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Chapter 8 Answers Chapter 8 Check Your

Making Connections—Connecting Mind and Body

Progress Answers
1. Situations that might disrupt the internal state of Check Your Progress 8.1
the body include stress, illnesses, and disease,
medication, etc. 1. The five types of epithelium and location are: simple
squamous – lungs; pseudostratified, ciliated columnar
2. Alleviating stress improves health and quality of life – lining of trachea; stratified squamous – lining of
as it allows the body to maintain a relatively constant mouth, esophagus, nose; simple columnar – small
internal environment. The mind and body can be more intestine; simple cuboidal – kidney tubules.
at ease, having a direct effect on a person’s physical,
psychological, and spiritual well-being. 2. Skeletal muscle consists of striated cells with multiple
nuclei. The function is voluntary movement of the
body. Smooth muscle is spindle-shaped each with a
Chapter 8 Diagnostic Questions single nucleus. There are no striations. The function is
involuntary movement of substances in the lumens of
1. b organ the body. Cardiac muscle is branching, striated cells
2. a digestive system. with a single nucleus found in the walls of the heart.
3. c circulatory system and respiratory system The function of the tissue is to pump the heart.

4. c circulatory system. 3. The three parts of a neuron are cell body, dendrites,
and axon. A nerve fibre refers to an axon with a myelin
5. a line the nasal cavity. sheath (if it has one).
6. d 37°C
7. d I, II and III Check Your Progress 8.2
8. a. the hairs on skin lie flat, sweating occurs, blood 1. Sample answers:
vessels dilate integumentary system – skin
cardiovascular system – heart
9. a. curl up to reduce the surface area
lymphatic and immune system – lymph nodes
10. b. decrease heat loss. digestive system – small intestine
11. b to maintain constant internal body conditions respiratory system – lungs
12. a brain urinary system – kidneys
musculoskeletal system – skeleton
13. body temperature, blood pH, blood glucose levels,
nervous system – spinal cord
blood pressure, carbon dioxide levels, oxygen levels
endocrine system – pancreas
14. A. cellular level; B. tissue level; C. organ level; reproductive system – ovaries
D. organ system; E. organism
2. Integumentary, lymphatic, and immune systems
15. a. Dark Blue Box: cooling mechanisms: sweating and protect the body from disease
blood vessels dilate
b. Pink Box: heating mechanisms: shivering and blood Check Your Progress 8.3
vessels constrict
1. In negative feedback, a sensor detects a change in
c. White Box: detected by thermoreceptors in skin internal conditions, resulting in a response that brings
and hypothalamus the conditions back to normal. Positive feedback
d. Lilac Box: detected by thermoreceptors in skin involves an ever-greater change in the same direction
and hypothalamus until the initial stimulus is stopped.
2. Sample answer: The respiratory, digestive, and urinary
systems all interact to take in O2 and nutrients needed
by the body, and eliminate unused or waste products
such as CO2.
3. Sample answer: Failure of the immune system results
in infectious diseases such as shingles and candidiasis.

A-36 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

Failure of the cardiovascular system results in heart 4. b. the circulatory system and the urinary system
failure or strokes. Failure of endocrine organs can 5. c. different tissues that consist of cells with
result in diabetes or hypothyroidism. similar functions.
6. c. stratified squamous epithelial tissue.
Check Your Progress 8.4
7. d. different cells express different genes on the
1. Students can cite any six of the hypothalamus, pituitary
DNA molecule.
gland, thyroid gland, parathyroids, adrenal glands,
thymus, pancreas, gonads, and pineal gland. 8. c. A tissue in the circulatory system is made up of a
group of cells specialized to do a specific job.
2. When an endocrine gland is controlled by negative
feedback, it is sensitive to the condition it is regulating 9. b. nervous tissue
or the blood level of the hormone it is producing. 10. b. smooth muscle tissue
11. a. calf
Chapter 8 Features and 12. d. cells are bound by intercalated disks
Case Study Answers 13. c. glucose; carbon dioxide; hormones
14. a. There will be a disruption in homeostasis.
Science in Your Life: Bioethical—
15. a. illness or death
Regenerative Medicine
16. c. high levels of blood glucose levels
1. Ethical concerns arising from regenerative medicine
include the following: 17. a. Blood vessels near the surface of the skin dilate and
• Having people live longer will put a heavier burden sweat glands release water.
on the health care system. 18. c. a negative feedback mechanism.
• People may choose better organs and cells 19. d. it keeps the internal environment relatively constant.
for implant.
20. c. II and III only
• Who will have access to the new technology; will it
be restricted to only the people who have money or 21. d. a negative feedback mechanism in the body.
access? 22. b. positive feedback.
• Who has ownership of the stems cells that the organs
23. a. IV
and tissues are being generated from? Will certain
stem cells be more desirable than others, and will b. I
there be an associated cost? c. III
2. Students answers should be reasonable and well- d. IV
reasoned. Some points to consider may be: e. I
• Cryogenic storage of stem cells is expensive. f. II
• There is little research around how long stem cell g. II
can be kept. Will there be any concerns over the h. II
degradation of the cells? i. III
• Who will have ownership of the cells: the parents or
j. II
the child?
k. II
• When should regenerative medicine be considered?
Should it be a first option or a last resort? l. III
m. I
n. IV
Chapter 8 Review Questions
o. II
1. b. cells → tissues → organs → organ systems
2. a. a tissue.
3. c. digestive system and respiratory system

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-37

24. digestive system did not function properly, then
Type of Epithelial Location in the food would not be broken down and glucose would
Tissue Characteristic Body not be available to cells and the blood glucose level
Squamous Flattened cells Lines the lungs and would be low.
Epithelium blood vessels b. The circulatory system transports oxygen to the
Cuboidal Cube-shaped cells Lines the kidney cells and carries carbon dioxide away from the cells.
Epithelium tubules It helps maintain the proper pH in the blood. If
Columnar Rectangular- Lines digestive tract the circulatory system did not function properly,
Epithelium shaped cells and the oviducts then cells would not get the oxygen that they
need to carry out cellular respiration. Without the
25. Diagram production of ATP, all the metabolic activities would
26. a. Some current issues or controversies at the cell level: stop and the cells would die.
stem cell research; cloning humans from a single cell c. The respiratory system regulates blood pH by
b. Some current issues or controversies at the organ removing excess carbon dioxide that can lower
level: how to increase the supply of human organs the blood pH. If the respiratory system did not
for transplantation; transplanting animal organs function properly, then the excess carbon dioxide
into humans would not be removed from the body and blood pH
c. Some current issues or controversies at the organ would decrease. In addition to this, oxygen would
system level: enhancing human performance with not be made available to cells if the respiratory
drugs or genetic engineering system could not get oxygen into the body. Death
could result.
30. a. muscles are important for the chewing, swallowing,
Level of
churning and movement of digestion products along
Organization Description Examples
the digestive tract
Cell Smallest unit of life Muscle cell
Skin cell b. nervous system speeds up/slows down heart
Neuron rate; constricts/dilates blood vessels to control
Tissue A group of cells with Muscle tissue blood pressure
the same general Epithelial tissue c. lacteals (part of the lymphatic system) absorb fats
structure and Connective tissue digested by the digestive system
function. Nervous tissue
d. the lymphatic system collects excess fluids and
Organ A group of several Stomach
tissue types that Heart drains it back into the circulatory system
carry out a specific Lungs e. endocrine system secrete hormones that affect the
function. development of reproductive organs
Organ System A group of organs Digestive system
31. a. iv
that work together Circulatory system
to complete a Respiratory system b. i
generalized set of c. ix
tasks. d. v
Organism An organism is Human
e. vii, iii, vi
made up of a group
of organ systems f. ii
that work together. g. vii
h. viii, iii
28. Glands that release hormones are inhibited to prevent i. ii, vi
an imbalance.
j. v
29. a. The digestive system regulates blood glucose levels. k. xi
The liver converts excess glucose into glycogen.
When the blood glucose level is low, then glycogen 32. Diagram
is converted into glucose for the body to use. If the 33. Diagram

A-38 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

34. Flow Chart #1: body temperature drops below normal pancreas produces bicarbonate, which increases the
→ brain signals blood vessels to constrict and sweat pH in the duodenum and provides an environment for
glands to remain inactive → body heat is conserved optimum enzyme activity. The pancreas also produces
→ body temperature rises and returns to normal nucleases, trypsin, lipase, and pancreatic amylase.
Flow Chart #2: body temperature drops below normal The small intestine produces maltase, peptidases,
→ brain signals blood vessels to constrict and sweat and nucleosidases.
glands to remain inactive → if body temperature
continues to drop, signals muscles to contract Chapter 9 Diagnostic Questions
(shivering will occur) → muscle activity generates
body heat → body temperature rises and returns back 1. a to lubricate food.
to normal
2. b absorbs nutrients and eliminates waste.
35. fever; exercise
3. c the use of enzymes to break down food.
36. body temperature rises above normal → brain signals
4. a chewing in the mouth
blood vessels to dilate and sweat glands will secrete
water to initiate sweating → body heat is lost to its 5. c epiglottis
surroundings → body temperature drops and returns 6. a liver.
to normal 7. b amino acids.
37. negative feedback or homeostasis 8. c vitamins
38. The body is trying to cool down by sweating. 9. c small intestine.
39. The enzymes could denature. 10. a water
40. a. Negative Feedback 11. a hydrolysis
b. Positive Feedback
12. c calories.
c. Positive Feedback
13. A. esophagus
41. Homeostatic mechanisms are classified according to
B. liver
their feedback mechanisms.
C. gall bladder
42. Concept Map
D. ascending part of the large intestine
43. Green box at the top: c. decrease in room temperature E. small intestine
Blue box on the left: a. shivering
F. appendix
Blue box in the center: b. curling up
G. anus
Blue box on the right: d. constriction of blood vessels
Green box at the bottom: e. return of body temperature H. descending part of the large intestine
toward original value I. pancreas
J. stomach
Chapter 9 Answers 14. Food moves down the esophagus by peristalsis, a series
of muscular contractions.
Making Connections—A Window into Digestion 15. Hydrolytic enzymes (eg. pepsin and trypsin) are
1. Our current understanding of the digestive system responsible for breaking down a polymer into
is that the digestive process is highly regulated by smaller subunits.
hormones and enzymes. Secretions of juices occur
16. Soaps and detergents are examples of emulsifiers.
with nervous and hormonal stimulation of the glands
secreting those juices. Enzymes operate in specific 17. Accessory glands that aid in digestion include the
pH ranges along the digestive tract. Absorption of salivary glands, the liver, the pancreas, and gall bladder.
nutrients occurs mainly in the small intestine and 18. If there is no stomach, then the small intestine can
some in the large intestine. compensate by contributing more to protein digestion.
2. Hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach provides The absence and the antibacterial functions of the
the pH in which pepsin, also produced by the stomach, stomach can also be tolerated.
can operate. Pepsin breaks proteins into peptides. The

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-39

19. Fad diets are unhealthy because they involve eating somatostatin, also called growth hormone, suppresses
only a limited variety of foods. Therefore you are the release of insulin and glucagon.
completely cutting out carbohydrates, fats or proteins 2. The liver performs functions essential for life including
from your diet. You need all of these nutrients to removing toxins from the blood, storing iron and
perform different jobs in a healthy body. vitamins, processing some wastes and synthesizing
20. Diagram essential plasma proteins such as albumen and
21. Sequence of organs that food passes through: mouth, fibrinogen, and regulating blood cholesterol. The main
esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine function of the gall bladder is storing bile, which is
and anus. made in the liver. Removal of the gall bladder is not
22. a. The liver represents the bank.
b. Glucagon represents the withdrawal slip.
Check Your Progress 9.3
1. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with
Chapter 9 Check Your salivary amylase breaking starch into maltose. It then
Progress Answers continues in the small intestine with maltase and
pancreatic amylase. Protein digestion begins in the
Check Your Progress 9.1 stomach where pepsin breaks proteins into peptides.
1. Food passes through the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, It continues in the small intestine where trypsin
small intestine, and large intestine. Chemical digestion continues the breakdown of proteins into peptides
occurs in the mouth, then continues in the stomach and peptidases break protein into amino acids. Fat
and intestine. Mechanical digestion occurs mostly in breakdown mainly occurs with the secretion of lipase
the mouth and stomach. from the pancreas into the small intestine where fats
are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids.
2. The major function of the small intestine is to absorb
nutrients that have been broken down into the 2. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose
monomers. The major function of the large intestine monomers, proteins are broken down into amino acids,
is to absorb water and store indigestible remains and fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
for elimination. 3. The digestive system is compartmentalized, which
3. Hormones that increase digestive activity include provides the optimum environment and pH for the
gastrin, secretin and CCK. Inhibiting these hormones enzymes to operate. For example, pepsin is active
might cause less absorption of nutrients and therefore in the stomach at a pH 2–3 but inactivated when it
may help regulate weight. However, this might reaches the duodenum, where the pH is more basic.
cause difficulties in digesting food, leading to gas
and constipation. Check Your Progress 9.4
1. Most stomach ulcers are caused by the bacterium
Check Your Progress 9.2 Helicobacter pylori.
1. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas when blood glucose 2. The pancreas is essential in the regulation of blood
levels are high. When insulin binds to cell receptors, glucose levels by secreting insulin and glucagon. The
it causes glucose transport proteins to come to the bicarbonate in the pancreatic juice neutralizes the
cell membrane to enable glucose to leave the blood acidic chyme from the stomach, raising the pH in the
and enter cells. Insulin also causes glucose to form duodenum for optimum enzyme activity. The pancreas
polymers of glycogen for storage in the liver and also secretes digestive enzymes for further breakdown
muscle. Glucagon is secreted by the pancreas when of nutrients into monomers. The liver synthesizes bile
glucose levels are low. Glucagon stimulates the liver and essential proteins, regulates glucose and cholesterol
to break down glycogen to glucose and adipose tissue. levels, metabolizes waste products, and stores iron and
Other metabolic changes ensure that the little glucose vitamins. Both organs are essential to life.
present is available to the brain for energy. Other 3. In type 1 diabetes, people do not produce enough
metabolic pathways are activated so that protein and insulin. In type 2 diabetes, people cannot use the
fat molecules are changed so that they can be used insulin they produce. In both cases, glucose levels rise
to make more glucose in the liver. The hormone and the excess glucose cannot be used by the body.

A-40 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

In type 1 diabetes, treatment consists of providing the 3. c. hydrolysis.
necessary insulin through daily injections at the correct 4. c. rhythmic muscular contractions that assist with the
times. Alternatively, an insulin pump may be used to movement of food
supply the insulin automatically. Treatment of type
5. d. hemoglobin.
2 diabetes usually involves weight loss, and perhaps
insulin injections. In both cases, patients need to 6. a. bile
monitor their blood glucose levels several times a day. 7. d. an emulsifier.
8. a. Proteases have active sites that only proteins can fit.
Chapter 9 Features and 9. a. bile
Case Study Answers 10. d. Structure W – detoxifies blood by removing and
metabolizing alcohol
Science in Your Life: Scientific Inquiry—
11. c. cholecystokinin
A Bacterial Culprit for Stomach Ulcers
12. b. proteins.
1. To survive, H.pylori either must have enzymes that
operate within highly acidic environments or it must 13. c. X and Y
be able to isolate itself from the acidic environment. 14. a. W
2. Students may suggest that other scientists either were 15. c. structure Y.
not prepared to trust Marshall’s results or required 16. a. structure T.
further studies to supply evidence to lend greater
17. d. increasing the pH of the solution to 14.0
support to those results. Students may also suggest that
scientists were not prepared to give up a view of ulcers 18. b. the mouth and the small intestine.
that had been the prevailing wisdom for a long period 19. b. pancreas
of time.
20. c. pH = 8
3. Students’ answers should demonstrate sound reasoning
21. c. maltose
and be reasonable. Students may suggest ethical
alternatives such as experimenting on microorganisms 22. b. the products would not form at all
or using computer simulations. 23. c. nuclease and nucleic acid at pH 8.0
24. a. maintain homeostasis.
Science in Your Life: Case Study—
25. b. pepsin
Diseases of Civilization: The Reality
26. c. small intestine
1. Many students likely will agree. Accept all well-
reasoned and reasonable answers. 27. d. pancreatic juices

2. Students may suggest that traditional wisdom depends, 28. b. B

in part, on physical exertion (i.e., exercise) for 29. c. hydrochloric acid.
obtaining food, unlike the comparative ease with which 30. d. sodium bicarbonate.
food can be obtained in western societies. As well,
traditional wisdom grows, in part, from experiences 31. c. C
gained over long periods of time, unlike the impatient 32. c. Absorption of glucose from the small intestine.
expectations of western socieities for immediate 33. c. Only Person X has diabetes.
knowledge and understanding with minimal effort.
34. a. O h to 1 h
Accept all reasonable and reasoned answers.
35. c. homeostatic mechanisms.
36. a. insulin
Chapter 9 Review Questions
37. d. (glycogen)
1. a. lysosome 38. d. Person X does not have the insulin receptors on
2. a.Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth and ends tissue cells that function properly.
in the small intestine, and chemical digestion also 39. b. the use of ex vivo gene therapy
begins in the mouth and ends in the small intestine.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-41

40. d. the alpha cells of the pancreas release glucagon into that aid in physical digestion. It contains acid-secreting
the blood cells that produce a highly acidic interior, which
41. d. stomach cells have receptors on the cell membrane kills bacteria.
that bind to gastrin 51. The muscular stomach wall can move the food along
42. b. B and physically churn it so that food mixes with the
gastric juices breaking it down into small pieces. The
43. c. II and III only
hydrochloric acid and pepsin content of the stomach
44. a. I and II only help digest the food chemically.
45. a. the sequence of DNA nitrogenous bases. 52. Structurally, the small intestine is smaller in diameter,
46. a. 3 (gall bladder) but much longer than the large intestine. Functionally,
b. 5 (rectum) the small intestine’s job is to digest the food, breaking
the macromolecules down into monomers. The small
c. 7 (stomach)
intestine absorbs nutrients, while the large intestine
d. 7 (stomach) absorbs water, salts and vitamins.
e. 4 (large intestine)
53. Starch is first broken down in the mouth by salivary
f. 2 (liver) amylase into maltose. Starch is again digested in the
g. 2 (liver) small intestine where it is broken down into maltose
h. 1 (mouth) by pancreatic amylase. Maltose is then hydrolyzed into
i. 7 (stomach) glucose by the enzyme maltase.
j. 10 (anus) 54. The concentration of glycerol, fatty acids, amino acids
k. 9 (small intestine) and sugars increases as they enter the blood capillaries
l. 4 (large intestine) of the villi.
m. 7 (stomach) 55. The stomach produces gastrin which causes the
n. 9 (small intestine) stomach to churn and secrete gastric juices. The gastric
o. 1 (mouth) glands produce gastric juice containing pepsinogen,
hydrochloric acid and mucus. In the presence of HCl,
p. 6 (esophagus)
pepsinogen is converted to pepsin. Pepsin is then used
q. 8 (pancreas) to digest proteins.
r. 2 (liver)
56. If sodium bicarbonate was not present in the
s. 9 (small intestine) duodenum, the acid chyme from the stomach would
t. 1 (mouth) damage the lining of the small intestine because would
47. be there to neutralize the acid chime.
Secretion Site of Production Function 57. a. Diagram of a villus should show a layer of epithelial
Hormones Stomach, pancreas, Regulate digestion and cells with microvilli on it. The microvilli increase the
small intestine absorption of nutrients surface area of the villus so that it is more efficient
Hydrochloric Stomach Promotes digestion of at absorption. Inside the villus, there are blood
Acid protein; kills bacteria capillaries surrounding a lacteal that absorbs fats.
Digestive Mouth, stomach, small Break macromolecules b. The villus is found in the small intestine.
Enzymes intestine, pancreas down into subunits c. The function of the villus is to absorb nutrients
(eg. glycerol and fatty acids).
Sodium Pancreas and small Neutralizes acid chyme
d. The villus is made up of many folds and ridges. This
Bicarbonate intestine
increases the surface area to promote absorption
48. The advantage is food can be regurgitated of nutrients.
(vomiting) when you are sick or have ingested e. If the liver was not functioning properly, the
something harmful. absorption of fats would decrease because fats would
49. It has a protective layer of mucus that prevents the not be emulsified due to the absence of bile.
hydrochloric acid from digesting the stomach lining. 58. Pancreatic juice consists of sodium bicarbonate,
50. The stomach has sufficient space to accommodate pancreatic amylase, lipase, peptidase, nuclease,
ingested food. It contains smooth muscles in its walls and trypsin. The function of sodium bicarbonate is

A-42 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

to neutralize the acid chyme that enters the small 61. Graph should show that pepsin has an optimum
intestine from the stomach. Pancreatic amylase breaks pH around 2 and that trypsin has an optimum pH
starch down into maltose. Lipase breaks fats down around 8.5.
into glycerol and fatty acids. Peptidase breaks peptides 62.
down into amino acids. Nuclease breaks down nucleic
Insulin Glucagon
acids into nucleotides. Trypsin breaks proteins down
Type of Molecule Hormone Hormone
into peptides.
Secreted By Beta cells in the Alpha cells in the
59. Drawing should show two amino acids connected by a pancreas pancreas
peptide bond. The enzyme involved in the hydrolysis
Secreted in High blood glucose Low blood glucose
reaction is peptidase. It breaks down the dipeptide response to levels levels
(substrate) into two amino acids (products) in the
Function To lower the blood To increase the
small intestine. glucose levels blood glucose
60. Pepsin Trypsin levels

63. a. Blood glucose level drops below normal: blood

glucose level drops below normal → alpha cells
of the pancreas secrete glucagon → stimulates
Similarities the release of glycogen in the liver and muscle
produced by produced by
between pepsin → glycogen is converted to glucose → blood
the stomach; the pancreas;
and trypsin: glucose rises to normal level
secreted in secreted in
proteases; digestive b. Blood glucose levels rises above normal: blood
the stomach; the small
enzymes; involved glucose level rises above normal → beta cells of
has an intestine; has
in hydrolysis; breaks the pancreas secrete insulin → stimulates glucose
optimum pH an optimum
proteins down uptake by cells and glycogen formation → glucose is
of 2 pH of 8.5
into peptides. converted to glycogen in the liver → blood glucose
falls to normal range

What stimulates the
Hormone release of the hormone? Where is it produced? Where does it act? What does it do?
Gastrin Protein Stomach Gastric glands Stimulates gastric glands to
of the Stomach secrete gastric juices
Secretin Hydrochloric acid in acid Duodenum Pancreas Stimulates the pancreas to secrete
chyme (small intestine) Liver pancreatic juices; stimulates liver
Gallbladder to produce bile; stimulates gall
bladder to release bile
Cholecystokinin Partially digested protein Duodenum Pancreas Stimulates the pancreas to secrete
(CCK) and fat (small intestine) Liver pancreatic juices; stimulates liver
Gallbladder to produce bile; stimulates gall
bladder to release bile

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-43

65. a. liver (3) 76.
b. insulin (8) Food Calories Resting Running Swimming
c. pancreas (6) French 400 400 calories ÷ 4. 8 h ÷ 4. 8 h ÷ 7
d. glucagon (7) fries 2000 calories / 10 MET = MET =
(large day x 24 h/day 0.48 h or 0.69 h or
e. low blood sugar (5)
serving) = 4.8 hr 29min 41 min
f. high blood sugar (1)
Pepperoni 460 460 calories ÷ 5. 52 h ÷ 5.52 h ÷ 7
g. raises blood sugar (2) pizza 2000 calories / 10 MET = MET =
h. lowers blood sugar (4) (2 slices) day x 24 h/day 0.552 h or 0.78 h or
= 5.52 hr 33 min 47 min
66. Concept Map
Vanilla 350 350 calories ÷ 4. 2 h ÷ 4. 2 h ÷ 7
67. Test Tube 1: control; no digestion will take place Milkshake 2000 calories / 10 MET = MET =
because no enzyme is present; Test Tube 2: no day x 24 h/day 0. 42 h or 0. 6 h or
digestion will take place because pepsin is not in an = 4.2 hr 25.2 min 36 min
acidic conditions; Test Tube 3: no digestion will take
77. a. By reducing the size of the stomach in gastric
place; denaturation of the egg white will occur; Test
stapling (restrictive) surgery, this prevents the
Tube 4: digestion of the egg white into peptides will
person from eating large quantities of food. This will
occur because pepsin is in an acidic environment
then lead to weight loss.
provided by the hydrochloric acid. Only test tube 4
b. With the smaller stomach, a person would feel full
containing pepsin, HCl, and water should result in the
after a small meal. In addition to this, by bypassing
breakdown of the egg white. The other tubes lack a
the upper portion of the small intestine, less food
necessary component of this reaction mix.
and nutrients will be absorbed.
68. X = maltase; Y = peptidase; Z = lipase
69. pH = 8.5 Chapter 10 Answers
70. Reaction X involves the enzyme maltase:
maltose (substrate) → glucose (product) + Making Connections—Blood Doping:
glucose (product) An Unfair Advantage
Reaction Y involves the enzyme peptidase:
1. Plasma (water, proteins, salts, gases, nutrients,
peptide (substrate) → amino acid (product) +
nitrogenous wastes, hormones, vitamins), red blood
amino acid (product)
cells, white blood cells, and, platelets comprise blood.
Reaction Z involves the enzyme lipase:
triglyceride (substrate) → glycerol (product) + 2. Heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries), valves,
3 fatty acids (product) and shunts control the flow of blood throughout
the body.
71. Maltase could be added to initiate the digestion
of maltose.
72. maltose → glucose + glucose Chapter 10 Diagnostic Questions
73. You would expect side A to have glucose present and 1. b. blood vessels, blood, and the heart.
side B to just have water present.
2. a. water.
74. You would use Benedict Solution to do the test
3. d. the hemoglobin molecule in the red blood cells.
for glucose.
4. a. the heme group
75. The traditional diet will allow Aboriginal people to
be healthier. With low carbohydrate diets, they can 5. d. oxygen molecules, carbon dioxide molecules and
control their blood glucose levels and therefore control hydrogen ions.
their blood glucose levels and conditions like diabetes. 6. b. away from the heart.
7. b. side streets.
8. a. veins.
9. d. capillaries.
10. a. clot blood.

A-44 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

11. a. atria. 2. Substances that diffiuse across capillary walls include
12. b. oxygen-rich blood. oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, amino acids.

13. d. lungs.
Check Your Progress 10.2
14. c. left ventricle.
1. The major components of blood are plasma (water,
15. a. aorta. proteins, salts, gases, nutrients, nitrogenous wastes,
16. d. right atrium. hormones, vitamins), red blood cells, white blood cells,
17. d. four chambers. and platelets.

18. c. septum. 2. During blood clotting: a blood vessel is punctured,

platelets congregate and form a plug, platelets and
19. c. the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. damaged tissue cells release prothrombin activator,
20. b. the umbilical cord which initiates a cascade of enzymatic reactions.
21. d. the placenta. 3. Diseases include diabetes, heart disease, liver disease,
22. c. They are both vascular systems. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
23. d. white blood cells
Check Your Progress 10.3
24. a. liver
1. Blood enters the right atrium and right ventricle, then
25. A. left atrium; B. left ventricle; C. right ventricle; travels through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs,
D. right atrium and through the pulmonary veins back to the left
26. arteries and veins; antidiuretic hormone; sodium ion atrium and left ventricle.
concentration in the body; blood volume; sympathetic 2. If the left ventricle is not working properly, blood
and parasympathetic nervous system would back up into the lung, increasing blood pressure
27. The nervous system and endocrine system control there, resulting in increased fluid leakage from blood
the heartbeat. vessels in the lung.
28. radial artery (in the wrist); carotid artery (in the neck); 3. The “lub” sound is caused by the closure of the
brachial artery (in the arm) atrioventricular valves, and the “dub” sound is caused
29. The coronary arteries provide the heart with oxygen by the semilunar valves closing.
and nutrients. 4. Intrinsic control of the heartbeat is needed to maintain
30. Cholesterol deposits in the arteries causing the arteries regular contractions, while extrinsic control allows
to harden. the heartbeat to change in response to different
physiological demands.
31. Not all fluid filtered out of the capillaries on the arterial
end is recovered into the capillaries at the venous end.
This remaining fluid is recovered into the lymphatic
Check Your Progress 10.4
vessels and returned to circulation in the thoracic 1. The pulmonary arteries carry oxygen-poor blood.
duct. The lymphatic system maintains homeostasis by 2. Blood flows to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries and
returning all the lost fluids to the circulatory system. returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins. Blood
flows to the body via the aorta and returns via the
Chapter 10 Check Your superior and inferior vena cava.

Progress Answers 3. Blood flows in one direction in the arteries due to the
pumping of the heart, and it flows in one direction
Check Your Progress 10.1 in veins mainly due to muscle contraction and the
presence of valves that prevent it from moving in the
1. Blood flow is controlled in arteries by contraction of opposite direction
smooth muscle in artery walls. Capillary blood flow
is affected by the pressure of arterial supply plus the
Check Your Progress 10.5
contraction of pre-capillary sphincters. Venous blood
flow is affected by arterial and capillary blood flow and 1. Since fetal lungs do not function, blood flows directly
valves that prevent blood from flowing backward. from the right atrium to the left atrium or from the
right ventricle to the aorta. The umbilical cord takes

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-45

fetal blood to the placental, and the umbilical vein aneurysm is the ballooning of the side of a weakened
carries fetal blood from the placenta. The unique fetal blood vessel.
structures are the foramen ovale, ductus arteriosis, 2. Stents can directly activate the blood clotting system,
unbilical arteries, unbilical vein, and ductus venosus. or irritate blood vessels in which they are placed,
2. The placenta is attached to the uterine wall and allows causing inflammation.
for the exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes 3. Failing hearts can be replaced with a transplant
between the maternal and embryo circulatory systems. from a human donor or with an artificial heart.
A left ventricular assist device can help a failing heart
Check Your Progress 10.6 function until it can be replaced. Potential problems
1. Excess tissue fluid moves into the lymph vessels include rejection of a transplanted heart by the
and is returned to the blood stream. Fats from the recipient’s immune system and the mechanical failure
small intestine move into the lymph vessels and are of an artificial pump.
transported into the blood-stream. White blood cells
in the lymph system function in protecting the body Chapter 10 Features and
from disease.
2. Edema is the accumulation of excess tissue fluid,
Case Study Answers
caused by too much fluid produced (i.e., by a tumour),
Science in Your Life: Health—Blood Donations
or not enough drained away (i.e., because of low blood
protein content or blockage in a lymphatic vessel). 1. Risks of blood transfusion include transmission of
disease (low in Canada), hemolytic reaction (due to
3. In the red bone marrow and the thymus, which are
human error), bacterial infection. Benefits include
primary lymphoid organs, lymphocytes develop
saving life and limiting the complications of severe
and mature. In the lymph nodes and the spleen,
blood loss.
lymphocytes become activated.
2. The screening process prevents people from receiving
contaminated blood.
Check Your Progress 10.7
3. The screening process includes providing proof of
1. The skin and mucous membranes are physical barriers;
identity, testing donor’s hemoglobin, donor reading
a chemical barrier is the acid of the stomach.
Making a Blood or Apheresis Donation: What You Must
2. Redness, heat, swelling, and pain are the signs of Know, donor answering 13 questions on the Record of
inflammation. Mast cells release histamine, which Donation, nurse measuring donor’s blood pressure and
causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable to temperature, nurse checking for signs of intravenous
fluids that move into the tissue, producing swelling and drug use, nurse asking questions 14–29 aloud in a
pain. Increased blood flow results in redness and heat. private booth, donor signing and dating consent form,
3. Macrophages kill pathogens by engulfing them into and donor completing Confidential Unit Exclusion
a vesicle that has an acid pH, hydrolytic enzymes, label procedure.
and reactive oxygen compounds. Natural killer cells 4. There is no real substitute for human blood yet. The
induce cells that lack self-MHC-I molecules to undergo most promising include perfluorochemical-based
apoptosis (cell death). oxygen carriers and hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers.
4. Helper T cells recognize antigen fragments in These carriers can do some of the work of a red blood
combination with MHC molecules presented by cell, but they cannot replace all of the important
antigen-presenting cells that have MHC class II functions of blood.
proteins on their surface. Cytotoxic T cells recognize
antigen-producing cells with MHC class I proteins. Science in Your Life: Health—Prevention
Suppressor T cells inhibit these responses and act to of Cardiovascular Disease
control adaptive immunity.
1. Responses could include smoking, drug abuse, obesity,
alcohol, anxiety.
Check Your Progress 10.8
2. Infections with Group B Streptococcus can affect
1. A thrombus is a blood clot that remains stationary, an heart valve health. Infections in general increase
embolus is a clot that moves with the blood, and an inflammation, which can lead to increased plaque

A-46 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

formation. Infections of the gut can lead to decreased 29. Blood is composed of a liquid component called
absorption of nutrients and lead to lipid imbalances plasma which consists of mostly water, plasma proteins
and vitamin deficiencies, both of which can affect and other solutes. The other component of blood is the
cardiovascular health. formed elements which consist of red blood cells, white
blood cells and platelets.
Chapter 10 Review Questions 30. a. Without a nucleus, the red blood cell has more room
for hemoglobin to carry oxygen and can more easily
1. c. cell V form the biconcave shape that increases surface area
for gas exchange.
2. a. antibodies, water, oxygen, glucose, urea, hormones
b. A red blood cell cannot undergo cell division
3. a. engulfing and digesting the pathogen.
because it has no nucleus. It also does not have
4. b. cell V – transports oxygen mitochondria and therefore cannot carry out
5. a. a bacterial infection. oxidative phosphorylation.
6. b. liver and large intestine 31. c arterioles
7. a. Both blood volume and blood pressure 32. a veins
would increase. 33. c Arteries have small diameters and therefore have the
8. b. It carries oxygen-rich blood, while the other veins greatest blood pressure.
carry oxygen-poor blood. 34. d The difference between the systolic and diastolic
9. d. superior vena cava pressure decreases the further blood gets from the
left ventricle.
10. d. a reading of the heart’s electrical activity during each
cardiac cycle 35.
11. c. the ventricles are contracting. White Blood
Red Blood Cells Cells Platelets
12. d. delay of AV node to allow filling
Other Name erythrocytes leukocytes thrombocytes
of ventricles
Site of Production red bone marrow red bone marrow red bone marrow
13. b. structure VII
Structure and biconcave disks; larger cells; have fragments of
14. c. blood vessel 7 Appearance no nucleus; has a nucleus; lack megakaryocytes
15. d. The pulmonary semi-lunar valves. hemoglobin hemoglobin; may
have granules
16. b. renal artery Function carry oxygen and phagocytose help in blood
17. b. blood vessel 3 carbon dioxide pathogens; clotting
involved in
18. a. iliac artery
specific immunity
19. d. superior vena cava.
20. d. blood vessel 14 36. There is lower oxygen concentration in the body tissues
at high altitudes and this causes the increase in red
21. d. delivers oxygen-rich blood to the brain, head blood cell production. The hiker will start to produce
and neck. more red blood cells.
22. a. delivers nutrient-rich blood to the liver. 37. c Blood flow slows down as it passes through
23. b. right ventricle has a low concentration of oxygen; left the capillaries.
ventricle has a high concentration of oxygen 38. b As total cross-sectional area increases, blood
24. a. aorta velocity decreases.
25. d. parasympathetic nervous system 39. b umbilical vein
26. c. veins and the flow of lymph in lymph vessels. 40. d carbon dioxide
27. b. The blood cells will crenate because of the 41. c Circulatory System carries blood in the blood
hypertonic conditions. vessels; Lymphatic System carries lymph in the
28. c. body below the thorax, left arm, left side of the head lymphatic vessels
and left side of the neck.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-47

42. agranular leukocytes granular leukocytes

The agranular The granular

Similarities between leukocytes
leukocytes include
agranular and granular include
lymphocytes and
leukocytes: both are neutrophils,
monocytes; have
white blood cells; eosinophils and
no granules; have
both fight infection; basophils; have
spherical nucleus;
both involved lobed nuclei;
produced in
in phagocytosis. produced in
lymphoid tissues
bone marrow.

43. 44. The heart is an organ made up of different layers

Blood of muscles. The different layers of muscles form
Vessel Structure Function strong protective layers that allow the heart to pump
Artery -strong, elastic blood -carries blood away blood effectively throughout the body with forceful
vessels from the heart contractions. The heart is divided into two upper
-has 3 layers: inner layer is chambers (the atria) and two lower chambers (the
endothelium; middle layer ventricles). The right side of the heart pumps blood
is thick smooth muscle; to the lungs (pulmonary circuit), while the left side
outer layer is fibrous and of the heart pumps blood to the rest of the body
loose connective tissues
(systemic circuit)
Arteriole -smaller versions of arteries -carries blood from
-inner layer is endothelium the artery to the 45. a. Clotting: contains platelets that promote blood
and thick middle layer is capillaries clotting to prevent excessive bleeding
smooth muscle b. Transport: transports oxygen, carbon dioxide,
Capillary -blood vessel that is -allows exchange of hydrogen ions, hormones, nutrients, wastes and
extremely narrow and has nutrients, gases, and solutes around the body
thin walls waste products with
c. pH Balance: bicarbonate ions and protein buffers
-has large surface area to the body tissues
volume ratio
in the blood help balance the pH near 7.4 under
-only a single layer of normal conditions
endothelium d. Thermoregulation: regulates body temperature by
Venule -smaller versions of veins -carries blood from controlling the blood flow to the skin and thus the
the capillaries to the dispersal of body heat
veins e. Protection From Infection: white blood cells
Vein -thin blood vessel -carries blood to the destroy pathogens
-has 3 layers: inner layer is heart
endothelium; middle layer -acts as fluid reservoir 46. A. aorta
is thick smooth muscle; B. pulmonary artery
outer layer has less fibrous C. left atrium
and loose connective
D. pulmonary veins
tissues than artery
-has valves to ensure E. aortic semi-lunar valves
unidirectional blood flow F. chordae tendinae
(to prevent backflow)
G. left ventricle

A-48 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

H. right ventricle h. Intrinsic control of heartbeat is regulated by the
I. inferior vena cava (posterior vena cava) SA node, AV node, atrioventricular bundle and
J. chordae tendinae Purkinje fibers, while the extrinsic control of
heartbeat is regulated by the autonomic system
K. pulmonary semi-lunar valves
and hormones.
L. pulmonary veins
i. The left side of the heart pumps blood to the system
M. right atrium
circulation, while the right side of the heart pumps
N. superior vena cava (anterior vena cava) blood to the lungs.
O. pulmonary artery
49. The lub sound is the atrioventrcular valves closing
47. a. 10 femoral artery as the ventricles contract, and the dub sound is the
b. 13 pulmonary artery semilunar valves closing as the ventricles relax.
c. 6 renal artery 50. The SA node, aka pacemaker, depolarizes causing the
d. 16 mesenteric arteries atria to contract. Nerve impulses from the SA node
e. 12 pulmonary vein pass to the AV node, then to the atrioventricular
f. 7 hepatic vein bundle and finally to the Purkinje fibers. This carries
the action potential causing ventricular contraction to
g. 1 aorta; 13 pulmonary artery
the apex of the heart.
h. 3 renal vein
51. As blood flows through the different types of blood
i. 11 coronary artery
vessels, it has to overcome resistance to the flow of
j. 9 carotid artery blood. Pressure and energy is lost. Pressure loss is
k. 5 jugular vein caused by the forces of friction between blood elements
l. 5 jugular vein; 15 superior vena cava and the inside walls of the blood vessels.
m. 14 inferior vena cava 52. Blood flowing in the leg usually has to go against the
n. 4 iliac artery pull of gravity. The valves prevent blood from flowing
o. 17 hepatic portal vein backward down the leg when it is supposed to be
p. 18 brachiocephalic artery pumped up toward the heart.
q. 2 iliac vein 53. At the arterial side of a capillary, the blood hydrostatic
48. a. An artery carries blood away from the heart, while a pressure (from ventricular contraction) is greater
vein carries blood back to the heart. than the osmotic pressure which tends to favour the
flow of fluid into capillaries. Thus, fluids flow out
b. An atrium is an upper chamber of the heart, while a
of capillaries and with it goes water, oxygen, amino
ventricle is a lower chamber of the heart.
acids and glucose. At the venule side of a capillary, the
c. Blood flows through the blood vessels of the hydrostatic blood pressure is reduced due to effects of
circulatory system, while the lymph flows through friction along the capillaries. Osmotic pressure, which
the vessels of the lymphatic system. is similar at the arterial and venous ends, is now greater
d. Plasma is the liquid portion of blood that consists of than hydrostatic pressure and this tends to cause
water, plasma proteins and solutes. Formed elements fluid, including waste and carbon dioxide from the
make up the solid portion of blood and consist of interstitial fluid, to diffuse back into the blood vessels.
red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
54. left ventricle → aorta → upper and lower body
e. The tricuspid valve prevents backflow into the right → superior and inferior vena cava → right atrium
atrium and the biscuspid valve prevents backflow → right ventricle → pulmonary arteries → lungs
into the left atrium. → pulmonary veins → left atrium
f. The systemic circuit carries blood to the rest of the
55. right atrium → atrioventricular tricuspid valve
body, while the pulmonary circuit carries blood to
→ right ventricle → pulmonary semilunar valve
the lungs.
→ pulmonary trunk → pulmonary arteries
g. The atrioventricular valve prevents backflow into the → pulmonary arterioles → capillary bed in the lungs
atrium and the semilunar valve prevents backflow → pulmonary venules → pulmonary veins → left
into the ventricle. atrium → atrioventricular bicuspid valve → left
ventricle → aortic semilunar valve → aorta

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-49

56. Diagram 66. Blood flow is related to metabolic rate. As an organ,
57. The circulatory system delivers nutrients to the the liver has the greatest blood flow because it has
tissues. As the nutrients in the plasma move from the the greatest metabolic rate. This is because it has a
capillaries to the tissues, some of the plasma is lost relatively high mass-specific metabolic rate and is also
into the interstitial fluid of the tissue. The lymphatic a relatively large organ.
system collects the interstitial fluid and returns it to the 67. During exercise, blood flow through the tissues is
circulatory system. changed significantly. Blood is shunted away from
58. Exercising regularly makes the heart stronger and some of the major organs and redirected to the muscles
therefore it can pump blood more efficiently through to meet the increased oxygen demands.
the body. 68. Most of the blood is shunted away from the liver
59. The lymphatic system absorbs excess tissue fluid and during exercise because the body does not need to be
returns it to the bloodstream. It absorbs fats from the digesting food or carrying out any of the functions of
digestive tract and transports them to the bloodstream; the liver. It only supplies the liver with the minimum
it helps defend the body against infections. amount of blood to maintain the function of the liver.

60. They both have valves. 69. There is a correlation between increased blood flow
and increased demand for oxygen consumption
61. Blood pressure is greater than osmotic pressure on
during exercise.
the arterial side. The blood pressure pushes water and
small molecules (eg. nutrients and oxygen) out of the 70. Yes
capillaries and into the interstitial spaces. 71. No, the cardiac output would not be the same. The
62. Osmotic pressure is greater than blood pressure on the person who exercises regularly will have a higher
venous side. This causes the fluids from the interstitium cardiac output.
to flow back into the capillaries on the venous side. 72. Design an experiment.
63. a. Blood pressure is the driving force. 73. a. For a student who is 18 years old: 18 years ×
b. Osmotic pressure is the driving force. 365 days × 24 hours × 60 minutes × 75 bpm =
709, 560, 000 times
64. Diagram
b. 709 560 000 × 70 mL = 4.96692 × 1010 mL
65. a. 8
74. The lymphatic vessels are obstructed and flow of lymph
b. 3
throughout the body is blocked. This causes fluids to
c. 6
collect and swelling results.
d. 1
75. By getting the blood clotting factors, hemophiliacs now
e. 10
have the blood clotting factors that will prevent them
f. 11 from bleeding excessively.
g. 9
h. 3
Chapter 11 Answers
i. 11
j. 10 Making Connections—Every Breath You Take
k. 8, 10 1. Narrowing and swelling of the airways reduces the
l. 6 amount of air that can enter the lungs, thereby making
m. 6 it more difficult for adequate gas exchange.
n. 8 2. Treatments for asthma include inhaled steroids,
o. 1 which reduce swelling and mucus production. These
p. 3 prevent asthma attacks and must be taken regularly.
q. 10 Bronchodilators work during an active asthma attack
by relaxing the muscles that cause the spasms and
r. 8
constriction of the airways. Bronchodilators are short-
s. 9
term measures and are used only during an attack.

A-50 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

3. It is difficult to develop a cure for asthma, because 2. The epiglottis acts as a trap door, preventing food from
there are so many symptoms for different people. entering the trachea during swallowing. When food is
4. To keep the respiratory tract as clean as possible, there swallowed, the epiglottis covers the tracheal opening
are several structures/reflexes that serve as a defence (glottis).
mechanism. Structures include hair in the nose, cilia 3. The surfactant covers the alveoli and lowers the
along the respiratory tract, mucus-producing cells, and surface tension. Thus, alveoli are less likely to collapse
the epiglottis. The cough and sneeze reflex expel any during exhalation.
debris that enters the tract.
Check Your Progress 11.2
Chapter 11 Diagnostic Questions 1. Tidal volume is the amount of air that normally moves
in and out of the lungs with each breath; vital capacity
1. b. the nose. is the maximum volume of air that can be moved in
2. c. hydrogen ions. and out of the lungs in a single breath.

3. a. pH. 2. Inspiration is considered the active phase of respiration

because it requires the contraction of the diaphragm
4. a. a protein.
and external intercostal muscles in order to create the
5. c. pharynx. low pressure in the lungs. Expiration is the passive
6. c. hemoglobin. phase because it requires no muscle contractions, just
elastic recoil of the thoracic wall and lungs.
7. c. from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
8. a. true
Check Your Progress 11.3
b. true
1. Hemoglobin carries oxygen (as oxyhemoglobin)
c. false to the tissues, as well as a small amount of CO2
9. A. lungs (as carbaminohemoglobin) and hydrogen ions (as
B. bronchioles reduced hemoglobin). Hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen
C. nose changes depending on temperature and pH.
D. mouth 2. Arterial blood is brighter red than venous blood,
E. trachea because the red blood cells in arterial blood contain
large amounts of oxyhemoglobin, which is bright red
F. diaphragm
compared to the red blood cells carrying reduced
10. breathing or gas exchange hemoglobin, which is darker. Blood from a cut appears
11. circulatory system bright red, because any hemoglobin exposed to O2 in
12. mitochondria the air, rapidly becomes the bright red oxyhemoglobin.

13. cellular respiration 3. Carbon monoxide can quickly become fatal because
the affinity of carbon monoxide with hemoglobin
14. X = external respiration; Y = internal respiration is very high. Carbon monoxide stays bound to the
hemoglobin, thereby reducing the ability of blood to
Chapter 11 Check Your Progress carry oxygen. If CO poisoning continues for a period
of time, enough hemoglobin becomes unavailable that
Answers a person suffocates.
Check Your Progress 11.1
Check Your Progress 11.4
1. The upper respiratory tract consists of the nasal
cavities, pharynx, glottis, epiglottis, and larynx. The 1. Asthma is a disorder of the lower respiratory tract that
lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea, bronchi, restricts the lungs’ ability to expand normally. Asthma
bronchioles, and alveoli. The bronchi, bronchioles, causes a narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles.
and millions of alveoli collectively form the lung. 2. Smoking can predispose the lungs to harm by
Surrounding each lung are pleural membranes and a damaging the cilia that normally help remove mucus,
pleural cavity. toxins, microbes, and debris from the trachea.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-51

3. There are several upper respiratory tract disorders that 11. c. contracts and moves down and the rib cage moves
can occur, all caused by different viruses or bacteria. up and out
The common cold is caused by the rhinoviruses. 12. c. inspiration is normally an active process; expiration
Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the throat caused is normally a passive process
by a virus or bacteria (such as Streptococcus pyogenes).
13. c. diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract
Tonsillitis is caused by a viral or bacterial infection
→ rib cage moves up and out → pressure in the lungs
that produces an enlargement and inflammation of
decreases → air flows into the lungs
the tonsils. Laryngitis is caused by an inflammation
of the larynx leading to hoarseness or loss of voice. 14. d. diaphragm becomes dome-shaped and volume of
Inflammation could be a response to a viral or bacterial thoracic cavity decreases
infection, or even overuse. 15. d. I, II, and III
16. a. diaphragm to increase contractions.
Chapter 11 Features and Case 17. d. oxygen-poor blood pumped to the lungs via the
Study Answers pulmonary arteries.
18. a. I and II only
Science in Your Life: Health—Frequently Asked
19. c. 4800 mL
Questions About Tobacco and Health
20. a. 500 mL
Note that a general discussion on smoking and its effects
can be a good way to learn about respiration and the 21. a. A
respiratory system. Students can be asked how smoking 22. d. the maximum volume of air contained in the lungs
affects different structures of the respiratory system. after a maximum inspiratory effort.
Present controversial statements for discussion such as 23. d. inspiratory reserve volume – volume of air that can
a. Smoking should be banned (become illegal). be inhaled over and above resting tidal volume
b. Smokers should pay higher medical premiums.
24. d. sum of tidal, inspiratory reserve and expiratory
c. Smoking cessation products should be free . reserve volumes.
d. Parents who smoke near their children should
25. c. helps keep the alveoli open and prevent the lungs
be fined.
from collapsing.
e. Drug stores should not be allowed to sell cigarettes.
26. b. 20% in male; 25% in female
1. Answers will vary according to different experiences
and perceptions about smoking. 27. b. 1500 mL
2. Responses to this question will vary, but respect 28. b. speeds up the conversion of CO2 to HCO3− in
must be given to the fact that nicotine is a highly the tissues.
addictive substance. 29. c. Hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs where PO2 is
high, and releases oxygen in the tissues where PO2 is low.
Chapter 11 Review Questions 30. c. X is at the tissue capillaries; Y is at the
lung capillaries.
1. d. I, II, and III 31. c. two of every four Fe2+ on hemoglobin have bound
2. c. bronchus to O2.
3. b. beating of the cilia 32. b. the volume of oxygen unloaded to the tissues.
4. a. It is strengthened by rings of cartilage. 33. c. HbO2 → Hb + O2
5. c. structure C. 34. d. H+ + HCO3− → H2CO3 → H2O + CO2
6. c. structure C. 35. a. to the left of point W
7. c. increased toxic chemicals in the respiratory tract. 36. c. the rate and depth of breathing increase.
8. b. to change the volume of the thoracic cavity 37. a. bicarbonate ion.
9. a. 1 = at rest; 2 = inspiration; 3 = expiration 38. b. internal respiration.
10. d. I, II and III 39. d. Hb + CO2 → HbCO2

A-52 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

40. b. takes up excess hydrogen ions in the blood. 52. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between
41. d. pulmonary arteriole the systemic capillaries and the body tissues, while
external respiration is the exchange of gases between
42. a. oxygen
the pulmonary capillaries and the air in the alveoli.
43. d. superior vena cava
53. During swallowing, the larynx pulls up pushing the
44. 1. pharynx; 2. trachea; 3. lung; 4. bronchus; glottis against the epiglottis. With the glottis closed,
5. diaphragm; 6. nasal cavity; 7. larynx; 8. external food and fluid goes down the esophagus instead of the
intercostals; 9. internal intercostals; 10. muscles; trachea. The epiglottis prevents food and fluids from
11. abdominal muscles going down the trachea.
45. a. Structures 8 and 9 are involved in inspiration. 54. When you whisper, the vocal cords do not vibrate.
b. Structures 10 and 11 are involved in expiration. 55. The trachea and bronchi are surrounded by cartilage to
46. The diaphragm (structure 5) contracts and pulls down keep the airway open during inspiration. On the inside,
when a person inhales. they are lined with mucus and cilia to trap and move
47. Structure 2 has cartilage around it; lined with cilia and debris up and out of the respiratory tract.
mucus to prevent dust and debris from getting into 56. The alveoli are small and numerous. This increases
the lungs. surface area to volume ratio to maximize the diffusion
48. The surfactant would be depleted. of gases. The alveoli are covered in a lipoprotein which
lowers the surface tension and prevents them from
49. a. 1 (larynx) collapsing to receive inhaled air. The alveoli are thin
b. 2 (alveoli) and covered in an extensive network of capillaries to
c. 7 (bronchiole) allow gas exchange to occur more easily.
d. 8 (diaphragm) 57. The pleural membranes line the thoracic cavity to
e. 1 (larynx) help create pressure and lubricate the lungs to reduce
f. 5 (bronchus) friction during inspiration and expiration.
g. 2 (alveoli) 58. There will be air in the pleural space and the lungs will
h. 4 (trachea), 5 (bronchus), 9 (nasal cavity) not inflate.
i. 3 (pharynx) 59. Oxygen is carried in the blood as dissolved oxygen
j. 3 (pharynx) and oxyhemoglobin.
k. 2 (alveoli) 60. Carbon dioxide is carried in the blood as dissolved
l. 6 (epiglottis) carbon dioxide, carbaminohemoglobin, and
m. 10 (medulla oblongata) bicarbonate ion.
50. d. hepatic portal vein 61. The hydrogen ion binds with the globin portion of
hemoglobin to form reduced hemoglobin, HHb.
62. Diagram.
Inspiration Expiration
63. In the winter when air is less humid, the dry air
Diaphragm Contracts and Relaxes and
moves down moves up that is inhaled can dry out the surface of the nasal
tissues. When this occurs, blood vessels rupture and
Intercostal Muscles Contracts Relaxes
nosebleeds occur.
Rib Cage Moves up and out Moves down
64. The air breathed through your mouth would be colder
and in
and drier because it has not been warmed up or
Pressure in Lungs Decreases Increases
moistened by your nasal cavity.
Volume of Thoracic Increases Decreases 65. By breathing in expired air, you are breathing in carbon
Cavity dioxide which will then increase the levels of carbon
Movement of Air Air moves in Air is pushed out dioxide in the blood.
66. If the lungs were unable to produce pulmonary
surfactant, the surface tension of fluid coating the
alveoli would cause them to collapse or close up.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-53

67. The temperature increases because the rates of oxygen. This causes the oxygen concentration to
metabolic reactions, most of which releases heat, will decrease even though the hemoglobin concentration
increase during exercise. The blood pH will decrease and partial pressure of oxygen in the blood
because more carbon dioxide will be produced and it is normal.
forms carbonic acid and then dissociates into hydrogen b. The curve will shift to the left.
ion and bicarbonate ion. c. Carbon monoxide would bind to the hemoglobin
68. Person B is exhibiting slow, deep breathing. and oxygen would not be transported to cells
69. Person C is hyperventilating. around the body. Without oxygen, the cells could
not produce ATP and muscle cells like in the heart
70. All three people are receiving stimulation: Person A,
would stop working.
Person B, and Person C.
76. At high partial pressures of oxygen, hemoglobin
71. a. 8 binds to oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin. When the
b. 6 blood is fully saturated, all the red blood cells are
c. 9 bound to oxygen molecules and are in the form of
d. 2 oxyhemoglobin. As oxygen level decreases, so does
e. 7 hemoglobin saturation. This occurs when red blood
cells move to body tissues that have low level of oxygen.
f. 4
Oxyhemoglobin will release lots of oxygen molecules
g. 10 needed by active tissue cells and become hemoglobin.
h. 3
77. You have a large reserve of oxygen. This means,
i. 5 your blood will have lots of hemoglobin to provide
72. a. Carbon dioxide levels will increase in the blood. you when you become more active and require
b. The smaller diameter will reduce the amount of more oxygen.
exhaled carbon dioxide remaining in the tube, 78. a. Condition X exists in the tissues.
but this will also increase the resistance of airflow b. Condition Y exists in the lungs.
making the person work harder to breath.
79. a. The affinity of oxygen decreases and oxygen is
c. The further you go under water, the higher the water released to the tissues in Condition X.
pressure. The higher water pressure prevents the
b. The affinity of oxygen increases and oxygen is picked
lungs from inflating because the diaphragm is not
up by hemoglobin in Condition Y.
strong enough to contract at such high pressures.
73. a. Tidal volume is about 500 mL and the vital capacity 80. a. The curve will shift to the left.
is 4500 mL. b. The curve will shift to the right.
b. 5 breaths per minute c. The curve will shift to the right.
c. The total lung capacity will be greater for the healthy d. The curve will shift to the left.
individual than the smoker. e. The curve will shift to the right.
74. a. The intent of the Heimlich maneuver is to expel the f. The curve will shift to the left.
morsel of food. g. The curve will shift to the left.
b. The diaphragm is directly affected by the h. The curve will shift to the right.
Heimlich maneuver. i. The curve will shift to the left.
c. This procedure increases abdominal pressure 81. a. The iron lung mimics the physiological action of
and causes the diaphragm to elevate and forceful breathing. When pressure decreases inside the lungs
expiration to eject the piece of food out of the (negative pressure), this creates a partial vacuum.
trachea and larynx. Air is forced into the lungs.
d. The person should be given high levels of oxygen so b. The iron lung would decrease the pressure inside the
that the cells in the body will continue to produce lungs, forcing air to flow from the outside (where
ATP needed for the heart to pump, the brain the there is higher pressure) into the lungs (where there
function, etc. is lower pressure) via the nose and mouth.
75. a. Carbon monoxide would bind to the hemoglobin c. An air tight seal allows the chamber to
and therefore hemoglobin is unavailable to the be pressurized.

A-54 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

Chapter 12 Answers 18. a. You would sneeze.
b. You would blink.
Making Connections—Sports-Related Head Trauma c. You would pull your hand back.
and Brain Function
Students might suggest the following answers: Chapter 12 Check Your Progress
1) that researchers study individuals with head trauma
from sport, devising ways of tracking the individuals
and obtaining data related to their physical and
Check Your Progress 12.1
mental health over a number of years.
2) that researchers would need to view the brains of
deceased individuals as well as scanning the brains Relationship with other
of living subjects using a variety of techniques. Class of neuron neurons
3) options such as non-impact rules, more protective Sensory neuron Take messages from a sensory
head gear, and so forth. receptor to the central nervous

Chapter 12 Diagnostic Questions Interneuron Sum up messages from

sensory neurons and
other interneurons and
1. c. neuro
communicate with motor
2. a. a cell. neurons
3. b. nervous tissues. Motor neuron Take messages away from the
4. b. sneezing CNS to the effector organs,
muscles, or glands
5. c. They are involuntary actions.
6. a. to get quick responses 2. Most neurons contain dendrites (signal-receiving
extensions leading to the cell body), a cell body
7. c. energy is required.
containing a nucleus and other organelles, and an axon,
8. a. a carrier protein. which conducts nerve impulses from the cell body to
9. c. spinal cord. other nurons or effectors.
10. a. the skull. 3. Myelin is formed by Schwann cells in the PNS and by
11. a. brakes. oligodendroglial cells in the CNS.

12. d. the vertebrae. 4. Grey matter contains nonmyelinated neurons; in

the white matter the nerve fibres are myelinated.
13. d. all of the above The brain (CNS) has grey matter on the surface and
14. c. the left side of the body. white matter in the deeper tissue. In the spinal cord
15. a. paralysis. (CNS) the grey matter forms a butterfly shape in the
centre and the white matter surrounds this. In the
16. b. amino acids.
PNS the long extensions of neurons (dendrites in the
17. a. threshold sensory neurons and axons in the motor neurons)
b. An impulse at one point on a neuron will cause are myelinated.
an impulse at the next point along the neuron.
c. Each time the dominoes fall, they always move Check Your Progress 12.2
at the same speed and intensity. An alternative 1. The sodium-potassium pump in neurons are always
explanation: Similar to the domino model in which transporting Na+ ions to the outside and K+ ions
a force, above threshold, is needed to cause the to the inside of the cell. This is active transport and
first domino to fall and initiate a cascade event, requires an expenditure of ATP energy.
generation and propagation of action potential
also requires a stimulus in the neuron above 2. During an action potential, the sodium voltage-gated
the threshold. channel proteins open and Na+ ions enter the cell,
causing a depolarization. The potential difference

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-55

across the membrane rises from −70 mV to +35 mV. 3.
Then the sodium gates close, the potassium voltage-
Damage to the: Symptoms
gated channel proteins open, and K+ ions enter
cerebellum Poor balance and uncoordinated
the cell. This causes a repolarization and, briefly, a
voluntary muscle movements
slight hyperpolarization.
medulla oblongata Erratic heartbeat, breathing and blood
3. refractory period—in nonmyelinated axons, a period pressure
in which sodium gates are unable to open following Uncoordinated reflexes for vomiting,
an action potential; saltatory conduction—a type coughing, sneezing, hiccupping and
of conduction in mylenated axons when the action swallowing
potention “jumps” from node to node”; synaptic RAS Inability to be alert to sensory stimuli,
integration—the summation of all incoming excitatory possibly become comatose
and inhibitory messages at the cell body of a neuron.
Check Your Progress 12.4
Check Your Progress 12.3 1. Cranial nerves:
1. The spinal cord provides a way for the brain to • Generally associated with sensing and motor control
communicate with the peripheral nerves. This of the head, neck, and facial regions (except the
communication involves incoming sensory vagus, which controls many organs, tissues, and
information and outgoing motor information. glands in the neck and body).
• 12 pairs
• some contain only sensory fibres, some only motor
Part General functions fibres, and some are mixed nerves with both sensory
Cerebrum Receives sensory information, integrates it, and motor fibres
and commands voluntary motor responses. It
Spinal nerves:
receives information from other parts of the
brain and is involved in high-level analytical • Generally associated with sensing and motor control
functions such as speaking and interpreting in the rest of the body; they are found in the area they
language, thinking critically, and formulating serve—e.g., intercostal muscles are innervated by
appropriate behaviours
thoracic nerves.
Diencephalon Hypothalamus: serves as a link between the • 31 pairs
nervous and endocrine system, maintaining
• contain sensory and motor fibres (mixed nerves)
homeostasis. It regulates hunger, sleep, thirst,
body temperature, and water balance. 2. When you touch a hot stove, your hand withdraws
Thalamus: receives sensory inputs (visual, before you feel the pain, because the nerve pathway
auditory, taste, and somatosensory for a reflex arc travels directly through the spinal
information) except for smell. It is also cord without input from the brain. The pain impulse
involved in the arousal of the cerebrum. It is travelling up the neck to the brain as the motor
participates in higher mental functions, such
impulse is travelling back to the effector muscle.
as memory and emotions.
Pineal gland: secretes the hormone 3.
melatonin, involved in the sleep-wake cycle
Somatic Autonomic
Cerebellum Processes information about body position
Type of control Voluntary Involuntary
and maintains posture and balance
Ensures muscles work together to produce Number of neurons one two
smooth, coordinated voluntary movements per message
Brain stem Acts as a relay between the cerebrum and Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine Acetylcholine and
spinal cord or cerebellum norepinephrine
Regulates breathing through the pons
Effectors Skeletal muscle Smooth and cardiac
Regulates vital functions through the medulla
muscle, glands
Receives and sends signals between the
higher brain centres and the spinal cord

A-56 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

4. The brain has stimulated your somatic nervous Chapter 12 Features and Case
and sympathetic nervous systems more than your
parasympathetic. As a result, there is an increase in Study Answers
blood flow to the muscles, heart rateand depth and rate
of breathing increase, and digestion is inhibited. There Science in Your Life: Science and Technology—Brain
is decreased peristalsis and blood flow to the intestine, “Pacemaker” Gives New Hope to Patients with Anorexia
which results in discomfort. Answers to Questions to Consider
5. AChE normally breaks down acetylcholine in the synaptic 1. The electrode is implanted in the subcallosal cingulate,
cleft. The black widow venom is an AChE inhibitor, so an area deep in the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft is not being broken
2. Some factors to consider when planning to treat
down. The symptoms of muscle cramps, salivation, fast
someone with DBS are the general health of the
heart rate, and high blood pressure all are a result of the
individual, the effectiveness of alternative treatments,
action of the acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter in the
and to what extent individual’s lifestyle has been
somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
affected by the disease.

Check Your Progress 12.5 Science in Your Life: Health—Caffeine: Good or

1. The major symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are
Bad for You?
impairment of brain function significant enough 1. Students can estimate their caffeine intake based on
to interfere with daily activities. One of the early the information given in the article. For comparison to
symptoms is loss of memory, particularly for recent coffee, a cup of black tea is 20 mg.
events. Characteristically, the person asks the same 2. Caffeine must be listed as an ingredient by law in
question repeatedly and becomes disoriented even in Canada. Health Canada has asked the food industry to
familiar places. Gradually, the person loses the ability voluntarily list the amount of caffeine in each serving
to perform any type of daily activity and becomes on the food nutrition label. The addition of caffeine
bedridden. These symptoms may appear at 50 years to non-carbonated beverages, including juices, is not
of age, but they are usually seen in individuals 65 allowed by law in Canada. Since caffeine is a drug, with
and over. 40% of people over the age of 80 have significant effects on the body, the quantity of caffeine
Alzheimer’s. per serving should be listed on all products.
2. L-dopa treats Parkinson’s disease because it can 3. In Canada carbonated beverages are restricted to
be turned into the neurotransmitter dopamine by 200 mg of caffeine for cola-type drinks and 150 mg for
the body. other carbonated beverages. There should not be any
3. MS is an autoimmune disease because the person’s own drinks sold in Canada containing 500 mg of caffeine.
white blood cells attack the myelin, oligodendrocytes More information can be found at http://www.hc-sc.
(which produce myelin for neurons in the CNS), and
eventually neurons themselves in the CNS.
4. Factors that might contribute to Haemophilus Chapter 12 Review Questions
influenzae causing disease in an individual are: the
number of bacteria present, the health of the individual 1. d. muscles or glands that respond to stimuli.
(strong autoimmune system or compromised), 2. b. a sensory neuron to a motor neuron.
age (babies between 1 month and 2 years are more
3. a. a gland releasing a hormone
susceptible), alcohol abuse, chronic nose and ear
infections, head injury, or pneumococcal pneumonia. 4. c. myelin sheath – fatty protective layer covering
the axon
5. a. Nerve impulses will slow down or stop.
6. d. stimulus → sensory neuron → interneuron
→ motor neuron → effector

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-57

7. b. I and III only 40. b. involuntary.
8. c. It allows quick response to environmental stimuli. 41. d. increase intestinal activity.
9. c. detects changes in the environment. 42. b. inhibit urination.
10. a. Sodium gates open. 43. c. hypothalamus
11. c. sodium ions are transported out of the axon and 44. d. reticular activating system.
potassium ions into the axon. 45. a. pons
12. a. synaptic cleft. 46. c. Structure E
13. c. structure 3 47. b. reasoning through a problem
14. b. dendrite of an interneuron 48. d. hit a tennis ball with a smooth, coordinate swing.
15. b. dendrite 49. d. Structure D
16. b. motor neuron 50. The increased secretion of norepinephrine would cause
17. c. C the liver to release glucose.
18. b. sodium-potassium pump 51. A stimulus either produces an impulse or it won’t
19. b. The gates on the sodium and potassium channels produce an impulse. If a stimulus has adequate
are closed. strength, it has reached a threshold and causes a
neuron to transmit an impulse. If the stimulus is too
20. c. C
weak, then the threshold will not produce an impulse.
21. d. is in a brief reversal of polarity of the
52. A nerve impulse is generated in the sensory neuron
membrane potential.
and is carried to the spinal cord. The nerve impulse is
22. c. potassium gates open and potassium ions flow out of passed onto the motor neuron which then causes the
the axon quadriceps femoris muscles in the leg to contract. This
23. b. start an action potential more often in a given results in the knee jerk.
time interval. 53. Advantages include: speed and less ATP is used due to
24. c. hyperpolarization. fewer numbers of sodium-potassium pumps needed.
25. c. the type of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors 54. When a minimum threshold is reached, an action
potential is triggered. Depolarization occurs causing
26. c. depolarization
sodium ion channels to open and sodium ions move
27. c. potassium ions. into the axon. The membrane potential changes
28. c. active transport. from negative to positive. Repolarization then
29. b. the refractory period. occurs causing potassium ion channels to open and
potassium ions move out of the axon. The membrane
30. d. presynaptic membrane to the potential changes from positive to negative. During the
postsynaptic membrane. refractory period, both potassium and sodium gates
31. b. calcium ions are closed and resting potential is restored.
32. d. neurotransmitters 55. A nerve impulse travels a lot faster along a myelinated
33. a. to break down acetylcholine axon than an unmyelinated axon.

34. d. a neurotransmitter. 56. a. 6 (medulla oblongata)

b. 6 (medulla oblongata)
35. b. hypothalamus
c. 3 (cerebellum)
36. a. thalamus—smell
d. 2 (cerebrum)
37. d. involuntary activity.
e. 2 (cerebrum)
38. d. the motor neurons ending in the cardiac muscles f. 6 (medulla oblongata)
39. a. the depolarization of an effector g. 6 (medulla oblongata)

A-58 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

h. 4 (hypothalamus) 62. The drug probably blocks the receptors
i. 3 (cerebellum) for acetylcholine.
j. 6 (medulla oblongata) 63. a. The substrate for acetylcholinesterase
k. 4 (hypothalamus) is acetylcholine.
l. 4 (hypothalamus) b. The levels of acetylcholine would increase as
m. 5 (corpus callosum) acetylcholine accumulates in the synapse.
57. a. sympathetic nervous system c. The build up of acetylcholine in the synapse would
b. parasympathetic nervous system cause the muscles to continue contracting. Since
there are no enzymes to break down acetylcholine,
c. sympathetic nervous system
the nerve impulse would continue to fire.
d. sympathetic nervous system
d. If exposed to nerve gases, the diaphragm would
e. sympathetic nervous system
continue to contract and exhalation could not occur.
f. parasympathetic nervous system
64. The hypothalamus is affected.
g. sympathetic nervous system
65. Norepinephrine is released by the sympathetic
h. parasympathetic nervous system
nervous system to increase both the heart rate and the
58. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) functions breathing rate.
automatically and without conscious awareness. The
66. Students will form their hypothesis.
autonomic nervous system can either stimulate or
inhibit effectors. The somatic nervous system controls
conscious or voluntary regulation and stimulates Chapter 13 Answers
skeletal muscles.
59. Making Connections—Born with Bad Kidneys
Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System 1. The role of the kidney is to excrete
liquid metabolic wastes and
maintainosmoregulation, acid–base
balance, and secretion of hormones.
2. If the collecting ducts are diseased or
involved with obstructed, then urine cannot reach the
Similarities between
involved maintenance renal pelvis and will back up.
sympathetic and
with stressful situations; “rest
parasympathetic nervous 3. Sickle red blood cells are not as flexible
situations; “fight and digest”
systems: both are part of as normal red blood cells. These
or flight” response; response;
the peripheral nervous sickled red blood cells get clogged up
neurotransmitter = neurotransmitter =
system and autonomic in capillary beds, obstructing the flow
norepinephrine. acetylcholine.
nervous system. of blood. Proper kidney function is
dependent on many capillary beds
allowing the exchange of gases, ions,
and nutrients.

60. The hypothalamus has been affected if he has a loss of

Chapter 13 Diagnostic Questions
appetite and thirst. 1. d. the bladder
61. There is a conflict between the right side and left side of 2. a. to store urine
the brain. One side wants you to read the word, while
the other side identifies the word and wants you to say 3. c. active transport
the word you see, rather than the colour that you see. 4. d. medulla oblongata

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-59

5. a. the concentration of H+ 28. The fluids are found in the tissue fluid, in blood
6. c. The renal artery carries blood to the kidneys and the plasma, and in lymph.
renal vein carries blood away from the kidneys. 29. The lymphatic system.
7. d. nephro 30. The other fluids are the cerebrospinal fluid and
8. a. osmolarity. synovial fluid.

9. b. amino acid metabolism.

10. a. urea Chapter 13 Check Your Progress
11. a. urination. Answers
12. c. urethra. Check Your Progress 13.1
13. a. inhibits urination. 1. Excretion is the removal of liquid metabolic wastes.
14. a. at the back 2. The four major functions of the urinary system are
15. d. antidiuretic hormone excretion of wastes, maintenance of water–salt balance
16. d. contributes to the growth of hair and nails (osmoregulation), maintenance of acid–base balance,
and secretion of hormones.
17. Four excretory organs include the lungs, skin, kidneys,
and the large intestine. Lungs excrete carbon dioxide 3. The kidneys produce urine, which contains metabolic
and water vapour. Kidneys excrete nitrogenous waste, wastes such as urea and uric acid, and maintain
hydrogen ions, sodium ions, and water. Skin excretes osmotic balance, blood volume, blood pressure, and
water (sweat) and salt. The large intestine excretes acid–base balance. The kidneys also produce renin and
water and solid waste in the form of feces. erythropoietin and activate vitamin D.
18. Two examples of diuretics are alcoholic drinks and
caffeinated drinks. Check Your Progress 13.2
19. One function of the kidneys is to filter blood. 1. The renal cortex contains Bowman’s capsules, proximal
convoluted tubules, and distal convoluted tubules.
20. It is necessary to remove waste from the body because The renal medulla contains the Loops of Henle and
some of the waste may be toxic and can pose a threat to portions of the collecting ducts.
an individual.
2. The epithelium of the PCT has many microvilli, which
21. The nervous system and the endocrine system affect increases the surface area for reabsorption. The DCT
the urinary system. is composed of cuboidal epithelial cells that are not
22. There would be a need for a huge number of designed for reabsorption.
mitochondria because the nephrons of the kidneys 3. The kidney uses diffusion to move non-polar molecules
need ATP for active transport. from PCT back into the blood. The kidney uses passive
23. Reabsorption refers to removing the substance from transport (or facilitated transport) to move polar
the urine and keeping it in the body, while excretion molecules such as glucose and amino acids. The kidney
refers to the removal of waste products from the body uses active transport to move other molecules against
in the urine. their concentration gradient. Active transport occurs
24. Water passes through the kidney tubules by osmosis. during selective reabsorption, and tubular excretion.

25. Formed elements like blood cells and proteins are too 4. Glucose is returned to the blood at the proximal
big to pass from the blood vessels into the tubules of convoluted tubule in a process called selective
the nephrons. reabsorption. Some is returned to the blood by passive
reabsorption and the rest (up to threshold levels) is
26. 1. abdominal muscles; 2. adrenal glands; 3. kidney;
returned by active transport.
4. renal artery; 5. renal vein; 6. inferior (posterior)
vena cava; 7. ureter; 8. uterus; 9. bladder; 10. urethra
27. There is about twice as much fluid found inside the
cells than outside the cells.

A-60 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

Check Your Progress 13.3 3. Students may suggest considerations such as age,
health, alcohol abuse, drug use, and disease. Accept all
1. The three steps/processes that are required to
reasonable answers.
produce hypertonic urine include reabsorption of
salt, establishment of a concentration gradient, and
reabsorption of water. Chapter 13 Review Questions
2. When blood volume and pressure are low, the
juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes renin, which 1. a. I and II only
converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, which in 2. c. the reabsorption of sodium.
turn causes aldosterone secretion. Renin also causes 3. c. stimulates urination in structure 6.
arteriole constriction, thereby increasing blood
4. d. muscle contractions.
pressure within the glomerulus.
5. c. structure 5 - reabsorption
3. Diuretics can be used medically to reduce blood
volume and lower blood pressure. They are also used 6. c. structure 7
illicitly by athletes to lose weight quickly or to dilute 7. b. glucose
urine to make drug detection more difficult.
8. a. 1 (pressure filtration); 5 (selective reabsorption);
4. Kidneys regulate H+, HCO3−, OH−, and NH4+ to 6 (tubular excretion)
maintain blood pH. (When blood is acidic, hydrogen
9. b. Glucose and amino acids are actively reabsorbed by
ions are excreted and bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed.
carrier proteins.
When blood is basic, hydrogen ions are not excreted
and bicarbonate ions are not absorbed.) 10. d. Osmosis of water occurs at the descending limb
and active transport of Na+ and Cl- occurs the
ascending limb.
Check Your Progress 13.4
11. d. structure 8
1. If the kidneys cannot function, metabolic wastes
cannot be removed, so their concentration in the 12. c. structure 6
bloodstream increases to toxic levels. Also, regulation 13. d. NH3 + H+ → NH4+
of blood volume is compromised, maintenance of
14. c. descending limb of the loop of Henle and the
blood pH at 7.4 is impaired, and hormone secretion
collecting duct.
is hindered.
15. b. It will inhibit the secretion of ADH.
2. Smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer five-fold
due to the toxic byproducts of cigarettes being secreted 16. d. The posterior pituitary gland will secrete ADH
into the bladder. which will cause water to be reabsorbed, increasing
blood volume.
3. Females are more prone to cystitis because they have
a shorter and broader urethra that is closer to the anal 17. c. kidneys secrete renin → adrenal cortex secretes
opening and more easily contaminated with bacteria. aldosterone → sodium is reabsorbed → water is
Males may experience difficulty while urinating if they reabsorbed → blood volume increases
have an enlarged prostate gland, since it encircles the 18. a. the collecting duct to water.
male urethra. 19. c. The posterior pituitary gland will release ADH,
which causes more water to be reabsorbed and less
Chapter 13 Features and Case urine to form.
Study Answers 20. d. an increase in the release of aldosterone.
21. b. ADH regulates the concentration of urine by
Science in Your Life: Scientific Inquiry—Matching controlling the permeability of the CD to water.
Organs for Transplantation 22. c. II and III only
1. We have all been exposed in utero. 23. b. nephron of the kidneys
2. There are more antigens (other proteins or 24. c. II and III only
polysaccharides) than the MHC molecules that are
25. a. collecting duct
displayed on our cells, which define one person versus
another. Identical twins have fewer differences. b. loop of Henle

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-61

c. Bowman’s capsule 29.
d. distal convoluted tubule
Aldosterone ADH
e. collecting duct Type of molecule Hormone Hormone
f. proximal convoluted tubule
Origin Adrenal gland Hypothalamus
g. proximal convoluted tubule
h. proximal convoluted tubule
Where it works Distal convoluted Distal convoluted
i. Bowman’s capsule, PCT, DCT tubule tubule Collecting
j. distal convoluted tubule duct
k. Bowman’s capsule Regulation By blood pressure; By osmotic pressure
l. distal convolute tubule renin and
m. distal convoluted tubule
n. distal convoluted tubule 30. renal artery → afferent arteriole → glomerulus
o. glomerulus → efferent arteriole → peritubular capillary network
26. a. Nervous system: The parasympathetic and → renal venule → renal vein
sympathetic nervous system control urine 31. The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is
production and elimination. impermeable to water and the active transport of salt
b. Digestive system: The kidneys make up for the loss moves salt into the renal medulla. Urea leaks from the
of fluids by the digestive system. collecting duct into the renal medulla. Both of these
events create a hypertonic environment which causes
c. Endocrine system: The endocrine system influences
water to diffuse out of the descending limb of the loop
the production of urine through the secretion
of Henle and the collecting duct and return to the
of hormones.
peritubular capillary network. As a result, urine is very
d. Lymphatic system: The kidneys regulate extracellular
concentrated with solutes and has very little water.
fluid composition and volume.
32. The glomerular filtrate consists of water, nitrogenous
e. Circulatory system: The kidneys control blood
wastes, glucose, amino acids and salts. The plasma
volume and blood pressure by regulating the
contains all of these dissolved molecules as well, in
reabsorption of water and salt.
addition to formed elements (eg. red blood cells, white
f. Respiratory system: The respiratory system and the
blood cells and platelets) and plasma proteins which
urinary system regulate blood pH.
are too big to pass into the Bowman’s capsule.
g. Reproductive system: The urinary and reproductive
33. ADH is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. It
system share organs (eg. urethra) in males.
makes the collecting duct more permeable to water.
27. a. yes; b. yes; c. yes; d. no; e. yes; f. yes; g. yes; h. yes;
Water is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries,
i. no; j. yes
which then results in an increase in blood volume and
28. therefore an increase in blood pressure.
Diffusion and 34. Aldosterone is secreted by the adrenal cortex, which
Part of Nephron Active Transport Osmosis makes the tubules more permeable to sodium ions.
Proximal Na+ Water Sodium ions are reabsorbed into the peritubular
Convoluted Nutrients (glucose) capillaries by active transport, which then causes the
Tubule reabsorption of water. This increases blood volume and
Descending Limb Water therefore blood pressure.
of Loop of Henle
35. A decrease in blood pressure triggers the posterior
Ascending Limb of Na+, Cl-, K+ pituitary gland to secrete ADH. This causes the
Loop of Henle
reabsorption of water, which then causes an increase in
Distal Convoluted Na+, Ca2+ Water, Cl-
blood volume and blood pressure.
Collecting Duct + + - Water
36. When the posterior pituitary gland secretes low levels
Na , K , HCO3 ,
- + of ADH, the DCT and CD are relatively impermeable
Cl , H
to water. Therefore, water is not reabsorbed and ends
up in the urine, resulting in dilute urine. When the

A-62 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

posterior pituitary gland secretes high levels of ADH, the respiratory system eliminates carbon dioxide, the
the DCT and CD are highly permeable to water. Since digestive system gets rid of digestive wastes and the
water is reabsorbed, concentrated urine is excreted. integumentary system removes excess water and salts.
37. Renin is released by the juxtaglomerular apparatus 45. Having a relatively long loop of Henle allows an
when there is a decrease in blood pressure. Renin animal to reabsorb as much water as possible in order
changes angiotensinogen, a plasma protein produced to conserve water. The long loop of Henle aids in the
by the liver, into angiotensin I. Angiotensin I, a creation of a more hypertonic renal medulla, which
vasoconstrictor, promotes the release of aldosterone thus aids in getting more water reabsorbed from the
from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone promotes the collecting duct. The animal would need this adaptive
reabsorption of sodium ions, which leads to water advantage if it lives in a very arid environment where
reabsorption. This results in the increase in blood it needs to produce concentrated urine. Camels are
volume and blood pressure. animals with very long loop of Henle.
38. The reabsorption of sodium is by active transport. 46. There would be kidney failure and no urine would
When sodium ions move actively back into the blood, be produced.
chloride ions follow passively because of their opposite 47. 1. Angiotensin causes the efferent arteriole to constrict,
charge during selective reabsorption at the proximal which causes the blood pressure in the glomerulus
convoluted tubule. to increase. 2. Angiotensin stimulates the adrenal
39. When salt is actively moved out of the nephron at cortex to release aldosterone, which promotes the
the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, this creates reabsorption of sodium. This in turn causes the
a hypertonic environment in the renal medulla. reabsorption of water, which increases blood volume
This results in water diffusing passively out of and blood pressure. 3. Angiotensin stimulates thirst,
the descending limb of the loop of Henle and the which promotes water intake, which increases blood
collecting duct. volume and blood pressure.
40. When the body experiences dehydration, the posterior 48. A caffeinated drink causes the osmoreceptors in the
pituitary gland secretes ADH which promotes water hypothalamus to inhibit the secretion of ADH. This
reabsorption. This leads to increased fluid volume. At results in the DCT and CD becoming less permeable
the same time, the adrenal cortex secretes aldosterone to water, and water reabsorption is inhibited. This leads
which promotes increased sodium ion reabsorption in to a high volume of water being excreted, resulting
the tubules. This also results in water reabsorption and in dehydration. The dehydration contributes to
increased fluid volume. symptoms of hangovers. To minimize the symptoms of
41. The pregnant woman has gestational diabetes because a hangover, drink lots of water.
the liver and muscles are not storing glucose as glycogen. 49. Substance X is filterable at the glomerulus. If it was
The kidneys cannot reabsorb all the glucose in the not, then it would have remained in the blood with the
filtrate and therefore some of it is ending up in the urine. formed elements and plasma proteins.
42. The kidneys maintain acid-base balance by secreting 50. The low salt diet would cause a decrease in blood
hydrogen ions and reabsorbing bicarbonate ions. volume and blood pressure. Without renin, angiotensin
43. Hydrogen ions combine with bicarbonate ions to would not be produced to stimulate the release of
form carbonic acid. Carbonic acid can be converted to aldosterone. Therefore, the kidneys would not reabsorb
carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide is passively sodium and water and they will end up in the urine.
reabsorbed and can be reconverted to bicarbonate ion Consequently, blood volume and blood pressure would
in the body fluids. not increase as needed.

44. The term “urinary system” is more appropriate because 51. Less than 10g/day is excreted. About 9.95 grams of salt
metabolic wastes are removed (eg. hydrogen ions, is reabsorbed by the body.
drugs, excess water, etc.) in urine. The urinary system 52. The low pH is due to the hydrogen ions in the urine.
is not only involved in excreting substances, but is also 53. One hundred percent of glucose is reabsorbed by the
involved in maintaining homeostasis by regulating proximal convoluted tubule and therefore stays in
water and acid-base balance. The term “excretory the body instead of ending up in urine. Proteins are
system” is not as appropriate because other systems generally too big to pass from the glomerulus into the
in the body have excretory functions. For example, Bowman’s capsule and therefore do not end up in urine.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-63

54. The sodium hydroxide diffused from the solution 66. The hypertonic environment in the tissues of the renal
in the beaker into the dialysis bag. In the presence medulla of the kidneys draws the water out of the loop
of a base (NaOH), phenolphthalein turns bright of Henle and the collecting duct. Water ends back up in
pink. Sodium hydroxide is much smaller than the circulatory system.
phenolphthalein and that is why it moved
across the membrane of the dialysis tubing, and
not phenolphthalein.
Chapter 14 Answers
55. a. Increased aldosterone secretion would cause an Making Connections—Cord Blood Banking
increase in sodium reabsorption and an increase in
1. Ovulation must occur and the egg must travel into the
potassium excretion. The levels of sodium would be
oviduct; sperm must be produced and transported to
too high and the levels of the potassium would be
the site of fertilization.
too low in the patient’s body.
b. This would result in high blood pressure. 2. The umbilical cord connects the developing embryo
and placenta. The umbilical cord contains two
c. High levels of aldosterone would cause the
umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein. The
person to be constantly thirsty and stimulate
umbilical vein supplies the fetus with oxygen-rich,
frequent urination.
nutrient-rich blood from the placenta. The fetal
56. Some things to consider include: what are the heart pumps oxygen-poor, nutrient-depleted, waste-
other hidden costs that come with both options filled blood through the umbilical arteries back to
(eg. transportation to get to hospital visits; hydro cost the placenta.
at home to operate a dialysis machine; how long the
wait list is for a kidney transplant; other hidden costs).
57. The drug would be excreted at the distal
Chapter 14 Diagnostic Questions
convoluted tubule.
1. a. steroids.
58. Flowchart
2. c. gametes.
59. Water gain comes from the liquids we drink, the food
3. a. 23 chromosomes.
we eat and as a by-product of metabolism. Water loss is
due to excretion in the form of urine, sweat, exhaled air 4. b. be haploid.
and feces. 5. b. meiosis.
60. Under normal conditions, the total water input is equal 6. a. testis.
to the total water output so that the body maintains a 7. a. ovary.
constant volume.
8. c. 46 chromosomes.
61. Hydration results when water input is greater than
water output. Dehydration results when water input is 9. b. once a month.
less than water output. 10. c. the foreskin on the penis.
62. Homeostasis is maintained by antidiuretic hormone. It 11. b. menstruation
maintains proper water balance. It is produced by the 12. b. urethra
hypothalamus, released by the posterior pituitary gland
13. a. Her hips widen.
and acts on the collecting duct.
14. a. growth of facial hair.
63. Substance Y is glucose.
15. a. after a woman gives birth.
64. Substance Z is urea.
16. b. two X chromosomes.
65. a. isotonic
b. isotonic 17. d. one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.
c. hypertonic 18. b. 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules.
d. hypotonic 19. b. they reach menopause.
e. hypertonic 20. c. abstinence

A-64 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

21. 1. bladder; 2. urethra; 3. seminal vesicles; 4. ejaculatory Check Your Progress 14.3
duct; 5. prostate gland; 6. Cowper’s glands; 7. vas
1. During the follicular phase, FSH from the anterior
deferens; 8. epididymis; 9. testis; 10. scrotum; 11. penis
pituitary promotes the development of an ovarian
22. 1. oviduct (fallopian tube); 2. ovary; 3. uterus; follicle. Ovulation signals the end of the follicular
4. bladder; 5. urethra; 6. vagina phase. The major feature of the luteal phase is secretion
23. Some harmful substances include alcohol, drugs and of progesterone by the corpus luteum, which causes the
cigarettes. The negative effects of these substances may uterine lining to thicken in order to be ready to receive
include addiction, fetal alcohol syndrome, low birth a fertilized oocyte.
weight, and being born prematurely. 2. Estrogen from an ovarian follicle stimulates the
24. Signs of pregnancy include missed period; enlargement proliferative phase of the uterine cycle, during which
of breasts; weight gain; morning sickness. the endometrium begins to thicken. Progesterone from
the corpus luteum leads to the secretory phase of the
25. Yes, she can still get pregnant because she still has one
uterine cycle, in which the endometrium thickens and
ovary to release eggs every month.
uterine glands produce thick mucus.
26. A vasectomy prevents a man from ejaculating sperm in
3. During the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle,
the semen.
FSH released by the anterior pituitary promotes the
maturation of a follicle in the ovary. The ovarian
Chapter 14 Check Your Progress follicle produces increasing levels of estrogen,
Answers which causes the endometrium to thicken during
the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle. After
Check Your Progress 14.1 ovulation and during the luteal phase of the ovarian
cycle, LH promotes the development of the corpus
1. The seminiferous tubules in the testes produce
luteum. This structure produces increasing levels
sperm. The epididymis stores the sperm, and the
of progesterone, which causes the endometrium to
vasa deferentia carry the sperm to the female via the
become secretory. Menstruation and the proliferative
urethra. The urethra also functions in urination.
phase begin when progesterone production declines
2. Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral to a low level. In pregnancy, the placenta produces
glands add secretions to semen. HCG, which maintains progesterone production by
3. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete the corpus luteum until the placenta can produce
the two gonadotropic hormones, FSH and LSH. FSH progesterone, and estrogen, which inhibits the ovarian
promotes the production of sperm. ICSH controls cycle and maintains the endometrium. After birth, the
the production of testosterone by interstitial cells. anterior pituitary begins secreting prolactin, which is
Testosterone controls the development and function needed for lactation to begin. Suckling causes uterine
of the testes and associated organs. It also brings about contractions that can help the mother’s uterus return
male secondary sex characteristics. to its normal size. During menopause no eggs develop
and the ovarian and uterine cycle cease.
Check Your Progress 14.2
Check Your Progress 14.4
1. The uterine tubes are severed and tied off. Movement
of eggs down the uterine tubes is prevented. 1. Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis increase the blood flow to
the penis during sexual intercourse.
2. In males the urethra and external genitalia (the penis)
function in both reproduction and urination. In 2. Endometriosis, or inflammation of the uterine lining,
contrast, these two systems are separate in females. can cause infertility by preventing implantation of a
fertilized oocyte.
3. Contractions of the uterus may help to move some
sperm from the uterus to the fallopian tubes. 3. Ovarian cancer is more frequently fatal than testicular
cancer mainly because the ovaries are inside a woman’s
body, hidden from detection until the cancer has
spread to other organs.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-65

4. Artificial insemination by donor requires the least 14. b. prostaglandin and oxytocin
medical intervention, since sperm is simply collected, 15. b. Hypothalamus releases GnRH → anterior pituitary
concentrated, and placed into the vagina (or uterus) gland secretes LH → LH stimulates interstitial cells to
by a physician. In vitro fertilization mixes oocytes produce testosterone
and sperm outside the body and the embryos are
16. a. the production of sperm cells
transferred to the uterus of the female. Gamete
intrafallopian transfer requires more intervention, 17. c. Progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum
since the oocytes and sperm are brought together in dominates during the secretory phase.
vitro, then introduced into one of the woman’s uterine 18. d. I, II and III
tubes. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection requires the
19. d. Follicular phase – FSH promotes the development of
most intervention, as a single sperm must be injected
the follicle
into an oocyte.
20. c. the development of breasts during puberty.
21. c. structure 3.
Chapter 14 Features and Case
22. a. Structure 4 – site where the sperm fertilizes the egg
Study Answers
23. d. vagina.
Science in Your Life: Science and Technology—In 24. d. human chorionic gonadotropin
Vitro Fertilization 25. c. structure 3.
1. FSH produces more follicles. 26. b. hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovaries
2. Estrogen prepares the uterus for implantation. 27. c. anterior pituitary gland
3. HCG confirms implantation. 28. d. structure 4
4. Accept all reasonable and well-reasoned answers. 29. d. the thickening of the endometrium and widening of
the pelvic girdle.
Chapter 14 Review Questions 30. a. the follicle will not develop
31. c. X represents positive feedback that occurs during
1. d. There is a greater chance that one sperm will reach
days 12 through 14, while Y represents negative
and fertilize the egg.
feedback that occurs throughout most of the cycle.
2. d. The motility of the sperm would decrease.
32. d. it shuts down the anterior pituitary gland from
3. d. uterus – acts as a site of implantation of the embryo producing LH and FSH so that no follicle will develop
4. d. allows the exchange of nutrient and waste between 33. d. birth control pills and contraceptive patch
the mom and the fetus.
34. 1. bladder; 2. ureter; 3. seminal vesicles; 4. prostrate
5. b. Hormone 1 = LH; Hormone 2 = FSH; Hormone 3 glands; 5. Cowper’s gland (bulbourethral gland);
= Estrogen; Hormone 4 = Progesterone 6. vas deferens; 7. epididymis; 8. testis; 9. urethra;
6. b. Ovulation is marked by an increase in 10. penis
body temperature. 35 a. structure 8 (testes)
7. a. the shedding of the endometrium. b. structure 7 (epididymis)
8. c. hormone 3 c. structure 10 (penis)
9. c. anterior pituitary gland. d. structure 8 (testes)
e. structure 9 (urethra)
10. d. prepare the uterus for the implantation of the
fertilized egg. 36. The placenta secretes progesterone and estrogen
which inhibit the anterior pituitary gland so that
11. b. the corpus luteum to secrete hormones 3 and 4.
LH and FSH are not secreted. This prevents follicles
12. b. hormones 3 and 4. from developing in the ovaries during pregnancy.
13. c. the secretion of large amounts of GnRH from the Progesterone and estrogen from the placenta also
hypothalamus as a result of high levels of hormone 3. maintain the endometrium.

A-66 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

37. Diagram of the sperm should include: head, acrosome, uterus, stimulates uterine contraction. This marks
midpiece, and tail (flagellum). The sperm has a head the onset of labour. Uterine contraction will occur at
where the nucleus, containing the 23 chromosomes, regular intervals during labour.
is located. The head is covered with an acrosome that 46.
has enzymes to penetrate the cell membrane (plasma
membrane) of the egg during fertilization. The sperm Hormone Source Target Action
has a midpiece that has mitochondria to provide the Type of Interstitial Testes; Stimulates
sperm with ATP for swimming. The tail of the sperm, molecule cells of the muscles secondary sex
testes characteristics
also known as the flagellum, allows it to move.
FSH Anterior Follicle in Stimulates
38. seminiferous tubules → epididymis → vas deferens pituitary the ovary in the follicle to
→ ejaculatory duct → urethra gland the female; develop in the
39. The egg leaves the ovary and heads into the oviduct Seminiferous female;
tubules of the Stimulates
(fallopian tube) where it is usually fertilized by the
testes in the sperm
sperm. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus
male production in
where it implants itself in the endometrium. the male
40. These three glands add secretions to semen: the LH Anterior Follicle in the Causes
prostate gland secretes a milky, alkaline fluid to help pituitary ovary; ovulation
neutralize the acidic environment of the female gland Interstitial during LH
vagina; the seminal vesicles produce fructose to cells of the surge in the
testes in the female; Causes
provide energy for the sperm; the Cowper’s glands
male formation and
(bulbourethral glands) produce a viscous fluid that
helps with lubrication. of corpus
41. Cells in the ovaries have receptor sites for FSH, while luteum in the
the cells in the uterus do not. female; Causes
production of
42. During the follicular phase (days 1–13) of the ovarian testosterone in
cycle, primary oocytes in the ovaries begin to mature the male
in a follicle. The surrounding follicular cells provide Estrogen Developing Lining of the Causes
nutrients for the developing oocyte and produce follicle in the uterus thickening of
estrogen. On day 14, ovulation occurs with the follicle ovary the uterine
rupturing and releasing the egg. During the luteal lining; inhibits
phase (days 15–28), the corpus luteum forms and FSH; stimulates
produces progesterone and estrogen. It degenerates if LH
pregnancy does not occur. Progesterone Corpus Lining of the Causes
luteum in uterus thickening of
43. A nursing baby suckling on the mother’s nipple the ovary the uterine
stimulates the secretion of prolactin and milk lining; inhibits
production. The more the baby suckles on the nipple, LH
the more milk is produced.
47. age of the male, physical activity, genetic background,
44. The stretching of the cervix induces uterine lifestyle (eg. smoking, drinking, etc.)
contractions. This results in the release of oxytocin
from the posterior pituitary gland. Through a positive 48. Flowchart
feedback mechanism, oxytoxin stimulates strong 49. 1. GnRH; 2. LH; 3. FSH; 4. testosterone; 5. inhibin
uterine contractions during labour. Oxytocin is also 50. Women are most fertile 25 to 35 because of the high
secreted when a baby suckles on the mother’s nipple levels of estrogen.
during nursing. Oxytocin causes the “let-down” or
51. A decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels marks
secretion of milk.
the onset of menopause.
45. The baby’s head puts pressure on the cervix. This
52. There is the greatest reduction in progesterone and
results in the hypothalamus producing oxytocin.
estrogen level between age 35 and age 50.
Oxytocin is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.
Oxytocin along with prostaglandins, produced in the

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-67

53. There is a huge gap between estrogen and
progesterone levels.
54. The hormone levels permanently decrease.
55. The ovulation kit is designed to detect high levels of
luteinizing hormone in the urine.
56. Ovulation is caused by the LH surge (increased levels
of LH).
57. 1. record their menstrual cycle; 2. record the
monthly basal temperature; 3. observe changes in the
cervical mucus
58. Ovulation kits should not be used as a contraceptive
because it does not prevent the sperm from fertilizing
the egg. It just tells you when you are probably
ovulating by detecting the amount of LH in the
blood. You can still get pregnant 24 hours after
ovulation because the sperm can survive in the female
reproductive tract for up to 48 hours.
59. Gonadotropins stimulate the release of LH and FSH.
These hormones then cause the multiple follicles in the
ovaries to be produced. Multiple eggs may be released
from the ovaries at one time and this could lead to
multiple births.
60. Effects may include: back pains because of the weight
at the front; urge to urinate frequently because of the
pressure on the urinary bladder; abdominal pains
because the stretching of the muscles and ligaments.
61. The infertility may be due to the Olympic athlete not
having regular menstrual periods. Irregular menstrual
periods may be due to low body weight and excessive
exercise routines associated with training for the
Olympics and stress.

A-68 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key