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Duhok polytechnic university

Faculty of Petrochemical Engineering


School of Unit operation

Laboratory of Unit operation


EXPERIMENT NUMBER TWO

Filter paper

Instructor: eng.shwan
Author Name: Muhammad Akram
Experiment Contacted on: 2/APR/2018
Report Submitted on: 4/APR/2013
Group: A
Abstract:
Membrane filters have come into general use in recent years for the filtration
of water samples prior analysis. Membranes are screen filters that remove
suspended materials from the water in different size ranges. Filtration is
widely accepted as a way of producing acceptable sample and filtration has
become a first step in the preparation of water samples for trace metal
analysis.

Introduction:
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that
separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which
only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the filtrate.In
physical filters oversize solids in the fluid are retained and in biological filters
particulates are trapped and ingested and metabolites are retained and removed.
However, the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some
fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size, filter
thickness and biological activity). Filtration occurs both in nature and
in engineered systems; there are biological, geological, and industrial forms. For
example, in animals (including humans), renal filtration removes wastes from
the blood, and in water treatment and sewage treatment, undesirable constituents
are removed by absorption into a biological film grown on or in the filter medium,
as in slow sand filtration. Filter paper Made of pure cellulose treated with
hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid, filter paper is quantitative paper used for
straining with fast flow rates and good retention. It creates a semi-permeable
barrier perpendicular to a liquid or airflow in order to separate fine substances from
liquids or air. Different grades of filter paper are available for performing routine
laboratory work, ranging from coarse to fine filtration of particulates. And is a
semi-permeable paper barrier placed perpendicular to a liquid or air flow. It is used
to separate fine substances from liquids or air. filter papers are world-renowned as
the standard for laboratory filtration and are associated with quality, reliability and
customer service. The familiar Whatman Blue Box is the laboratory benchmark for
filtration. Papermaking skills have been developed to the highest level, with the
expertise and technology to manufacture innovative multilayer materials.
Theory:
This filter paper is a calendared, hardened, qualitative low-ash filter
paper used to filter fine precipitates with the following qualities:
 A very slow, extra dense paper made from 100% cotton linters
 Lint-free surface
 Highly resistant to acid and alkaline solutions

Filter paper has various properties. The important parameters are wet
strength, porosity, particle retention, volumetric flow rate, compatibility,
efficiency and capacity.
There are two mechanisms of filtration with paper; volume and surface.
By volume filtration the particles are caught in the bulk of the filter
paper. By surface filtration the particles are caught on the paper surface.
Filter paper is mostly used because even a small piece of filter paper will
absorb a significant volume of liquid.
Equipment:
 conical flask,
 filter funnel,
 filter paper,
 beaker.Chemicals
 :Water and soil sample
Gravity Filtration Gravity filtration uses a polyethylene or glass funnel with a stem
and filter paper. Filter paper can have pore sizes ranging from small to large to
permit slow to fast filtering. The paper is folded in half (Figure 1), then folded in
quarters, and the tip of one corner is torn off to allow for a snug fit in the funnel
cone. (If the paper has been pre-weighed, the torn corner piece must be saved to
add to the post-filter weighing to avoid any errors.) The paper cone is fitted to the
funnel so three thicknesses of the paper line one-half of the cone and one thickness
lines the opposite half (Figure 1). Now place the funnel into a beaker and wet the
filter paper completely

with the dominate solvent or solvents in the mixture to be filtered. This step
adheres the filter paper to the funnel walls preventing solid from escaping. Then,
support the funnel with a clamp

or ring (if necessary) and place a clean beaker beneath the funnel so the stem rests
against the side of the beaker (this prevents splattering).

Before filtering, allow most of the solid in the mixture to settle. Now pour the
supernatant liquid (the liquid standing over the solid in a mixture) through the filter
first. This will allow the initial part of the filtration to proceed faster and may
prevent clogging of the filter by the solid. To prevent splattering pour the liquid
down a glass rod as shown
Scrape the solid onto the filter with a rubber policeman or spatula. Rinse the
spatula, glass rod and beaker and pour the washings into the filter funnel. If the
remaining solid residue is to be washed, rinse with three small portions (a few
milliliters each) of an appropriate solvent. If the solid is to be saved, remove the
filter paper carefully and place it on a watch glass to dry. Caution: Wet filter paper
tears easily
Conclusion:
The insoluble solid (soil) is unable to pass through the pores in the filter
paper and is trapped. This is known as the residue. Clear water passes
through the filter paper and is collected in the conical flask. This is the
filtrate. Conclusion: Soil can be separated from water by filtration.