的例子。
acids.
Citrus fruits like grapefruit, lemon
and orange – contain citric acid
Soft drinks – contain carbonic acid
and ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
汽水 − 含有碳酸
西柚、橙和檸檬等柑橘類水果 − 含
有檸檬酸和抗壞血酸 (丙種維生素)
Vinegar – contains
ethanoic acid Spinach – contains
醋 − 含有乙酸 oxalic acid
Tea – contains 菠菜 − 含有草酸
tannic acid
茶 − 含有單寧酸

Yoghurt – contains
lactic acid
Grapes – contain tartaric acid Apples – contain malic acid
乳酪 − 含有乳酸
提子 − 含有酒石酸 蘋果 − 含有蘋果酸

 Besides, some personal care products,  另外,許多個人護理產品、家居清潔用
household cleaners and some drugs also 品和某些藥物也含有酸。
contain acids.
hair conditioner toilet cleaner
body lotion
護髮素 廁所清潔劑
潤膚露

Aspirin
body shampoo 沐浴露 阿士匹靈

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Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本

Q2 What acids are commonly found in the 實驗室中最常用的酸有哪
laboratory? What should we pay attention to 幾種? 當我們使用這些酸
when handling these acids? 時,應採取甚麼安全措施?
A2

 The most common acids used in the laboratory are  實驗室中最常用的酸包括氫氯酸
氫氯酸、
氫氯酸
hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and nitric acid . 硫酸和硝酸
硫酸 硝酸。
硝酸
 All these acids are corrosive. There are hazard  這些酸均具有腐蝕性
腐蝕性,因此盛載這
腐蝕性
warning labels on the reagent bottles containing 些酸的試劑瓶都貼上危險警告標
them. 籤。
 When using acids for experiments, we should never  我們不可以把做實驗時使用的酸放
taste them. We must wear safety goggles and avoid 進口中。在處理酸時,我們必須佩
any direct contact with acids when we handle them. 戴安全眼鏡,並避免與酸直接接觸。

Acids commonly used in a school laboratory
學校實驗室中常用的酸

28.2 Common alkalis 28.2 常見的鹼

Q3 What substances commonly found in daily life 日常生活中有甚麼物品含
contain alkalis? Suggest some examples. 有鹼?又有甚麼例子呢?
A3

 Alkalis have a bitter taste and a slippery feel.  鹼帶有苦澀味,觸摸時會給人一種滑溜
They are commonly found in household 的感覺。許多家居清潔用品,如玻璃清
cleaners such as glass cleaners, oven 潔劑、爐具清潔劑和通渠劑都含有鹼。
cleaners and drain cleaners.
 Many daily products such as soaps, alkaline  另外,一些日常用品如肥皂、鹼性電池、
batteries, baking soda and toothpaste also 梳打粉和牙膏等也含有鹼。
contain alkalis.

Household cleaners and daily products
that contain alkalis
一些含有鹼的家居清潔用品和日常用品
Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 2
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Alkalis commonly used in a school laboratory 學校實驗室中常用的鹼 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 3 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .  氨溶液會釋出具刺激性的氨蒸氣,使 We should ensure good ventilation when 用時應避免吸入,並保持空氣流通。 handling ammonia solution.  The vapour from ammonia solution is irritating.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q4 What alkalis are commonly found in the 驗室中最常用的鹼有哪幾種? laboratory? What should we pay attention to 當我們使用這些鹼時,應採取 when handling these alkalis? 甚麼安全措施? A4  The most common alkalis in the laboratory  實驗室中最常用的鹼包括氫氧化鈉 氫氧化鈉、 氫氧化鈉 include sodium hydroxide. We must wear safety goggles and 們處理這些鹼時必須佩戴安全眼鏡, avoid any direct contact with these alkalis when 並避免與它們直接接觸。 handling them.  Sodium hydroxide and ammonia solution are  氫氧化鈉和氨溶液都具有腐蝕性,我 corrosive. calcium hydroxide 石灰水) 和氨溶液 氫氧化鈣 (即石灰水 石灰水 氨溶液。 氨溶液 (lime water) and ammonia solution.

Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 28.3 Indicators for testing 28.  紅色捲心菜、大紅花花瓣、草莓、藍 strawberries.  Red cabbage leaves.  In the 17th century. Hibiscus petals.3 測試酸和鹼的指示劑 acids and alkalis Q5 What is natural indicator? Suggest some 甚麼是天然指示劑? 又有甚 examples of natural indicators. an Irish scientist. These plants contain 些植物的汁液在酸性和鹼性環境下會 pigments which change colour when mixed with 呈現不同的顏色。 acids or alkalis. These 環境下會呈現不同的顏色,因此它們 plant pigments can be used as natural 可用作天然指示劑 天然指示劑,以分辨酸和鹼。 天然指示劑 indicators to test for acids or alkalis. 麼例子呢? A5  Some plants contain pigments which change  有些植物所含的色素 色素,在酸性和鹼性 色素 colour when mixed with acids or alkalis. Robert Boyle  在十七世紀,愛爾蘭科學家波義耳便 succeeded in preparing indicators from different 成功利用植物汁液製備天然指示劑。 types of plants. blueberries and red roses can be 莓和紅玫瑰也可用作天然指示劑,這 used as natural indicators. Strawberry Blueberry Red rose 草莓 藍莓 紅玫瑰 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 4 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .

石蕊  Litmus is a mixture of pigments extracted from  石蕊是從地衣中提取出來的色素混合 lichen. Litmus 1. 的指示劑。 1.  紅色石蕊可用來測試鹼性溶液。鹼性 It changes to blue in alkaline solutions. It  藍色石蕊可用來測試酸性溶液。酸性 changes to red in acidic solutions. 溶液可以使藍色石蕊變為紅色。  Red litmus is used to test for alkaline solutions. 溶液可以使紅色石蕊變為藍色。  Litmus is available in both solution form (litmus  石蕊可以製成溶液 (石蕊溶液 石蕊溶液),亦可 石蕊溶液 solution) and paper form (litmus paper).Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q6 What indicators are commonly used in the 實驗室中常用的指示劑有 laboratory to test for acids and alkalis? 哪些? A6  Litmus and universal indicator are indicators  石蕊和通用指示劑 石蕊 通用指示劑是實驗室中常用 通用指示劑 commonly used in the laboratory. 物。  Blue litmus is used to test for acidic solutions. 以製成試紙 (石蕊試紙 石蕊試紙)。 石蕊試紙 blue litmus paper red litmus paper 藍色石蕊試紙 紅色石蕊試紙 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 5 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .

Each colour 一系列的顏色,圖表的每一種顏色 on the chart corresponds to a pH value. This range of pH values is 至 14,這個範圍稱為 pH 標度。 標度 known as the pH scale. Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 6 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .  It is available in both solution form (universal  它可以製成溶液 (通 用指示劑溶 indicator solution) and paper form (pH paper) 液),亦可以製成試紙 (pH 試紙)。 試紙 pH paper pH 試紙  There is a pH colour chart on the bottle storing  每一瓶通用指示劑溶液或每一盒 universal indicator solution or the box storing pH pH 試紙都附有 pH 顏色圖表,顯示 paper. It shows a series of colours.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 A6 2. 度) 的溶液中呈現不同的顏色。  It is used to indicate the degree of acidity and  它可用來測試物質的酸度和鹼度。 alkalinity of a solution. 成。  It shows a wide range of colours depending on  它會在不同 酸度 或 鹼度 (即酸鹼 the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. the pH value 酸鹼度,pH 值的範圍一般是由 0 ranges from 0 to 14. Universal indicator 2. 對應於一個 pH 值。  The pH value is a number showing how acidic or  pH 值是一個數字,用來顯示溶液的 alkaline a solution is. In general. 通用指示劑  Universal indicator is a mixture of several  通用指示劑是由多種指示劑混合而 indicators.

質的 pH 值。 distilled water glass cleaner drain cleaner 蒸餾水 玻璃清潔劑 通渠劑 hydrochloric acid orange juice 氫氯酸 橙汁 pH value pH 值 neutral 中性 Cola black coffee detergent lime water 可樂 黑咖啡 洗潔精 石灰水 high acidity low acidity low alkalinity high alkalinity 酸度高 酸度低 鹼度低 鹼度高 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 7 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . the more acidic the solution is.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q7 What are the pH values of acidic.  鹼性溶液的 pH 值高於 7,pH 值 The higher the pH value. 溶液又有甚麼例子呢?  An acidic solution has a pH value less than 7.  A neutral solution has a pH value of exactly 7. The  酸性溶液的 pH 值低於 7,pH 值 lower the pH value. 愈低表示酸度愈高。  An alkaline solution has a pH value greater than 7.  既不屬酸性又不屬鹼性的溶液屬 中性,它們的 中性 pH 值是 7。  The figure below shows the pH scale and the pH  下圖展示 pH 標度及一些常見物 values of some common substances. neutral 酸性溶液、中性溶液和鹼性溶 and alkaline solutions? Suggest some 液的 pH 值分別是多少?每種 A7 examples for each kind of solutions. the more alkaline the 愈高表示鹼度愈高。 solution is.

兩個位。 probe pH value displayed 探測器 pH 值 pH meter pH 計 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 8 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . 溶液的 pH 值,我們可利用甚 What can we use to obtain a more accurate 麼儀器來更準確地量度溶液 A8 pH value of a solution? 的 pH 值?  We can use a pH meter to measure the pH  我們可利用 pH 計來更準確地量度溶液 value of a solution more accurately.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q8 Universal indicator can only give a rough 通用指示劑只能粗略測試出 measurement of the pH value of a solution. 的 pH 值。  The reading measured by the pH meter can be  pH 計所量度的讀數可準確至小數點後 accurate to two decimal places.

acids react with some metals such as  酸會與某些金屬 (例如鎂、鋁、鐵和 magnesium. These 鋅) 產生反應,它們均會被酸腐蝕 腐蝕。 腐蝕 metals are corroded by acids.  During the reactions. burning splint 燃燒中的木條 hydrogen 氫 Q10 Do acids react with building materials? 酸能否與建築材料產生反應? A10  Yes. When a burning splint is put near the 氫。當我們把燃燒中的木條放在盛有 mouth of the test tube containing hydrogen.1 酸的腐蝕性質 Q13 Do acids react with metals? 酸能否與金屬產生反應? A13  Yes. aluminium.1 Corrosive nature of acids 29. 石灰石) 石灰石 中的碳酸鈣 碳酸鈣產生反應。這 碳酸鈣 These building materials are corroded by acids. hydrogen is produced. a 氫的試管管口時,會聽到「卜」一聲。 ‘pop’ sound is heard. carbon dioxide is formed. 些建築材料會受到酸腐蝕。  During the reaction. 會放出熱能。  We can test for hydrogen using the burning  我們可利用燃燒中的木條來測試 splint test. acids react with calcium carbonate in some  酸會與建築材料 (例如大理石 大理石和 大理石 building materials such as marble and limestone. iron and zinc.  金屬與酸所產生的反應會釋出氫,還 Heat is also given out. Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Chapter 第 29 章 Acids and corrosion 酸和腐蝕 29.  酸與碳酸鈣所產生的反應會釋出 二氧化碳。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 9 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .

sulphur by the wind rainwater to form acid rain dioxide and nitrogen oxides) 酸性氣體隨風飄送 酸性氣體溶解在雨水中,形 released into the atmosphere 成酸雨 酸性氣體 (如二氧化硫和氮氧 化物) 釋放到大氣中 4 acid rain corrodes metal products and building materials. 雨對環境所造成的影響。 1 2 acidic gases carried 3 acidic gases dissolve in acidic gases (e. 化硫和氮氧化物 化硫 氮氧化物。 氮氧化物  Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water  二氧化硫和氮氧化物會與大氣中 and oxygen in the atmosphere to form sulphuric acid 的水和氧產生反應,分別形成硫 and nitric acid respectively.2 Acid rain 29. kills organisms living in water and damages plants 酸雨腐蝕金屬製品和建築材料、毒害水 生生物及破壞林木 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 10 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .2 酸雨 Q11 What are the causes and effects of 酸雨是怎樣形成的? 酸雨對環境 acid rain? 造成甚麼影響? A11  Burning fossils fuels produces sulphur dioxide and  燃燒化石燃料會釋出大量的二氧 二氧 nitrogen oxides. 及破壞林木。  The diagram below summarises the formation of acid  下圖概括了酸雨的形成過程及酸 rain and its effects on the environment.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 29.g.  硫酸和硝酸溶解在雨水中,並形 成酸雨 酸雨。 酸雨  The effects of acid rain on the environment include  酸雨對環境的影響包括腐蝕金屬 corroding metal products and building materials. 製品和建築材料、毒害水生生物 killing organisms living in water and damaging plants. 酸和硝酸。  These acids dissolve in rainwater to form acid rain.

we should use  我們作為社會的一份子,也應使用公 public transport and save electricity in order to 共交通工具和節約能源,以協助減少 help reduce the emission of air pollutants. 污染物排放量。  To be responsible citizens. 空氣污染物排放量。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 11 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . 氧化物) 的排放量。  The government has taken a wide range of  香港特區政府近年已採取了多項措 measures to reduce the emission of these air 施,以減少來自汽車和發電廠的空氣 pollutants from vehicles and power stations.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q12 What preventive measures can be 甚麼措施可減少酸雨的形成? done to help control acid rain? A12  The most effective way to control acid rain is to  要有效減少酸雨的形成,我們必須先 reduce the emission of air pollutants such as 減少空氣污染物 (如二氧化硫和氮 sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

acids can be used as food preservatives. alkalis and neutralisation 酸、鹼及中和作用的應用 30. vinegar (contains ethanoic acid) can be  例如,白醋含有乙酸,可用來保 used to preserve cucumbers and scallions. Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Chapter 第 30 章 Uses of acids.1 酸和鹼的應用 Q13 Why can acids be used as food 為甚麼酸可作為食品防腐劑? preservatives? A13  Fresh food may spoil due to the action of  新鮮食物變壞主要是由微生物 micro-organisms.  我們可以把食物浸在酸中來保 Therefore. cucumber 青瓜 scallion 蕎頭 Foods preserved in vinegar 保存在白醋中的食物 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 12 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . 引起的。  Most micro-organisms cannot grow and reproduce in  酸性介質可以減慢微生物的生 an acidic medium. We say 存青瓜和蕎頭。 that these foods are pickled with vinegar.1 Uses of acids and alkalis 30. 長和繁殖。  Foods can be preserved by soaking them in acids. 存,故此酸可作為食品防腐劑 食品防腐劑。 食品防腐劑  For example.

the browning of fruits can be slowed  因此,我們把水果置於酶不能正常發 down by putting them in environments with pH 揮功能的 pH 環境中,便可減慢水果 that the enzymes cannot function properly. When these fruits are cut 出現變褐的現象。這些水果切開並暴 open and exposed to air. 變褐的過程。 Q15 Why can both acids and alkalis be used 為甚麼酸和鹼可用作家居清 as household cleansing agents? Suggest 潔劑?有甚麼家居清潔劑含 some examples of acidic and alkaline household cleansing agents.  Therefore. 露於空氣中後會變褐。  Enzymes inside the fruits can speed up the  水果內的酶 酶會加速變褐的過程。然 browning process. Toilet cleaner 廁所清潔劑 Rust remover 除銹劑 Toilet cleaner can be used to remove A rust remover can be used to remove rust limescale (contains mainly calcium (oxides of iron) on an iron object.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q14 What is browning? Why can acids 水果出現變褐的現象是甚麼意思? be used to prevent browning? 為甚麼可用酸來防止水果變褐? A14  Browning occurs in many fruits such as apples. However. 有酸或鹼? A15  Household cleansing agents contain acids  含有酸的家居清潔劑可跟頑固的污漬 which can react with stains to form substances 反應,並產生可溶於水的物質。 that are soluble in water  The following are two household cleansing  下圖展示兩種含有酸的家居清潔劑。 agents containing acids. they can only 而,酶只有在特定的 pH 值範圍內才 function properly within a certain range of pH 能發揮它的功能。 value.  許多水果,例如蘋果、香蕉和梨都會 bananas and pears. carbonate) in a toilet bowl. 除銹劑可清除鐵製品上的鐵銹 (鐵的氧化物)。 廁所清潔劑可清除廁盆上的污垢 (主要含 有碳酸鈣)。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 13 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . they turn brown.

household cleansing  另一方面,含有鹼的家居清潔劑可與 agents contain alkalis which can react with 油脂反應,所產生的物質可輕易用水 greases to form substances that can be easily 沖走。 washed away by water. Drain cleaner 通渠劑 Oven cleaner 爐具清潔劑 Drains cleaners that contain sodium Grease left on the oven surface can be hydroxide are commonly used to clear the removed by using an oven cleaner.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 A15  On the other hand. 殘留在爐具上的油脂可使用爐具清潔劑來 含有氫氧化鈉的通渠劑常用來清理堵塞的 消除。 渠道。 Glass cleaner 玻璃清潔劑 Greasy films on the windows can be removed by using a glass cleaner. 玻璃窗上的油脂可使用玻璃清潔劑來清除。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 14 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . grease from a drain.  The following are three household cleansing  下圖展示三種含有鹼的家居清潔劑。 agents containing alkalis.

2 Uses of neutralisation 30.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 30. This reaction is called 酸和鹼之間的化學反應稱為中和作用 中和作用。 中和作用 neutralisation. 化。  The point where the acid completely  利用指示劑的顏色變化可測定酸和鹼剛好 neutralises the alkali as shown by the colour 完全中和時的狀態,此狀態可稱為終點終點。 終點 change of the indicator can be regarded as the end-point.  During neutralisation.2 中和作用的應用 Q16 What is neutralisation? 甚麼是中和作用? A16  Acids and alkalis react with each other when  當酸和鹼混合時,它們會產生反應。這種 they are mixed together. Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 15 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . the pH value of the  當酸和鹼混合時,溶液的 pH 值會出現變 solution changes.

氯化鈉是我們日常食用的餐桌鹽。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 16 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . and heat is 並釋出熱能。 given out.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q17 What products are formed in neutralisation 中和作用會產生甚麼物質? reaction? A17  When an acid neutralises an alkali (or vice  酸和鹼發生中和作用時,會生成鹽和水, versa). hydrochloric acid reacts with  例如,氫氯酸與氫氧化鈉發生反應,產生 sodium hydroxide to produce sodium chloride 氯化鈉和水,該反應的文字方程式可以寫 and water. Therefore. acid + alkali → salt + water 酸 + 鹼 → 鹽 + 水  For example. sodium 學符號分別是 HCl、NaOH、NaCl 和 hydroxide. sodium chloride and water are HCl. H2O。因此,這反應也可用以下方程式表 NaOH.  Neutralisation can be represented by the  中和作用可用以下文字方程式 文字方程式表示: 文字方程式 following word equation. The word equation of this reaction 成: can be written as: hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide → 氫氯酸 + 氫氧化鈉 → 氯化鈉 + 水 sodium chloride + water  We can also use chemical symbols to  以上的化學物質可以用化學符號來表 represent the above substances. 示: the reaction can be represented by the following equation: HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O Sodium chloride is the table salt we add to our food for taste. NaCl and H2O respectively. The chemical 示。氫氯酸、氫氧化鈉、氯化鈉和水的化 symbols for hydrochloric acid. salt and water are formed.

多胃酸。 Antacid tablets of different brands 從藥房購買的不同制酸劑。 2. industrial waste should be treated 工業廢料在排放之前必須經過 before it is discharged. Treatment of industrial waste containing acids and alkalis 2. 中的酸可用適量的鹼 (例如氫 sulphuric acid) can be used to neutralise alkaline waste. processing and final treatment of the chemical waste.g. 1. Many 制酸劑 制酸劑可舒緩胃部不適。許多制 antacids contain an alkali which can neutralise excess acid 酸劑都含有鹼,可以用來中和過 in our stomach. 位於青衣的化學廢物處理中心專門負責收集和處理 化學廢料。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 17 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .g. 處理酸性和鹼性工業廢料 To reduce pollution. Neutralisation of stomach acid 1.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q18 What are the uses of neutralisation in daily life? 中和作用在日常生活中有 甚麼應用? A18 The following are some examples of common applications 以下是中和作用常見的應用。 of neutralisation. Alkalis (e. 中和胃酸 Antacids can be used to relieve stomach upset. 氧化鈣) 來中和;而廢料中的 鹼則可用適量的酸 (例如硫 酸) 來中和。 The Chemical Waste Treatment Centre at Tsing Yi is responsible for the collection. calcium hydroxide) can 處理,以減少造成污染。廢料 be used to neutralise acidic waste while acids (e.

調節土壤的 pH 值 Many plants do not grow well in soil which is too 大多數植物都不適宜於過酸或過鹼 acidic or too alkaline. such as soap to neutralise the acid.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 A18 3. We can apply an acidic 醋可中和黃蜂螫過的傷口上的鹼性 substance. if the soil is 熟石灰 (氫氧化鈣) 以中和土壤中 too alkaline. 的酸。另一方面,假如土壤的鹼性 過高,農夫會在土壤中加入硫。 The farmer is adding slaked lime to neutralise acidic soil. on the affected area to 物質。 neutralise the alkali. mosquito 蚊子 The sting of a wasp is alkaline. wasp 黃蜂 4. 治療蟲螫 The stings of bees. On the other hand. mosquito and ant stings 3. bee. If the soil is too acidic. 農夫在土壤加入熟石灰以中和土壤中的酸。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 18 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . farmers may add sulphur to the soil. such as vinegar. We can wash the affected area with an alkaline 的傷口上的酸性物質。 substance. Regulation of pH values of soil 4. ants and mosquitoes contain an 肥皂可中和蜜蜂、螞蟻及蚊子螫過 acid. farmers 的土壤中生長。假如土壤的酸性過 will add slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) to the soil 高,農夫需要定期加入帶有鹼性的 before growing crops. Treatment of wasp.

濃酸或濃鹼的蒸氣具腐蝕性。 潛在危險 1: : Safety precaution 2: 如果濃酸或濃鹼濺進眼睛,可能會引致失明。 Carry out the experiment in a fume cupboard. Safety precaution 1: Wear safety goggles. Potential hazard 1: Concentrated acids or concentrated alkalis 潛在危險 2: : can cause blindness if they get into the eyes.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 30.3 處理酸和鹼的方法 Q19 What are the potential hazards of acids and 使用酸和鹼時有甚麼潛在 alkalis? What safety precautions should we 危險? 當我們使用這些溶 take when handling them? 液時應採取甚麼安全措? A19 The following shows some potential hazards of acids 下圖顯示使用酸和鹼時的潛在危險,及我 and alkalis. 安全措施 3: : 戴上保護性膠手套。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 19 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .3 Handling acids and alkalis 30. 潛在危險 3: : 濃酸或濃鹼會腐蝕皮膚和肌肉。 Safety precaution 3: Wear protective gloves. 安全措施 2: : 在煙櫥內進行實驗 安全措施 1: : 佩戴安全眼鏡。 Potential hazard 3: P Concentrated acids or concentrated alkalis can burn skin and flesh. Potential hazard 2: The vapour of concentrated acids or concentrated alkalis is corrosive. and the corresponding safety precautions 們使用這些溶液時應採取的安全措施。 we should take when handling them.

若眼睛受傷,應用手把受傷的眼睛撐 分鐘,以防止受傷組織遭到進一步破壞。 開,用洗眼瓶徹底沖洗。 3. 方法處理: 1. If the accident is serious. 用清水慢慢沖洗沾有化學品的部位最少 10 2. We should report it to our 保持冷靜,立即向老師報告,並依照下列的 teacher and take the following measures. eyewash bottle. keep washing Care must be taken to avoid further contact the affected area until the ambulance with the acids or alkalis. 若傷勢嚴重,則應不停沖洗受傷部位, 直至救護車到達。應把傷者連同引致灼 傷的酸或鹼樣本一併送往醫院。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 20 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . A sample of the acids or 3. Gently remove any contaminated clothing. keep the affected eye for at least 10 minutes to avoid further damage open with one hand and rinse it with the to it. 一旦在實驗室使用酸或鹼時發生意外,必須 we must keep calm. Wash the affected area with slow running water 2. 4. If the eye is hurt.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q20 How should we treat accidents and 一旦在實驗室使用酸或鹼時發 emergencies involving acids and alkalis? 生意外,我們應如何處理? A20 When an accident involving acids or alkalis occurs. 小心地把沾有酸或鹼的衣物除下,並應避免 alkalis should be taken to the hospital for 再次與酸或鹼接觸。 reference. crew arrives. 1. 4.

 Carry out the procedures with bare hands. CORRECT 正確 INCORRECT 不正確 no protective gloves protective gloves 沒有戴上保護性膠手套 保護性膠手套 water 水  water  水 concentrated acid/alkali concentrated acid/alkali 濃酸或濃鹼 濃酸或濃鹼  Carry out the process inside a fume cupboard.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q21 What are the proper procedures in diluting 稀釋濃酸和濃鹼的正確步驟 concentrated acids and alkalis? 是怎樣的? A21 The following shows the proper procedures in 下圖顯示稀釋濃酸和濃鹼的正確步驟。 diluting concentrated acids and alkalis.  應在煙櫥內進行。  把水加入濃酸或濃鹼中。  Wear protective gloves and safety goggles.  把濃酸或濃鹼慢慢加入大量水中。  Stir the solution continuously and slowly when you are adding concentrated acid or alkali.  應戴上保護性膠手套及安全眼鏡。  沒有戴上保護性膠手套。  Add concentrated acid or alkali slowly to a large amount of water.  Add water to concentrated acid or alkali.  避免吸入煙櫥內的煙霧。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 21 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .  把濃酸或濃鹼加入水時,要小心地不斷攪拌 溶液。  Do not breathe in fumes from the cupboard.

細閱以下句子,正確的在方格內填上「T」,不正確的則填上「F」。 1. (I). Hair conditioner □ Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 22 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . (I) and (III) only C. □ 6. Litmus can be used to indicate the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance. Some metals react with acids to produce hydrogen. Apple juice C. (II) and (III) only D. □ 4. 部分 Revision exercise 單元練習 True or false questions 是非題 Write ‘T’ for a true statement or ‘F’ for a false statement in each box provided. □ 7. A. □ 3. Tap water B. (I) and (II) only B. Alkalis have a slippery feel. (I). Drain cleaner D. Lemons contain citric acid. (II) Some drugs contain acid. □ B. 選出正確的答案,然後在空格內填上代表該答案的英文字母。 1. the pH value of the resulting solution increases. (II) and (III) □ 2. □ 8. (III) Vinegar contains ethanoic acid. The pH value of glass cleaner is less than 7. (I) and (III) only C. (II) and (III) only D. Which of the following statements about acids are correct? (I) All acids are not safe to consume. Which of the following substances has a pH value greater than 7? A. □ 5. The pH value of acid rain is lower than 5. Which of the following substances are corrosive? (I) Nitric acid (II) Calcium hydroxide (III) Ammonia solution A. When an acid is added to an alkali.Part Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 第 2 A. Multiple-choice questions 多項選擇題 Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. (I) and (II) only B.6. (II) and (III) □ 3. □ 2. Alkaline solutions turn blue litmus paper red.

(II) It kills organisms living in water. (II) and (III) only D. Which of the following are the effects of acid rain on the environment? (I) It damages statues made of marble. (I). Hydrogen D. (II) and (III) □ 8. Which of the following gases will be given out when an acid reacts with magnesium? A. Carbon dioxide □ 6. Limestone B. Which of the following gases may cause acid rain? (I) Nitrogen oxides (II) Nitrogen (III) Sulphur dioxide A. (I) and (III) only C. (I) and (II) only B. A. (I) and (II) only B. (II) and (III) □ 7. Eggshell D. Which of the following substances does not react with an acid? A. (II) and (III) only D. (I). (III) It damages plants. (I). (II) and (III) □ Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 23 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . Nitrogen C. (II) and (III) only D. Which of the following substances will be formed when an acid neutralises an alkali? (I) Water (II) Salt (III) Carbon dioxide A. Oxygen B. (I) and (III) only C.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 4. Zinc □ 5. (I) and (III) only C. (I) and (II) only B. Copper C.

The following diagrams show the steps. Substance A B C D E pH value ~9 ~5 ~12 ~2 ~7 (a) Which substance(s) is/are acidic.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 C. What do you hear? burning splint _____________________________________________________________________ (c) What gas is formed when aluminium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid? _____________________________________________________________________ Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 24 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . neutral and alkaline? _____________________________________________________________________ (b) Which substance is the most acidic? _____________________________________________________________________ (c) Which substance is the most alkaline? _____________________________________________________________________ (d) How does the pH value of the mixed solution change when substance A is added to substance D? _____________________________________________________________________ 2. The following table shows the pH values of five substances. Alice carries out an experiment to study the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and aluminium. Short questions 短問題 1. aluminium inverted rubber stopper aluminium dilute hydrochloric acid (a) What do you observe after aluminium is added to the test tube? _____________________________________________________________________ (b) She then puts a burning splint near the mouth of the test tube to test for the gas.

D 7. C 2. (a) Some colourless gas bubbles are given out. A C. F 4. F B. T 2. (c) Substance C is the most alkaline. Substance E is neutral. B 8. (b) A ‘pop’ sound (c) Hydrogen Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 25 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Part Answers 答案 A. 2. Multiple-choice questions 多項選擇題 1. True or false questions 是非題 1. (a) Substances B and D are acidic. B 5. C 4. F 5. (b) Substance D is the most acidic. (d) The pH value of the solution increases. T 8. Short questions 短問題 1. T 3. C 6. Substances A and C are alkaline. B 3. T 7. F 6.