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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 19 (2015)

© Research India Publications :::

Development of Mix Design Procedure for Self Compacting

Concrete-State of art


Assistant professor(SRG), Department of Civil Engineering, Kumaraguru college of Technology, Coimbatore,
Tamilnadu, India.Ph.No.: 9944133455 Email:
, Professor & Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Kumaraguru College of Technology,
Coimbatore - 641049. Mobile: 934538652, Mail ID:
PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Kumaraguru college of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
Ph.No:.9003678309 Email:

ABSTRACT: SCC is a concrete which is capable of flowing into the form work, without
segregation and bleeding, reduces manpower, better finishes, easier placement, better durability,
thinner concrete sections, lesser noise levels, no vibration, safer working environment, to fill
uniformly and completely every corner of it by its own weight without any application of
vibration or other energy during placing. SCC makes this concrete more desirable all over the
world which includes faster construction. Such concrete should have low yield value to ensure
high flow ability, a moderate viscosity to resist segregation and bleeding, and must maintain its
homogeneity during transportation, and placing to ensure adequate structural performance and
long term durability. In this paper, a review is presented aboutthe development of mix design
procedure for self-compacting concrete which contains different mineral admixtures. To develop
design procedure for self-compacting concrete with various admixtures many factors should be
considered like mix proportions, water binder ratio, type of cement, size of aggregate, properties
of admixtures etc. which have been discussed in this paper.The standard mix design procedure
for self-compacting concrete is not available like ordinary conventional vibrated concrete.
Hence in this paper, mix design tool for self-compacting concrete discussed in previous
literature papers are discussed.

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, mix design tool, mineral admixtures, and properties of

1. Introdution: due to shortage of skilled labors full

compaction. The solution to this is the use of
Self-Compacting Concrete was first self-compacting concrete which compacts in
introduced in the late 1980‟s by Japanese every corner of formwork. It is the concrete
researchers, has been described as the most which is fully compacted without segregation
revolutionary development in concrete without external energy. SCC has economic,
industry. The quality of concrete construction social and environmental benefits over
is of utmost importance in order to have a conventionally vibrated concrete. SCC is
durable concrete structure and one of the made from the same basic constituents as
reasons to make a durable structure is proper conventional concrete but with the addition
compaction which requires skilled labors but of a viscosity modifying admixture and high

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 19 (2015)
© Research India Publications :::

levels of superplasticising admixtures to Compacting concrete” which, at that time,

impart high workability. The cement provided state of the art information for
(powder) content of SCC is relatively high. producers and users. Since then, much
The ratio of fine to coarse aggregates is more additional technical information on SCC has
in self-compacting concrete. Fine fillers such been published but European design, product
as flyash, silica fume, lime powder and and construction standards do not yet
marble powder may be used in addition to specifically refer to SCC and for site
cement to increase the paste content. In pre- applications this has limited its wider
cast product plants as well, Self-Compacting acceptance, especially by specifiers and
Concrete is highly effective in reducing the purchasers. In 1994 five European
noise as it requires no vibration. In general, organizations BIBM, CEMBUREAU,
SCC results in reduced construction times ERMCO, EFCA and EFNARC, all dedicated
and reduced noise pollution. Super plasticizer to the promotion of advanced materials
enhances deformability and with the and systems for the supply and use of
reduction of waste /powder segregation concrete, created a “European Project
resistance is increased. Lime powder filler Group” to review current best practice
will also help to control the heat of hydration and produce a new document covering all
in mixes that have a high PC content .The aspects of SCC.The properties of hardened
basic ingredients of SCC are similar to those concrete have also have been evaluated. The
of normal concrete. The traditional concrete compressive strength, flexural strength and
aggregates such as gravel or crushed stone split tensile strength at 7 days and 28 days
and sand are also used in SCC. Generally, the has also assessed for the mixes containing
aggregates occupy 55–60% of the SCC different percentages of fly ash, silica fume,
volume and playa substantial role in marble powder and lime powder.
determining the workability, strength,
dimensional stability and durability of 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
concrete. The aggregates also have a
NAN SU (2001)
significant effect on the cost of SCC.
Therefore, less expensive aggregates are
desirable for use in SCC. Self-compacting
aggregates requiredis
concrete (SSC) is a highly flowing concrete
that spreads through congested
reinforcement, fills every corner of the
formwork and gets consolidated under self-
weight. The objective of this study is to
develop SCC by understanding the fresh state
properties of SCC containing fly ash, silica
fume, marble powder and lime powder in
various proportions as partial replacement of
cement and small quantity of super
plasticizer. The fresh state properties like
slump flow, T50 time, J-ring, L-box, U-box,
Fill box and V- funnel have been assessed
using the methods as per EFNARC
specification. In 2002 EFNARC published
their “Specification & Guidelines for Self-

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 19 (2015)
© Research India Publications :::

MixedConcreteAssociation(JRMCA),thisme total coarse aggregate. Detailed steps used in

thodissimpler,easierforimplementationandles this tool are discussed. This tool can also be
stime-consuming, requires a smaller amount used for self-compacting mortar (SCM)
of binders and saves cost. They conclude design. He practically had seen that this
that SCC designed and produced with the simple tool is very much useful for the mix
proposed mix design method contains more design of SCC with or without blended
sand but less coarse aggre- gates, thus the cement and with or without coarse aggregate
passing ability through gaps of blending.
reinforcement can be enhanced. Inthis
designmethod,the volume ofsandtomortaris MOHAMMED ABDUL HAMEED
intherangeof54–60%. (2015)explores the feasibility of using SCC
made with local marginal aggregates of Eastern
PARATIBHA Province of Saudi Arabia by examining its basic
AGGARWAL(2008)developed a procedure properties and durability characteristics. This
formixdesignofSCC.He presented research consists of: (i) development of a suitable
mix for SCC that would satisfy the requirements
of the plastic state; (ii) casting of concrete
samples and testing them for compressive
cceptancecharacteristicsof self-
compactingconcretesuchasslump flow;J- strength, drying shrinkage, water permeability,
ring,V-funnelandL-Boxare and chloride permeability; and (iii) cyclic
presented.Further,compressivestrengthatthea exposure tests involving wet-dry and heat-cool
gesof7, 28 and90dayswas also determined cycles to observe the degradation of the prepared
and results are includedhere. He finally SCC samples. Local aggregates, cement,
concluded admixtures and additives produced by the local
atthewater/powderratioof1.180to1.215,slum suppliers were used by in this work. The
pflowtest,V-funnel test and L-box test significance of this work lies in its attempt to
results were provide some performance data of SCC made in
foundtobesatisfactory,i.e.passingability,fillin the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia so as to
gabilityandsegregation resistance are well draw attention to the possible use of SCC.
within the limits and
byusingtheOPC43grade, ANANT PATEL (2012) investigated about
normalstrengthof25MPato33MPaat28- the Compressive Strength and Modulus of
dayswas obtained, keeping the cement Elasticity of Self Compacting Concrete
content around 350 kg/m3to 414 kg/m3. which contain trial mixes for SCC with
effects of admixtures and various contents of
J. GURU JAWAHAR (2012) developed a cement and Fly Ash. The study involves
tool for self-compacting concrete (SCC) mix „Relative Slump Cone Test‟ for fixing the
design. In his paper, this tool has been w/p ratio, analysis of hardened properties of
evaluated with a SCC mix having 28% of concrete with compressive strength testing
coarse aggregate content, 35% replacement machine and the study of modulus of
of cement with class F fly ash, 0.36 elasticity. From the discussion and test
water/cementitious ratio (by weight) and 388 results, the conclusion drawn are that,
litre/m3 of paste volume. Crushed granite values are having comparable results
stones of size 20mm and 10mm are used with within satisfying range, the effects of w/p
a blending 60:40 by percentage weight of ratio, cement content and fly ash plays a

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 19 (2015)
© Research India Publications :::

key role in formation of SCC and its

strength. Thus, mix design procedure and SOFIA UTSI (2008)deals with the field of
various tests conducted for SCC had self-compactingconcrete (SCC). In this thesis,
governed satisfied results. a performance based mix-design method is
REENAK (2014)investigated about a proposed. Performance based meansthat
simple mix design procedure proposed by concrete shall be composed regarding the
Nan Su was used by changing the Nan- properties of available materials and due to
Su‟s coefficient for calculating the cement the properties of the element to be cast. In the
content i.e. C=7f1c and water cement ratio thesis, a method to choose an appropriate mi-
to achieve M20 grade SCC. In his work a cro mortar is presented as well as how an
wide range of SCC mix were developed appropriate aggregate grading curve can be
using fly ash as a filler material along with combined based on material related
Portland cement of 43 grade.. To qualify properties. To fully utilize the potential of the
Self-Compacting Concrete mixes Slump sug- gested method, a connection parameter
flow, V-funnel, L-Box, U-Box tests were between micro mortar and aggregates is intro-
conducted and the fresh properties obtained duced. an investigation of the effect of fly ash
are checked against the specifications given on the hardening properties.
by EFNARC guidelines. Compressive
strength tests were conducted to know the 3. CONCLUSION
strength properties of the mixes at the age
of7 and 28 days of curing. It has been The use of SCC is rising steadily over the
observed that for Nan- Su‟s coefficient 11 years because of their advantages and many
i.e. C=11f1c the M20 grade SCCis scientists and organizations carried out
achieved by satisfying all the requirements research on properties of SCC. Self-
given by EFNARC guidelines. Compacting Concrete (SCC) not only
increases the reliability of structures but also
H.NARENDRA (2008)considers a single reduces the number of workers required at
characteristic optimization problem and the construction site and streamlines the
optimizes the characteristic compressive construction.The elimination of vibrating
strength of concrete. Taguchi‟s technique equipment improves the environment
has been applied to obtain the optimal protection near construction sites where
levels of process parameters of SCC mix concrete is being placed, also reducing the
design to obtain the compressive strength exposure of workers to noise and vibration.
of concrete. Orthogonal array approach of Several case studies on the development of
Taguchi‟s method has been used to find the self-compacting concrete were studied. From
parameters and then confirmed by further the papers, mix design tool for self-
test. The designed mix has been examined compacting concrete and the various data
with respect to the fresh properties on SCC required for developing mix design tool has
to know the characteristic behavior like been discussed. And also various properties
passing ability, flowing ability and of materials and mix proportions makes SCC
segregation resistance and the compressive to behave differently in its fresh and
strength of concrete. The study points out hardened state when it is used were also
the application of Taguchi‟s method of mix studied and it is proved that there are
design for SCC mixes; resulting in an currently no standardized tests or limits for
optimal mix with less trialsand saving in the specification of SCC. Considerable scope
time. exists for the optimization of SCC mixes

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 19 (2015)
© Research India Publications :::

with efficiency and economy for the 5) Iliana Rodriguez viacava, Antonio aguado
benefit of construction industry in the future. de cea,Gemma Rodriguez de sensale “
Self compacting concrete of medium
characteristic strength”, Construction and
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