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Tamil Nadu Electricity Grid Code
WHEREAS under clause (h) of sub-section 1 of Section 86 of the Electricity Act, 2003 (Central Act 36 of 2003), the State Electricity Regulatory Commission shall among others, specify State Grid Code AND WHEREAS having regard to Grid standards it shall be consistent with the Grid code specified by Central Electricity Regulatory Commission under clause (h) of sub-section 1 of Section 79 of the said Act. NOW THEREFORE under the powers conferred by the said section and all other powers enabling in that behalf and after previous publication, the Tamil Nadu Electricity Regulatory Commission hereby specifies the following code.
CHAPTER 1 PRELIMINARY 1. Short Title and Commencementi. ii. This code may be called “Tamil Nadu Electricity Grid Code”. The provisions of this code shall come into effect on the date of its publication in the Tamil Nadu Government Gazette.
2. Glossary and Definitions No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Item ABT Act Agency Apparatus Area of Supply Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Black Start Procedure BIS Definition Availability Based Tariff The Electricity Act 2003. A term used in this Code to refer to utilities who utilize the Intra State Transmission facilities Electrical equipments and includes all machines, fittings, accessories and appliances in which conductors are used. As defined in the concerned Licence A continuously acting automatic excitation control system to control the voltage of a Generating Unit measured at the generator terminals The procedure necessary to bring back normalcy in the Grid from a blackout The Bureau of Indian Standards
Draft Grid Code Revision - 1
Item Captive Power Plant (CPP)
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Capacitor CEA CERC Central Transmission Utility (CTU) Central Generating Station (CGS) Code Co-generator
17 18 19 20 21
Commission Connection Connection Agreement Constituent Consumer
22 23 24
Demand Despatch Schedule Disconnection
Definition A Power plant set up by any person to generate electricity primarily for his own use and includes a power plant set up by any co-operative society or association of persons for generating electricity primarily for use of members of such co-operative societies or associations An electrical facility provided for generation of reactive power. The Central Electricity Authority The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission The utility notified by the Central Government which is presently the Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd., (PGCIL) Power Station, which is owned and / or controlled by Central Government. ‘Code’ means the Tamil Nadu Electricity Grid Code in as much as this Code is concerened ‘ Co-generator ‘ produces heat and electricity with a defined percentage of heat and electricity. The electricity is either all or partly utilized internally or a fixed part of electricity may be sold at a contract. Tamil Nadu Electricity Regulatory Commission The electric lines and electrical equipment used to effect a connection of a User's System to the Transmission System. An agreement setting out the terms relating to the Connection to and / or use of the Transmission / Distribution System. Any agency who is a member of the State Electricity System Consumer means any person who is supplied with electricity for his own use by a Licensee or the Government or by any other person engaged in the business of supplying electricity to the public under this Act or any other law for the time being in force and includes any person whose premises are for the time being connected for the purpose of receiving electricity with the works of a Licensee, the Government or such other person, as the case may be. The demand of Active Power MW and Reactive Power MVAR of electricity unless otherwise stated. The ex-power plant net output of a generating station, scheduled to be exported to the Grid from time to time. The act of physically separating User’s or customer’s electrical equipment from the System.
Draft Grid Code Revision - 1
No 25 26
Item Distribution Company Distribution System
27 28 29
Disturbance Recorder (DR) Data Acquisition System (DAS) Event
30 31 32
Event Logger (EL) External Interconnection Forced Outage
Definition An organisation, which is a licensed, or exempt from the requirements to be licensed to own and / or operate all or part of the Distribution System. Means the system of wires and associated facilities between the delivery points on the transmission lines or the generating station connection and the point of connection to the installation of the consumers. A device provided to record the behavior of the preselected digital and analog values of the system parameters during an event. A device provided to record the sequence of operation in time, of the relays / equipments / system parameters at a location. ‘Event’ when used in conjunction with the terminology ‘ Event Logger’ means an unscheduled or unplanned occurrence on a Grid including faults, incidents and breakdowns. A device provided to record the sequence of operation in time, of the relays / equipments at a location during an event. Electric lines and electrical equipment used for transmission of electricity between the Inter State and Intra State Transmission System. An outage of a Generating Unit or a transmission facility due to a fault or other reasons, which has not been planned. Means any company or body corporate or association or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, or artificial juridical person, which owns or operates or maintains a generating station. The combination of an electrical power generator and its prime mover and all of its associated equipment, which together constitutes a single generating machine. Any of the practices, methods and acts engaged in or approved by a significant portion of the electric utility industry during the relevant time period which could have been expected to accomplish the desired results at a reasonable cost consistent with good business practices, reliably, safely and with expedition. In relation to the operation of the governor of a Generating Unit, the percentage drop in system frequency which would cause the Generating Unit under free governor action to change its output from zero to full load.
Good Utility Practices
Draft Grid Code Revision - 1
No 37 38 39 40
Item High voltage DC System (HVDC) IEC Independent Power Producer (IPP) Independent Private Transmission Company (IPTC) Indian Electricity Grid Code (IEGC) Inter State Transmission System (ISTS)
Definition High Voltage Direct Current System International Electro Technical Commission, the authority that approves the electricity industry standards used, on an international basis A generating company not owned / controlled by the Central / State Government and not covered under the category of CPP A licensed transmission agency, not owned / controlled by the Central / State Government, involved in the business of transmission of electrical energy. A document describing the philosophy and the responsibilities for planning and operation of Indian Power System approved by CERC. Any system for the conveyance of energy by means of a main transmission line from the territory of one state to another State and includes: (a) The conveyance of energy across the territory of an intervening State as well as conveyance within the State, which is incidental to such interstate transmission of energy. (b)The transmission of energy within the territory of a State on a system built, owned, operated, maintained or controlled by the Central Transmission Utility or ;by any person / agency under the supervision and control of a Central Transmission Utility. The transmission system within the State of Tamil Nadu for the transmission of electricity to various parts of the State That period in a day when electrical demand is at its lowest. A person who has been granted a license under section 14 of the Electricity Act, 2003 to supply or transmit or trade electrical energy. The active, reactive or apparent power, as the context requires, generated, transmitted or distributed. The normal rated full load MW output capacity of a generating Unit which can be sustained on a continuous basis at specified conditions. The entire inner-connected electric power network of the country, which would evolve after interconnection of regional grids. A scheduled or planned action relating to the operation of the power system.
43 44 45 46 47 48 49
Intra State Transmission System Lean Period Licensee Load Maximum Continuous rating (MCR) National Grid Operation
for the settlement and billing of "Capacity Charge". hydrological and other environmental or general conditions thereof.Draft Grid Code Revision . efficiently and economically as applicable to equipment of a certain size. Those practices. test. construct. (d) to conform to energy conservation and (e) to conform to the general safety standards An electrical facility specifically designed to absorb Reactive Power. (b) to ensure compliance with the Electricity Act 2003. in order: (a) to conform to operation and maintenance guidelines recommended by the equipment manufacturers and suppliers and according to the guidelines given in the Indian / International Standards code of practice for such equipments. and commonly used in prudent electric utility engineering and operations to design. for deviation from schedules and "Reactive Energy Charge" for the transmission of power to the beneficiary States through inter state transmission system. including without limitation.1 No 50 Item Outage 51 52 53 Peak Period Pool Account Power Station / Power Plant 54 Prudent Utility Practices 55 56 Reactor Regional Energy Account (REA) Definition In relation to a generation / transmission system/ distribution system or facility. taking into account conditions in India / Tamilnadu. standards and acts shall be adjusted to the extent necessary. An installation of one or more Generating Units (even when sited separately) owned and / or operated by the same Generating Company and which may reasonably be considered as being managed as a single integrated generating complex. "Energy Charge". engineer. an interruption of power supply whether manually or through protective relaying in connection with maintenance / breakdown / failure or defects That period in a day when electrical demand is at its highest. methods. methods. 5 . rules and other related laws. A business account prepared by SLDC for payments regarding unscheduled interchanges and reactive energy exchanges. service and type and which practices. safely. operate and maintain equipment lawfully. as changed from time to time that are generally accepted for use in the international electric utility industry. (c) to take into account the site location. techniques and standards. A regional energy account. the climatic.
Drawing prepared for each connection point which incorporates layout drawings. electrical layout drawings. The load despatch centre situated in Chennai. Part loaded generating capacity with some reserve margin that is synchronized to the system and is ready to provide increased generation at short notice pursuant to despatch instruction or instantaneously in response to a frequency drop. Kerala and Pondicherry for the integrated operation of the electricity system. operating round the clock for the purpose of managing the operation of the transmission system and co-ordination of generation and drawal on a real time basis. Andhra Pradesh. As under section 32 of the Act. common protection/control drawings and common service drawings Region comprising of the States of Tamil Nadu.1 No 57 58 Item Regional Grid The Regional Load Despatch Centre (RLDC) Single Line Diagram (SLD) Site Common Drawing 59 60 61 Southern Region / Region Spinning Reserve 62 63 State Load Despatch Centre (SLDC) 64 65 State Sub Load Centre (SSLDC) Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) State Transmission Utility (STU) 66 67 68 69 70 Static VAR Compensator (SVC) Supplier TNERC TNEGC Definition The important elements of constituent / user systems including the ISTS which the RLDC supervises. the State Government has to notify the Board or a Government Company as the State Transmission Utility . The Centre. State's Sub Load Centre for local control at various places in Tamil Nadu The combination of transducers. so designated for a specified region where the operation of the power system in that region and the integration of the power system with other regions and areas (within the territory of India or outside) are considered.Accordingly TNEB is notified already as the STU An electrical facility designed for the purpose of generating or absorbing reactive power. communication links and data processing systems which provides information to the SLDC on the operational state of the transmission system and generating Units. Diagrams which are a schematic representation of the HV / EHV apparatus and the connections to all external circuits at a Connection Point incorporating its numbering nomenclature and labeling.Draft Grid Code Revision . Karnataka. Means a person licensed by the Commission under section 14 of the Act to supply electricity Tamil Nadu Electricity Regulatory Commission Tamil Nadu Electricity Grid Code 6 .
1 No 71 Item Transmission System 72 73 Transmission License User 74 Utility Definition The system of EHT electric lines and electrical equipment owned and / or operated by the STU and other transmission licensees. for the purpose of the transmission of electricity between power stations. A license granted by the Commission under section 14 of the Act . A person including the STU. electricity trading. supplier.Draft Grid Code Revision . Licensee and Power Grid or any such entity that uses the Transmission System and who must comply with the provisions of the Grid Code. Any person or entity engaged in the generation. Generating Company. distribution or supply. of energy 7 . transmission. external interconnections and the distribution system. as the case may be. to transmit electricity.
This Code is consistent with the Indian Electricity Grid Code and National Grid Standards formulated by CEA. abnormal and emergency conditions. expand. This Code brings out a single set of technical requirements encompassing all the Generators. Suitable measures for connectivity with the grid for all generating plants The standards with reference to quality. with a focus on the operation. development and planning of the Tamil Nadu State Electricity Grid. Planning of the State Electricity Grid and making arrangements for its operation.1 CHAPTER 2 General 3. as envisaged in Electricity Act 2003. development and expansion. 8 . Licensees. Overview(1) Generation. safer and economic manner. continuity and reliability of service for compliance by the Licensees. develop.Draft Grid Code Revision . reliable. the guidelines and standards to be followed by the various players (agencies and participants) in the system to plan. which define the relationship between various users of the Intra State Transmission System and State Load Despatch Centre as well. Operation of Grid under normal. maintain and operate the power system in the most efficient. Transmission. maintenance. Distribution and Supply are the main functions in an electric system. the quality of service rendered to the end user depends upon the function of each wing. (2) Objective: The objective of the Code is to define the services rendered by each wing in the overall electric system and also for identifying the responsibility and performance factor and measurement points for each one of them. Irrespective of whether there are different wings under the control of the same management or independent companies and Licensees for these functions. maintenance. and State Transmission Utilities connected to or related to or using the Intra State Transmission System and provides the following: The documentation of the principles and procedures. This Code defines the main functions connected with the network and also lays down the rules. Further it facilitates intra state transmission and wheeling of electricity.
9 ..1 Procedures for Black start... Users must therefore understand and accept that. Grid Standards and the lawful directions of RLDC and SLDC. To ensure economy and efficiency in the operation of the power system in the State and to achieve compliance with the Grid Standards or other Standards on direction of SLDC by every Licencee and others involved in the operation of the power system. Users shall provide such reasonable co-operation and assistance as the STU may request in such circumstances. restoration of supply after major disturbances. (5) Application of other Codes etc. Facilitation for beneficial trading of electricity by defining a common basis of operation of the Intra State Transmission System applicable to all the users of the system. It is nevertheless necessary to recognize that the Grid Code cannot predict and address all possible operational situations. Penalty for the non-compliance of this Grid Code. fast restart. may be required to act decisively for maintaining the grid regimes for discharging its obligations. (3) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Structure of the State Electricity Grid Code : The Code is structured in distinct chapters as follows: Functional responsibilities of entities connected with the State Grid Code System Planning Grid Connectivity conditions Requirement in Grid Operation Scheduling and Despatch Commercial issues and Implementation Non Compliance Code management Electricity Supply System. (4) General Requirements : The Grid Code contains procedures to permit equitable management of day to day technical situations in the taking into account a wide range of operational situations and requirements likely to be encountered under both normal and abnormal conditions.Draft Grid Code Revision . in such unforeseen circumstances. the State Transmission Utility (STU) who has to play a key role in the management and implementation of the Grid Code.
ii. any changes / amendments to the original act shall automatically be deemed to be effective under this code also 10 . the remaining provisions of this code shall remain operative iii. This code shall be read along with the supply code. rules or regulations made there under. Where any dispute arises as to the application or interpretation of any provisions of this code. and other relevant provisions of the Act. are reproduced. iv.Draft Grid Code Revision . along with amendments thereon. rules and regulations made there under. distribution code. Wherever extracts of the Electricity Act. 2003. not withstanding such inconsistency. it shall be referred to the Commission whose decision shall be final and binding on the parties concerned.1 i. Where any of the provisions of this code is found to be inconsistent with those of the Act.
. vii. (d) Provide non discriminatory open access to its transmission system for use by i. any consumer as and when open access is provided by the commission under subsection(2) of section 42 of the act. Central transmission utility State Government Generating companies Regional Power Committees Central Electricity Authority All Licensees Any other person notified by the State Government in this behalf (c)Ensure development of an efficient. coordinated and economical system of intra state transmission lines for smooth flow of electricity from a generating station to the load centers. iii. viz. managing and servicing of the Code.Draft Grid Code Revision . any licensee or generating company on payment of the transmission charges or. iv.1 CHAPTER 3 Functional responsibilities of entities connected with the State Grid Code 4. (b) STU shall discharge all functions of planning and coordination relating to intra state transmission system with i. vi. ii. v. Entities and their roles with respect to the Tamil Nadu State Electricity Grid Code and their functional responsibilities are outlined in the following clauses: (1) State Transmission Utility : The STU plays a key role in the entire system by control and authority over the entire electricity transmission high way. 11 . All the planning works. The functional responsibilities are : (a) Responsible for coordinating. long term as well as short term shall be the responsibility of STU only. ii. on payment of the transmission charges and a surcharge thereon as may be specified by the commission.
Until such company. The SLDC may levy and collect such fee and charges from the generating companies and licensees engaged in intra state transmission of electricity as may be specified by the commission. be responsible for carrying out real time operations for grid control and despatch the electricity within the state through secure and economic operation of the state grid in accordance with the grid standards and this code. keep accounts of the quantity of electricity transmitted through the state grid. d. the State Transmission Utility shall operate the State Load Despatch Center and SLDC shall not engage in the business of trading in Electricity. monitor Grid operation. be responsible for optimum scheduling and despatch of electricity within a state. exercise supervision and control over the intra state transmission system. Company. Substation and any 12 . or any Authority or Corporation established by the State Govt. SLDC may give such directions and exercise such supervision and control as may be required for ensuring the integrated Grid operation and for achieving the maximum economy and efficiency in the operation of the power system. Every licensee. in accordance with the contracts entered in to with the licensees or the generating companies operating in the state. b. and e.Draft Grid Code Revision . Generating Company. or authority. (2) State Load Despatch Center (SLDC) The State Government shall establish a center to be known as the State Load Despatch Center for the purpose of exercising the powers and discharging the functions under sub section (1) of section 31 of the Act . The SLDC shall: a. c. or Corporation is notified by the State Govt. The SLDC shall be the apex body to ensure integrated operation of the power system in a state.. This State Load Despatch Center shall be operated by a Govt.1 iii. Generating station. be a nodal agency for all long term open access customers.
Grid Standards. in accordance with this Code. and any other person connected with the operation of power system shall comply with the direction issued by RLDC. as may be specified by the Authority and the National Grid Code as applicable to the Intra State Transmission system.1 other person connected with the operation of the power system shall comply with the direction issued by the SLDC. established by Government of India for the region may. in the intra state transmission system and comply with the directions of RLDC and SLDC as the case may be provide non discriminatory open access to its transmission system for use by any licensee or generating company on payment of the charges as determined by the Commission (4) Regional Load Despatch Centre: The RLDC is the apex body to ensure integrated operation of the power system within the concerned regional grid. In respect of wheeling. to maintain and operate the transmission system which are licensed to him b. It shall be the duty of the transmission licensee a. All directions issued by the RLDC to any STU or any other licensee of the State or generating company or substation in the State shall be issued through SLDC and SLDC shall ensure that such directions are duly complied with the licensee or Generating company or substation. STU. issue guidelines on matters concerning the stability and smooth operation of the Grid and economy and efficiency in the 13 . Generating Company.Draft Grid Code Revision . Every licensee including transmission licensee. guidelines and methodology as specified by the CERC. optimum scheduling and despatch of electricity. Distribution licensee. The RLDC may give such directions and exercise such supervision and control as may be required for ensuring integrated grid operations and for achieving the economy and the efficiency in the operation of the power system in the region under its control. from time to time. (3) Transmission Licensees Every Transmission Licensee shall comply with such technical standards of operation and maintenance of transmission lines. (5) Regional Power Committee Regional Power Committee. the RLDC shall comply with the principles.
Such directions shall be binding on all the entities covered by this Code and to the extent they are applicable to the intra state transmission system and State grid. • The form and manner in which and time at which the State Government and the Licensee shall furnish statistics and return and other information under section 74 of Act.Draft Grid Code Revision . Govt. the relevance of this Code shall be limited to the connectivity between the Intra State transmission system and the inter state system (8) State Coordination Forum As per Section 166 (4) of the Act. representatives of the generating companies. the said regulations shall be binding on all the entities covered by this Code. transmission and 14 .1 operation of the power system in that region. (6) Central Electricity Authority Central 177 of the • • • • Electricity Authority in accordance with the provisions of section Act 2003 may make regulations. electric lines and connectivity to the grid and other matters as stipulated in Section 73 of the Act. Irrespective of whether the provisions under the regulations stated above are explicitly provided for or not in this Code. (7) Central Transmission Utility Power Grid Corporation of India (PGCIL) is the Central Transmission Utility as notified by Government of India. transmission licensees and distribution licensees engaged in generation. Grid Standards as stipulated in Section 34 of the Act Measures relating to safety of Electric Supply as stipulated in Section 53 of the Act Installation and operation of meters as stipulated in Section 55 of the Act Technical standards for the construction of electrical plants. CTU is responsible for the entire inter state transmission and in that context. which may provide for the following matters. of Tamil Nadu shall constitute a coordination forum consisting of the Chair person of the TNERC and Members there of.
charges and terms for the use of the transmission facilities of Licensees To specify the fees and charges payable to SLDC To issue directions on matters of non compliance of TNEGC or any dispute referred to them To issue transmission licences. review the quality of power supply and consumer satisfaction . promote energy efficiency and its conservation. It is for the Commission to consider the recommendations of the Forum and act suitably through directives to STU / SLDC (9) District Committee District Committees shall be constituted in each district by Government of Tamil Nadu to : a. b.Draft Grid Code Revision . which are applicable in relation to this Code and also not inconsistent with the provisions of the Act and this Code. To determine the rate. (10) Tamil Nadu Electricity Regulatory Commission (TNERC) The functions of TNERC with relevance to TNEGC are: i. SLDC shall abide by such directions if they are not inconsistent with the provisions of the Act and this Code. iii. (11). ii. Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) Government may issue directions to SLDC. 15 . coordinate and review the extension of electrification in each district. The recommendations. Any issues related with the planning and operation of the grid shall be discussed in this forum. iv.1 distribution for electricity in the state for smooth and coordinated development of the power system in the state. c. to take measures as may be necessary for maintaining smooth and stable transmission and supply of electricity . shall be coordinated and dealt with by STU.
assessing the category-wise rate of growth of consumption shall be carried out for low tension services and high tension service having a connected load of 1 MW and above. The growth rate of the services with 16 . The responsibility for distribution planning shall rest with the respective distribution Licensee and as per the Distribution Code . The components of system planning process are: • • • • • • Generation planning Transmission Planning Distribution Planning There are several planning approaches like: Integrated planning (Generation and Transmission planned by the same entity) Centralised transmission planning (Transmission is under the responsibility of a single entity independent from power producers) Decentralised Planning (Several decentralised players independent of system operator will plan and develop transmission infrastructure but with some form of coordination) As regards Tamil Nadu. The load forecast shall be consolidated substation-wise.1 CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM PLANNING 5. The periodicity of the survey shall be in alignment with the studies conducted by Central Electricity Authority. System Planning:. the Integrated System Planning of the Electricity Grid (both generation and transmission) will be carried out by the STU.(1) The main objective of State Power System Planning is to meet the electrical energy needs of the consumers as economically as possible with a degree of safety. (2) PLANNING PROCEDURE a.Draft Grid Code Revision . The STU may conduct the load survey in shorter intervals of time whenever need arises. Power supply planning starts with a forecast of anticipated future load The detailed power survey for requirements of both demand and energy. reliability and quality.
Union/State Planning Commission. 17 . (b) Transmission and distribution losses shall be estimated based on sample studies. the net energy requirement and peak load requirement at generation end. proposed projects under IPPs in the State sector and share of the State from Central sector Power Projects both within and outside Tamil Nadu State. The formats for compiling the demand and energy forecasts made by the Distribution Licensees shall be formulated by the STU. of India. the existing capacity. While planning. The STU shall work out on the basis of projected loads and losses of the system. The resulting overall load forecast will form the basis for the expansion of generation and transmission system. the following shall be considered by STU.Draft Grid Code Revision . projects under construction. surplus and deficit both in demand and energy shall also be worked out by the STU. peak availability. assistance from captive power plants. measurements and load flow studies. The installed capacity. The primary responsibility for load forecasting rests with the Distribution Licensees.. (c) The STU shall workout the additional generating capacity required after taking into account. (d) The plan shall be finalized and approved before one year of the commencement of the plan period. CERC etc. who will integrate the forecasts thus collected and determine the load forecasts for various time frames for the State.1 the connected load below 1 MW may be ascertained from the data collected from the individual consumers. Any other authenticated demand forecast carried out by agencies like Advisory Board on Energy (ABE). Long term perspective plan Annual power survey report Transmission planning criteria and Generation expansion planning criteria National Power Policy and Hydro Power Policy issued by Govt.
i. Hence the planning for reactive power compensation is also a system planning problem and needs careful study Normally. The STU may devote due attention for the build up of the required VAR compensation sources like synchronous condenser. Long term plan which covers a period of ten years and above upto fifteen years. f. medium and short term plan to the Commission and Government of Tamil Nadu.Draft Grid Code Revision . as listed below are employed for the system planning and development. The plan shall indicate the areas opened up for private investors / generation expansion so as to facilitate decision on private investment. In addition to minimum revenue requirement. g. The planning report shall also indicate the action required to meet the additional requirements and the actual progress made on new schemes. Shunt reactors and static VAR compensator. These reports shall be made available to any interested parties. The STU will submit three approved copies of long. Short term plan which covers a period upto five years with even more reduced uncertainties j. (3) Planning for VAR compensation in the network. reactive power despatch is also important for overall efficient and trouble free grid operation. cost of electricity sold to the consumers may be used as an economic attribute in comparing various plans/options.1 System reinforcement requirement which are required to overcome the constraints in power transfer / power evacuation and to improve the overall performance of the Grid. h. with a high degree of un certaininty Medium term plan for a period from five to ten years with a comparatively less degree of uncertainities. while planning the system. (a) Over and above the demand estimation and planning to cater the active power. A close relation exists between voltage instability and reactive power compensation. the degree of reactive power compensation is considered at load points by keeping an eye on target power 18 . e. Three different time frame. Shunt capacitor bank.
Co-generators and captive generators. The planning data for generation planning shall be furnished as in annexure A-1.Draft Grid Code Revision . reserve of 20% in reactor power shall be required to be provided in the grid for the reactive power absorbed in the lines . the load power factor and the supply / absorption of reactive power from the various elements in the system. Flows from central sector power stations Adoption and effectiveness of Demand Side Management and Energy conservation measures. sub stations and Out of this quantum of compensation. transformers and outages of capacitor banks.1 factor assigned. (b) The operative power factor of the generators in the network shall be around 0. (a) The generation planning mainly concerns with the expansion of the generating network and the special focus are : • Capacity addition by the Distribution Licensee. The norms for percentages and quantum of MVAR to be provided by the Licensees/ Generators must be specified by STU through well-documented guidelines for use by all concerned. Utilizing the off peak surplus from base load station for the pumped storage plants during pump mode operation Power Theft Reduction measures Environmental and financial constraints Fuel prices and availability • • • • • • (b) The important key issues with respect to the generation planning are: 19 . (4) Generation Planning. a distribution system of network. It is considered a good practice of not drawing any reactive power from the remote ends but meeting all the requirements locally.85 for good reactive power supply capability for local loads and should not generally be used for remote despatching of reactive power. Flattening the nominal voltage across the system shall be achieved by the optimal use of reactive power compensation in the network so as to improve the voltage profile across the system and is a measure of balance between the reactive power generated and absorbed in the system. IPPs. (c) be The quantum of compensation required to be provided in the grid shall suitably distributed in the transmission system.
Impact of large generating plant on the grid Increasing amount of non-despatchable generation Marginal costs for generators Price elasticity of consumers Market player’s estimates of future power prices Rules for access to the capacity on the interconnection ( c) The planning criteria are : i.. heat rate etc. hydro.1 Predicting the establishment of new generation capacity. the power from wind generators is treated as “infirm power” only i.Draft Grid Code Revision . Further the present use of power electronic control in these machines help to provide the required VAR and voltage control. Generation reserves and reliability of supply Predicting decommissioning of old generation capacity Environmental regulation leading to an increasing amount of renewable energy sources generation with prioritized grid access. it becomes necessary for the State Transmission Utility to get the characteristics and other technical details of the wind generators. nuclear and wind.e. 20 . which are presently in use. including where.. The impact of wind energy generators. it cannot contribute power to help shore up the net work in a crisis. In view of the intractable nature of wind as a power source. when and how much Predicting generation despatch. combined cycle. Co-Generators and Captive generation units on the dynamic performance of the power system. The generation sources in the grid mainly consist of gas turbine. fossil fuel. Thus. All the machines except wind electric generators have conventional characteristics. auxiliary consumption. shall be based on the norms fixed by the Commission and prevalent at the planning stage. The assumptions on some of the generation normatives such as plant load factor. captive power generators and other types of generators before integrating them into the transmission grid.
firm energy may be estimated from the corresponding installed capacities and assuming 6. This allows for approximately 10 percent for auxiliary consumption and for 4 percent reduction in estimating the maximum continuous rating of the unit. (d) The STU shall analyze the planning problem by making use of the developmental softwares. except for the first six months of operation.. iv. Possible applications are : o Predicting the generation capacity and despatch by environmental policy. ix. firm peaking capacity is estimated to be 86 percent of installed capacity. future electricity price and future 21 . For thermal units firm peaking capacity is the gross effective capacity less the station auxiliaries. v. The firm peaking capability of the Hydroelectric Plant is the maximum capacity that a plant can produce through the daily peak period using 90% dependable hydrology.Draft Grid Code Revision . An appropriate de-rating factor for the operating station / unit as already approved by CEA may be allowed. iii. For the first six months of operation (the stabilization period). vi. A contingency reserve equal to 5% of the system peak load shall also be planned to take care of the fluctuations in the availability of hydro electric generation. vii. For new thermal units. Adequate reserve capacity shall be made available to ensure sufficient generation reserve to meet the system load even if two or more of the largest units in the system go out of service. For private sector plants. For new thermal units in the Public sector and for both existing and new units in the Central sector.1 ii. the firm energy may be estimated assuming 2. marginal generation costs.of power system including system engineering. typical computer models etc. viii.000 hours of operation per year unless differently agreed by the agencies involved. through dedicated models reliability. the firm peaking capacities are estimated assuming that the surplus firm energy available from the plants to the interconnected system is delivered at 100 percent capacity factor.250 hours of operation unless differently agreed by the agencies involved. Loss of load probability (LOLP) of 2% shall be used for planning.
(b) • • • Among the factors that contribute to increased uncertainties in the Transmission system are. Retirement of old generators 22 . (5) TRANSMISSION PLANNING (a) The expansion program for the transmission network should be in alignment with the forecast on energy and demand requirements of the grid and the area of potential load growth and also its projected capacity addition and the corresponding matching efforts. load variability due to weather and other uncertainties.1 o Simulation of different scenarios in capacity development and generation despatch for the development of a flexible transmission grid structure. o Simulation programs associated with generation production cost. o Integrated resource or least cost planning methods to evaluate the potential capacity addition resources and uncertainties and to determine the best mix of sources.Draft Grid Code Revision . financial performance uncertainties (risk analysis. Its chief objective is to ensure the development of an efficient. It requires details and data as per Annexure A-2. decision analysis. o Probability methods for generation planning by representing generating unit failure and repair processes. Increased non despatchable generation from Renewable energy sources Location of new generators. optimum generation mix ( minimum revenue requirements) and optimum resource mix. uncertainties in electricity prices. trade of analysis). coordinated and economical Intra State Transmission system for the smooth flow of electric power from the generating centers to the load centers.
equipment maintenance and sudden load changes. transmission system will be required to provide increased bulk transfer capability and to accommodate a much wider range of possible generation pattern. • Transmission facility redundancies to enable the system to operate reliably under equipment failures.42 (2) and 39 (2) (d) of the Act. non-discriminatory open access has to be provided by the STU in its transmission system.: In accordance with Sec. Generation pattern and regulation The energy transfer between the electricity grids and the power support through inter connections and between generating units. As a result. a trader.. another distributor. voltage or electro mechanical stability limits. The changed conditions in the Power Sector due to the unbundling of generation and the grid and the introduction of competition among the generating companies and also the tendency of the customers to “shop around” for cheaper power from other Agencies using the transmission system of the STU for transferring the energy (c) The key issues to be considered in the intra state transmission system planning are : • • • An increasing amount of generation from the Renewable energy sources like Wind Power and its impact on the operation of the system. Economic frames that influence the possibility of building new transmission lines. 23 . the distribution licensees can have access to transmission system to receive power from any source viz. a generator. Reliability assessment of interconnected systems taking into account the problems associated with the transfer of power from other agencies using the transmission network of the State Transmission Utility. • Open access and power trading. Accordingly.1 • • • • New demands on the existing grid caused by the limitations of establishing new Transmission lines.Draft Grid Code Revision . a captive generator etc. In such open access environment. the transmission system may face constraints caused by thermal..
.. iii... Battery Energy storage system .....5% for the system with 110... Static VAR compensation . Impact of Transmission services and pricing on System Planning and Development.... The rupturing capacity of circuit breakers shall have 20% margin to take care of increase in short circuit levels as the system grows. (d) The planning criteria for the transmission system planning are : i. Thyristor Controller Phase Angle Regulator Effects of Power System components on system performance...... The voltage angles between consecutive substations should be in the regions prescribed by CEA standards. Static Synchronous Service Compensator . 230 kV and 400 kV is 400 kA. Impact of Aged equipments and lines on the System Planning and Operation... High Voltage Direct Current TCPAR . Thyristor Controlled Service Compensator ... The permissible voltage at the point of commencement of supply during the steady state operation is +5% / -10% for system upto 33 kV voltage level and +10% / -12.Draft Grid Code Revision . The available modern methods are FACTS . Impact of operators selection and training on Power Systems Planning and performance. v.. ii...1 Hence suitable means / devices are required to alleviate these constraints... 24 . Static and dynamic performance of the Power System and voltage stability of the Grid.... 230 and 400 kV level.. iv.. it is necessary to provide dynamic VAR sources at sensitive nodes... The capacity of any single substation shall not exceed 320 MVA for 230 kV and 150 MVA for 110 kV. Flexible AC Transmission system SVC BESS TCSC SSSC HVDC • • • • • ... This limit may be exceeded only during the outages of 230 or 400 kV lines and in such cases. The standard rating of switchgear at 110 kV is 31kA.
The line loading shall be limited by the thermal/surge impedance of the OH line / cable concerned.Outage of a 110 kV D/C line or. the remaining unit(s) would still supply 80% of the load. 25 . Unacceptable high or low voltage System instability Unacceptable overloading of ISTS elements. All the Generating Units may operate within their reactive capability curves and the network voltage profile shall also be maintained within the voltage limits specified. ix. vii.Outage of a 400 kV D/C line or. Size and number of transformers in a station shall be planned in such a way that in the event of outage of any single unit. Under Steady State conditions the intra state transmission system should be capable of withstanding and be secured against the following contingency outages. . the STS shall be capable of withstanding the loss of the most severe single system in-feed transmission or generation. .Outage of a 230 kV D/C line or.Outage of single Interconnecting Transformer Note: The above contingencies shall be considered during a precontingency system depletion (Planned outage) of another 230 kV D/C line or 400 kV S/C line in another corridor and not emanating from the same substation. x. In addition to the above accepted standards.Draft Grid Code Revision . . without calling for load shedding or rescheduling of generation :. viii. The System shall be designed to maintain synchronism and system integrity under the following transient disturbances: Outage of one of the largest size generating unit.1 vi. Any one of the above-defined events shall not cause: Loss of supply Prolonged maintenance of the system frequency below/ above the specified limits.
1 A single line to ground fault on a 400 kV line. 26 ..of power system engineering. A permanent three phase fault with duration of 8 cycles assuming three pole opening. dynamic and transient stability o Short circuit studies to determine current and voltage under fault conditions for the design of protective relaying system and the selection of circuit breakers. single pole opening of the faulted phase (5 cycles) with unsuccessful reclosure (dead time 1 sec) followed by three pole opening (5 cycles) of the faulted line. Possible applications are: o Power flow programs to identify steady state system problems.Draft Grid Code Revision . o Stability studies for steady state. The STU shall analyze the transmission planning problem by making use of the developmental softwares. o Transmission expansion to determine optimum network expansion. o Reliability evaluation to quantify reliability under outages of generators and transmission lines. typical computer models etc.
IPPs. The objectives of the grid connectivity conditions are to ensure that (a) the basic rules for connections are complied with to treat all agencies in a non-discriminatory manner. where a connection is made. (a) They should submit an application on the prescribed format to STU for establishing new or modified arrangement of connection to and / or use of state transmission system. statutory clearances. from/ to STS. shall neither suffer unacceptable effects due to its connection to the transmission system nor impose unacceptable effects on the system of any other connected agency and (c) the ownership and responsibility for all the equipments. (b) any new or modified connections. Independent Private Transmission Companies (IPTCs) and other entities. the STU shall 27 . accompanied with the details listed below: The purpose of the proposed connection and / or modification Connection Point Details of apparatus to be connected or modification of apparatus already connected Beneficiaries of the proposed connection Construction schedule and targeted completion date (b) STU shall normally make a formal offer to the agency within two months. (2) Procedure for connection: The agency who requires connection shall satisfy the conditions listed below in addition to the other mutually agreed requirements with the STU and others. reinforcement. shall be clearly specified in a schedule (site responsibility schedule as per annexure B-1 for every site. This offer shall specify the works required for the extension.Draft Grid Code Revision . desirous of using the transmission facilities of intra state transmission system. way leave and other requirements. If the nature and complexity of the proposal warrants more than two months time. when established. STU. to transmit electrical energy on either way. captive power generators. Grid Connectivity Conditions:(1) The connectivity conditions apply to all State / Central Government sponsored generating companies.1 CHAPTER –5 GRID CONNECTIVITY CONDITIONS 6.
if any. the TNERC may allow relaxation up to 5 years in respect of connection agreements. no further action shall be taken by the STU on the connection application. The present agreements may continue till such renegotiation and revised agreements are over. STU shall make a revised offer only on a specific request by the user. (c) All offers other than preliminary offers shall remain valid for 60 days from the date of issue of the offer.. TNERC may consider relaxation for a further period for which a petition will have to be filed by the concerned constituent along with STUs recommendations / comments. (e) Upon fulfillment of all the conditions. In the event of the offer becoming invalid or not accepted by any user within the validity period. (f) In respect of existing connections. The offer shall specify and take into account any works required for the extension or reinforcement of the Transmission System to satisfy the requirements of the connection application and for obtaining statutory clearances. The process of renegotiation of the connection conditions of the STS should be completed within the above period. ii. shall normally make a formal offer to the agency within two months. STU shall notify the agency that it can be connected to the STS. (g) The cost of modification. (d) In the offer. (3) Information to be provided with the connection applications ( as applicable to the respective applicant) i.1 make a preliminary offer within the time set and indicate the necessity and extent of further time required with the specific approval of the TNERC. Details on despatch control of captive generating plants / IPP / Cogeneration. Exceptions are industrial firms that utilize power internally and 28 .Draft Grid Code Revision . Cogenerators and IPP. Reactive power generation capability for the Captive generators. Due to any reason if this process gets delayed further. the details of requirement and procedures required for a connection to the ISTS and the connection agreement with the agency shall be specified by the STU. shall be borne by the concerned constituent. way leaves as necessary. The STU.
ii.Draft Grid Code Revision . v. coordination. iv. Details of capital expenditure if any required to be met before extending open access to the generator Site responsibility schedule Details of the protection arrangements made and its coordination with the grid. Black start capability. technical requirements and commercial arrangements. iii. vii. v. This includes short circuit protection and insulation 29 . vii. ix. A condition requiring both parties to comply with Indian Electricity Grid Code and Tamil Nadu Electricity Grid code. Details of connections. System planning simulation data. site operational activities and maintenance standards for STU equipment at the premises of the users and vice versa. Specific clause to the effect that necessary guidelines for insulation coordination in live working shall by followed by the STU / Agency. provisions under the Act. Primary frequency control (10-20 seconds) is required for units 20 MW or higher. Generator capacity (rating) based on good utility practice and tests (machine characteristics) Guaranteed generator and turbine stability characteristics especially for transients. vi. emergency power (operating capacity support during emergencies) and maintenance power (4) Details to be covered in the Connection agreement : A connection agreement shall include (but not limited) as appropriate. Dynamic models for captive generators. other Codes and regulations issued by the Commission. Confirmation of automatic voltage regulation provision. iii.1 export a small amount of power under contract. Co-generators and IPPs for integrating their units into system studies. Provisions for the spinning reserve. vi. Procedure necessary for site access. Requirements for short term power. iv. within its terms and conditions of the following i. viii.
110. the inter state transmission link to the intra state system. if the sub station is owned by STU. For the Southern Regional Transmission System. CPPs and the HV consumers. 22 and 11 kV. All agencies shall ensure that Plant and Apparatus requiring service from / to the STS is of such design and construction that satisfactory operation will be maintained without any problem during such variations. metering scheme.1 viii. Sub-stations shall be owned by co-generators. 33. 22. The connection point shall be the outgoing feeder gantry of the STU’s sub-station. (iv). 33. the instantaneous values of system frequency and voltage are subject to variation from their nominal value.230 and 110 kV or as agreed to by the STU. premises. all electrical equipments shall be maintained by the STU. Captive Generators. 11 kV and or agreed to by STU. From the outgoing feeder gantry onwards. Distribution Licensee The Voltage may be at the level of 110. protection scheme. (6) Permissible Parameter variations (a) General : Within the power system. The connection point shall be the feeder gantry on their 30 . Unless specifically agreed with the STU. else. Commitment to provide the data requirements as per annexure B-1 to B-4 (5) Connection Points (i) Generating Stations including IPPs : Generating stations Switchyard Voltage may be at the level of 400. the connection point. Co-generators and HV consumers The voltage level may be at 230.Draft Grid Code Revision . 66. All the terminal. (ii). protection and metering equipments owned by the Generating agency. the connection point shall be the terminal structure feeder gantry at the entry into the sub station (iii). the connection point shall be the outgoing feeder gantry of the Power Station switchyard. communication. metering point and the voltage shall be in accordance with the mutual agreement between CTU and the STU. within the perimeter of their site shall be maintained by them.
BIS standards. All equipments shall be designed. When the situation warrants. The addition of reactive compensation to be provided by the Agency shall be indicated by STU in the Connection Agreement for implementation. fixed line reactors may be provided to control temporary over voltages in the network and also to aid the grid when there are oscillations. (d) Reactive power compensation : The agency shall estimate and provide the required reactive compensation in its sub-transmission and distribution network for maintaining a cumulative power factor of 0. ii. (7) Technical Requirements for the equipments installed by Agency and STU at Connection Points (a) Sub-station Equipment i. To the extent possible the reactive power compensation provided by the generating plant should be kept at minimum.98 lag and shall not lead.0 Hz and shall normally be controlled within the limits stipulated in IEGC. (c) Voltage Variations: The variation of voltage may not be more than the voltage range prescribed in IEGC / National Grid Standards. unless specifically agreed to with STU. 31 . as amended from time to time. The Distribution Licensee shall compensate the inductive reactive power in their system so that the power factor at the connection to the transmission system shall not be less than 0. manufactured and tested and certified in accordance with the quality assurance requirements as per IEC / iii. Reactive power compensation should be provided by the STU or distributing agencies as far as possible in the low voltage systems close to the load points thereby avoiding the need for exchange of Reactive Power to / from STS and to maintain STS voltage within the specified range.Draft Grid Code Revision . All outdoor switchyard equipments shall comply with Bureau of Indian Standards BIS / IEC or prevailing code of practice.1 (b) Frequency Variations: Rated frequency of the system shall be 50.85 and above (upto UPF) to meet its full Reactive Power requirement. as amended from time to time and as per the guidelines of Availability Based Tariff.
cables generating units of utilities. These protective systems are essentially required for the quick isolation of faulty equipments. (d) Generating Unit Requirements All Generating Units and associated electrical equipments connected to the Transmission System shall be protected by adequate protection so that the Transmission System does not suffer due to any disturbance originating from the Generating Unit. Captive generators and other agencies or on the STS itself.1 iv. earth fault over voltage and other types of protection systems are generally required to be provided by all Licensees and other agencies connected to the Grid. lines and UG Cables and protection of the network and its healthy equipments and lines and UG cables from the severe impact of the fault with the appropriate reliability. it shall withstand. The STU shall notify the users of any change in its policy on protection from time to time. (c ) Fault clearance Time i. IPPs. Back-up protection shall be provided for required isolation / protection in the event of failure of the primary protection systems provided to meet the above fault clearance time requirements. Co-generators. sensitivity and selectivity. If a Generating Unit is connected to the STS directly. The maximum clearance time for the faults on the State Transmission system – either due to the faults on the connected equipments. milli seconds only ii. until clearing of the fault by back-up protection on the STS side. short circuit. will be 100-150 32 .Draft Grid Code Revision . Each connection between an Agency and STS shall be controlled by a circuit breaker capable of interrupting at the connection point (b) Protection in general Over current. (e) Transmission System Requirements: All HV lines taking off from a power station or a sub-station shall have appropriate over voltage protection and distance protection and back up protection schemes. lines.
an adjustable dead time shall be provided. One pole tripping and single shot single pole auto-reclosing with adjustable dead time shall be provided for both schemes. appropriate protection schemes may be adopted. ii) 230 kV Lines/UG Cables The main protection shall be through three zone static. Main – II Protection shall be a fast protection scheme using direction comparison or phase comparison carrier relaying scheme. and maintained by the STU. single pole tripping and single shot. connection facility and access to the STU for such purpose. iii) 110 kV and 66 kV lines/UG Cables Static/micro processor based distance protection with suitable backup protection shall be provided as the main protection scheme. 230 and 110 kV class shall be protected by differential relays and REF relays.Generator. Main-I Protection shall be preferably with three zone static non-switched numerical distance protection with appropriate carrier protection and back up protection. In addition. Auto and Power Transformers All windings of Auto Transformers and Power transformers of 400. Relay Panels for the protection of lines of STU taking off from a Generating Station shall be owned Generating Companies shall provide space. iv) General For short transmission lines and sub transmission system at or below 33 kV. non-switched numerical distance protection with suitable carrier protection. For parallel operation such back up protection shall have In addition. The back up will be directional three phase over current and earth fault protection scheme. v) Transformer requirements: --. there shall be back up time lag over current and earth fault protection.1 i) 400 kV Lines / UG Cables : The two independent protection systems (Main I & II Protection) with separate DC Battery supply shall be arranged.Draft Grid Code Revision . single pole auto-reclosing after 33 . The back up will be micro processor based switched distance protection scheme.
vii) Over voltage protection There shall be proper “Insulation Cordination” studies before implementing the over voltage protection scheme. When HV lines (110 kV or 66 kV) are used for feeding lower 34 . For protection against heavy short circuits. Transformers 1.6 MVA and above shall be provided with gas-operated relays. winding temperature protection and oil temperature protection shall be provided. winding temperature protection and oil temperature protection. vi) Busbar protection Suitable (high impedance) busbar protection shall be provided for the speedy clearance of bus faults at all the generating stations and 400 kV and 230 kV Transmission substations. addition to electrical protection. These protective gapless arresters shall be placed at the entry point of OH lines/Under Ground Cable at the power/ substation (Line Entrance Arrestors) and at a location very close to Auto/Power Transformers and other protected equipments including Shunt capacitor banks.6 MVA and above less than 10 MVA shall be protected by time lag over current. co-ordinated protective gaps and Metal Oxide Arresters (Gapless Arresters) shall be provided. For smaller transformers of HV class. when a gapped surge arrester already exists on its HV side. the mixing up of gapped and gapless arresters shall be avoided. earth fault and instantaneous REF relays. lines and UG cables shall be protected against direct lightning strokes by the use of masts / ground wires. the over In current relays should incorporate a high set instantaneous element. Gapless arresters should not be placed on the LV side of a Auto/Power Transformer. all transformers 1. Gapless surge arresters shall be provided at the interface of OH line – UG cable in a composite circuit and also its entry at the power station/ substation. In respect of protection against system generated surges (switching surges) and indirect lightning strokes/ back flash overs.Draft Grid Code Revision . In addition. differential protection shall be provided for 10 MVA and above along with back up time lag over current and earth fault protection (with directional feature for parallel operations). All the operating equipments. gas operated relays.1 directional feature. To the extent possible.
e derated HV lines should not be employed directly for feeding lower voltage substations. low voltage or high voltage side of all power transformers connected in STS. Disaster Management Procedures and sufficient trained persons 35 .1 voltage substations (33. All power system equipments should withstand twice its rated power frequency voltage for one minute so as to with stand the regiours of temporary over voltages generated in the systems. Fire fighting equipments shall be as given in BIS provided at all the generating stations and substations (both Transmission & sub transmission) as per the prescribed yard sticks for fire fighting shall also be employed at these stations. devices and operating/ maintenance personnel. and distribution feeders . generator ends etc. its insulation level should be brought down to the level required by the substations fed i. (10) Connection points metering requirements This section specifies the commercial metering requirements to be provided at the interconnection points to STS. Chemical and Cement Dust Pollution or a combination of these contaminations. (8) Fire protection As a protection against the fire hazards to all the equipments. The agency who has to provide. cross boundary circuits. operate and maintain the metering arrangements at various locations will be stipulated connection agreement. (9) Protection against environmental contamination STU and other agencies connected to the grid shall take appropriate protective measures against the outage /tripping of lines and equipments triggered by environmental pollution especially at locations exposed to Saline Pollution. It also specifies the operational metering requirements to be provided at the connection points substations. Coal-fired Thermal Power Station. a. Industrial Pollution.Draft Grid Code Revision . substations. Commercial Metering : The commercial metering is designed to ensure the following: by the STU in the standards. as a consequence of faults. 22 and 11 kV) after its degradation.
• Meters shall be tested and calibrated by a neutral agency at least once in a year or such as mutually agreed between the STU and the entities with necessary phases of the voltage selection schemes. To strike an energy balance in each financial year Commercial metering requirements are : Static energy meters are preferred Both MW hour and MVARh flow are to be measured interconnection points. iv. • • To measure the VAR flow at various voltages of the grid. distribution feeders at substation end and consumption by HT consumers. The information is to be provided in the specified formats in annexure.2 or as stipulated by STU.2 and of suitable rating to cater the meter and lead wire burden. vi. To measure energy supplied by the various generators. vii. To measure the import and export of energy into and from 33 / 66 / 110 / 230 / 400 KV grid system so as to arrive at the losses at various voltage levels. To measure total energy supplied to High tension consumers at various voltages and to measure energy at substation end of 11 KV / 22 KV distribution feeders. To compute the actual net drawal by STU for the time blocks to be specified by SLDC through reading of special energy metering installed at all locations of interconnections. All current transformers and voltage transformers used in conjunction with Commercial ( Tariff ) metering shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards or IEC. power transformer at locations.Draft Grid Code Revision . These shall be of accuracy class 0. Loss of potential relays shall be provided 36 . • Voltage supply to the metering shall be assured which shall initiate alarms on loss of one or more voltage supply to any meter. • • Minimum standards of accuracy of meter shall be of class 0. • Each metering point associated with determination of energy exported or imported shall be provided with both main and check meter or as per the agreement between the STU and the entities. v. ii. iii.1 i.
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supplier’s shall be
recommendations. Records of meter calibration test maintained for future reference. •
A procedure shall be drawn up between the STU and the entities and between STU and CTU covering summation, collection, processing tariff meter readings at various connection sites. This may be revised from time to time as needed.
The ownership and responsibility of maintaining and testing of meters shall be mutually agreed between the entities and STU.
b. Operational Metering : The operational metering is designed to enable STU to manage the State transmission system in an economic manner. The requirements are : • The Generating Company shall install operational metering to STU’s specification so as to provide operational information for both real time and recording purposes in relation to each generating unit at each power station in respect of bus voltage frequency, MWHr, MVAR and any other additional data as required by STU. • All current transformers and voltage transformers used in conjunction with commercial metering shall conform to the relevant standards and shall be of accuracy class 0.5 and of suitable ratings to cater to the meter and lead wire burden. • • • Meters shall be calibrated so as to achieve overall accuracy of operational metering in the limits as specified by STU. Records of calibration shall be maintained for reference and shall be made available to STU on request. Generating Companies shall furnish recorded data of all electric measurements and events recorded by the operational metering to the STU at least once in a week or more often if required. • STU shall be responsible to formulate the metering procedure and implement it with other Users. The data required shall be as per Annexure B-2, B-3 and B-4
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(11) Communication Facilities: The following communication facilities as relevant and applicable to the User shall be decided and finalized at the initial stage and incorporated in the Connectivity Agreement. (a) Speech Communication: Reliable and efficient speech communication system shall be provided to the SLDC / State Sub Load Despatch Centre to facilitate supervision / control / direction of the Grid under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. (b) Data Communication Real time telemetered data Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and off-line data. Suitable and reliable data communication facilities so as to facilitate efficient and uninterrupted data exchange with SLDC / SSLDC under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. ( c) Data Entry Terminals Data entry facilities as advised by SLDC for exchange of information between SLDC and other entities. (12) Responsibilities for operational safety (a) STU and the user entities / agency shall be responsible for safety as indicated in Site Responsibility Schedules for each connection point. A Site Responsibility Schedule shall be produced by STU and Agency detailing the ownership, control, maintenance and operational responsibilities of each, before execution of the project or connection including safety responsibilities. The format, principles and basic procedures to be used in the preparation of Site Responsibility Schedules shall be formulated by STU and shall be provided to each agency / State entities for compliance. (b) Single Line Diagrams shall be furnished for each Connection Point by the connected agencies in concurrance with STU and SLDC. These diagrams shall include all HV connected equipment and the connections to all external circuits and incorporate numbering, nomenclature and labeling, etc., The diagram is intended to provide an accurate record of the layout and circuit connections, rating, numbering and nomenclature of HV apparatus and related plant. (c) Whenever any equipment has been proposed to be changed, then concerned agency shall intimate the necessary changes to STU and to all
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When the changes
are implemented, changed Single Line
Diagram shall be circulated by the agency to SLDC / STU. (d) Site Common Drawing will be prepared for each Connection Point and will include site layout, electrical layout details of protection and common services drawings. The detailed drawings for the portion of the agency and STU at each Connection Point shall be prepared individually and exchanged between agencies and STU. (e) If any change in the drawing is found necessary, either by agency or STU, the details will be exchanged between agency and STU as soon as possible.
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CHAPTER – 6 REQUIREMENTS IN GRID OPERATION 7. Introduction.- (1) In order to ensure the integrated operation of the State Electricity Grid and to enhance the overall operational economy and reliability of the electric power network spread over the entire state the following operation guidelines have been specified. It covers the real time operation of the State Electricity Grid with all its interconnections to the neighboring state grids. It applies to all the constituents of the State Electricity System, STU, SLDC, CTU, RLDC, Generators, IPPs, PTCS and other agencies who are connected to the grid. It also applies to the agencies who intent / plan to generate, transmit and distribute the electrical energy and become a constituent of the State Electricity Grid. The operational requirements under normal and emergency conditions along with the details of various tasks which may be encountered and the functions with respect to the various constituents have been enumerated in the Annexure E, and shall form part of the specified requirements under this Code. (2) Basic Policy : The primary objective of integrated operation of the State Grid is to enhance the overall operational economy and reliability of the entire electric power network spread over the geographical area of the State. The real time operation of the State Grid shall be supervised from the State Load Despatch Centre (SLDC). The roles of SLDC and STU shall be in accordance with the provisions of Act 2003. All State entities shall comply with these Operation guidelines and co ordinate with each other, for deriving maximum benefits from the integrated operation and for equitable sharing of obligations. A set of detailed internal operating procedures for the State grid shall be developed and maintained by the SLDC in consultation with the State entities and shall be consistent with TNEGC and IEGC. The control rooms of the SLDC, all SSLDCs, Power Plants, HV and EHV sub-stations and any other control centers of all State Entities shall be manned round the clock by qualified personnel with adequate training. The SLDC shall develop methodologies / mechanisms for daily / weekly / monthly / yearly demand estimation (MW, MVAR and MWH) for operational purposes. The data for the
Appropriate security standard will be adopted in the operation of the system. and conditions in which such isolation would prevent a total grid collapse and / or enable early restoration of power supply. Any tripping. whether manual or automatic. separately formulated. (ii) No element/part of the grid shall be deliberately isolated from the rest of the State grid or islanded except : under an emergency. of any of the above elements of State grid shall be precisely intimated by the concerned State entities to SLDC as soon as possible. The reason ( to the extent determined) as soon as possible. SLDCs shall also maintain historical database for demand estimation. Reliability criteria will also be adopted. and the likely time of restoration shall also be intimated. say within ten minutes of the event. All State entities shall operate their respective power systems and Power Stations in synchronism with the grid. (3) System Security Aspects: (i). when such isolation is specifically directed by SLDC or with specific prior approval from SLDC Complete re-synchronization of the grid shall be restored as soon as the normal conditions are restored. The list of such important grid link/elements on which the above stipulations apply shall be prepared and be available at SLDC / SSLDCs. when serious damage to a costly equipment is imminent and such isolation would prevent it. The Tamil Nadu Electricity Grid shall be operated as a synchronized system. The demand estimates are to enable the SLDC to conduct system studies for operational planning purposes. In case of opening / removal of any important element of the grid under an emergency situation. (iv). (iii). as per the approved operating procedures 41 . the same shall be communicated earliest possible time after the event.. All reasonable attempts shall be made for the elements’ restoration to SLDC at the The restoration process shall be supervised by SLDC. power cuts etc.1 estimation shall also include load shedding.Draft Grid Code Revision .
all partly loaded generating units shall pick up 42 . shall not be used to suppress the normal governor action in any manner. coordinated control system. All Generating Units. etc. the entity can make up the corresponding shortfall in spinning reserve by maintaining an extra spinning reserve on the other generating units of the entity.Draft Grid Code Revision . not complying with the above requirement. However. All generating units . type and size. no entity shall suddenly reduce his generating unit output by more than one hundred (100) MW without prior intimation to and consent of the SLDC. The generating units operating at above 100% of their MCR shall be capable of (and shall not be prevented from) going at least up to 105% of their MCR when frequency falls suddenly. if frequency falls below 49. However.0) per cent per minute or as per manufacturer’s limits. (vii). Automatic Turbine Run up System (ATRS). (viii). All governors shall have a droop thermal and 0 to 10 % for hydro generators.5 Hz. i. which are synchronized with the grid. The recommended rate for changing the governor setting. shall be kept in operation (synchronized with the State grid) only after obtaining the permission of SLDC. irrespective of their type and size. irrespective of their ownership. If any generator of over 50 MW rating is required to be operated without its governor in normal operation. (ix).e. (vi). the SLDC shall be immediately advised about the reason and duration of such between 3 % and 6 % for operation.. according to their capability. particularly when frequency is falling or is below 49. Any generating unit of over fifty (50) MW size.0. Except under an emergency. supplementary control for increasing or decreasing the output (generation level) for all generating units. additional load at a faster rate. Turbine supervisory control. would be one (1. No dead bands and / or time delays shall be deliberately introduced. shall have their governors in normal preferably at pre-governor mode at all times.1 (v). operating at / up to 100% of their Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR) shall normally be capable of (and shall not in any way be prevented from ) instantaneously picking up five per cent (5%) extra load for at least five (5) minutes or within technical limits prescribed by the manufacturer when frequency falls due to a system contingency. Facilities available with load limiters. or to prevent an imminent damage to personnel and equipment.
g. All Generating Units shall normally have their automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR) in operation. if a generating unit of over fifty (50) MW size is required to be operated without its AVR in service. as per the plan separately finalised by SLDC in consultation with STU. based on the operation of df/dt or constant frequency setting relay in their respective systems.1 Similarly. These procedures shall be followed by all the entities to ensure consistent. and shall ensure its effective application to prevent cascaded tripping of generating units in case of any contingency. All entities shall ensure that the under-frequency load shedding / islanding schemes are functional and no under-frequency relay is by-passed or removed without prior consent of SLDC.e frequency always remains within the 49.5 – 50. e. as per a plan to be separately finalized by the STU in coordination with all entities. All entities shall make all possible efforts to ensure that the grid is operated within the frequency limits prescribed by the implementation of Availability Based Tariff (ABT) i. (xi). (xiv) Procedures shall be developed by STU in consultation with SLDC. In particular. to recover from partial / total collapse of the grid and periodically updated in accordance with the requirements given under. no entity shall cause sudden increase in its load by more than one hundred (100 ) MW without prior intimation to and consent of the SLDC. with appropriate settings. Provision of protections and relay settings shall be coordinated periodically throughout the state grid. redundancy and alternate path shall be maintained for communication along important routes. All State entities shall provide automatic under-frequency load shedding. to arrest frequency decline that could result in a collapse / disintegration of the grid. (x). and its permission obtained. (xii). SLDCs to generating stations. SSLDCs and 43 . reliable and quick restoration. the SLDC shall be immediately intimated about the reason and duration.Draft Grid Code Revision . (xv) Each entity shall provide adequate and reliable communication facility internally and with other entities / SLDC to ensure exchange of data / information necessary to maintain reliability and security of the grid.5 Hz band. (xiii). Wherever possible.
Draft Grid Code Revision . to SLDC for purpose of analysis of any grid disturbance / event. There should be adequate spinning reserve in the system (xxii). short term and emergency power to the IPPs and other non utility generators in accordance with the connection agreement entered into. Towards this end the following requirements shall be complied with: i.The steady state and transient stability limits of the grid should be 44 . (xix) All entities shall make all possible efforts to ensure that the grid voltage always remains within the following operating range. voltage levels or thermal overloads) on any part of the grid. For carrying out erection/repair in the circuit above 230 kv the competent person should have a minimum operating experience of one year. (xvii). (xviii). The STU should provide maintenance power.1 (xvi). and transfers from external interconnections being not available to meet demand. The entities shall send information / data including disturbance recorder / sequential even recorder output etc. or in the event of breakdown or operating problems (such as frequency.. Before undertaking hot line working/hot line washing of the insulators connected with grid equipment. (xxi). Nominal 400 230 110 communicated periodically. Only authorized persons as certified by STU can give/take line clear on grid equipment and lines for maintenance/fault rectification works. advance information should be given to SLDC and other operating personal concerned. Power drawing entities shall endeavor to restrict their net drawal from the grid to within their respective drawal schedules whenever the system Maximum Voltage in (kV rms) 440 245 120 350 200 100 Minimum (xx). (4) Demand Control Demand control is concerned with the provisions to be made by SLDC to ensure the reduction of demand in the event of insufficient generating capacity. No State entity shall block any data/ information required by the SLDC for maintaining reliability and security of the grid and for analysis of an event.
Further.. experience an operational effect following the event and give details of what has happened in the event but not the reasons why.1 frequency is below 49..5 Hz. (b) Operations and events on an entity’s system: Before any operation is carried out on an entity system. in case of certain contingencies and / or threat to system security. When the frequency falls below 49. as instructed by the SLDC /SSLDC . under normal and / or contingent conditions. to curtail the overdrawal. the entity will inform the SLDC. the entity will inform the SLDC. or will. (5) Operational Liaison (a) Operations and events on the State grid : Before any Operation is carried out on the State grid. experience an operational effect following the event. experience an operational effect. and give details of what has happened in the event but not the reasons why. in case the State grid may. or will.The measures taken to reduce the entities’ drawal from the grid shall not be withdrawn as long as the frequency / voltage remains at a low level. ii. Each distribution licensee shall make arrangements that will enable manual demand disconnection to take place.Draft Grid Code Revision . and give details of the operation to be carried out. requisite load shedding (manual) shall be carried out frequency. Such load shedding shall be pre planned for each level of under 45 . Immediately following an event on an entity system. whose system may. the SLDC may direct the SSLDCs and other sub stations to decrease its drawal by a certain quantum. and give details of the operation to be carried out. Immediately following an event in the State grid. or will. experience an operational effect. unless specifically permitted by the SLDC / SSLDC . whose system may. in case the State grid may. the SLDC will inform each State entity. Such directions shall immediately be acted upon.5 Hz. the SLDC will inform each participating entity . or will. iii.
and the agencies responsible for causing the constraints. considering all the available resources and taking into account transmission constraints. 46 . iii. Major Generation and Transmission outages and constraints. The weekly report shall contain the following: i. irrigational requirements. • To optimize the transmission outages of the elements of the State grid without adversely affecting the grid operation but taking into account the Generation Outage Schedule. outages of constituent systems and maintaining system security standards. The SLDC shall also prepare a quarterly report which shall bring out the system constraints. (d) Outage Planning : It is assumed that the list of elements of the grid as per Annexure C-1 and Annexure C-2 covered under these requirements shall be prepared and be available with SLDC for the proper implementation of the outage planning exercises. along with details of various actions taken by different agencies. Outage planning is prepared in advance for the current year and reviewed during the year on quarterly and monthly basis. if any. in the system requirement of power and energy and help operate the system within Security Standards.Draft Grid Code Revision . Frequency profile showing the maximum and minimum frequency recorded daily and daily frequency variation index (FVI) Voltage profile of selected substations. as well as. reasons for not meeting the requirements. In the outage planning requirements Year ‘0’ means the current calendar year and year ‘1’ means the next calendar year at any time. ii. • To minimize surplus or deficits. of security standards and quality of service. The objective of outage planning are : • To produce a coordinated generation outage programme for the State grid. if any.1 (c) Periodic Reporting : A weekly report shall be issued by SLDC to all entities of the State and STU and shall cover the performance of the State Grid for the previous week.
the outage programmes shall be rescheduled. SLDC. In case of emergency in the system viz. system isolation. The STU. iv.. This year 1 plan shall be reviewed by SLDC / STU on quarterly and monthly basis in coordination with all parties concerned. These shall contain identification of each generating unit / line / ICT. iii. ix. Any other event in the system that may have an the system security by the proposed outage. This year 1 plan shall be intimated to all entities for implementation latest by week (48) of year 0 or by such earlier date as may be decided by STU. Generating Companies and ISTPCs shall provide SLDC their proposed outage programs in writing for year 1 by the end of week (10) of year 0. the preferred date for each outage and its duration and where there is flexibility.Draft Grid Code Revision . Adequate balance between generation and load to be ensured while finalising outage programmes. SLDC shall then come out with a draft outage programme for year1 by the end of week (20) of year 0 for the State grid taking into account the available resources in an optimal manner and to maintain security standards. v. break down of transmission line affecting the system. the IPPs. if necessary. the earliest start date and latest finishing date.1 (e) Outage Planning Process i. loss of generation. This will be done after carrying out necessary system studies and. grid disturbance. vi. may conduct studies again before clearance of the planned outage. ii. TNERC shall be consulted for orders adverse impact on 47 . viii. Each State entity shall obtain the final approval from SLDC prior to availing an outage. In cases involving non-reconciliation of the planned outages. SLDC is authorized to defer the planned outage in case of any of the following: Major grid disturbance System isolation Black out in a constituent system vii.
List of generating stations with black start facility. synchronizing points and essential loads to be restored on priority. 48 . Violation of security standards Indiscipline Non-compliance System islanding / system black out State black out / partial system black out Protection failure System instability Tripping of any element of the State grid. iv. will be finalised by the concerned entity in coordination with the SLDC. The incident reporting shall be as per format specified in annexure C-3. confirmed and / or revised once every year. to operate with reduced security standards for voltage and frequency as necessary in order to achieve the fastest possible recovery of the grid.1 (f) Recovery Procedures i. This requirements of reporting procedures in writing of reportable events in the system to all State entities and SLDC needs to be specified. Reportable Events: Any of the following events require reporting by SLDC / State Entities. ii. the reporting route to be followed and information to be supplied to ensure consistent approach to the reporting of incidents / events. The objective is to define the incidents to be reported. should be prepared and be available with SLDC. iii. Restoration of bulk power supply system present unique challenges to the system operators since the transmission system topologies will be quite different from the well integrated system during the normal condition ii. The SLDC is authorized during the restoration process following a black out. inter-state . Detailed plans and procedures for restoration after partial / total black out of each constituent’s system within the State.Draft Grid Code Revision . The procedure will be reviewed. (g) Event information i.
iv. Event Logger. the entity will give a written report to SLDC . as the case may be. In the case of an event which was initially reported by SLDC to a entity orally.1 iii. 49 . the SLDC will give a written weekly report to the entity in accordance with this section. Reporting Procedure : In the case of an event which was initially reported by a State entity to SLDC orally. and will confirm the oral notification together with the following details of the event: • • • • • • Time and date of event Location Plant and / or Equipment directly involved Narration of event Demand and / or Generation (MW) interrupted & duration All relevant system data including copies of records of all recording instruments including Disturbance Recorder. • • • Sequence of trippings with time Details of Relay Flags Remedial measures (h) Accident Reporting: Reporting of accidents shall be in accordance with the Section 161 of Act 2003 in both fatal and non-fatal accidents. DAS etc. A written report shall be sent to SLDC or a State entity.Draft Grid Code Revision ..
7 SCHEDULING AND DESPATCH 8 Scheduling and Despatch. if required. share from Central sector generation and other Licensees for scheduling the drawal by the beneficiaries of the State on a daily basis. Open access customers.(1) This chapter sets out the demarcation of responsibilities between various control mechanisms (2) Certain procedures are to be adopted while scheduling of generation by State Sector Generating Companies (SSGS). Wind power stations and other Renewable Energy Sources Nuclear power stations (to avoid poisoning of fuel). CPPs and NCES according to the hourly day ahead generation schedule. The procedure for submission of capability by each Generating Company and submission of drawal schedule by each beneficiary / Distribution Licensee of the State is intended to enable SLDC to prepare the generation and drawal schedule connected with system operation. Hydro-station where water level is at peak reservoir level or expected to touch peak reservoir level (as per inflows). unless rescheduling is required due to unforeseen circumstances. It also provides methodology for issuing real time despatch / drawal instructions and rescheduling. (3) The following specific points would be taken into consideration while preparing and finalizing the schedules: (a) SLDC will issue despatch instruction required to regulate all generation and imports from SSGS. if unutilized. IPPs. goes as a waste shall not be curtailed • • • • Run of river or canal based hydro stations. (b) SLDC shall regulate the overall state generation in such a manner that generation from following types of power stations where energy potential. procedure and 50 .Draft Grid Code Revision .1 CHAPTER . entities and SLDC in scheduling and reactive power and voltage despatch of load in the grid. along with the commercial arrangement for the deviations from schedules.
To hold Generating Units on standby. Scheduling / despatching the generation of all agencies including the Utilities. ABT procedures and free Governor Operation at Power Stations wherever possible. co-generators.1 (c) Despatch instructions shall be in Annexure format D1. (d) Standard despatch instructions may include: • • • • • • • To switch a generator into or out of Service. IPPs. These instructions will recognize declared availability and other parameters that have been made available by the generators to SLDC. Power Station. (4) Demarcation of responsibilities i. The SLDC shall have the total responsibility for : • • • • ii. Regulating the drawal from the central generating stations and regulating the bilateral interchanges. The STU. if there is any. To hold spinning reserve.Draft Grid Code Revision . connected to the Grid. Generating Units. To control MW / MVAr Drawal by beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees. These instructions shall include time. WEGs. (Total export in case of CPP). iii.. Regulating the demand of the beneficiaries / Distribution Licensee in the State. through SLDC shall always endeavor to restrict its net drawal from Central generating stations and other generating stations within their respective drawal schedules and the guidelines of ABT. etc. Details of reserve to be carried on a unit. Adopting merit order despatch. To increase or decrease MVAr generation to assist with voltage profile as per unit capability at that time To begin pre-planned Black Start procedures. name of operators sending and receiving the same. The generating stations shall be responsible for power generation generally according to the daily schedule provided to them by the SLDC on the basis of the drawal schedules received from the beneficiaries / 51 .
the generating stations may deviate from the given schedules depending on the plant and system conditions with the prior approval from SLDC. the generation at all stations (except those on peaking duty) shall be maximized. without waiting for the advice from SLDC. upon. Also while the frequency is above 50. overloading of lines / transformers. outages requiring restriction of generation which a beneficiary / Distribution Licensee can receive (and which may have a commercial implication) shall be planned carefully to achieve the best optimization. threat to system security. all entities shall co-operate with each other and co-ordinate their actions as per the approved procedures separately.3 Hz. the generating stations may (at their discretion) back down without waiting for the advice from SLDC. All generating units of the entities and the licensees shall normally be operated according to the standing frequency linked load despatch guidelines issued by the SLDC to the extent possible.1 Distribution Licensee and also in accordance with Merit Order Despatch and Connectivity Agreements. at least up to the level which can be sustained. (iv) For all outages of generation and transmission system.g. abnormal voltages. the SLDC may direct the generating stations / beneficiaries to increase / decrease their generation / drawal in case of contingencies e. unless otherwise advised by the SLDC. the actual net injection shall not exceed the scheduled despatch for that hour. which may have an effect on the State Grid. When the frequency falls below 50.e. However. the frequency is higher than 50. Notwithstanding the above. The SLDC shall be responsible for Intra-State Energy Accounting as per the scheme Such directions shall immediately be acted 52 . (v) All entities shall abide by the concept of frequency linked load despatch and pricing of deviations from schedule i. The entities shall furnish to the SLDC all requisite information for billing purposes.Draft Grid Code Revision .3 Hz. Provided that when.0 Hz. unscheduled interchanges. In particular. (vi) The STU shall opt to install special energy meters on all inter connections between the State entities and other identified points for recording of actual net interchanges and MVARHr drawals.
(iii) By 10.00 hours to 24. (v) The above information of the foreseen capabilities of the state generating stations received from SSLDC and entitlements from CGS given by RLDC shall be compiled by the SLDC everyday for the next day.00 PM. the station wise ex-power plant MW and MWHrs capability foreseen for each time block of the next day i. The SLDC shall receive information from RLDC regarding the MW and MW Hr. (iv) The SSLDC shall inform the SLDC the MW and MWhr requirements for different hours for the next day by 11. (5) Scheduling and Despatch procedure (i) The generation scheduling and despatch data shall be as per format in annexure D-1.e.Draft Grid Code Revision . the sub station wise MW and MWHr requirements foreseen for different hours for the next day i. every day all the generating stations in the States shall advise the SLDC.00 AM. 53 .m.00 hrs to 2400 hrs of following day to the SLDC. will be divided into 96 time blocks of 15 minutes intervals. from 00.00 hours of the following day. and advised to all SSLDC by 12 AM.e. and all entities shall extend the necessary assistance to the STU personnel in timely collection of metered data. (ii) Each day starting from 00. from 00..00 a. The generators shall furnish the data as per annexure D-2. (vi) The SSLDCs shall review it vis-à-vis their foreseen load pattern based on the drawal schedule of the all the beneficiaries/ Distribution Licensees and shall advise the SLDC by 1.00 AM. The procedure has been devised taking in to account the ABT (Available Based Tariff) regime.00 hrs. entitlements from Central Generating stations for different hours and blocks for the next day by 11.1 approved by STU. (vii) The STU will undertake necessary Energy Audits in the grid.
54 . to SLDC by 9.m. (xii) The generating companies in the State may inform through SSLDC any modification / changes to be made in station wise drawal. particularly in terms of ramping-up /ramping – down rates and the ratio between minimum and maximum generation levels. schedule / foreseen capabilities. their drawal schedule for the next day for each of the generating stations in which they have shares and the other generating companies in the State.00 p. if any. (x) The summation of the station-wise ex-power plant generation schedules for all generating stations after deducting the apportioned transmission losses (estimated). (viii) By 5 PM each day. and “net drawal schedule” to each SLDC / beneficiary in MW for different hours.m. Additional charges payable to the generating companies on account of such plant operations requiring oil support and / or unit shut-down / start-up shall also be considered by SLDC. and advise the RLDC by 3.1 (vii) The SLDC shall review the foreseen load pattern and the generation capacity available including bilateral exchanges if any. the SLDC shall convey the ex-power plant “despatch schedule” to each of the state generating stations and “net drawal schedule” to each of the state beneficiary / Distribution Licensee through SSLDC in MW for different hours.00 p. for the next day. shall constitute the state beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees drawal schedule (xi) While finalizing the above daily generation schedules for the generating stations. the SLDC shall ensure that the same are operationally reasonable. their despatch schedule. for the next day. the RLDC shall convey the ex-power plant “despatch schedule” to each of the ISGS.Draft Grid Code Revision . (ix) By 6 PM each day.
00 p. during the first.1 (xiii) Based on the surplus. The revised declared capability will also become effective from the 4th time block. if any by 11.30 p. counting the time block in which the bottleneck in evacuation of power has taken place to be the first one.m. (xviii) In the event of bottleneck in evacuation of power due to any constraint. Also. outage. failure or limitation in the transmission system. (xix) In case of any Grid Disturbance. SLDC will revise the schedules which will become effective from the 4th time block. SLDC will revise the schedules on the basis of revised declared capability. the SLDC may arrange for bi-lateral exchanges. Scheduled Generation of all the Generating Stations and Scheduled Drawal of all the Beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees shall be deemed to have been revised to be equal to 55 . inform the beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees the drawal schedule for the next day by 11.m.m and it is freezed. (xv) The SLDC shall inform the final drawal schedule for the next day to SSLDC by 11. if any.Draft Grid Code Revision . associated switchyard and substations owned by STU (as certified by SLDC) necessitating reduction in generation.15 p.m (xvi)The SSLDC shall.00 p. (xiv)The SLDC shall receive the final ‘drawal schedule’ against Central allocation along with bilateral exchange of power. The revised schedules will become effective from the 4th time block. counting the time block in which the revision is advised by the generator to be the first one. the scheduled generation of the station will be deemed to have been revised to be equal to actual generation and also the scheduled drawals of the beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees will be deemed to have been revised to be equal to their actual drawals. in turn. second and third time blocks of such an event. Such arrangement shall be intimated to RLDC by the SLDC by 10. (xvii) In the event of any contingency.
(xxii)Generation schedules and drawal schedules issued/revised by SLDC shall become effective from designated time block irrespective of communication success. Revised schedules/declared capability in such cases shall become effective from the 6th time block. it may do so on its own and in such cases. Certification of Grid Disturbance and its duration shall be done by SLDC. the SLDC shall moderate the schedules to the required extent. by 24. the SLDC and SSLDCs shall also check that the resulting power flows do not give rise to any transmission constraint.1 their Actual Generation/Drawal for all the time blocks affected by the Grid Disturbance. at any point of time. (xxiii)For any revision of scheduled generation. including post facto deemed revision.00 hours. counting the time block in which the request for revision has been received in SLDC to be the first one. In case any impermissible constraints are foreseen. (xxi) If. the revised schedules shall become effective from the 4th time block. SLDC observes that there is need for revision of the schedules in the interest of better system operation. the schedule finally implemented during the day (taking into account all before-the fact changes in despatch schedule of generating stations and drawal schedule of the Users 56 . under intimation to the concerned Users (xxv) On completion of the operating day. (xx) Revision of declared capability by generator(s) and requisition by beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees for the remaining period of the day will also be permitted with advance notice. there shall be a corresponding revision of scheduled drawals of the beneficiaries.Draft Grid Code Revision . (xxiv)While finalizing the drawal and despatch schedules as above. counting the time block in which the revised schedule is issued by SLDC to be the first one.
distribution licensees. (xxvi) The SLDC and the SSLDCs shall properly document all the above information i. (xxvii) The procedure for scheduling carried out by SLDC/ SSLDCs. the SLDC and SSLDCs shall forthwith make a complete iii) While tap changing on all 400 / 230 KV ICTs of CTU shall be done as per the instruction of RLDC. all schedules issued by the SLDC / SSLDCs. station-wise foreseen ex-power plant capabilities advised by the generating stations. the drawal schedule indented by the beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees. 57 . (6) Reactive Power and Voltage Control i) Regarding VAR drawal / absorption from inter State Grid. the SLDC has to follow IEGC. tap changing of other ICTs shall be done as per the instructions of SLDC and SSLDCs. and all revisions / updating of the above. check and rectify the same. This schedule shall be the datum for commercial accounting. • • • • • Consumer end Distribution transformer end At the substations end of 11 / 22 KV distribution feeders Substations Generating stations In case any mistake / omission is detected. ii) All the end users. The average ex-bus capability for each of the generating stations shall also be worked out based on all before-the-fact advice to SLDC. VAR compensation has to commence in the following order.Draft Grid Code Revision . transmission licensees and STU are expected to provide local VAR compensation such that they do not draw VARs from the HV Grid.e.1 shall be issued by SLDC. shall be open to all entities for any checking / verification. (xxviii) A procedure for recording the communication regarding changes to schedules duly taking into account the time factor shall be evolved by STU.
vi) In general. and shall not return VARs when the voltage is above105%. 58 . SLDC may direct a beneficiary to curtail its VAR drawal/injection in case the security of grid or safety of any equipment is endangered. the beneficiaries shall endeavor to minimize the VAR drawal at an interchange point when the voltage at that point is below 95% of rated.Draft Grid Code Revision .1 iv) The generating stations shall generate / absorb reactive power as per instructions of SLDC. within the capability limits of the respective generating units v) Notwithstanding the above.
These bills shall have a higher priority. The beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees as per provision in the respective PPAs shall pay these bills.8 Commercial Issues and Implementation 9. iv. ii. iii. The Transmission charges and other open access charges shall be paid to the respective constituents as per the TNERC regulations issued time to time.Draft Grid Code Revision . The SLDC shall in parallel issue the weekly bills for deviation from schedules to all generating stations for excess generation or under generation. The summation of the station-wise ex-power plant drawal schedules for all generating stations after deducting the apportioned transmission losses (estimated). as may be approved by the TNERC. In case of a deviation from the Generation Schedule. and the generating 59 . (2) Subject to any scheme of tariff. the frequency-linked Unscheduled Interchanges Charges (UI charges) shall be applicable for such deviations as may be approved by the CERC/TNERC from time to time and dependent on average frequency for the concerned 15 minute block. Energy Accounts shall be prepared by the SLDC on a weekly basis and shall be issued to the STU beneficiaries on Thursdays. the bulk power supply agreements between the constituents shall duly specify the relationship between capacity charges to be paid and plant availability. and energy charge rates (in rupees per MWH) for each station. shall constitute the state beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees drawal schedule which in turn shall be used for billing. Commercial Issues:. The generating stations should accordingly be able to bill the capacity and energy charges for the previous week.1 CHAPTER . Regarding the various charges: i. in ex-power plants. v. every Friday.(1) In regard to Central sector allocation of power the CERC has full jurisdiction to determine the tariff and other commercial issues IEGC is to be followed. for the seven day period ending on the previous Sunday night.
shall be at a nominal paise / kVARh rate as may be approved by CERC / TNERC from time to time. If payments against the above bills are delayed beyond 10 days. The charge/payment for VARs. the defaulting entities shall have to pay simple interest at the agreed rate for each day of delay. viii. The interest so collected shall be paid to the entities who have to receive the payment which got delayed.Draft Grid Code Revision . ix. The basic rules for absorption / generation are : • • • • The Beneficiary pays for VAR drawal when voltage at the metering point is below 97%.1 stations and beneficiaries / Distribution Licensees shall pay the billed amounts within 10 days of billing date. x. The generating stations shall generate / absorb reactive power as per instructions of SLDC. the SLDC shall forthwith make a complete check and rectify the mistake. All energy accounting calculation carried over by SLDC shall be open to all users for any checking / verification. vi. In case any mistake is detected. The Beneficiary gets paid for VAR drawal when voltage is above 103%. within the capability limits of the respective generating units. and will be between the beneficiary and the Pool Account and between two beneficiaries. the SLDC has to follow IEGC. The Beneficiary gets paid for VAR return when voltage is below 97%. SLDC shall periodically review the actual deviation from the generation and net drawal schedules to check whether any of the entities is indulging in unfair gaming. 60 . No payments shall be made to the generating companies for such VAR generation / absorption. Regarding VAR drawal / absorption from inter State Grid. In case any such practice is detected the matter shall be reported to the STU for further investigation / action. The Beneficiary pays for VAR return when voltage is above 103%. vii.
generating station. TNERC in turn. TNERC. If any dispute arises with reference to the quality of electricity or safe. substation and any other person connected with the operation of the power system shall comply with the directions issued by SLDC. after due process.through STU/SLDC. may order the defaulting entity to pay the dues within a certain period. Pending decision of the Commission the licensee or the generating company shall comply with the directions of the SLDC.1 Chapter 9 Non-compliance 10 Non compliance and disputes. failing which it may take penal action and other regulatory measures which includes termination of connectivity agreement/ de-linking from the grid etc. 61 . it shall be referred to the Commission for decision. every licensee.. in turn.Draft Grid Code Revision . the affected generating company shall report the matter to the STU. In case of inadequate response. generating company. the STU shall report the same to TNERC. secure and integrated operation of the state grid or in relation to any direction given by SLDC. (2) Non-payment of dues: In case of non-payment of capacity and energy charges. may order the defaulting entity for compliance. The latter shall verify and take up the defaulting entity for paying up the dues. unscheduled interchange charges. etc. failing which the TNERC may initiate necessary regulatory measures. by any beneficiary. (4) and (5) of the Act. transmission/SLDC charges. after due process.(1) As stipulated under Section 33 (2).
Since the constituents involved in the Grid Code are more. ix.) CPP ( One member from major CPPs with installed capacity exceeding 50 MW for a tenure of one year each on rotation basis to be notified by the STU to represent all the CPPs in the State. managing and servicing this code. The Code review panel (hereafter in this chapter referred to as “Panel” ) formed for the review of all Codes shall also have the powers to review this Code . ii. viii.) One representative from State Co-ordination Forum and another from one of the District Committees on a rotational basis All the rules and guidelines stipulated under the Distribution / Supply Code for the Code review panel are the rules for this Code review also. (2) Functions of review panel with respect to this Code: The functions of the Review panel are :i).) Power Grid Corporation of India ( to represent its role as CTU) iii.( one member from each of the distribution / supply companies) as and when they are formed.Draft Grid Code Revision . a wider participation in the review is necessary and hence the following additional members shall be invited as special invitees whenever the review for the Grid Code arises.) Transmission Companies( One representative from each of transmission companies other than STU) as and when they are formed. to issue guidance on the interpretation and implementation of the TNEGC iv).) Distribution / Supply Companies. to keep the TNEGC and its working under scrutiny and review ii).1 CHAPTER 10 IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CODE 11.) Nuclear Power Corporation ( One member) vi. Code Review Panel : (1) The STU shall be responsible for coordinating. to examine problems raised by the Users. to consider all requests of Users for amendments to the TNEGC iii).) Neyveli Lignite Corporation (One member) v. iv.) One member from a panel of generators of renewable sources of energy.) National Thermal Power Corporation ( one member) vii. i. 62 .
ii).Draft Grid Code Revision . 63 . the STU shall convene a meeting of the panel for deliberations. Written request for review / modification of TNEGC shall be sent to the STU by the User (including STU).) and (3) Manner of Reviewing the Code i). All the comments received will be scrutinized and compiled by STU. who is seeking the amendment. Based on written response received. iv). as it may deemed fit and cause the publication of the same in such manner. These along with STU’s comments shall be sent to all the members for their response in favour or otherwise. v). for the proposed change / modification. as may be necessary. The STU shall examine the proposed change/ modifications and circulate the same along with its comments to all the panel members for their written comments within a reasonable time frame. the same shall be forwarded to STU. the STU shall finalize its recommendation regarding the proposed modification / amendment and submit the same along with all related correspondence to the TNERC for approval. If the request is sent to TNERC. Provided the panel may supplement its own procedure in addition to the procedure laid down herein for conducting it’s meeting and in carrying out its functions. The Commission may approve the changes with or without modification.1 (Sub meetings may be held by the STU with a User to discuss individual requirements and with group of users to prepare proposals for the panel meeting / decision. If necessary. iii).
fore bay. railway lines.Draft Grid Code Revision . Number of units and unit size 3. rivers . Name of Power Station: 2. reservoirs 4. forest and agricultural areas submerged etc. water conductor system.2 Hydro : a) Site map showing the dam.1 Annexure A-1 Planning Data (Generation) (Refer clause 5 (4) ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The following data are to be made available to the planning wing of STU by all the Agencies and various Users. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. villages submerged. Station type : CCGT/Diesel Thermal(Coal) / Hydro/ Pumped Hydro/ Nuclear/ GT/ 4. transmission lines. b) Information on area submerged.3 Nuclear : a) b) c) d) e) Salient and disclosable details of the plant Ratings of turbine and other major auxiliaries Water sources for station operation Environmental constraints and clearances Peaking availability and peaking capability Coal linkage details Ratings of Boilers. and min. Station Capacity i.. c) Ratings of turbine and other major equipments d) Reservoir data and operating table with area capacity curves and unit capability at different heads e) Irrigation discharge linkage details f) Operating head : max. Total Capacity ii. power house etc. turbines and major auxiliaries Water sources for station operation Environmental constraints and clearances Peaking availability and peaking capability 64 .. 4. reservoir area.1 Thermal (Coal) : a) b) c) d) e) 4. Site : Give location map to scale showing roads.
95 of leading and 0.85 of lagging Short Circuit Ratio Direct axis synchronous reactance (% on MVA) Xd Direct axis transient reactance(% on MVA) Xd' Direct axis sub-transient reactance(% on MVA) Xd" Quadrature axis synchronous reactance (% on MVA)Xq Quadrature axis transient reactance (% on MVA) Xq' Quadrature axis sub-transient reactance (% on MVA) Xq" Direct axis transient open circuit time constant (Sec) T'do Direct axis sub-transient open circuit time constant(Sec) T"do Quadrature axis transient open circuit time constant (Sec) T'qo Quadrature axis sub-transient open circuit time constant (Sec) T'qo Stator Resistance Ra (Ohm) Stator leakage reactance Xl (Ohm) Stator time constant (Sec) Rated Field current (A) Neutral grounding details Open Circuit saturation characteristic for various terminal 65 .1 4./MVA) Rated Power Factor Reactive Power Capability (MVAr) in the range 0.5 Diesel Engine: a) b) c) d) Type of DG engine and other salient particulars Details of cooling system and water sources for operation Environmental constraints and clearances Peaking availability and peaking capability 4.6 Captive Power Plants: a) Salient details including the plant capacity 5.4 Gas Turbine / CCGT a) b) c) d) e) f) Natural Gas / LNG Salient details of the GT / CCGT Ratings of major auxiliaries Water sources for station operation Environmental constraints and clearances Peaking availability and peaking capability 4.0 Generators : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) x) Type Rating (MVA) Terminal voltage (KV) Speed (RPM) Inertia constant H (MW Sec.Draft Grid Code Revision .
Governor valve rate limits.0 Connection to Grid: a) Point of Connection: Give single line diagram for the point of connection b) In relation to switchgear including circuit breakers. symbols.E. Minimum Field Voltage iv. e) On load / off load tap changer f) Percentage impedance ( Positive sequence at full load.E. isolators on all circuits connected to the point of connection: i.excitation limiter vii. Type of Breaker (MOCB/ABCB/SF6) iii. Rated short circuit breaking current (kA) 3 phase iv.E. Provisions of auto reclosing with details 8. iii.1 6.Draft Grid Code Revision . vii. Dynamic characteristics of over .1 Excitation Control System i. Governor average gain (MW/Hz) Speeder motor setting range Time constant of steam or fuel Governor valve Governor valve opening limits.%). Maximum Field Voltage iii. Rated Field Voltage v. 7.E. Rated voltage (kV) ii. v. Details of excitation loop in Block Diagrams showing functions of individual elements using I. Dynamic characteristics of under-excitation limiter 8.E. ii. Time constant of Turbine Governor Block Diagram showing transfer functions of individual elements using I. Type of Excitation ii.2 Governor system i. vi. Rated short circuit breaking current (kA) 1 phase v.0 Generator Transformers: a) Type b) Rated capacity (MVA) c) Voltage ratio (HV/LV) and vector group d) Tap change range (+ % to .E. symbols. transfer 66 . iv. Rated short circuit making current (kA) 1-phase vii. vi.0 Other Details : 8. Rated short circuit making current (kA) 3 phase vi.
Minimum time between synchronizing different Generating Units in a Power Station. 67 . iii. 8. The minimum block load requirements on synchronizing. Auxiliary Transformer and electrical motor of major equipments listed.3 Protection and metering: i. iii. ii. Minimum load. incoming circuit breakers. Full description including settings for all relays and protection systems installed on the Generating Unit. (gapless and gapped arresters separately) 8.7 Operational parameters: i.Draft Grid Code Revision .6 Communication: Details of equipment installed at points of Connections. Full description including settings for all relays installed on all outgoing feeders from Power Station switchyard. Generating Unit Transformer. Minimum notice required to synchronize a Generating Unit from Desynchronization. Full description of operational and commercial metering schemes. Bus bar Switchgear Transformer Bushings Transformer windings.1 8. 8. vi. Time required for synchronizing a Generating Unit: Maximum Generating Unit loading rates. iv. v. iv. ii. Full description of inter-tripping of Breakers at the point or points of Connection with the Transmission System. iii. Most probable fault clearance time for electrical faults on the User's System. ii. v. iv.4 Basic Insulation Levels : i.5 Surge Arresters: Technical data. but not limited to. 8. tie circuit breakers.
Electrical circuitry. min.3 Sub-station layout diagrams showing: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Bus bar layouts.0 Transformer Parameters i. Phasing arrangements.2 Route map of the transmission lines and locations of the sub stations up to 33 kV. • Isolating switches. min. Switching facilities and interlocking arrangements. Operating voltages. Numbering and nomenclature: • Transformers. transformers. Reactive compensation equipment. Number and length of circuits. Rated MVA Voltage Ratio Vector Group Positive sequence reactance (pu on 100 MVA) (max. iii. Power transformers. v. 1. cables. b. & normal) R1 Zero sequence reactance (pu on 100 MVA) 68 .1 Single line diagram of the Transmission System down to 33 kV bus detailing: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Name of Sub-station.1 Annexure A-2 Planning Data (Transmission) (Refer clause 5 (4)(a)) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The following data are to be made available to the planning wing of STU by all the Agencies and various Users. Power Station. • Circuit breakers. resistance (pu on 100 MVA) (max. • Circuits. Interconnecting transformers. iv. ii. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Sub-station bus layouts. connected. Earthing arrangements. (For all transformers) 2.0 General 1. The consolidation of the geographical map shall be the responsibility of the respective planning wing of STU 1. & normal) X1 Positive sequence. vi. switchgear etc.Draft Grid Code Revision . lines.
Relay protection installed for all transformers and feeders along with their settings and level of co-ordination with other Users.Draft Grid Code Revision . ii.0 Equipment Details i. vi. iii.1 vii. x. viii. Circuit Breakers Isolating switches Current Transformers Potential Transformers 4. xi. Metering Details. ii. ii.(Off load /On load) Impedance between HV-MV. 5. (For all circuits) Line Parameters i. Tap change range (+% to -%)and steps Details of Tap changer. iii. Designation of Line.0 Type of equipment (fixed or variable) Capacities and/or Inductive rating or its operating range in MVAr Details of control Point of Connection to the System. v. iv. ix. MV-LV and HV-LV for three winding trs. ii. Per Circuit values • • • • • • • Operating voltage(kV) Positive sequence reactance/ kM (pu on 100 MVA ) XI Positive sequence resistance/ kM (pu on 100 MVA ) RI Positive sequence half line susceptance/ kM (pu on 100 MVA ) B1 Zero sequence reactance (pu on 100 MVA ) X0 Zero sequence resistance (pu on 100 MVA) R0 Zero sequence half line susceptance (pu on 100 MVA) B0 69 . Loading capability of tertiary (if any) Grounding impedance in pu (if the neutral of the star is grounded) (For all substations) 3. iii. 6.0 Relaying and metering i. Year of commissioning Length of line (KM) Line capacity (thermal and surge impedance limits) No.0 Reactive Compensation Equipment i.of circuits. iv. iv.
Draft Grid Code Revision . Number: Fax Number: Permanent Address: Item of Plant / Apparatus Plant Owner Safety …..1 Annexure B-1 SITE RESPONSIBILITY SCHEDULE (Refer clause 6 (1) ) Name of Power Station / Sub-Station Owner: Tel. kV Switchyard All equipments Including Busbars Feeders Responsibility for Control Operation Maintenance Remarks Generating Units 70 .
LV side Genr..1 Station Name/ Feeder Annexure B-2 ENERGY BALANCE METERING FORMAT (Refer clause 6 (10) (b) ) ( For each Sub Station) Transfer thro' Sub Stations Energy Tranfr. Bulk Metered at injected by loss Import Export Supply Tr.Draft Grid Code Revision ./ inter (half) load Voltage state 71 .
Draft Grid Code Revision . load Import Export Voltage Sub station Level Name 72 .1 Annexure B-3 FORMAT B-3 ( Energy balance voltagewise for all stations) (Refer clause 6 (10) (b)) Transfer thro' SS Energy Bulk Trasfr injected Supply loss by Genr.
/ inter consumption at SS end of 11/22 kV state line Export Transmn & Transformer Transfr losses losses 73 .Draft Grid Code Revision .1 Annexure B-4 Format B-4 ( Consolidated energy Balance at each voltage level) (Refer clause 6 (10) (b)) Energy fed to HT Energy injected by bulk and lumped Import Voltage Genr.
DEMAND ESTIMATES Item 1 Description submitted by Estimated aggregate annual sales of energy in millio 31st March of units and peak and lean demand in MW & MVAr at current year each sub station for the period from July of current year to June of next year. Details of essential loads and the priority as below No Priority Type of Load Approximate MW Name of Sub Station 74 . Details of discrete load blocks that may be shed to comply with emergency requirements .Draft Grid Code Revision . 15th of current month 2 B.SUB STATION LEVEL DATA (Refer clause 7 (4) (d) ) To be furnished to the SLDC for each sub station and updated annually or when there is a major change or when specifically required by STU/ SLDC A.1 Annexure C-1 OUTAGE PLANNING. ESTIMATES OF LOAD SHEDDING AND DETAILS OF ESSENTIAL LOADS AND PRIORITY OF RESTORATION 1. Estimated aggregate monthly sales of energy in million units and peak and lean demand in MW & MVAr at each sub station for the next month. 2.
Item 1 2 3 4 Description Identification of Generating Unit.Draft Grid Code Revision . CPPs. If outages are required to meet statutory requirement 1st August each year then the latest.date by which Outage must be taken YEAR AHEAD RLDC'S OUTAGE PROGRAMME (affecting Transmission System ) Item 1 2 Submitted by RLDC to SLDC MW which will not be available as a result of 1st November each Outage from Imports through External Connection year Start-Date and Start-Time and period of Outage. Submitted by 1st August each year MW which will not be available as a result of Outage 1st August each year Preferred start date and start-time or range of 1st August each year start dates and start times and period of outage. 1st November each year THE STU’S OVERALL OUTAGE PROGRAMME Item Description submitted by 1 Report on proposed Outage programme to RLDC 1st November each year 2 Release of finally agreed Outage plan 1st March each year Description 75 .1 Annexure C-2 Outage Planning – Generation Data (Refer clause 7 (4) (d) ) To be furnished to the SLDC for each generating station including IPP for every year by the generation wing of TNEB or its successors and the IPPs. YEAR AHEAD OUTAGE PROGRAMME (For the period July to June) GENERATOR OUTAGE PROGRAMME.
Network configuration before the incident 7. 1... Recommendations for future improvement/repeat incident 15. Frequency... Type of incident 4... Date and time of incident 2.Draft Grid Code Revision ... Estimate of time to return service 12. Damage to equipment 9.. if applicable 11... Any other relevant information and remedial action taken 14... Time:. Cause of incident 13. Relay indications received and performance of protection 8. Generation. System parameters before the incident (Voltage.. Name of the Organisation 76 . if applicable 10. Location of incident 3.) 5. Amount of Generation lost.1 Annexure C-3 INCIDENT REPORTING (refer clause 7 (Q) (i) ) FIRST REPORT Date:. etc. Supplies interrupted and duration.... System parameters after the incident 6.
00 hrs to 24.00 hrs 11.00 hrs of following day to SSLDC MW and MWHr requirements from 00.00 hrs 11.00 hrs 21.1 Annexure D-1 GENERATION SCHEDULING DATA (Refer clause 8 (1)(c) and 8(5)(i) ) To be furnished to the SLDC /SSLDC : Schedule and Despatch Day ahead hourly MW/MVAR availability (0.00 hrs 23.00 hrs ever day 15.00 . every day ---------do---------------do---------------do---------------do---------------do---------------do---------------do------10.00 Hrs.Draft Grid Code Revision .00 hrs 2315 hrs 2330 hrs 77 .00 hrs 22. sub stations and distribution in charges and ex power plant despatch schedule to each ISGS by RLDC.00 for sub stations covered by each SSLDC to SLDC MW and MWHr entitlements from CGS and Neyveli Stage 1 for different hours for the next day Tentative Drawal schedule for the next day by SLDC to RLDC and despatch schedules for all generating stations in the state Net Drawal schedules communicated to all beneficiaries .00 hrs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 17.24. State generating companies request for modification if any to SLDC SLDC to inform RLDC for any revisions/ bilateral exchanges Final drawal schedule against CGS allocation to be informed to SLDC by RLDC SLDC to inform the SSLDCs the final drawal schedule SSLDCs to inform the drawal schedule to the respective beneficiaries Submitted by 10.00 Hrs) of all Generator Units Day ahead hourly MW import/export from CPP's Status of Generating unit Excitation AVR in service(Yes/No) Status of Generating Unit Speed Control System Governor Spinning Reserve Capability (MW) Backing down Capability with / without Oi1 Support (MW) Hydro Reservoir Levels and restrictions Generating Units hourly Summation outputs(MW) Sub station wise MW and MWHr requirements from 00.00 to 24.
Draft Grid Code Revision .1 Annexure D-2 MONITORING OF GENERATION ( Refer clause 8 (4) (vi) ) Item Description submitted by 1 Generating stations shall provide hourly generation Real time summation to SLDC basis 2 CPP's shall provide hourly export/ import MW to SLDCReal time 3 Logged readings of Generators to SLDC As required 4 Detailed report of Generating Unit trippings on month First week of basis the succeeding month 78 .
are substations on the border between Generation and Transmission Definition • Main Work Scheduling different types of power and energy reserves • Schedule generation as per ABT guidelines and Merit Order despatch. Balance the system System frequency within specified limit Eliminate undesired and unplanned interchanges between subsystems sub-systems.In order to minimize the system transmission losses.Draft Grid code Revision . Program the amount and location of the secondary (automatic computer-controlled) and tertiary Control of VAR compensation in the network Balancing of generation and load in the grid OPERATION • Define a profile for the voltage in the transmission system or define the criteria minimize losses etc) for computing this profile. Switching in/out of shunt capacitor bank. synchronous condenser. Economic . tasks involved and functional requirements. • • • • System Capacity / Continuity of Service Match the generation with load Maintenance of voltage and frequency within operating limits Delivery points. Compute the voltage set points for the transmission network and send this information to the scheduled voltage regulation units • Operating the system in accordance with component and system parameters (voltage. System Security post-fault voltage collapse determines a minimum value. Generator capacity to produce or consume reactive power. Schedule Wind Electric Generators Co-generators and captive generators. OPERATING CONDITION : Normal Task Active Power Regulation • • • • • Adjust Generation with system load. Distribution Regulation Capacity determines a minimum and a maximum acceptable value for the transmission voltage. are substations on the border between Transmission and Distribution.1 Annexure – E Operating condition. • • • • Voltage Regulation The capability of the system to provide the reactive power required to maintain the voltage profile.insulation capacity of the equipment determines a maximum value. static VAR compensator. Reception points. load…) Detect and correct system constraints Functions to be performed • • • 79 . Component Security .
Draft Grid code Revision .1 (manually controlled) reserves. The total interchanged power must be compared with the programmed interchange. the Voltage must be controlled on characteristic buses among the delivery points and generation plants Continuity must be controlled in all delivery points and generation plants connection to the Transmission system GENERATION Functions to be performed Follow the reference voltage automatically (local or closed loop from the grid control centre) or manually ------- 80 . • Quality of the frequency in the interconnected system • Quality of the load regulation. Compute in real time the use of the reserves and inform Generation (normally to the power plants in form of set point or “raiser or lower” orders). The concept must be expanded as regards Reception Points The factors to consider are based on the number of zero voltage situations and on the restoration time: SAIFI (System Average Interruption Frequency Index) The quotient of the Number of interruptions and the number of Delivery and/or Reception Points SAIDI (System Average Interruption Duration Index) The quotient of the Interruption Duration and the number of Delivery and/or Reception Points SAIRI (System Average Interruption Restoration Index) The quotient of the Interruption Duration and the number of Delivery and/or Reception Points interruptions. in order to be compatible with the actual Data Base. • In systems with deficit in generation. Usually. Makes available the programmed reserves and follows the orders with the appropriate speed. load management to match with available generation. • Amount of the different reserves scheduled • • Schedule the generating resources • ----• • • Performance factor • • • • The Delivery Point Performance indices must be used. considering the power deviation and the time to recover after a unit trip. Measurement point The active power regulation must be controlled at the boundaries of the regulated system with the interconnected systems.
It must be taken into consideration that the acceptable voltage boundaries will be different: From one substation to the other. but may others also have the capability to regulate.1 Performance Factor secondary reserve is only scheduled in a few power plants. static VAR compensators if available Quality of the voltage profile. measured as a percentage of time. The profile will be different according to the time of the day and the day of the week. outside acceptable limits. defining a voltage profile instead of a voltage level.Draft Grid code Revision . • Ensure the required transmission capacity for the system Performance Factor ------ ------ DISTRIBUTION Functions to be performed Performance Factor Load management in systems with deficit in generation --• Operate shunt devices (capacitors and reactors) installed in the distribution network • Monitor Power Factor Capability of the distribution system to be selfsufficient in production/consumption of reactive power to a certain predefined degree (power factor) ----------- 81 . • Capability of the power plants to use the spinning reserve in automatic or manual modes • Magnitude of the automatic regulation band in relation to the size of the unit (in MW/Min) • Speed (in MW/min) ---- • Capability of the power units to regulate voltage in the automatic (local or centralized) or manual mode • Limits of reactive power generation or consumption in relation to unit size ----- TRANSMISSION Functions to be performed Operate shunt devices (reactors and capacitors) installed in the transmission network • Operate FACTS devices. The best places to measure the voltage are in predefined sub-stations in the transmission system. defining a family of profiles.
Measurement point GENERATION Functions to be performed Provide facilities such as: Fast Start: Capability to start the generator quickly (max. OPERATION Functions to be performed Performance factor The restoration must by controlled as the interrupted final clients receive service again. The functionality must be present and their operation reviewed. 5 minutes) Black Start: ------ 82 . …) are out of the acceptable limits. These indices are: Effectiveness Index The quotient between the number of successful operations and the number of successful and unsuccessful operations plus failures to operate Dependability Index The quotient between the number of successful operations and the total number of operations Unnecessary Operate Rate The quotient between the number of unnecessary operations and the number of years of experience There is no particular measurement point.1 OPERATING CONDITION : Emergency TASK Emergency Capabilities Special facilities to avoid total system blackouts and to ease restoration after blockouts System Restoration The Sequence of actions taken in order to take the system out of an emergency situation. 90% or 100%) during the emergency. where some customers are disconnected or where some of the main parameters of the system (voltage. • Time to recover the different steps of disconnected load (50%. set the rules and order the facilities when required The special Protection Schemes Performance Indices must be used.Draft Grid code Revision . frequency. Definition Main Work To meet the emergency conditions in the grid Coordinate the responsibilities. power flows. Restoration of normalcy in the grid. in order to be compatible with the actual Data Base. ---The unique performance factor of a restoration is the time used in the restoration process: • Time to recover the frequency to normal values.
otherwise resort to load sheddings Provide facilities such as: Load shedding Capability to remove load from the system automatically. normally using frequency relays. will still generate but only to supply its auxiliary services. or short-term increased generation for a limited time (e.Draft Grid code Revision . Interruptible Load Some pre-selected loads which can be removed from the network manually or automatically Reconnection of load After a major disturbance or blackout.g a few seconds to one minute) Pumping to generation Transfer in pump-storage power stations from the pumping to the generating mode Generation in excess of normal full output This can have various forms such as stepped temporarily increased generation. -------- DISTRIBUTION Functions to be performed -------- 83 .1 Capability to initiate operation without voltage from the network (e.g 30 minutes) TRANSMISSION Functions to be performed Static VAR compensator/ Use FACTS devices (also known as IOD’s Innovative Operation Devices).) Emergency Trip Manual or automatic tripping of the unit in less than a predefined time (e. the loads having been tripped by load shedding or load interruption (see above) can be reconnected automatically or manually. disconnected from the network. if available to control the power flow during system emergencies. This situation can be sustained for a predefined minimum time (e.g hydro plants) Trip to House Load The unit.g 20 min.
Unbalance The loading of the three phases of the system differs beyond acceptable limits. Referred to voltage. 84 . like arc furnaces and steel mills) or distribution networks (e. connection of large variable loads. • Down to a few hours ahead for generation rescheduling and security restrictions. The most important are: Harmonics A wave of a different frequency super imposed on the main frequency (50 or 60 Hz) . (more than 15%) for a short period of time (seconds). The forecasts are: • On a weekly basis for medium term operation planning. Short Circuit Power The short circuit power (three-or single phase to ground) must be within acceptable limits. the quality can be measured taking into consideration the following aspects: • Micro interruptions: With a duration of less then a second • Voltage dips: A reduction of the voltage. Can affect one or all three phases. Voltage Wave Quality The quality of service must guarantee not only the continuity of service but also its quality. Maintenance of quality power (Voltage wave form) Definition Main Work To provide operation plan for the whole system Plan for short circuit power in the grid. • Voltage wave deformations: Introduced by the different functions in the system.g.1 OPERATING CONDITION : Operational Planning Task Load Forecast Provide forecast values of the demand in order to schedule the generation resources. These are determined from considerations regarding strength of the total system against the optimum ratings for its components. connection of large loads). • In real time for economic despatch and security analysis. generally caused by switching.Flicker Undesired and momentary voltage reductions due to events in the transmission (e.g.Draft Grid code Revision .
DISTRIBUTION Functions to be performed ------- ------ 85 .1 OPERATION Functions to be performed ----Define the short circuit power limits as a restriction for operational planning. • ----Will be decided later. The performance factors will be: • Minimum Requirement Time with the phase-to-ground short circuit power below the minimum requirement in any system substation. two phases. • Guarantee a minimum short circuit power. three phases to ground. Define the short circuit power limits as a restriction for operation planning.Draft Grid code Revision . The only possibility is to compute the system conditions and calculate the short circuit power (threephase phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground). two phases to ground and phase to ground). Short circuit power must be controlled in all delivery points and generation plants. when the industry decides the required quality. • Maximum Requirement Time with the three-phase short circuit power higher that the maximum acceptable value in any system substation. There is no practical way of measuring the short circuit power in the system. The best performance factor is the comparison between the forecast and the real load. It is possible to compute it in extended real time or during operations planning. Best way to do it is using computer algorithms that calculate short circuit power (three phases. Performance factor The real load at the same level as forecasted Measurement point Voltage wave quality must be controlled in characteristic buses among the delivery points and generation plants. • Compute the short circuit power level and if limits are exceeded take actions in order to correct it.
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