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Formulas for Control System Design

State Space

Φ(s) = (sI − A)−1

H(s) = CΦ(s)B + D
Tc = [B, AB, . . . An−1 B]
To = [C 0 , A0 C 0 , . . . A0n−1 C 0 ]

Routh-Hurwitz Analysis

Root Locus Rules


• Rule 1. For a nth order system, there are n loci. (Because there are n roots of ∆(s) = 0). The loci
are symmetrical with respect to the real axis (because if a + jb is a root, a − jb is also a root.)

• Rule 2. As K varies from 0 to ∞ the loci move from the open-loop poles to the open-loop zeros, or
to ∞. (The poles “repel” the loci; the zeros “attract” the loci.)

• Rule 3. The r loci that approach ∞ approach it in the directions of the r roots of of a large negative
number.

• Rule 4. Asymptotes to infinite loci intersect at a point α on the real axis.

P −Z
α=
r

where
P = Σ poles of G(s), Z = Σ zeros of G(s)

• Rule 5. A point on the real axis belongs to the root locus, only if it to the left of an odd number of
poles and zeros.

1
Pole Placement
Bass-Gura Formula

G = (Tc W )0 )−1 (ac − a), K 0 = (To W )0 )−1 (â − a)

 
1
a1 · · · an−1
 0
1 · · · an−2 
W =
 
··· ···

 
0 0 ··· 1

Observers
Full-order

x̂˙ = Ax̂ + K(y − C x̂)

Reduced-order

x̂2 = Ly + z

ż = F z + Hu + Jy
F = A22 − LA12
J = A21 − LA11 + F L
H = B2 − LB1

Ac = F − HG2
D c = G1 + G2 L
Bc = J − HDc
Cc = G2

Linear Quadratic Optimization

Z T
x0 (τ )Lx(τ )dτ = x0 (t)M (t, T )x(t)
t

−Ṁ = M A + A0 M + L
−Ṁ = M A + A0 M − M BR−1 B 0 M + Q
G = R−1 B 0 M

2
Kalman Filter

P (t) = E[x(t)x0 (t)]

Ṗ = AP + P A0 + C 0 F C
Ṗ = AP + P A0 − P C 0 W −1 CP + F V F 0
K = P C 0 W −1

Exogenous Inputs

G0 = B # E

B # = (CA−1 −1 −1
c B) CAc

B ∗ = −R−1 B 0 (A0c )−1 M

Robustness

|T (jω)| > 1

Doyle-Stein condition:

K(I + CΦK)−1 = B(CΦB)−1

Algebraic Identities

|I + AB| = |I + BA|
" #
A B
= |A||D − CA−1 B| = |D||A − BD −1 C|

C D

(A + BD−1 C)−1 = A−1 − A−1 B(CA−1 B + D)−1 CA−1