HSPA+ for Enhanced Mobile Broadband

Qualcomm Incorporated February 2009

.................... 2 2........... 13 [10] HSPA+ Has a Strong Evolution Path beyond R8 ................ 9 [7] Multicarrier Further Enhances the Broadband Experience............................................ 15 [11] Conclusion ............................................. 5 4.......................... 16 [12] Appendix . 10 [8] HSPA+ is the natural evolution of HSPA at a lower cost.................................. 3 [3] HSPA Offers an Entire Range of IP Services .............................. 1 [2] Introduction and Overview .......3 Discontinuous Transmission and Reception (DTX/DRX). 17 2/2009 page i .................. 7 5.............. 6 4......................................................................................Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution Table of Contents [1] Executive Summary .....2 Higher Order Modulation (HOM) .................. 12 [9] The Optimal Solution in single and aggregated 5 MHz blocks ............................1 Higher Data Capacity through Voice over HSPA .................................1 What is HSPA+?................. 6 [5] HSPA+ More than Doubles the Voice Capacity ................................................ 4 [4] HSPA+ Doubles Data Capacity and Reduces Cost ...................................................... 8 [6] Enhanced User Experience Benefits ............................................. 4 4................................................................................1 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)..

HSPA+ further enhances the end-user experience through higher peak rates. HSPA+ is the optimal solution for single or aggregated 5 MHz carriers and provides performance similar to that of LTE in the same bandwidth and when using the same number of antennas. aggregating two 5 MHz carriers. lower latency. improved “always-on” experience and extended talk time. HSPA+ is the natural evolution of HSPA and provides next-generation performance through an incremental and a cost-effective upgrade while leveraging existing investments.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [1] Executive Summary WCDMA operators have rapidly launched High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) services to capitalize on HSPA’s mobile broadband capabilities and increased data capacity. HSPA+ further enhances the mobile broadband experience and increases the capacity through incremental investments and backward compatible handsets. HSPA+ Release 7 (R7) is commercial and HSPA+ R8 is targeted for commercialization during 2010. HSPA+ Release 8 (R8) introduces the first step of the multicarrier feature. enabling operators to offer mobile broadband and voice at even lower cost. While HSPA already supports the full range of packet-based IP services with integrated Quality of Service (QoS). 2/2009 page 1 . As the natural evolution. HSPA+ R7 doubles the data capacity of HSPA and more than doubles the voice capacity WCDMA. which doubles the user data rates to all users in the cell. HSPA+ has a strong evolution path beyond HSPA+ R8 and the definition of HSPA+ Release 9 (R9) has already started in the 3GPP standards.

Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [2] Introduction and Overview Nearly all WCDMA operators across both developed and developing countries have rapidly launched HSPA services to capitalize on its excellent mobile broadband capabilities and increased data capacity. The enhanced downlink (HSDPA) had been launched commercially by 217 operators in 93 countries as of early 2009.g. e. HSPA+ multicarrier further enhances the broadband experience. Web browsing. HSPA+ doubles the data capacity over HSPA and more than doubles voice capacity over WCDMA. enabling an incremental and cost-effective upgrade that leverages existing assets. HSPA+ is the natural evolution of HSPA and operators are now preparing to commercially launch HSPA+ R7 in early 2009. HSPA+ is the optimal solution for single and aggregated 5 MHz carriers. reducing the cost of delivering voice or data services (more efficient voice over HSPA+ can also be used to free up data capacity). HSPA+ R8 doubles the data rates to all users and can significantly increase the bursty application capacity. improved “always-on” experience and a longer talk time. HSPA+ further enhances the mobile broadband experience and increases the voice and data capacity of HSPA. HSPA+ R7 is the first evolutionary step beyond HSPA and HSPA+ R8 is targeted for commercialization during 2010 with multicarrier as a key feature. 2/2009 page 2 . HSPA+ is the natural evolution of HSPA at a lower cost. and provides similar performance as LTE for the same bandwidth and using the same number of antennas. HSPA devices have proliferated and mobile operators have seen data services account for a rising and substantive proportion of their revenue. This white paper discusses the HSPA+ key benefits: HSPA+ enhances mobile broadband with data rates up to 42 Mbps in R8 while R7 enables up to 28 Mbps downlink data rates.. HSPA+ enhances the end-user experience with lower latency. faster call set-up time.The enhanced uplink (HSUPA) is also quickly being introduced with around 50 deployments as of early 2009.

The enhanced downlink (HSDPA) was defined in R5 and the enhanced uplink (HSUPA) was defined in R6.1 What is HSPA+? HSPA+ is the name of the set of HSPA enhancements that are defined in 3GPP beyond Release 6 (R6).8-14. HSPA+ R9 and beyond is considering enhancements such as expanding HSPA+ multicarrier beyond 10 MHz deployments combined with MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) to provide peak rates of 84 Mbps and more. HSPA+ further enhances the mobile broadband experience by providing up to 28 Mbps peak data rates in the downlink (DL) in R7. see the appendix at the conclusion of this paper. Note: Estimated commercial dates Note: Estimated commercial dates 200 201 201 2009 2012 2010 Created 01/14/09 2011 2012+ Created 01/14/09 Figure 1: The HSPA+ evolution This paper focuses on the first and second step of the HSPA evolution and the enhancements that have been defined in 3GPP R7 and R8. and up to 42 Mbps in R8. 2/2009 page 3 . 2R9 and beyond may utilize combinations of multicarrier and MIMO to reach 84 Mbps peak rates and beyond.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution 2.4 Mbps UL: 5. Similarly.7 Mbps DL: 28 Mbps UL: 11 Mbps HSPA+ (HSPA Evolved) DL: 42 Mbps1 UL: 11 Mbps DL: 84 Mbps and beyond2 UL: 23 Mbps and beyond2 DL: 1.4 Mbps UL: 384 Kbps 1R8 will reach 42 Mbps by combining 2x2 MIMO and HOM (64QAM) in 5 MHz.8-14. For a more detailed view of the R7 and R8 features. As seen in Figure 1. or by utilizing HOM (64QAM) and multicarrier in 10 MHz. Broadband downloads Broadband uploads. The definition of HSPA+ R9 was already initiated in early 2009. HSPA+ has a strong evolution path and will continue to evolve beyond HSPA+ R8 to further enhance the HSPA+ performance and provide a clear evolution path for current HSPA networks.doubled >2x voice capacity data rates to all users Enhanced performance and higher data rates Rel-99 Rel-5 (HSDPA) Rel-6 (HSUPA) Rel-7 Rel-8 Rel-9 and beyond WCDMA HSPA DL: 1. uplink multicarrier can double the uplink data rates. QoS 2x data capacity Multicarrier.

Figure 2: HSPA supports the entire range of IP services [4] HSPA+ Doubles Data Capacity and Reduces Cost With the launch of HSPA.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [3] HSPA Offers an Entire Range of IP Services HSPA and HSPA+ allows consumers and business users to rely on HSPA as their main broadband connection. as HSPA+ doubles the data capacity compared to HSPA R6. HSPA+ enhances the performance of HSPA networks and enables wireless operators to continue to fulfill these data needs in the most economical way. operators are seeing a significant uptake in data demand. HSPA’s high-capacity broadband uplink and downlink with integrated QoS and low latency can support the entire range of IP services. and offer a similar user experience across mobile and fixed networks. including delay-sensitive applications such as VoIP and low latency gaming. The almost doubled downlink and uplink data capacity assumes 2/2009 page 4 . HSPA+ further enhances the user’s experience and makes these services more affordable by lowering costs through increased capacity. Figure 3 compares the downlink and uplink data capacity of HSPA and HSPA+. a result of new data applications and increased demand for high-performance mobile broadband services.

Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution advanced receivers (UE equalizer. Additionally. DTX/DRX and other air interface improvements to enhance the capacity and the user experience. Figure 3: Data Capacity per Sector in Mbps (5 MHz) HSPA greatly increased data capacity over R99 systems by adding the high-speed shared channels with HOM (16QAM). MIMO can increase the system capacity and double user data rates without using additional Node B power or bandwidth. Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) and opportunistic scheduling. 2x2 MIMO.1 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) HSPA+ R7 supports 2x2 downlink MIMO that uses two transmit antennas at the Node B to transmit orthogonal (parallel) data streams to the two receive antennas at the device. Using two antennas and additional signal processing at the receiver and the transmitter. MIMO beamforming provides gains for cell edge users where parallel MIMO streams may not be possible. 2/2009 page 5 . device receive diversity and Node B IC)1 in addition to the HSPA+ features. 4. 1 UE Type 3 device receiver: linear MMSE equalizer and receive diversity. HSPA+ builds on this solid foundation by adding support for 64QAM. smaller transmission interval.

which is especially beneficial for low-rate data applications like voice over HSPA. In rural environments with large cell sizes and less scattering. In the same way. 16QAM doubles data rates for devices that are not power headroom limited. Synchronized DTX and DRX operation allows the device to shut off its transmitter and receiver blocks completely. which significantly improves the device battery life for voice over HSPA services. As Figure 4 shows. as there is enough scattering and cell sizes are small (potentially high SNR at the device). which increases the data rates by 50% for devices in good signal conditions (high SNR). On the uplink. Wireless signals transmitted with a higher modulation are more sensitive to interference and require a higher SNR at the receiver for successful demodulation. CPC also improves the ”always-on” experience by allowing users to stay longer in the connected mode without compromising battery life when using bursty applications like Web browsing. this provides high data rates and improved user experience for all users in the cell.3 Discontinuous Transmission and Reception (DTX/DRX) The CPC feature DTX allows the device to gate off the control channels when there is no user data to send. 2/2009 page 6 . such as the cell edge. HOM significantly increases the data rates for users with high SNR. Overall. 4. Hence. The MIMO benefit is therefore maximized in a dense urban (city) environment.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution To be most effective. parallel MIMO streams need a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the device and a rich scattering environment. Figure 4: Higher Order Modulation 4. DTX also increases the uplink capacity by reducing the uplink interference. High SNR ensures that the device will be able to decode the signal successfully and a rich scattering environment ensures that the two data streams remain orthogonal. the traffic for these users can be serviced faster.2 Higher Order Modulation (HOM) HSPA supports 16QAM modulation on the downlink and QPSK on the uplink. DRX allows the device to turn off the receiver at certain agreed intervals in which Node B does not transmit any downlink information to the device. the data capacity (bits/symbol) increases as we move from QPSK to 16QAM and 64QAM. HSPA+ R7 introduces 64QAM on the downlink. the MIMO gains will be smaller. leaving Node B with more time and resources to service users in weaker signal areas.

HSPA+ enables two options. Figure 5 shows the voice over HSPA options and the more than doubled voice capacity over WCDMA. allowing operators to leverage their existing core network investments. voice services are carried over dedicated CS bearers. Users will continue to enjoy simultaneous voice and high-speed data services while operators now can flexibly mix voice and data services on the same HSPA+ carrier. while VoIP relies on the IMS core network. CS voice over HSPA is therefore the natural upgrade for most operators but could also be an intermediate step toward the long-term goal to migrate to VoIP. Figure 5: Voice over HSPA more than doubles voice capacity over WCDMA CS voice over HSPA leaves the core network intact. while maintaining the same quality and codec.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [5] HSPA+ More than Doubles the Voice Capacity High-quality voice is a key service that has traditionally been the core of the wireless business. which are assigned to users for the duration of the voice call. Voice over HSPA uses the shared-packet channels with smaller transmission intervals and HARQ to transfer voice packets more 2/2009 page 7 . CS (circuit-switched) voice over HSPA or VoIP. In current WCDMA/HSPA networks. which both more than double the WCDMA R99 voice capacity and provide up to 50% more talk time.

Furthermore. voice over HSPA is typically uplink-limited. providing almost double the voice capacity without Node B IC and an almost threefold increase with Node B IC.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution efficiently. This means that at any given voice load level.1 Higher Data Capacity through Voice over HSPA The more than double voice capacity increase can also be used to increase the data capacity. signaling might have to be transported on DCH which will reduce the Voice over HSPA capacity. It also enables full voice over HSPA capacity potential by allowing the use of F-DPCH in all propagation scenarios2. Mixing voice and data on the same HSPA+ carrier is more efficient than mixing WCDMA R99 CS voice and HSPA+ data. The enhanced serving cell change (E-SCC) in R8 further improves the handover reliability with reduced dropped calls in demanding propagation environments. This optimizes air-interface resource usage. This is a key driver in the adoption of voice over HPSA. HSPA+ further improves voice capacity by introducing enhancements such as CPC. 5. Figure 6 presents the remaining downlink data capacity for these two cases. 2/2009 page 8 . Figure 6: Sector Data Capacity when Mixing Voice/VoIP and Data 2 Without E-SCC. the system has significantly more data capacity if voice over HSPA+ is used instead of WCDMA CS voice. as it increases the data capacity and offers data services at a lower cost. and there is additional capacity left over in the downlink at the maximum uplink voice capacity.

the enhanced Cell_FACH allows for 50% reduced transition time between active and inactive states. Together. A user has to move to the inactive state after some inactivity time. but CPC enables the user to stay in connected mode longer and potentially already be in connected mode when the user becomes active again. The enhancements also reduce the over-the-air call set-up time by 50%3 3 The transition time from inactive mode (Cell-PCH) to active mode (Cell_FACH/DCH).Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [6] Enhanced User Experience Benefits HSPA+ not only improves the user data rates for enhanced mobile broadband. 2/2009 page 9 . This allows for higher performance and thus reduced latency. • Up to 50% extended talk time through voice over HSPA (VoIP or CS voice over HSPA) compared to WCDMA. it also enhances the end-user experience in other ways: • Improved “always-on” experience by allowing user to stay longer in connected mode without compromising battery life (CPC). • More responsive user experience thanks to lower latency with 50% reduced transition time between inactive and connected states and 50% reduced over-the-air call setup time compared with HSPA R6 (enhanced Cell_FACH/PCH). In addition. The enhanced Cell_FACH/PCH is achieved by moving the transmission of the paging channel (PCH) and the intermediate Cell_FACH state to the high-capacity HSPA channel. these features provide an enhanced user experience with a better “always-on” experience and more responsive services. CPC improves the “always-on” experience by allowing packet data users to stay in the connected mode longer without significantly compromising the battery life.

This is especially beneficial for bursty applications like Web browsing in which the user can be served twice as fast compared to a single carrier and experience 50% reduced over-the-air latency. as depicted in Figure 7. 4 2/2009 page 10 . the peak data rates scales with the bandwidth and doubles to 42 Mbps in the downlink in 10 MHz (without MIMO in R84). creating a fatter data pipe and thus providing an enhanced mobile broadband experience to all users in the cell. HSPA+ R8 also allows the combination of MIMO and 64 QAM to enable 42 Mbps in 5 MH. Furthermore.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [7] Multicarrier Further Enhances the Broadband Experience The multicarrier feature aggregates multiple 5 MHz HSPA carriers. Future releases beyond R8 may allow combination of MIMO and multicarrier. Figure 7: Multicarrier further enhances the broadband experience Multicarrier thus allows subscribers to enjoy an enhanced broadband experience with quicker overall network responses thanks to the higher data rates. The initial HSPA+ R8 implementation of multicarrier supports two aggregated downlink (DL) carriers that will double the user data rates to all users across the cell—all the way to the cell edge.

As shown in Figure 9.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution Figure 8: R8 Multicarrier doubles user data rates to all users in the cell5 Multicarrier is typically a cost-effective software upgrade to the Node B that allows for incremental introduction—multicarrier can be introduced in high demand areas or even single sites with seamless interoperability with single carrier deployments. 5 Each scenario is based on the same total number of users per carrier. compared to two single carriers for the same user experience (latency) in partially loaded networks. like Web browsing. Multicarrier mainly enhances the broadband experience. Shows peak data rata (scaled down a factor 2x) and the burst data rate for the median users and the 10% worst (cell edge) users. multicarrier can support significantly more bursty applications users. creating a better network performance as data services increase. 2/2009 page 11 . Multicarrier leverages spectrum resources better through dynamic load balancing across carriers and improved trunking efficiency. Networks are not typically fully loaded all the time and multicarrier could double the bursty application capacity compared to two single carriers. A multicarrier deployment approaching a fully loaded network scenario will resemble the full buffer scenario and provide limited capacity gain even for bursty applications. but can also provide significant capacity improvement for bursty applications over partially loaded carriers.

6 2/2009 page 12 . Many of the HSPA+ features are software upgrades to the existing base stations. latency tradeoff6 [8] HSPA+ is the natural evolution of HSPA at a lower cost HSPA+ provides an excellent technology evolution path from HSPA enabling operators to maximize their return on existing investments with commercial deployments starting in early 2009. HSPA+ is designed to be compatible with existing R99. and uses the same spectrum and network resources to deliver enhanced performance. The gain depends on the load and can exceed 100% for fewer users (less loaded carrier) but less for many users (starting to resemble full buffer). without concern about device/network incompatibility. The bursty nature means that a multicarrier can support more users at the same response time for partially loaded carriers. Existing WCDMA and new HSPA+ devices can roam seamlessly between WCDMA. R5/R6 devices and networks. HSPA and HSPA+ networks.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution Figure 9: R8 Multicarrier capacity vs. The existing radio and core network can be upgraded to HSPA+ without the need for adding any new network elements. Backward compatibility will enable operators to roll out HSPA+ features in phases.

wireless operators will benefit tremendously from the vast 3GPP device and vendor ecosystem that provides economies-of-scale benefits to the 3GPP community. using the same spectrum and network resources. 2/2009 page 13 . re-farmed single or aggregated 5 MHz spectrum blocks. HSPA+ is the optimal solution for upgrade of the existing HSPA networks and for new.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution By deploying HSPA+. This wide vendor support and backward compatibility also enables operators to deploy HSPA+ in a timely manner and gives them a timeto-market advantage compared with other competing technologies. Figure 11 shows the comparable capacity of HSPA+ and LTE in a 5 MHz system. and have a larger choice of devices and terminals that they can potentially offer to their customers at an affordable price. Operators have greater flexibility in selecting vendors. HSPA+ performance in single or aggregated 5 MHz block is comparable to LTE. Given the advantages of backward compatibility and superior system performance. using the same number of antennas. Figure 10: HSPA+ Network Upgrades [9] The Optimal Solution in single and aggregated 5 MHz blocks HSPA+ is an incremental upgrade of the existing HSPA networks.

details in 3GPP R1-070674. 7 2/2009 page 14 . HSPA+ multicarrier and DL Interference Cancellation would further increase HSPA+. HSPA+. Multimode devices will be used.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution Figure 11: Downlink Data Capacity per Sector ( Mbps) and peak data rates 7 3GPP is also standardizing LTE in Release 8. Initial deployments of LTE will be best suited for urban hot spots. whereas HSPA+ will cover the existing vast HSPA footprint. emphasis is placed on ensuring interoperability with existing 3GPP technologies like WCDMA/HSPA. HSPA+: 16QAM not considered for the UL and device IC not considered for the DL. HSPA+ results scaled up from 10 MHz. Source: Qualcomm Simulation. wider or TDD spectrum to provide a capacity boost in high-demand areas. This will ensure that HSPA+ and LTE co-exist while LTE will leverage newer. Throughout the design of LTE and EPC. an OFDMA-based system supported by a new core network called EPC. HSPA+ will also ensure a consistent user experience across the entire network with similar performance when using the same bandwidth and number of antennas as LTE. 500m ISD.

Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [10] HSPA+ Has a Strong Evolution Path beyond R8 HSPA has a strong evolution path beyond HSPA+ R8. The combination of MIMO and multicarrier in 10 MHz would enable 84 Mbps in HSPA+ R9 . Uplink multicarrier is also a R9 candidate that would increase the uplink data rates to 23 Mbps. allowing operators to better leverage all their spectrum assets. HSPA+ R8 allows aggregation within the same spectrum band only. but future enhancements may also target the aggregation across bands. Figure 12: Multicarrier aggregation of up to four carriers 2/2009 page 15 . even with large RF separation. Aggregation of up to four downlink carriers are also being considered. with similar benefits as downlink multicarrier within the limit of the device transmit power. enabling 84 Mbps peak data rates in 20 MHz (without MIMO). The definition of HSPA+ R9 has already been initiated in early 2009 with focus on multicarrier enhancements.

HSPA+ is backward compatible. HSPA+ provides a proven technology with economies of scale in device and network procurement. 2/2009 page 16 . HSPA+ enables operators to offer mobile broadband and voice services at an even lower cost. HSPA+ and its evolution remains the most optimal solution for existing WCDMA/HSPA operators. allowing WCDMA/HSPA operators to make the most efficient use of their existing assets and investments in network. HSPA+ has a strong evolution path.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [11] Conclusion HSPA+ is the natural and most economical evolution from HSPA. Given the availability of HSPA+ R7 in early 2009. respectively. Thanks to the doubled data capacity and more than doubled voice capacity over HSPA and WCDMA. cost-efficient and simple network upgrade to existing HSPA nodes. allowing for a gradual introduction of devices and a smooth. HSPA+ Release 8 (R8) is targeted for commercialization during 2010 and introduces the first step of the multicarrier feature which further enhances the broadband experience by doubling the user data rates to all users. spectrum and devices at a lower cost. and an improved “always-on” experience. extended talk time through VoIP. HSPA+ further enhances the enduser experience through lower latency. HSPA+ is therefore the optimal solution for single or aggregated 5 MHz carriers and provides similar performance as LTE in the same bandwidth and when using the same number of antennas.

Error! Reference source not found.presents the key HSPA+ R8 features and their benefits. Thus. Qualcomm asserts that all information is correct through February 2009.Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution [12] Appendix Table 1: Key HSPA+ R7 Features Table 1presents the key HSPA+ R7 features and their benefits. both in the uplink (Node B IC) and downlink (UE IC) will be introduced in a similar timeframe as HSPA+. Table 2: Key HSPA+ R8Features © 2007 Qualcomm Incorporated. 2/2009 page 17 . All rights reserved. the performance numbers discussed in this paper assume implementation of Node B IC. we anticipate that interference cancellation (IC). In addition to the HSPA+ enhancements defined in the 3GPP standards.

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