Cover *Additional Mathematics Project Work 2009
Part 3 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 7. Reference Page
. Title 2. Part 1 (a) (b) 5.Content Page No. Part 2 (a) (b) (c) 6. Conclusion 8. Acknowledgement 3. Introduction 4. Contents 1.
Title Circles *make ur own artwork of the word “Circles”
I advice that u write ur own acknowledgement.Acknowledgement Refer to the past year examples.
. The diameter. In everyday use the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure (known as the perimeter) or to the whole figure including its interior. An arc of a circle is any connected part of the circle's circumference. but in strict technical usage "circle" refers to the perimeter while the interior of the circle is called a disk. A secant is an extended chord: a straight line cutting the circle at two points. A sector is a region bounded by two radii and an arc lying between the radii. passing through the circle's centre. an interior and an exterior. A circle is a special ellipse in which the two foci are coincident. A diameter is a line segment whose lie on the circle and which passes through the centre of the circle. and a segment is a region bounded by a chord and an arc lying between the chord's endpoints. The common distance of the points of a circle from its center is called its radius.
A chord of a circle is a line segment whose two endpoints lie on the circle. is the largest chord in a circle. Circles are conic sections attained when a right circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone. The length of a diameter is twice the length of the radius. A circle is never a because it has no sides or vertices Circles are simple closed curves which divide the plane into two regions.Introduction to Circles
A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane which are the same distance from a given point called the centre. The circumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle (especially when referring to its length). A tangent to a circle is a straight line that touches the circle at a single point.
Part 1 (a) Objects related to circles or parts of a circle :
Archimedes' constant or Ludolph's number.1/7 + . . where m and n are integers. was adopted for the number from the Greek word for perimeter "περίμετρος". Archimedes's results rested upon approximating the area of a circle based on the area of a regular polygon inscribed within the circle and the area of a regular polygon within which the circle was circumscribed. one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the ancient world. etc.1/3 + 1/5 .) It is approximately equal to 3. fascination with the number has even carried over into non-mathematical culture. . . but one Old Babylonian tablet (from ca. Ancient Egyptians calculated the area of a circle by the following formula (where d is the diameter of the circle):
This yields an approximate value of 3. Define π and write a brief history of π
A Brief History of Pi (π)
Pi or π is a mathematical constant whose value is the ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter in Euclidean space. The ancient Babylonians generally calculated the area of a circle by taking 3 times the square of its radius ( =3). Throughout the history of mathematics. proving this was a late achievement in mathematical history and a significant result of 19th century German mathematics. which means that no finite sequence of algebraic operations on integers (powers. pi) has been recognized for as long as we have written records. . roots.1605 for pi. . ten cubits from the one brim to the other: it was round all about. 2. The first theoretical calculation of a value of pi was that of Archimedes of Syracuse (287-212 BCE). often spelled out pi in text. its decimal representation never ends or repeats.14159 in the usual decimal notation (see the table for its representation in some other bases). this is the same value as the ratio of a circle's area to the square of its radius. another mathematician named John Machin developed a refinement on Gregory's formula.(b) Pi or π is a mathematical constant related to circles. there has been much effort to determine π more accurately and to understand its nature. (I Kings 7. π is one of the most important mathematical and physical constants: many formulae from mathematics. The Greek letter π. first by William Jones in 1707. . The ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle is constant (namely. yielding the formula still used today by computer programmers to compute pi:
. 23. such as that of James Gregory (1638-1675). 1900-1680 BCE) indicates a value of 3. . and engineering involve π. A ratio of 3:1 appears in the following biblical verse: And he made a molten sea. II Chronicles 4. One problem with using this formula to calculate the value of pi is that you would have to add 5 million terms to work out a value of /4 that extends to 6 or 7 decimal places! In 1706. which means that its value cannot be expressed exactly as a fraction m/n. and popularized by Leonhard Euler in 1737. It is also a transcendental number. . and his height was five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did compass it about. . The constant is occasionally also referred to as the circular constant.) can be equal to its value. π is an irrational number. sums. Beginning with a hexagon. science.125 for pi. Consequently. Archimedes worked out that 223/71 < < 22/7. which was taken up by Leibniz: /4 = 1 . he worked all the way up to a ploygon with 96 sides! European mathematicians in the early modern period developed new arithmetical formulae to approximate the value of pi.
a labor of many years. the probability that the needle falls across a line is 2k/ .
. Buffon's method begins with a uniform grid of parallel lines. which he published in 1873. you can obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of pi. however!) An eighteenth-century French mathematician named Georges Buffon devised a way to calculate pi based on probability. an Englishman named William Shanks calculated pi to 707 places. a unit distance apart. The symbol for pi was introduced by the English mathematician William Jones in 1706.Using this formula. If you drop a needle of length k < 1 on the grid.14159 = This symbol was adopted by Euler in 1737 and became the standard symbol for pi. who wrote: 3. Various people have tried to calculate pi by throwing needles. Depending on when you stop the experiment. (Only 527 places were correct.
0 π 1.0 π Length of arc PAB in terms of π (cm) 0.0 π 0.
d¹ (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 d² (cm) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Length of arc PQR in terms of π (cm) 5.0 π 5.0 π 5.0 π 5.5 π 3.
.0 π 5.5 π 4.Part 2 (a) Diagram 1 shows a semicircle PQR of diameter 10 cm.0 π 5.5 π 3. d 2 and d 3 is equal to10 cm . Semicircles PAB and BCR of diameter d¹ and d² respectively are inscribed in the semicircle PQR such as the sum of d¹ and d² is equal to 10 cm.
Table 1 is completed by using various values of d¹ and the corresponding values of d² .5 π
Table 1 The relation between the lengths of arcs PQR.5 π 4.5 π 1.5 π 2. BCD and DER of diameter d 1.5 π 2.0 π 2.5 π 1. PAB and BCR is : d d 10 =2 1 2 2 2 2 2 Length of arc PQR = Length of arc PAB + Length of arc BCR 2 (b) Diagram 2 shows a semicircle PQR of diameter 10 cm.0 π 3.0 π 5.0 π 3.0 π 2.0 π 5. Semicircles PAB.0 π 4.5 π Length of arc BCR in terms of π (cm) 4.0 π 1.0 π 5.
0π 1.0π 3 3 4 5.0π 1 5 4 5.0π 0..5π 2.0π 3.0π 8 1 1 5.5π 1.5π 2.0π 2 7 1 5.0π 2. make generalisations about the length of the arc of the outer semicircle and the lengths of arcs of the inner semicircles for n inner semicircles where n=2.0π 2.0π 1.5π 3.5π length of arc DER in terms of π 4.4.0π 1.0π 2.0π 2.0π 1.5π 1.0π 5 2 3 5.0π 0.3.0π 2.
d1 d2 d3 length of arc PQR in terms of π 1 1 8 5.5π 1.0π 5 3 2 5.0π 1.0π 4 1 5 5.0π 6 1 3 5.5π 2.. 2 2 2 2 Where n is the number of inner semicircles.5π 1.0π 5 4 1 5.5π 2.5π 2. BCD and DER was determined.0π 2.5π 3.5π 2.5π 3.0π length of arc BCD in terms of π 0.5π 1.0π 4 4 2 5.0π 2 1 7 5.5π 1. Based on the findings in (a) and (b).5π 1.0π 1.0π 2.0π 3.5π 0.5π 2.5π 3.0π 7 2 1 5.5π 1.5π 1..5π 2.5π 4.5π 0.0π 0.0π 1.0π 0. dn d d1 d2 = .5π 2.0π 1.0π 0.5π 0.0π 2 5 3 5.5π 1.0π 2 4 4 5.(i) Using various values of d 1 and d 2 and the corresponding values of d 3 .0π 2 3 5 5.0π 2.0π 3 4 3 5.0π 4 5 1 5.5π 0.0π 2.0π 5 1 4 5.0π 3 5 2 5.0π 3 1 6 5. d is the length of arc of outer semicircle and d n is the length of arc of respective inner semicircles.5π 1.0π length of arc PAB in terms of π 0.5π 2.5π 3.0π 0.5π 0..0π 7 1 2 5.0π 1.5π 1.0π 4 2 4 5. the relation between the lengths of arcs PQR.0π 1.5π 3.5π 2.0π 0.5π 0.5π 1.5π 3.0π 2.5π 0.0π 3.0π 1. .0π 3 6 1 5.0π 1.0π 1 6 3 5.0π 0.0π 1 3 6 5.
.0π 1.0π 2 6 2 5.5π 1.5π 3.0 π 1 2 7 5.5π 1.0π 2 2 6 5.5π 0.5π 0.0π 1 8 1 5.5π 2.0π 4 3 3 5..5π 1.5π 1.0π 0. PAB. it is found that the length of the arc of the outer semicircle is equal to the sum of the length of arcs of any number of the inner semicircles.0π 3.0π 2.0π 1 4 5 5.0π 3 2 5 5.0π 1 7 2 5.0π 1.5π 3.5π
(ii) Based on the findings in (a) and (b).0π 1.0π 1.5π 0.0π 3.5π 1.0π 6 2 2 5.5π 0.5π 2. The findings were tabulated.5π 1.0π 2.5π 1.0π 6 3 1 5..0π 1.0π 0.0π 1.0π 3.0π 0.5π 2.5π 2.5π 1.5π 4.
d n 2 S in = d 2
Since d 1d 2....
. Factorise : 2 S in = d 1d 2..d n =d ... The length of arc of outer semicircle.
Therefore. show that the generalisations stated in b(ii) is still true. S= d 2 dn 2 S in = d 1 d 2 dn ..... .(c) For different values of diameters of the outer semicircle. for any values of diameters of the outer semicircle.. The length of arc of inner semicircles.. the sum of the lengths of arcs of inner semicircles is equal to the length of arc of outer semicircle. 2 2 2
The sum of the length of arcs of the inner semicircles...
Part 3 The Mathematics Society is given a task to design a garden to beautify the school by using the design as shown in Diagram 3. one fish pond will have a diameter of 3 m while the other has a diameter of 7 m.5= −x 210x 4
−x 210x =66 −x 210x=21 x 2 −10x21=0 x−3 x−7=0
Therefore.5 16. Express y in terms of and x . The diameters of both fish ponds are 3 m and 7 m respectively. 22 ( Use = ) 7 y=16.
1 1 x 2 1 10−x 2 2 y= 5 − − 2 2 2 2 2
25 x2 100−20xx 2 − − 2 8 8
−2x 220x 8
−x 210x y= 4
(b) Find the diameters of the two fish ponds if the area of the flower plot is 16.5 m2 . The shaded region will be planted with flowers and the two inner semicircles are fish ponds.
(a) The area of the flower plot is y m 2 and the diameter of the fish ponds is x m .
5. The area of the flower plot is 19.(c) Reduce the non-linear equation obtained in (a) to simple linear form and hence.5 .321 x =4.5=19.446 m 2 . When
Therefore y=19. Using the straight line graph. =4. y= −x 210x 4
Divide both sides by x :
y − 5 = x x 4 2
The graph of
y against x was plotted: x
From the graph.5 m. determine the area of the flower plot if the diameter of one of the fish ponds is 4.321 4.321 x y=4.446 when x=4. plot a straight line graph.
643 From Method 1.
.643m 2 for the cost of constructing the garden to be minimum.(d)The cost of constructing the fish ponds is higher than that of the flower plot. Area of flower plot = y Diameter of one fish pond = x Method 1: Differentiation y= −x 2 5x 4 2
dy −x 5 = dx 2 2
d 2 y −1 = 2 dx 2 d2 y 0 dx 2 Therefore. Use two methods to determine the area of the flower plot such that the cost of constructing the garden is minimum. y= 275 14
dy =0 dx
y=19. the area of the flower plot has to be maximum whereas the area of fish ponds minimum in order for the total cost of constructing the garden to be minimum. Thus. Considering the cost of constructing fish ponds relative to the cost of flower plot. y is maximum when −x 5 =0 2 2 −x −5 = 2 2 x=5 x=5. the highest value for area of flower plot is to be obtained. the area of the flower plot has to be 19. y has a maximum value.
643m 2 for the cost of constructing the garden to be minimum. the area of the flower plot has to be 19.
From Method 2.Method 2: Completing the square y= − 2 x 5 x 4 2
5 2 2 − y= x−5 − − − 4 2 4 4 4 a= − 4
Therefore y has a maximum value 2 2 y= − 4 4 −5
y is maximum when
The total number of flower beds. 68.12 are 39..394cm. 4. 3.485cm. 126.273cm.970cm.576cm. 107. n=12 The sum of diameter of flower beds.091cm..(e) The principal suggested an additional of 12 semicircular flower beds to the design submitted by the Mathematics Society as shown in Diagram 4.697cm. S 12=10m=1000cm
The diameter of the smallest flower bed.182cm.788cm. 117. 59. 78. 49. The sum of the diameters of the semicircular flower beds is 10m.697cm 33
The diameter of the respective flower beds. a=30cm The diameter of the flower beds are increased successively by a value. 88. T n =a n−1 d Therefore.
. the respective diameters of the remaining flower beds n = 2. 97. 136. d =? n S n = 2an−1d 2
S 12= 12 23012−1 d 2
d= 320 =9.879cm.
Conclusion From the process of carrying out this project.970cm.643m 2 for the cost of constructing the garden to be minimum.091cm..
From Part 3:
• • • • • The area of the flower plot.182cm. 68.697cm. 4. 117.
. The respective diameters of the remaining flower beds.273cm. From Part 2:
• • It is found that the length of the arc of the outer semicircle is equal to the sum of the length of arcs of any number of the inner semicircles. For any values of diameters of the outer semicircle.788cm. 136. 59.12 are 39.5 m . The area of the flower plot has to be 19. 88. The area of the flower plot is 19. the sum of the lengths of arcs of inner semicircles is equal to the length of arc of outer semicircle. n = 2. where x is the diameter of one of the fish 4 ponds.446 m2 when the diameter of one of the fish ponds is 4.. y= −x 210x .576cm. 3. we have concluded many things.485cm. 49. 78. 97. 126. 107. One fish pond will have a diameter of 3m while the other has a diameter of 7m if the area of the flower plot is 16.394cm.667cm.5m 2 .879cm.
wikipedia.org/math/geometry/circles.my http://en. 5 Cengal Additional Mathematics Teacher. Sasbadi Publications Website Links : http://en.BHD Nexus Additional Mathematics Revision Book Form 4/Form 5.wikipedia.Reference
Mrs Tan Cheng Kiok. Nur Niaga SDN.org/wiki/Circles http://images.math2.org/wiki/Pi http://www.htm
.com. Additional Mathematics Form 5 Textbook.google.