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I N D X

Approximation, iterative, 374


Apsidal angle, 280
Acceleration Archimedes' principle, 652, 653
angular, 198 Area
centripetal, 17, 161, 199, 433 of a parallelogram, 148
coriolis, 199 of an elipse, 274
normal, 160 Asymmetrical nonlinear system, 125
radial, 198 Asymmetrical potential, 123
tangential, 160 Asymmetrical top, 530
Amplitude, 65 Atmosphere scale height, 652
resonance, 92 Attractive force, 260, 264
resonance frequency, 92 Attractive potential, 260
Analogy Attractive real potential, 255
between mechanical and electrical systems, 106 Atwood machine, 9, 473
between rectilinear motion and rotational motion, 347 Auxiliary equation, 67
Angle of friction, 12 Average angular frequency of revolution, 258
Angle of repose, 12 Average stress, 367
Angular acceleration, 198 Azimuthal angle, 201
Angular frequency, 65
free and natural, 72
Angular momentum, 510 B
inCMCS, 319
conservation of, 297, 298, 490 Back scattering, 312
constant of motion, 246 Balancing
Angular time period, 258 dynamic, 528
Angular velocity, 198 static, 528
Angular wave number, 627 Base units, 2
Anticommutative, 147 Base vectors, 151
Antisymmetric mode, 574 Beats, 596
701
702 Index

Bending moments, 378 Chandler wobble, 552


Bernoulli's equation, 659, 660 Characteristic equation, 67, 529
Binomial theorem, 124 Characteristic time, 39, 41, 81, 258
Body angle, 542 Characteristic values, 530
Body axes Characteristic vectors, 530
set of, 340 Circle, 273
symmetry axis, 548 Circular motion, 18
Body coordinate system, 549 Clocks, slowing of, 679
Bound motion, 130 Closed orbits, 258
British system, 3 Closed system, 489
Bulk modulus, 371 CMCS, 317
angular momentum in, 319
collisions in, 320
elastic collisions in, 324
Cables inelastic collisions in, 324
catanary, 377 kinetic energy in, 319
flexible, 373 linear momentum in, 319
with concentrated load, 374 Coefficient
under distributed load, 375 of friction, 12
parabolic, 375 of kinetic friction, 12
Candela, 4 of restitution, 316
Capacitors of static friction, 12
in parallel, 109 of viscosity, 661
in series, 109 Coherent oscillation of free electrons, 32
Cartesian coordinates, 188, 194 Collisions, 291
Catanary cables, 377 in CMCS, 320, 322
Center of gravity, 390 elastic, 308, 309
Center of mass, 241,291 endoergic, 314, 316
of a cone, 344 exoergic, 314
coordinate system. See CMCS head-on, 312
of a frustrum of a cone, 344 inelastic, 309, 314
of a hemispherical shell, 342 Column matrix, 182
of a rigid body, 341 Commensurable frequencies, 224
of a semicircle, 342 Commensurable periods, 258
of a spherical hemisphere, 342 Commutative properties, 147
Center-of-mass coordinate system. See CMCS Compliance, 61
Center of oscillation, 364 Components of vector, 154
Center of precession, 364, 365 Compound pendulum, 362
Centimeter-gram-second system. See CGS system Compressibility, 371, 647
Central force, 238, 389 Configuration
field orbits, 253 of a rigid body, 340
motion, 241, 245 of a system, 464
spherically symmetric, 391 Conservation
Centrifugal barrier. See Centrifugal potential of angular momentum, 297, 298, 490
Centrifugal force, 434 of energy, 46, 298,392,492
Centrifugal potential, 250 of linear momentum, 293, 295
Centripetal acceleration, 17, 161,199, 433 Conservation laws, 291, 308,489, 494
Centripetal force, 13,17,434 Conservative force, 44, 45, 206
CGS system, 3 Conservative force field, 59
Index 703

Conservative systems, 467 Decrement of motion, 74


Constancy of speed of light, principle of, 674 Deflection
Constant of motion, 46, 488 of a projectile, 440
Constraints, 464, 481 from the vertical, 442
holonomic, 481 Deformable continua, 367
nonholonomic, 481 Deformation point, permanent, 370
Continua, deformable, 367 Degrees of freedom, 464
Continuity condition, 642 Del operator in cylindrical and spherical coordinates,
Continuity equation, 654 204
Conveyor belts, 301, 304 Derived units, 2
Coordinate systems, 188 Detuned pendula, 596
center-of-mass, 317 Diagonalizing, 529
inertial, 550 Dielectric coefficient of the ionosphere, 32
nonlinear, 425 Differential equations
rotating, 429 homogeneous, linear, second-order, 63
translating, 425 inhomogeneous, 86
Coordinate transformations, 176, 181 Differentiation of vectors, 158
Coordinates, Dilation time, 679
cyclic, 487 Dimensions, 2, 4
generalized, 464, 578 Directional cosines, 155
ignorable, 487 Disintegration energy, 315
normal, 570, 574, 582 Dispersive medium, 629
Coriolis acceleration, 199 Displacement, 65
Coriolis force, 434 actual, 466
Coriolis theorem, 433 Dissipative frictional force, 81
Couple, 373 Dissipative systems, 604
Coupled equation, 450 Distortion, 89
Coupled oscillators, 566, 570 Distributive properties, 147
Coupled pendula, 586 Divergence, 164
Coupling, strong/weak, 596 theorem, 169
Covariant formulation, 683 of a vector, 167
Covariant four-dimensional form, 684 Dot product, 145
Critically damped oscillators, 71, 74 Doubly periodic, 258
Cross product, 147, 328 Driven oscillators, 58, 85. See also Forced oscillators
Cross-sectional area, 329 Driving frequency, 92
Curl, 164 Dumbell, 515
of a vector, 172 Dyad, scalar multiplication, 536
Cyclic coordinates, 487 Dyadic, 517, 536
Cyclonic winds, 454 Dynamic balancing, 528
Cylindrical coordinates, 191 Dynamics, 1
Cylindrical polar coordinates, 199 effects of, 439
fluid, 648
relativistic, 686
in three dimensions, 215
Damped harmonic motion, oscillator, 58, 70
Damped oscillator
critically, 74
phase diagram for, 133 Eccentricity, 269, 274
Decay constant, 81 Effective force, 249
704 Index

Effective potential, 249, 253, 255, 259, 264, 268, 277, Euler's geometrical equations, 544
554 Event, 686
Effective spring constant, 278 Exoergic reactions/collisions, 314
Eigenvalues, 530
Eigenvectors, 530
Einstein's postulates, 674,
Elastic collisions, 308, 309 Fast precession, 556
in CMCS, 324 Fictitious force, 9
Elastic limit, 370 First-kind reactions/collisions, 314
Elastic modulus, 369 First rank, tensor of, 536
Elastic properties of solids, 370 Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction, 678
Elasticity, 367 Flexible cable and strings, equilibrium of, 373
Electromagnetic waves, 31 Fluid dynamics, 648
Ellipse, 130,271,273 Fluid flow, ideal, 658
area of, 274 Fluid statics, 648
Ellipsoid, 534 Fluids, 614
Endoergic collisions/reactions, 314, 316 in motion, 653
Energy conservation theorem, 299 Foci, 271
Energy Forced oscillators, 58, 85, 604
conservation of, 46, 298, 392, 492 harmonic, 85
constant of motion, 246 Force field
decrement, 81 conservative, 59
diagram, 129, 134 lines, 395
disintegration, 315 Force free motion of a symmetrical top, 546
dissipation, rate of, 99 Forces, 6
flow, 642 attractive, 260, 264
integral, 46 central, 389
kinetic, 510 centrifugal, 434
for oscillators, 68, 81 centripetal, 17, 434
potential, 68, 393, 394, 566, 660 conservative, 44, 45
resonance, 96 of constraints, 338
of the simple harmonic oscillator, 68 coriolis, 434
threshold, 316 effective, 249
transfer, 601 fictitious, 9
Equations of motion (in normal coordinates), 575 Motional, 11, 13
Equilibrium, 566 generalized, 466
of flexible cable and strings, 373 gravitational, 17, 387, 389
neutral, 567 lines of, 394
of rigid bodies, 372 Minkowski, 687
of solid beams, 378 noninertial, 7, 9
stable, 59, 60, 567 position-dependent, 44
unstable, 567 repulsive, 259, 264
Equipotential lines, 397 symmetric, 392
Equipotential surface, 394, 397 time-dependent, 31
Escape velocity, 52, 53 velocity-dependent, 35
Euler formula, 67 viscous, 35
Eulerian angles, 542 Foucault pendulum, 447, 450
Euler's dynamical equations, 546, 659 Fourier series, 110, 112,620
Euler's equations of motion for a rigid body, 545 Fourier theorem, 111
Index 705

Four-vectors, 683, 684 lines, 398


Fracture point, 369, 370 Green's function, 115, 117
Free angular frequency, 72 Gyration, radius of, 356
Free natural frequency, 63 Gyroscope, 552, 555
Free oscillation system, 63
Free oscillator, 70
H
Frequencies
angular, 65 Hamiltonian dynamics, 463, 495
normal, 582 Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic mechanics,
of oscillator, 65 693
selective in, 99 Hamiltonian function, 489, 492
Frequency spectrum, 639 Hamilton's equation of motion, 495
Frictional force, 11 Hard system, 62, 122
dissipative, 81 Harmonic force law, isotropic, 254
Fundamental note, 620 Harmonic oscillators, 58, 65
Fundamental units, 2 damped, 58, 70
in electrical circuits, 105
forced, 85
linear, 62
Galilean invariance, 672, 673 in three dimensions, 216, 219
Galilean transformations, 672, 673 in two and three dimensions, 217
Galileo, 1 Harmonics, 620
Gaussian system. See CGS system Head-on collision, 312
Gauss's law, 414 Heavily damped oscillator, 74
Gauss's surface, 414 Heavy top, 552
Gauss's theorem, 169 Hemispherical shell, center of mass/342
Generalized coordinates, 464, 578 Highest symmetry, 575
Generalized forces, 466 Holonomic constraints, 481
Generalized momenta, 487 Holonomic system, 464
Generalized velocities, 465 Homogeneity
Geometrical approach, 139, 140 of space, 293
Geostrophic winds, 454 of time, 293
Glancing collisions, 312 Homogeneous differential equation, 63
Grad, 165 Homogeneous solution, 88
Gradient, 164 Homogeneous space, 489
Gradient operator, 165, 241 Hooke'slaw, 49, 61,369
Gravitation, 17 Horizontal wind circulations, 453
boost, 281 Huygens, 1
breaking, 281 Hydrodynamics, 648
field, 391, 393, 394 Hydrostatics, 648
equations, 417 Hyperbola, 273
intensity, 393 Hyperbolic trajectory, 325
vector, 393
Newton's universal law of, 17, 51, 387
I
Gravitational force, 17, 387, 389
calculation of, 399 Ignorable coordinates, 487
Gravitational potential, 387, 391, 393, 394 Impact parameter, 260
calculation of, 399 Improper length, 680
energy, 51 Improper time, 680
706 Index

Impulse-momentum theorem, 30 rotational, 513


Impulsive force, 115 space average of, 69
Incommensurable frequencies, 224 time average of, 69
Incommensurable periods, 259 Kirchhoff's rule, 107
Inelastic collisions, 309, 314 Kronecker delta, 181
in CMCS, 324
Inertia, products of, 512, 518
Inertia ellipsoid, 533
Inertial coordinate system, 550 Laboratory cone, 550
Inertial reference frame, 427 Lagrange's equations
Inertial systems, 5, 6, 7, 427 in a conservative force field, 471
Inertia tensor, 516 for a single particle, 468
properties of, 535 for a system of particles, 477
Inhomogeneous differential equation, 86 Lagrangian dynamics, 463
Initial phase, 65 Lagrangian formulation of vibrating string, 629
Integrals of motion, 246, 489 Lagrangian function, 470
Integration of vectors, 161 Lamina, plane, 524
Internal forces, 296 Laminar flow, 648, 662
International system of units, 3 Laminar motion, 663
Invariance, 427, 489, 672 Laplacian operator, 174
physical process, 293 Lateral strain, 371
quantities, 176 Law of cosines, 146
Inverse-square field, orbit in, 264 Law of equal areas, 247
Inverse-square force Law of sines, 149
Length
problem, 266
repulsive, 324 contraction, 678 -•
Inverse transformation, 319 standard of, 2
Ionosphere, 31 Lightly damped oscillator, 74
Irrotational field, 173 Line integral, 161
Isotropic harmonic force law, 254 Linear differential equation, 63
Isotropy of space, 293 Linear harmonic motion, 58
Iterative approximation, 374 Linear harmonic oscillator, 62
Linear momentum, 6, 28
in CMCS, 319
Linear oscillator, 58, 61, 65
Jerk, 231, 458 Linear restoring force, 49, 61
Line of node, 542
Lines of force, 394
K
Lissajous curves, 219
Kater's pendulum, 365 Lissajous figures, 217, 223
Kepler's laws, 274, 275 Loaded strings, 632
second law of planetary motion, 248 Logarithmic decrement, 74
third law, 18,283 Logarithmic derivative, 82
Kinematics, 1 Longitudinal strain, 369
in different coordinate systems, 194 Longitudinal waves, 645
Kinetic energy, 510 Lorentz formulation of relativistic mechanics, 693
in CMCS, 319 Lorentzian (resonance curve), 97, 98
in normal coordinates, 576 Lorentz transformations, 674, 675
resonance, 97 equations, 678
Index 707

for kinetic and total energy, 690 Newtonian tranformations, 673


for mass and momentum, 689 Newton's laws, 5
for velocity, 682 first law, 5
Luminous intensity, 4 law of gravitation, 51, 387
third law
M strong form, 296, 297
weak form, 296
Mass, standard of, 3 universal law of gravitation, 17, 387
Matrix, symmetric, 579 Nodes, 542, 628
Metric system, 2, 3 line of, 542
Minkowski force, 687 Nonholonomic constraints, 481
MKS system. See Metric system Nonholonomic systems, 464
Mode Noninertial forces, 7, 9
antisymmetric, 574 Noninertial systems, 7, 427
normal, 574, 583 Nonlinear oscillators, 58, 61
symmetric, 574 Nonlinear systems, 58
of vibrating string, 621 asymmetrical, 125
Modulation, 90 coordinate, 425
Modulus of rigidity, 371 energy diagram for, 134
Mole, 4 oscillating, 122
Molecules, vibrations of, 602 phase diagram for, 134
Moment symmetrical, 123
of external force, 297 Normal acceleration, 160
offeree, 213 Normal coordinates, 570, 574, 582
generalized, 487 equations of motion in, 575
of inertia, 512, 518, 521 kinetic energy in, 576
calculation of, 349 potential energy in, 576
of circular disk, solid cylinder, 356 small oscillations in, 581
of hoop or cylindrical shell, 354 Normal frequencies, 582
of sphere and spherical shell, 357 Normal modes, 574, 583
of thin rod, 350 of vibration, vibrating string, 617, 635, 640
Motion Normal reaction, 11
under central force, 244 Normal stress, 367
equations of, 575 Null modes, 638
of a heavy top, 552 Null vector, 148
on rotating Earth, 437 Nutation, 556
of a sleeping top, 556 angle of, 542
of systems, 301
0,556
in two and three dimensions, 188
One-stage rocket, 307
Orbits
N
in an inverse-square field, 264
Natural angular frequency, 72 shape of, 270, 272
Natural frequency, free, 63 transfers, 281
Neutral equilibrium, 567 Orthogonality conditions, 181
Newton, 1 Orthogonal systems, 181
Newtonian relativity, 673 Orthogonal transformations, 675
principle of, 427 Oscillating systems, 104
708 Index

Oscillating systems (continued) Perturbed orbits, 277, 279


free, 63 Phase angle, 4, 92, 93
nonlinear, 122 Phase constant, 65
Oscillations Phase diagram, 127, 129, 130
center of, 364 for a damped oscillator, 133
distortion of, 89 for nonlinear system, 134
forced, 604 for simple harmonic oscillator, 131
free, 70 Phase portrait, 130
linear, 58, 61 Phase trajectory, 130
longitudinal, 645 Phase velocity, 32, 629
modulation effect of, 90 Physical pendulum, 362
nonlinear, 58, 61 Plane lamina, 524
radial, 277 Plane polar coordinates, 190, 196
small, 560 Plumb line, static effects of, 438
sympathetic, 596 Point transformation, 181, 182
Oscillators Poisenille's law, 663
coupled, 566, 570 Poisson's ratio, 371
critically damped, 71 Polar angle, 201
driven, 85 Polar coordinates, 190
energy consideration for, 81 cylindrical, 199
forced, 85, 604 Position-dependent force, 44
free, 70 Postulates of special theory of relativity, 674
frequency of, 65 Potential
harmonic, 58, 65 asymmetrical, 123
linear, 58, 61, 65 attractive, 260
nonlinear, 58,61 centrifugal, 250
overdamped, 71, 75 effective, 249, 253, 259, 264, 268, 277, 554
underdamped, 71 function, 60
Overdamped oscillators, 71, 75 gravitational, 387, 393, 394
Overtones, 620 homogeneous circular dish, 410
repulsive, 259
scalar, 660
shell of finite thickness, 407
Parabola, 273 solid sphere, 405
Parabolic cables, 375 spherical shell, 399
Parallel axis theorem, 350, 352, 524 symmetrical, 60
Parallelogram, area of, 148 thin rod, 412
Parallelopiped, volume of, 150 Potential energy, 44,45, 68, 238, 393, 394, 566, 660
Particle dynamics, 28 function, 45, 205, 206
Particles, system of, 632 gravitational, 51
Particular solution, 86, 88 resonance, 97
Pascal's law, 649, 651 space average of, 69
Pendula time average of, 69
coupled, 586 in normal coordinates, 576
physical, 524 of a simple pendulum, 360
tuned/detuned, 596 Precessing cone, 549
Permanent deformation point, 370 Precessing motion, 258, 259
Perpendicular axis theorem, 352, 353, 524 Precession
Perturbation method, 126 fast, 556
Index 709

of the plane of the pendulum, 452 Newtonian principle of, 427


slow, 556 special theory of, 2, 671, 674
steady, 555 Relaxation method, 374
Precession angle, 542 Repulsive force, 259, 264
Pressure gradient, 167 inverse-square, 324
Principal axes, 526, 529 Repulsive potential, 259
Principal moment of inertia, 526, 529 Resonance, 597
Principal planes, 526 curve, 97, 98
Principal point, 526 frequency, 95
Principle of superposition, 110 width, 98
Products of inertia, 512, 518 Revolution time period, 258
Projectile motion, 225 Reynolds number, 664
with air resistance, 227 Right-hand rule, 148
without air resistance, 225 Rigid bodies
as a function of velocity, 227 center of mass, 341
in three dimensions, 230 configuration of, 340
Propagation constant, 627 equilibrium of, 372
Proper frame, 680 motion, 338, 373, 510
Proper length, 680 Rigidity, modulus of, 371
Proper time, 680, 685 Rockets
Proportional limit, 369, 370 one-stage, 307
propulsion, 302
thrust, 303
Rotating coordinate systems, 429
Quality factor, 82, 99 Rotating Earth, motion on, 437
Quantum mechanics, 2 Rotation about an axis, 345
Rotational flow, 657
Rotational kinetic energy, 513
Rotational symmetry, 293
Radial acceleration, 198 Rotation matrix, 179
Radial distance, 201 Rotor, 530
Radial oscillations, 277 Row matrix, 182
Radial time period, 258 Rutherford scattering, 324
Radial velocity, 198 formula, 330
Radio waves, reflection of. 31. 33
Radius of gyration, 356
Rate of energy dissipation, 99
Rectangular coordinate systems. 188 Satellites, 275
Reduced mass, 242, 318 Scalar point function, 161
Reflection coefficient of waves, 643 Scalar potential, 660
Relative coordinate, 318 Scalar product of vectors, 145
Relative variations in length, time, mass, and momen- Scalar quantity, 139
tum, 691 Scalar triple product, 150
Relativistic dynamics, 686 Scattering angle, 329
Relativistic mechanics in CMS, 324
Hamiltonian formulation of, 693 in LCS, 324
Lorentz formulation of, 693 Scattering center, 329
Relativistic triangle, 693 Scattering of charged particles, 328
Relativity, 671 Second-kind reactions or collisions, 314
710 Index

Second-order differential equation, 63 Spring constant, 61


Second rank, tensor of, 535, 536 effective, 278
Selective frequency, 99 Springs
Semicircle, center of mass, 342 in parallel, 108
Semi-major axis, 130 in series, 108
Shape of orbits, 270, 272 Stable equilibrium, 47, 59, 60, 567
Shearing force, 378 Standard of length, 2
Shearing stress, 368 Standard of mass, 3
Shear modulus, 371 Standard of time, 2
Shear strain, 370 Standing waves, 628
Similarity transformation, 539 Static balancing, 528
Simple harmonic oscillator Static frictional force, 13
energy of, 68 Statics, 1
phase diagram for, 131 fluid, 648
Simple pendulum, 358 Steady precession, 555
potential energy of, 360 Steady-state solution, 86, 88, 111
Simultaneity, 680 Steiner theorem, 521, 523
Sleeping top, 556 Stiffness constant, 61
Slow precession, 556 Stokes' law, 664
Small oscillations Stokes' theorem, 174, 206
in normal coordinates, 581 Straight line, 273
tensor formation, 583 Strain
theory of, 566, 576 lateral, 371
Soft system, 62,122 longitudinal, 369
Solenoidal fluid flow, 170 shear, 370
Solid angle, 4 tensile, 369, 370
Solid beams, equilibrium, 378 Streamlined flow, 648
Solids Streamlined motion, 663
elastic properties of, 370 Stress
of revolution, 530 average, 367
Sound waves, 645 normal, 367
Space shearing, 368
average of kinetic energy, 69 tensile, 370
average of potential energy, 69 Stretch modulus, 369
cone, 550 Strings
isotropy of, 293 loaded, 632
set of axes, 340 vibrating, 614
Spacelike, 685 Strong coupling, 596
Special theory of relativity, 2, 671 Superposition, principle of, 110
postulates, 674 Symmetrical potential, 60
Speed Symmetrical systems, 122
of approach, 316 nonlinear, 123
of recession, 316 Symmetrical top, 552
terminal, 39 force free motion of, 546
Spherical hemisphere, center of mass, 342 Symmetric force, 392
Spherically symmetric central force, 391 Symmetric matrix, 579
Spherical polar coordinates, 193, 201 Symmetric mode, 574
Spherical top, 530 Symmetry
Spinning drum, 13 highest, 575
Index 711

principles of, 489,494 Transfer orbit


rotational, 293 to Mars, 282
translational, 298 to Venus, 282
Sympathic vibrations, 596 Transformation matrix, 179
Systems Transformations
dissipative, 604 Galilean, 672, 673
of particles, 291,632 Lorentz, 674, 675, 678, 689, 690
orthogonal, 675
Transient solution, 88, 111
Transient term, 86
Tangential acceleration, 160 Translating coordinate systems, 425
Taylor series, 122 Translational symmetry, 293
Temperature gradient, 167 Transmission coefficient of waves, 644
Tensile strain, 369, 370 Transverse velocity gradient, 657
Tensile stress, 370 Traveling waves, 627
Tension, 368 Triple product
Tensors scalar, 150
formation, small oscillations. 583 vector, 150
of zero, first, second rank. 535. 536 True strain, 369
Terminal speed, 39 Tuned pendula, 596
Terminal velocity, 38, 41 Turbulent flow, 648
Theory of relativity, 671 Turbulent motion, 663
Thin rod, moment of inertia. 350 Turning points, 47, 59
Three dimensions Two-body problem, 317
dynamics in, 215 Two dimensions, motion in, 188
motion in, 188
Three-vectors, 684
U
Threshold energy, 316
Time average Unbound motion, 130
of kinetic energy, 69 Underdamped oscillators, 71
of potential energy, 69 Undetermined multipliers, 481,485
Time dilation, 679 Unit dyadic, 538
Time homogeneous, 492 Units, 2
Time, standard of, 2 base, 2
Time-dependent force, 31 derived, 2
Timelike, 685 fundamental, 2
Time period, 65 Unit vectors, 151, 160
angular, 258 normal, 161
radial, 258 Unstable equilibrium, 567
revolution, 258
Tops
V
asymmetrical, 530
heavy, 552 Variation of g in a gravitational field, 51
sleeping, 556 Vectors
spherical, 530 addition of, 141
symmetrical, 552 analysis, 139
Torque, 213, 297 calculus, 158
Torsion modulus, 371 components, 154
Trajectory of a projectile, 228 differential operators, 164
712 Index

Vectors (continued) Volume of a parallelepiped, 150


operators, 139 Vortex field, 173
product, 145, 147
quantity, 139 W
triple product, 150
Velocity Wave at discontinuity, 642
addition, 681 Wave equation, 616
angular, 198 Wave forms, 625
generalized, 465 Wavelength, 628
phase, 629 Wave motion as disturbance, 625
radial, 198 Wave number, 627
terminal, 38,41 angular, 627
Velocity-dependent force, 35 Wave propagation, 624
Velocity gradient, transverse, 657 Wave reflection coefficient, 643
Vibrating strings, 614 Waves
energy, 629 longitudinal, 645
Lagrangian formation of, 629 sound, 645
modes, 621 traveling, 627
normal modes, 640 Wave velocity, 616
power, 629 Weak coupling, 596
Vibration of molecules, 602 Weather systems, 453
Vibrations World time, 685
normal modes, 617, 635
sympathic, 596
Virtual displacement, 296, 466
Virtual work, 296 Yield point, 369
Viscosity, 660 Young's modulus, 369
coefficient of, 661 Yukawa theory, 261
Viscous fluid flow, 660, 661
Viscous force, 35
Viscous resistance, 35
Volume elasticity, 371 Zero rank, tensor of, 536