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Apsidal angle, 280

Acceleration Archimedes' principle, 652, 653

angular, 198 Area

centripetal, 17, 161, 199, 433 of a parallelogram, 148

coriolis, 199 of an elipse, 274

normal, 160 Asymmetrical nonlinear system, 125

radial, 198 Asymmetrical potential, 123

tangential, 160 Asymmetrical top, 530

Amplitude, 65 Atmosphere scale height, 652

resonance, 92 Attractive force, 260, 264

resonance frequency, 92 Attractive potential, 260

Analogy Attractive real potential, 255

between mechanical and electrical systems, 106 Atwood machine, 9, 473

between rectilinear motion and rotational motion, 347 Auxiliary equation, 67

Angle of friction, 12 Average angular frequency of revolution, 258

Angle of repose, 12 Average stress, 367

Angular acceleration, 198 Azimuthal angle, 201

Angular frequency, 65

free and natural, 72

Angular momentum, 510 B

inCMCS, 319

conservation of, 297, 298, 490 Back scattering, 312

constant of motion, 246 Balancing

Angular time period, 258 dynamic, 528

Angular velocity, 198 static, 528

Angular wave number, 627 Base units, 2

Anticommutative, 147 Base vectors, 151

Antisymmetric mode, 574 Beats, 596

701

702 Index

Bernoulli's equation, 659, 660 Characteristic equation, 67, 529

Binomial theorem, 124 Characteristic time, 39, 41, 81, 258

Body angle, 542 Characteristic values, 530

Body axes Characteristic vectors, 530

set of, 340 Circle, 273

symmetry axis, 548 Circular motion, 18

Body coordinate system, 549 Clocks, slowing of, 679

Bound motion, 130 Closed orbits, 258

British system, 3 Closed system, 489

Bulk modulus, 371 CMCS, 317

angular momentum in, 319

collisions in, 320

elastic collisions in, 324

Cables inelastic collisions in, 324

catanary, 377 kinetic energy in, 319

flexible, 373 linear momentum in, 319

with concentrated load, 374 Coefficient

under distributed load, 375 of friction, 12

parabolic, 375 of kinetic friction, 12

Candela, 4 of restitution, 316

Capacitors of static friction, 12

in parallel, 109 of viscosity, 661

in series, 109 Coherent oscillation of free electrons, 32

Cartesian coordinates, 188, 194 Collisions, 291

Catanary cables, 377 in CMCS, 320, 322

Center of gravity, 390 elastic, 308, 309

Center of mass, 241,291 endoergic, 314, 316

of a cone, 344 exoergic, 314

coordinate system. See CMCS head-on, 312

of a frustrum of a cone, 344 inelastic, 309, 314

of a hemispherical shell, 342 Column matrix, 182

of a rigid body, 341 Commensurable frequencies, 224

of a semicircle, 342 Commensurable periods, 258

of a spherical hemisphere, 342 Commutative properties, 147

Center-of-mass coordinate system. See CMCS Compliance, 61

Center of oscillation, 364 Components of vector, 154

Center of precession, 364, 365 Compound pendulum, 362

Centimeter-gram-second system. See CGS system Compressibility, 371, 647

Central force, 238, 389 Configuration

field orbits, 253 of a rigid body, 340

motion, 241, 245 of a system, 464

spherically symmetric, 391 Conservation

Centrifugal barrier. See Centrifugal potential of angular momentum, 297, 298, 490

Centrifugal force, 434 of energy, 46, 298,392,492

Centrifugal potential, 250 of linear momentum, 293, 295

Centripetal acceleration, 17, 161,199, 433 Conservation laws, 291, 308,489, 494

Centripetal force, 13,17,434 Conservative force, 44, 45, 206

CGS system, 3 Conservative force field, 59

Index 703

Constancy of speed of light, principle of, 674 Deflection

Constant of motion, 46, 488 of a projectile, 440

Constraints, 464, 481 from the vertical, 442

holonomic, 481 Deformable continua, 367

nonholonomic, 481 Deformation point, permanent, 370

Continua, deformable, 367 Degrees of freedom, 464

Continuity condition, 642 Del operator in cylindrical and spherical coordinates,

Continuity equation, 654 204

Conveyor belts, 301, 304 Derived units, 2

Coordinate systems, 188 Detuned pendula, 596

center-of-mass, 317 Diagonalizing, 529

inertial, 550 Dielectric coefficient of the ionosphere, 32

nonlinear, 425 Differential equations

rotating, 429 homogeneous, linear, second-order, 63

translating, 425 inhomogeneous, 86

Coordinate transformations, 176, 181 Differentiation of vectors, 158

Coordinates, Dilation time, 679

cyclic, 487 Dimensions, 2, 4

generalized, 464, 578 Directional cosines, 155

ignorable, 487 Disintegration energy, 315

normal, 570, 574, 582 Dispersive medium, 629

Coriolis acceleration, 199 Displacement, 65

Coriolis force, 434 actual, 466

Coriolis theorem, 433 Dissipative frictional force, 81

Couple, 373 Dissipative systems, 604

Coupled equation, 450 Distortion, 89

Coupled oscillators, 566, 570 Distributive properties, 147

Coupled pendula, 586 Divergence, 164

Coupling, strong/weak, 596 theorem, 169

Covariant formulation, 683 of a vector, 167

Covariant four-dimensional form, 684 Dot product, 145

Critically damped oscillators, 71, 74 Doubly periodic, 258

Cross product, 147, 328 Driven oscillators, 58, 85. See also Forced oscillators

Cross-sectional area, 329 Driving frequency, 92

Curl, 164 Dumbell, 515

of a vector, 172 Dyad, scalar multiplication, 536

Cyclic coordinates, 487 Dyadic, 517, 536

Cyclonic winds, 454 Dynamic balancing, 528

Cylindrical coordinates, 191 Dynamics, 1

Cylindrical polar coordinates, 199 effects of, 439

fluid, 648

relativistic, 686

in three dimensions, 215

Damped harmonic motion, oscillator, 58, 70

Damped oscillator

critically, 74

phase diagram for, 133 Eccentricity, 269, 274

Decay constant, 81 Effective force, 249

704 Index

Effective potential, 249, 253, 255, 259, 264, 268, 277, Euler's geometrical equations, 544

554 Event, 686

Effective spring constant, 278 Exoergic reactions/collisions, 314

Eigenvalues, 530

Eigenvectors, 530

Einstein's postulates, 674,

Elastic collisions, 308, 309 Fast precession, 556

in CMCS, 324 Fictitious force, 9

Elastic limit, 370 First-kind reactions/collisions, 314

Elastic modulus, 369 First rank, tensor of, 536

Elastic properties of solids, 370 Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction, 678

Elasticity, 367 Flexible cable and strings, equilibrium of, 373

Electromagnetic waves, 31 Fluid dynamics, 648

Ellipse, 130,271,273 Fluid flow, ideal, 658

area of, 274 Fluid statics, 648

Ellipsoid, 534 Fluids, 614

Endoergic collisions/reactions, 314, 316 in motion, 653

Energy conservation theorem, 299 Foci, 271

Energy Forced oscillators, 58, 85, 604

conservation of, 46, 298, 392, 492 harmonic, 85

constant of motion, 246 Force field

decrement, 81 conservative, 59

diagram, 129, 134 lines, 395

disintegration, 315 Force free motion of a symmetrical top, 546

dissipation, rate of, 99 Forces, 6

flow, 642 attractive, 260, 264

integral, 46 central, 389

kinetic, 510 centrifugal, 434

for oscillators, 68, 81 centripetal, 17, 434

potential, 68, 393, 394, 566, 660 conservative, 44, 45

resonance, 96 of constraints, 338

of the simple harmonic oscillator, 68 coriolis, 434

threshold, 316 effective, 249

transfer, 601 fictitious, 9

Equations of motion (in normal coordinates), 575 Motional, 11, 13

Equilibrium, 566 generalized, 466

of flexible cable and strings, 373 gravitational, 17, 387, 389

neutral, 567 lines of, 394

of rigid bodies, 372 Minkowski, 687

of solid beams, 378 noninertial, 7, 9

stable, 59, 60, 567 position-dependent, 44

unstable, 567 repulsive, 259, 264

Equipotential lines, 397 symmetric, 392

Equipotential surface, 394, 397 time-dependent, 31

Escape velocity, 52, 53 velocity-dependent, 35

Euler formula, 67 viscous, 35

Eulerian angles, 542 Foucault pendulum, 447, 450

Euler's dynamical equations, 546, 659 Fourier series, 110, 112,620

Euler's equations of motion for a rigid body, 545 Fourier theorem, 111

Index 705

Fracture point, 369, 370 Green's function, 115, 117

Free angular frequency, 72 Gyration, radius of, 356

Free natural frequency, 63 Gyroscope, 552, 555

Free oscillation system, 63

Free oscillator, 70

H

Frequencies

angular, 65 Hamiltonian dynamics, 463, 495

normal, 582 Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic mechanics,

of oscillator, 65 693

selective in, 99 Hamiltonian function, 489, 492

Frequency spectrum, 639 Hamilton's equation of motion, 495

Frictional force, 11 Hard system, 62, 122

dissipative, 81 Harmonic force law, isotropic, 254

Fundamental note, 620 Harmonic oscillators, 58, 65

Fundamental units, 2 damped, 58, 70

in electrical circuits, 105

forced, 85

linear, 62

Galilean invariance, 672, 673 in three dimensions, 216, 219

Galilean transformations, 672, 673 in two and three dimensions, 217

Galileo, 1 Harmonics, 620

Gaussian system. See CGS system Head-on collision, 312

Gauss's law, 414 Heavily damped oscillator, 74

Gauss's surface, 414 Heavy top, 552

Gauss's theorem, 169 Hemispherical shell, center of mass/342

Generalized coordinates, 464, 578 Highest symmetry, 575

Generalized forces, 466 Holonomic constraints, 481

Generalized momenta, 487 Holonomic system, 464

Generalized velocities, 465 Homogeneity

Geometrical approach, 139, 140 of space, 293

Geostrophic winds, 454 of time, 293

Glancing collisions, 312 Homogeneous differential equation, 63

Grad, 165 Homogeneous solution, 88

Gradient, 164 Homogeneous space, 489

Gradient operator, 165, 241 Hooke'slaw, 49, 61,369

Gravitation, 17 Horizontal wind circulations, 453

boost, 281 Huygens, 1

breaking, 281 Hydrodynamics, 648

field, 391, 393, 394 Hydrostatics, 648

equations, 417 Hyperbola, 273

intensity, 393 Hyperbolic trajectory, 325

vector, 393

Newton's universal law of, 17, 51, 387

I

Gravitational force, 17, 387, 389

calculation of, 399 Ignorable coordinates, 487

Gravitational potential, 387, 391, 393, 394 Impact parameter, 260

calculation of, 399 Improper length, 680

energy, 51 Improper time, 680

706 Index

Impulsive force, 115 space average of, 69

Incommensurable frequencies, 224 time average of, 69

Incommensurable periods, 259 Kirchhoff's rule, 107

Inelastic collisions, 309, 314 Kronecker delta, 181

in CMCS, 324

Inertia, products of, 512, 518

Inertia ellipsoid, 533

Inertial coordinate system, 550 Laboratory cone, 550

Inertial reference frame, 427 Lagrange's equations

Inertial systems, 5, 6, 7, 427 in a conservative force field, 471

Inertia tensor, 516 for a single particle, 468

properties of, 535 for a system of particles, 477

Inhomogeneous differential equation, 86 Lagrangian dynamics, 463

Initial phase, 65 Lagrangian formulation of vibrating string, 629

Integrals of motion, 246, 489 Lagrangian function, 470

Integration of vectors, 161 Lamina, plane, 524

Internal forces, 296 Laminar flow, 648, 662

International system of units, 3 Laminar motion, 663

Invariance, 427, 489, 672 Laplacian operator, 174

physical process, 293 Lateral strain, 371

quantities, 176 Law of cosines, 146

Inverse-square field, orbit in, 264 Law of equal areas, 247

Inverse-square force Law of sines, 149

Length

problem, 266

repulsive, 324 contraction, 678 -•

Inverse transformation, 319 standard of, 2

Ionosphere, 31 Lightly damped oscillator, 74

Irrotational field, 173 Line integral, 161

Isotropic harmonic force law, 254 Linear differential equation, 63

Isotropy of space, 293 Linear harmonic motion, 58

Iterative approximation, 374 Linear harmonic oscillator, 62

Linear momentum, 6, 28

in CMCS, 319

Linear oscillator, 58, 61, 65

Jerk, 231, 458 Linear restoring force, 49, 61

Line of node, 542

Lines of force, 394

K

Lissajous curves, 219

Kater's pendulum, 365 Lissajous figures, 217, 223

Kepler's laws, 274, 275 Loaded strings, 632

second law of planetary motion, 248 Logarithmic decrement, 74

third law, 18,283 Logarithmic derivative, 82

Kinematics, 1 Longitudinal strain, 369

in different coordinate systems, 194 Longitudinal waves, 645

Kinetic energy, 510 Lorentz formulation of relativistic mechanics, 693

in CMCS, 319 Lorentzian (resonance curve), 97, 98

in normal coordinates, 576 Lorentz transformations, 674, 675

resonance, 97 equations, 678

Index 707

for mass and momentum, 689 Newton's laws, 5

for velocity, 682 first law, 5

Luminous intensity, 4 law of gravitation, 51, 387

third law

M strong form, 296, 297

weak form, 296

Mass, standard of, 3 universal law of gravitation, 17, 387

Matrix, symmetric, 579 Nodes, 542, 628

Metric system, 2, 3 line of, 542

Minkowski force, 687 Nonholonomic constraints, 481

MKS system. See Metric system Nonholonomic systems, 464

Mode Noninertial forces, 7, 9

antisymmetric, 574 Noninertial systems, 7, 427

normal, 574, 583 Nonlinear oscillators, 58, 61

symmetric, 574 Nonlinear systems, 58

of vibrating string, 621 asymmetrical, 125

Modulation, 90 coordinate, 425

Modulus of rigidity, 371 energy diagram for, 134

Mole, 4 oscillating, 122

Molecules, vibrations of, 602 phase diagram for, 134

Moment symmetrical, 123

of external force, 297 Normal acceleration, 160

offeree, 213 Normal coordinates, 570, 574, 582

generalized, 487 equations of motion in, 575

of inertia, 512, 518, 521 kinetic energy in, 576

calculation of, 349 potential energy in, 576

of circular disk, solid cylinder, 356 small oscillations in, 581

of hoop or cylindrical shell, 354 Normal frequencies, 582

of sphere and spherical shell, 357 Normal modes, 574, 583

of thin rod, 350 of vibration, vibrating string, 617, 635, 640

Motion Normal reaction, 11

under central force, 244 Normal stress, 367

equations of, 575 Null modes, 638

of a heavy top, 552 Null vector, 148

on rotating Earth, 437 Nutation, 556

of a sleeping top, 556 angle of, 542

of systems, 301

0,556

in two and three dimensions, 188

One-stage rocket, 307

Orbits

N

in an inverse-square field, 264

Natural angular frequency, 72 shape of, 270, 272

Natural frequency, free, 63 transfers, 281

Neutral equilibrium, 567 Orthogonality conditions, 181

Newton, 1 Orthogonal systems, 181

Newtonian relativity, 673 Orthogonal transformations, 675

principle of, 427 Oscillating systems, 104

708 Index

free, 63 Phase angle, 4, 92, 93

nonlinear, 122 Phase constant, 65

Oscillations Phase diagram, 127, 129, 130

center of, 364 for a damped oscillator, 133

distortion of, 89 for nonlinear system, 134

forced, 604 for simple harmonic oscillator, 131

free, 70 Phase portrait, 130

linear, 58, 61 Phase trajectory, 130

longitudinal, 645 Phase velocity, 32, 629

modulation effect of, 90 Physical pendulum, 362

nonlinear, 58, 61 Plane lamina, 524

radial, 277 Plane polar coordinates, 190, 196

small, 560 Plumb line, static effects of, 438

sympathetic, 596 Point transformation, 181, 182

Oscillators Poisenille's law, 663

coupled, 566, 570 Poisson's ratio, 371

critically damped, 71 Polar angle, 201

driven, 85 Polar coordinates, 190

energy consideration for, 81 cylindrical, 199

forced, 85, 604 Position-dependent force, 44

free, 70 Postulates of special theory of relativity, 674

frequency of, 65 Potential

harmonic, 58, 65 asymmetrical, 123

linear, 58, 61, 65 attractive, 260

nonlinear, 58,61 centrifugal, 250

overdamped, 71, 75 effective, 249, 253, 259, 264, 268, 277, 554

underdamped, 71 function, 60

Overdamped oscillators, 71, 75 gravitational, 387, 393, 394

Overtones, 620 homogeneous circular dish, 410

repulsive, 259

scalar, 660

shell of finite thickness, 407

Parabola, 273 solid sphere, 405

Parabolic cables, 375 spherical shell, 399

Parallel axis theorem, 350, 352, 524 symmetrical, 60

Parallelogram, area of, 148 thin rod, 412

Parallelopiped, volume of, 150 Potential energy, 44,45, 68, 238, 393, 394, 566, 660

Particle dynamics, 28 function, 45, 205, 206

Particles, system of, 632 gravitational, 51

Particular solution, 86, 88 resonance, 97

Pascal's law, 649, 651 space average of, 69

Pendula time average of, 69

coupled, 586 in normal coordinates, 576

physical, 524 of a simple pendulum, 360

tuned/detuned, 596 Precessing cone, 549

Permanent deformation point, 370 Precessing motion, 258, 259

Perpendicular axis theorem, 352, 353, 524 Precession

Perturbation method, 126 fast, 556

Index 709

slow, 556 special theory of, 2, 671, 674

steady, 555 Relaxation method, 374

Precession angle, 542 Repulsive force, 259, 264

Pressure gradient, 167 inverse-square, 324

Principal axes, 526, 529 Repulsive potential, 259

Principal moment of inertia, 526, 529 Resonance, 597

Principal planes, 526 curve, 97, 98

Principal point, 526 frequency, 95

Principle of superposition, 110 width, 98

Products of inertia, 512, 518 Revolution time period, 258

Projectile motion, 225 Reynolds number, 664

with air resistance, 227 Right-hand rule, 148

without air resistance, 225 Rigid bodies

as a function of velocity, 227 center of mass, 341

in three dimensions, 230 configuration of, 340

Propagation constant, 627 equilibrium of, 372

Proper frame, 680 motion, 338, 373, 510

Proper length, 680 Rigidity, modulus of, 371

Proper time, 680, 685 Rockets

Proportional limit, 369, 370 one-stage, 307

propulsion, 302

thrust, 303

Rotating coordinate systems, 429

Quality factor, 82, 99 Rotating Earth, motion on, 437

Quantum mechanics, 2 Rotation about an axis, 345

Rotational flow, 657

Rotational kinetic energy, 513

Rotational symmetry, 293

Radial acceleration, 198 Rotation matrix, 179

Radial distance, 201 Rotor, 530

Radial oscillations, 277 Row matrix, 182

Radial time period, 258 Rutherford scattering, 324

Radial velocity, 198 formula, 330

Radio waves, reflection of. 31. 33

Radius of gyration, 356

Rate of energy dissipation, 99

Rectangular coordinate systems. 188 Satellites, 275

Reduced mass, 242, 318 Scalar point function, 161

Reflection coefficient of waves, 643 Scalar potential, 660

Relative coordinate, 318 Scalar product of vectors, 145

Relative variations in length, time, mass, and momen- Scalar quantity, 139

tum, 691 Scalar triple product, 150

Relativistic dynamics, 686 Scattering angle, 329

Relativistic mechanics in CMS, 324

Hamiltonian formulation of, 693 in LCS, 324

Lorentz formulation of, 693 Scattering center, 329

Relativistic triangle, 693 Scattering of charged particles, 328

Relativity, 671 Second-kind reactions or collisions, 314

710 Index

Second rank, tensor of, 535, 536 effective, 278

Selective frequency, 99 Springs

Semicircle, center of mass, 342 in parallel, 108

Semi-major axis, 130 in series, 108

Shape of orbits, 270, 272 Stable equilibrium, 47, 59, 60, 567

Shearing force, 378 Standard of length, 2

Shearing stress, 368 Standard of mass, 3

Shear modulus, 371 Standard of time, 2

Shear strain, 370 Standing waves, 628

Similarity transformation, 539 Static balancing, 528

Simple harmonic oscillator Static frictional force, 13

energy of, 68 Statics, 1

phase diagram for, 131 fluid, 648

Simple pendulum, 358 Steady precession, 555

potential energy of, 360 Steady-state solution, 86, 88, 111

Simultaneity, 680 Steiner theorem, 521, 523

Sleeping top, 556 Stiffness constant, 61

Slow precession, 556 Stokes' law, 664

Small oscillations Stokes' theorem, 174, 206

in normal coordinates, 581 Straight line, 273

tensor formation, 583 Strain

theory of, 566, 576 lateral, 371

Soft system, 62,122 longitudinal, 369

Solenoidal fluid flow, 170 shear, 370

Solid angle, 4 tensile, 369, 370

Solid beams, equilibrium, 378 Streamlined flow, 648

Solids Streamlined motion, 663

elastic properties of, 370 Stress

of revolution, 530 average, 367

Sound waves, 645 normal, 367

Space shearing, 368

average of kinetic energy, 69 tensile, 370

average of potential energy, 69 Stretch modulus, 369

cone, 550 Strings

isotropy of, 293 loaded, 632

set of axes, 340 vibrating, 614

Spacelike, 685 Strong coupling, 596

Special theory of relativity, 2, 671 Superposition, principle of, 110

postulates, 674 Symmetrical potential, 60

Speed Symmetrical systems, 122

of approach, 316 nonlinear, 123

of recession, 316 Symmetrical top, 552

terminal, 39 force free motion of, 546

Spherical hemisphere, center of mass, 342 Symmetric force, 392

Spherically symmetric central force, 391 Symmetric matrix, 579

Spherical polar coordinates, 193, 201 Symmetric mode, 574

Spherical top, 530 Symmetry

Spinning drum, 13 highest, 575

Index 711

rotational, 293 to Mars, 282

translational, 298 to Venus, 282

Sympathic vibrations, 596 Transformation matrix, 179

Systems Transformations

dissipative, 604 Galilean, 672, 673

of particles, 291,632 Lorentz, 674, 675, 678, 689, 690

orthogonal, 675

Transient solution, 88, 111

Transient term, 86

Tangential acceleration, 160 Translating coordinate systems, 425

Taylor series, 122 Translational symmetry, 293

Temperature gradient, 167 Transmission coefficient of waves, 644

Tensile strain, 369, 370 Transverse velocity gradient, 657

Tensile stress, 370 Traveling waves, 627

Tension, 368 Triple product

Tensors scalar, 150

formation, small oscillations. 583 vector, 150

of zero, first, second rank. 535. 536 True strain, 369

Terminal speed, 39 Tuned pendula, 596

Terminal velocity, 38, 41 Turbulent flow, 648

Theory of relativity, 671 Turbulent motion, 663

Thin rod, moment of inertia. 350 Turning points, 47, 59

Three dimensions Two-body problem, 317

dynamics in, 215 Two dimensions, motion in, 188

motion in, 188

Three-vectors, 684

U

Threshold energy, 316

Time average Unbound motion, 130

of kinetic energy, 69 Underdamped oscillators, 71

of potential energy, 69 Undetermined multipliers, 481,485

Time dilation, 679 Unit dyadic, 538

Time homogeneous, 492 Units, 2

Time, standard of, 2 base, 2

Time-dependent force, 31 derived, 2

Timelike, 685 fundamental, 2

Time period, 65 Unit vectors, 151, 160

angular, 258 normal, 161

radial, 258 Unstable equilibrium, 567

revolution, 258

Tops

V

asymmetrical, 530

heavy, 552 Variation of g in a gravitational field, 51

sleeping, 556 Vectors

spherical, 530 addition of, 141

symmetrical, 552 analysis, 139

Torque, 213, 297 calculus, 158

Torsion modulus, 371 components, 154

Trajectory of a projectile, 228 differential operators, 164

712 Index

operators, 139 Vortex field, 173

product, 145, 147

quantity, 139 W

triple product, 150

Velocity Wave at discontinuity, 642

addition, 681 Wave equation, 616

angular, 198 Wave forms, 625

generalized, 465 Wavelength, 628

phase, 629 Wave motion as disturbance, 625

radial, 198 Wave number, 627

terminal, 38,41 angular, 627

Velocity-dependent force, 35 Wave propagation, 624

Velocity gradient, transverse, 657 Wave reflection coefficient, 643

Vibrating strings, 614 Waves

energy, 629 longitudinal, 645

Lagrangian formation of, 629 sound, 645

modes, 621 traveling, 627

normal modes, 640 Wave velocity, 616

power, 629 Weak coupling, 596

Vibration of molecules, 602 Weather systems, 453

Vibrations World time, 685

normal modes, 617, 635

sympathic, 596

Virtual displacement, 296, 466

Virtual work, 296 Yield point, 369

Viscosity, 660 Young's modulus, 369

coefficient of, 661 Yukawa theory, 261

Viscous fluid flow, 660, 661

Viscous force, 35

Viscous resistance, 35

Volume elasticity, 371 Zero rank, tensor of, 536

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