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ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN INDIA

The mythical kamadhenu symbolises livestock as a perennial source of wealth.


Traditional wisdom has recognized the importance of livestock not only as
producer of cash incomes but more importantly as providers of traction, manure,
fuel and food. In small and subsistence households livestock is an insurance
against crop failure.

A great variety of recorded production systems both for crops and livestock have
been practised in India at some place, and at some point of time. Through these
practices, the country evolved fine breeds of livestock, particularly in case of cattle
and horses. These unique resources of livestock breeds are being used by farmers
for multiple purposes. They are being sought in other countries for their special
characteristics of disease resistance. Indian breeds like Gir and Sahiwal are
amongst the hardiest of high-yielders in the world. The Hallikar breed of Southern
India are poor milkers, but the bullocks are excellent draught animals.

Breed Improvement

The traditional approach to breed improvement was aimed at meeting the


requirements of local communities with due consideration to local resources. This
is one of the main reasons for high adaptability of indigenous breeds. Even
centuries ago there were pockets where pure breeding was practised and each breed
had specific characteristics and qualities. Even during those days attempts were
made to infuse the good qualities of other breeds which is evident from the history
of breeds. There is evidence to suggest that breed improvement was never taken up
in isolation but always linked to housing, nutrition and hygiene.

The traditional technologies used for breed improvement in cattle and buffaloes
was castration of all males at or before maturity. Bull was considered more
important for breed improvement. This is supported by the fact that a vast majority
of the ancient pictures and clay models are of bulls, rather than of cows. The
animals were fed as per their productivity and following the prescribed feeding
schedules. Use of yagnas and religions festivals were used as occasions for display
of quality animals.

The present-day concept of livestock shows appears to have evolved from this
practice. The village administration used to keep account of livestock number. This
was an empirical form of livestock census/ Underfeeding, poor management and
cruelty to cattle were regarded as penal offences. The best-breed male cattle were
donated to temple trusts and they enjoyed wide patronage. The temple trusts had
grazing lands for the community.They also had Gaushalas to preserve the best
specimens. Grazing lands were regarded as common property resources and were
nurtured for that purpose. Stray, unknown bulls were not allowed to mix with the
herd to maintain purity of the breed.

Utility and species were important considerations which led to formation of


milch, draught and dual purpose breeds. Prescribed guidelines concerning
construction of animal houses were followed. Although the traditions cited above
are generally in conformity with the modern principles of animal breeding, many
traditions and statements are intermingled with floklore and myths. However, the
essential knowledge could be derived after demystification. This will require
screening of literature and elaborate study of farming systems in breeding tracts,
particularly those in the semi-arid regions where benefits of irrigation have not
reached so far.

The traditional breeding technologies were suited to a region where the pressure
on land was within its carrying capacity and animal numbers were only to be
increased. There were no limits on time taken to achieve breed improvements. In
the present-day scenario where every programme is with reference to a time scale,
and carrying capacity of the land is almost saturated, traditional technologies do
seem to be handicapped when compared with modern technologies.

Animal Health Practices

During the post-Vedic era medicine occupied an honourable position and


Charaka and Shusruta Samhitas were followed from about seventh century B.C. At
this time there was development of material medica. Nakula Samhita is considered
the first treatise dealing with treatment of animals with herbal preparations during
the Mahabharata period. Inscriptions of Ashoka's period indicate the existence of
veterinary hospitals which were supported by the king and also the existence of
specialists for treatment of various category of animals like horses, elephants, cows
and birds.

The first hospital for treatment of animals anywhere in the world was
established in India and later in Rome, Italy. During the early medieval period,
drugs of vegetable and animal origin, minerals and rasa sastra (latro-medicine)
were used for treatment. Subsequently, the modern system of allopathy was
introduced in India by the British. for a while, the rulers in India patronized the
traditional system of medicine in pockets, but abolition of the princely states
orphaned the science. In the latter part of the 20th century, rejuvenation of the
science began in India and now this ancient India is steadily gaining world-wide
recognition.

Excessive use or abuse of modern medicine has brought several hazards which,
in turn, has made the scientist pay greater attention to the use of herbal medicine
for remedial purpose. The difficulties with modern medicine are that several
chemicals, antibiotics and sulpha drugs have toxic side effects as well as residual
effect on the animals' body systems. Many feed additives and drugs used for
treatment have residual ill effects on human health as well through consumption of
animal products. Chemicals are sometimes not easily degraded and excreted from
the system causing accumulated toxicity. Use of chemotherapeutic agents specially
steroids' and antibiotics may cause more harm than good especially in animal
practices where detailed examination is not always possible. Development of drug-
resistance by body, micro-organisms and parasites often pose serious problems.
Non-availability of modern medicines in the rural areas and increasing cost of
treatment are other deterrats, on the other hand, it is believed that most of the
problems mentioned above do not arise in the use of herbal medicine.

At present about 20 percent of the medicines used in veterinary practice are of


herbal or herbo-mineral nature. It is expected that within the next 10 years this
would increase to about 50-60 percent.Prospects of use of traditional medicine in
veterinary practices are bright because most of the livestock are in the rural areas
where proper health care services and medicines are not easily available. The
veterinary profession does not as yet have a first-aid therapy documented for
animals.

If herbal medicines can be developed, they would serve the same purpose. The
cost of treatment would be less, which the poor farmers can afford. Technology
transfer is easy with herbal medicine. Maintenance of medicinal plant gardens
would not only provide raw materials to drug industry but also increase revenue,
provide employment,preserve the ecosystem and earn foreign exchange for the
country.

Popularising indigenous practices will also help in increasing production from


the low-input low-output group of livestock which form more than 70 percent of
the livestock population in the country which are generally owned by economically
weaker section of the society.
Animal Husbandry

What is Animal Husbandry?


Animal Husbandry refers to the agricultural practice of breeding, feeding and raising of
animals, or livestock with the goal of producing fiber, food and different other types of
work. The practice of Animal Husbandry has become more profitable than ever before and
has contributed significantly in raising revenue for agricultural produce. Today animals
alone fetch more than 1/4th of total agricultural products in the world. Especially in
developed countries, their significance can be measured from the fact that they supply a
substantial proportion of food than anywhere else. The branch of science that deals with
the scientific aspect of this practice is known as Animal Science.

History of Animal Husbandry


The tradition of Animal Husbandry first began in 1857 with
the emergence of an agricultural college. It kick-started when
a group of men established a college for the sole purpose of
farming. The spark of this action started off in 1857 while
they were debating as to where this college campus would be
held at. Finally in 1859, they bought a land and a campus to
pursue their farming education. Donations were coming from
every side and within a year of its foundation, the college was
running well trying to achieve the aim with which it was incepted. Things started looking
up in 1897 for the agricultural sector when a new curriculum was established thereby
transforming this domestic practice into a profitable and full fledged business proposition.
New avenues of career began to knock the doors of aspirants who were hoping to make
their mark in this industry. Seeing such a major contribution that animals made for the
agricultural sector, new companies were developed to cater to the needs of these animals
and take immediate actions in case of any report of abuse against them.

Practice of Animal Husbandry


Conventional methods of animal husbandry corresponded to the
extent to which the animals kept there were required to be
controlled as well as uses to which they were put. Most of the
domestic animals such as cattles, buffaloes, etc. which were
primarily used to serve their masters at work also served myriad
other purposes like supplying meat, milk and clothing materials.
The animals and their uses, however, are proximately linked with the culture and
experience of the people who care for them.

Modern practice of Animal Husbandry makes use of one type of animal in large, efficient
farming units that generate animal products with the highest margin of profits
corresponding to the rate of investment. Intensive husbandry conditions are evident by
large numbers of animals in small clumps, enriched feed, stimulative growth by various
means and vaccination against disease. However contrary to these conditions, most of the
world’s domestic animals are raised in small units under less efficient conditions and
at lower rates of return.

Animals used in Animal Husbandry


Many different variety of animals are used in Animal Husbandry. In the field of animal
husbandry, there are stipulated sub-professions which are named specifically according to
the animals they care and make use of. Some of the animals and the sub professions
related to them are listed below:
 Swineherd: A person who takes good care of hogs and pigs
 Shepherd: A person who looks after sheep
 Goatherd: A person looking after goats
 Cowherd: Person taking care of cows
 Cowboy: A modern term for a person taking care of cows and bulls by riding on
horses and having a control over them.

Earlier, sheep and goats were reared and herded by a single person. Despite that, he was
known as a shepherd. Camels are also herded in many countries whereas in Tibet, it is the
yak that is taken care of.

Factor Influencing the Use of Animals in Animal Husbandry


Environmental influences such as climate also play a crucial
role in the domestication and use of animals. For example,
water buffaloes are used as draft animals to pull wagons and
farm equipment in southern parts of Asia, where they are
adapted to the high temperature and humidity. On the other
hand, horses, which flourish in moderate climates, were the
main draft animals in the temperate regions. Later horses were
replaced by tractors. Cattle from India that are acquainted with
hot and humid conditions, can be found in scores in the southern United States because
they are better adapted to the climate of the region than European cattle.

Technology in Animal Husbandry


Since its beginning of raising livestock in the year 1857, the
industry of Animal Husbandry has come a long way. Today,
a wide range of technology and applications are available to
take good care of these animals. Farms and ranches have
procured the services of breeders, feeders, milkers and herd
health specialists to facilitate good care of these animals.
Modern and sophisticated techniques such as artificial
insemination and embryo transfer are being used in
improving herd genetics as well as increasing the breed of female herds. These practices
help immensely in increasing the number of offspring which may be produced by a small
selection of stud-quality parent animals from which the embryo is transferred to a healthy
surrogate animal during the process of artificial insemination. This in turn improves the
ability of the animals to convert feed to meat, milk, or fiber more efficiently and improve
the quality of the final product.

Products Related to Animal Husbandry


The various products related to Animal Husbandry are listed below:
 Veterinary Medicines
 Animal Fodders
 Animal Health Care
Products
 Feed Raw Materials
 Feed Supplements
 Animal Husbandry
Equipments.

Veterinary Medicines in Animal Husbandry


Veterinary Medicines help in playing a crucial role in safeguarding
the health and well being of the livestock. Veterinary science helps a
lot to study and understand the pattern of animal behavior and in
avoiding the spread of animal diseases. With a widespread of
technology, today animals receive treatment in various fields of
medicine like dental, surgical, etc. The quality of veterinary
medicines has developed considerably in recent years with the availability of most
advanced diagnostic treatment.

Present Scenario of Animal Husbandry


The scope of Animal Husbandry in India has never been
brighter before than it has been since the last 10 years.
Considering the fact that agriculture is the primary
occupation for those living in rural areas, India is proud to
have the possession of one of the largest livestock wealth
in the world. In 1992, it had 205 million cattle, 84 million
buffaloes, 115 million goats, 51 million sheep, 13 million
pigs. And, the population of almost all the species has
been growing ever since. The observed pattern of growth
however indicates a shift towards economically more efficient species such as buffalo,
pig, goat and poultry. Hence the scope of the practice of Animal Husbandry is expanding
day by day. Now, even schools and colleges have been opened which specifically teach
the methods of animal husbandry. A number of veterinary clinics have been set up in
every part of the country to look into the health of animals like cows, buffaloes, sheep etc.
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33
Notes

Animal Husbandry

Ever since the beginning of civilisation, humans have depended on animals for
many requirements, such as that of food (milk, meat and egg), clothing (hide or
wool), labour (pulling, carrying load) and security etc. The development of desirable
qualities in all such animal species, through creating better breeds, has been an
important human achievement. For this, humans have consistently tried to improve
the breeds of domesticated animals to make them more useful for them. In this
lesson, you will learn about the common breeds of such animals, their uses and
some methods of improving their breeds.

OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
l define the term Animal Husbandry;
l defferentiate between wild, tamed and domesticated animals;
l classify the domesticated animals into various categories;
l list the high yielding breeds of cattle in India and abroad;
l describe in brief the raising and caring of cattle;
l enumerate principal dairy products;
l describe modern techniques of genetic improvement such as artificial
insemination and embryo transplant;
l list the important breeds of cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse, poultry and their
specific uses;
l list the common diseases of animals, their symptoms and their causal organisms.

33.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY


The branch of science, which deals with the study of various breeds of domesticated
animals and their management for obtaining better products and services from them

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is known as Animal Husbandry. The term husbandry derives from the word
“husband” which means ‘one who takes care’. When it incorporates the study of
proper utilisation of economically important domestic animals, it is called Livestock
Management.

Different Categories of Animals Notes


Wild –Those that breed better where they are free than they do when they are
captivated. They have no common use for humans. Example Lion, Tiger, Rhinoceres,
Deer etc.
Tamed – Those, which are caught from the wild and trained to be useful to humans
in some way. Elephant, Chimpanzee, Gorilla, Yak etc.
Domesticated – Those that are of use at home and are easily bred and looked after
by humans. Common domesticated animals are dog, horse, cow, sheep, buffalo,
fowl etc.

Importance of domestic animals


On the basis of utility, domestic animals are categorised into the following
functional groups
1. Milk giving animals Cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep etc.
2. Draught (used for load Bullock, horse, donkey, mule,
bearing) animals camel, elephant, yak etc.
3. Fibre, hide and skin yielding Sheep, goat, cattle, buffalo, camel etc.
4. Meat and egg yielding animals Fowl (hen) and duck, goat, buffalo, pig etc.

33.2 MILK AND MEAT YIELDING ANIMALS


Depending upon the availability and regional considerations different animals are
reared for the purposes of yielding milk and meat in India. India is the world’s
largest producer of milk. The majority of the milk consumed is also in liquid form
in India. Over 53% of milk produced in India is from the water buffalo and a
majority of milk processing plants in the country depend upon buffalo milk.
The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) is the main agency behind the
cooperative movement in India. India is now seeking joint ventures and financial
participation from the private sector including foreign investment for production
of milk and milk products in India.

Cattle
Cattle mainly include cow, bull, oxen, goat, sheep etc. The females of the species
provide milk, which in turn contribute animals protein to the diet of people. While
the female species of these cattle are used for milk, the male species play an

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important role in the agricultural economy by providing labour, meat and hide. Milk
itself is taken in many forms like ghee, curd, butter and cheese etc. The excreta
of these animals (dung) is used as manure, in biogas and as fuel. There are several
important breeds of cattle in India and abroad.
Notes
33.2.1 Milk yielding animals
What is a breed ?
A breed is a group of one species of animals, which have the same descent and
are similar in body shape, size and structure.

Categories of Important breeds:


There is following three categories

1. Indian breeds 2. Exotic Breeds 3. Improved breeds

(a) Indian Breeds


Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Thararkar, Kankrej etc. are some high yielding
varieties of Indian cattle (Fig. 33.1)

Fig. 33.1 Indian breeds of high milk yielding

(b) Exotic Breeds (Imported breeds)


Hilstein, Friesian, Jersey, Swiss etc. are some of the high yielding varieties that
have been imported from abroad and reared widely in India.

(c) Improved breeds of Indian cattle


Certain improved breeds have been developed by making a cross between two
desired breeds. A cross between Sahiwal and Friesian varieties has been named
as Friewal, Karan Swiss is another improved breed for milk production in large
quantities. Table 33.1 shows some indian breeds, their milk yield and distribution.
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Table 33.1 Some Indian Breeds and their Milk Yield
Breed Milk yield (litres) Distribution
Per lactation period
Gir 1200-2200 Gujarat, Rajasthan,
Maharastra Notes

Red Sindhi 700- 2200 Andhra Pradesh, all part of


world including India and
Pakistan
Sahiwal 1100- 3100 Haryana, Punjab. Uttar Pradesh
Kankrej 1400 Gujarat
Tharparkar 700-2200 Rajasthan
Mewati 1100 Rajasthan
Ongole 700 Andhra Pradesh
Hariana 500 Gujarat,Rajasthan
Hallikar 227-1134 litres South India
Kangayam 665 litres Tamil Nadu
Murrah 20-22 litre/day Punajb, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Lactation Period is the period of milk production between birth of a young one
and the next pregnancy and it usually lasts about 300 days.
Breeds of Buffaloes

Breed Distribution
Murrah Haryana and Punjab
Bhadawari Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
Jaffarabadi Gujarat
Surti Gujarat
Mehsana Gujarat (cross breed between Surti and Murrah)
Nagpuri Maharastra
Nill Ravi Punjab
Porlakmedi Orissa

33.2.2 Cattle feed


The main feed of cows and buffaloes are grass but this does not provide them all
the nourishment. They require balanced diet in the form of roughage which is
fibrous food containing large amount of fibres such as hay fodder, leguminous
plants-soyabeans, peas and cereals like maize, jowar etc.

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The diet of cattle mainly consists of roughage (dry or green fodder or fibrous food)
and concentrates like grains, oil cakes and seeds, mineral salts and vitamins.

33.2.3 Dairy Products


Notes Milk as drawn from the animals is known as full cream milk. When the cream is
separated and the remaining milk is called toned milk. This milk contains no fat
and is known as skimmed milk. On the basis of fat contents the various milk
product are as follows:

Cream : It is prepared by churning milk, the fat comes on the top which is separated
by draining out the liquid. It is known as cream with 10-70% fat contents.

Curd : Milk is converted to curd due to bacterial activities.

Butter Milk : It is the left over liquid after removal of butter.

Ghee : After heating butter, the water evaporates and fat contents are almost 100%.

Condensed milk : Milk is concentrated by removing water contents with or without


adding sugar. It has 31% milk solids with 9% fats.

Powdered milk : It is the powdered form of milk.

Cheese : It is coagulated milk protein-casein with fat and water.

Khoya : A desicated milk product prepared by evaporating water contents and


reducing the bulk to about 70-75%.

Cattle Dung : Cattle dung is mainly used to make dung cakes for burning as fuels.
It is used mainly in villages of India. The farmers also use cattle dung to produce
bio gas and the leftover residue as manure.

Biogas plant (Gobar gas plant)


Bio gas plant is a chamber where animal excreta (Cow dung, buffalo dung etc) and
some anaerobic bacteria are fed into airtight biogas chamber. Decomposition of
excreta produces methane gas used as a smoke free gas for cooking. This gas can
also be utilized for lighting. The left over solid residue serves as a good manure.

33.2.4 Meat yielding animals


(i) Sheep
Sheep is the second largest species reared by mankind and it provides wool, meat,
milk and hide. Their droppings form good manure. Important breeds of sheep in
India are as follows:

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Breeds of Sheep

Breed Distribution
Chokla Rajasthan
Nial Rajasthan and Haryana
Notes
Marwari Rajasthan and Gujarat
Magra Rajasthan
Jaisalmeri Rajasthan
Pugul Bikaner (Rajasthan)
Malpura Rajasthan
Potanwadi Uttar Pradesh and Delhi
Muzaffararanagari Haryana
Hissardale Himachal Pradesh and Haryana
Nellore Andhra Pradesh
Bellary, Hassan, Mandya Karnataka
Mecheri, Kalikarsal, Vembur Tamil Nadu
Exotic Breeds
The main exotic breeds of sheep are Toggenberg, Saanen, French, Alpine and
Nuibian and Angora.
Feeding of sheep
They feed on green grasses and other wild plants. When sheep are reared for a
particular purpose, they are given protein, minerals and vitamin rich food. The main
constituents of their food are as follows :
Leguminous fodder : Urad, mung, berseem etc.
Oil cakes : Groundnut, seasame cake, (rich in proteins)
Grains : Maize, barley, oats and jowar.
Lime, common salt : Sterilised bone meal (rich in mineral salts)
(ii) Goat
Important breeds of goats used for milk, meat and hide. There are about 19 well
known Indian breeds, apart from a number of local non-descript breeds that are
scattered throughout the country. The breeds are mentioned below on the basis of
their location.
Himalayan Region (hilly track)
Cham, Gadd : Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh , Jammu and Kashmir
Pashmina : Himachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Lahul and Spiti valley
Chegu : Kashmir

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Northern Region
Jamunaparu – Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
Beetal – Punjab
Barhari – Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana
Notes Central Region
Marwari, Mehsana and Zelwadi – Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh
Kathiawar – Gujarat and Rajasthan

Southern Region
Surti – Gujarat
Deccani, Osmanabadi – Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu
Malabari – Kerala
Eastern Region
Bengali – West Bengal, Assam and Tripura
Feeding of goat
The goats are fed on open fields with enough green. They can be only given cereal
and grain products. Sometimes however, a milk goat requires a balanced feed with
4-5 kg of fodder and a mixture of crushed grains such as yellow maize, jowar and
other cereals and ground nut or linseed oil meal or steamed bone meal.
(iii) Pig
Pig farming is gaining importance in India. Pigs provide only 8% of total meat
production in our country. Pig skin, fat and hair are required for leather, soap, oil,
hair-brush industry respectively. Pig manure is rich in nitrogen, phosporus and
potassium.
Pigs contribute about 5% of total meat production in India, and constitute a rich
source of animal protein available at low cost. The calorific value of Pork (pig’s
meat) is much more than the other edible meats. Pigs can feed on farm waste,
garbage and spoiled grains.

Breeds of pigs
Breed Distribution
Large white Yorkshire England, India
Middle white Yorkshire England, India
Landrace Denmark
Essex saddleback Hempshire
Tamworth England
Bershile England

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INTEXT QUESTIONS 33.1


1. What is practice of feeding, caring and breeding of domestic animals is called?
............................................................................................................................
Notes
2. Give difference between wild, tamed and domesticated animals.
............................................................................................................................
3. Name two high milk yielding varieties of Indian cattle.
............................................................................................................................
4. What does cattle feed mainly consists of ?
............................................................................................................................

33.3 DRAUGHT ANIMALS


Draught animals are animals need for carrying load. From time immemorial a
number of animal species have been used for special purposes by humans, utilising
their mechanical strength, endurance and speed. These include horse for riding and
swift running; elephant for riding, strength and heavy load lifting, camel for riding
in sandy desert and ability to survive without water for long duration, donkey and
mule (a hybrid of male donkey and female horse) for carrying load. Most of the
draught animals are herbivorous and survive on leaves of trees, shrubs and bushes.
While raising them, they are also fed on grains, beans, cottonseeds, maize and bran
besides dry/ green fodder. In Rajasthan, camel is used for yielding milk also.
Horse
The horse has fast movement, great stamina and endurance. Its body is suited for
ride, load pulling, mountain climbing and forest travelling. So the horse is an
important draught or work animal. They learn fast and can be maintained easily
in various climatic conditions. Due to their ability to move swiftly in rough areas,
they are still useful in hills and in the deserts.
Common Indian breeds and their distribution are as follows-

Breed Region
Kathiawari or kaunchi Rajasthan and Gujarat
Marwari or malvi Rajasthan
Bhutia Tarai belt of Himalayan region (Punjab-Bhutan)
Manipuri Pony Eastern hill region
Sipti Pony Himachal Pradesh

33.4 FIBRE, HIDE AND SKIN YIELDING ANIMALS


Besides providing meat, milk and transport, livestock provide many commercially
useful products such as fibre, skin and hide. Generally sheep and goat provide fibres
for making of products like wollen strings, ropes, carpets, clothing and brushes etc.
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33.5 EGG YIELDING ANIMALS
This category consists of egg producing animals whose eggs are used as food by
mankind to provide proteins. Poultry farming is defined as a term for rearing
and keeping of birds such as fowl, duck and hen for egg and meat. Poultry
farming has become popular because it is comparatively easy to start and maintain.
Notes
It gives quick return within one to six month of investments,, is easily manageable
and requires less space and labour. Poultry birds and their eggs are a rich source
of nutrients. Figure 33.2 gives a comparative account of the composition of fowl
meat and that of eggs.

Fig. 33.2 Composition of chicken and egg.

Common breeds of Poultry birds


Indian poultry breeds provide good quality meat but produces small sized eggs.
They have natural immunity against common diseases as compared to exotic
varieties bred abroad which require greater protection and immunisation.
The chicken is commonly classified on the basis of its origin.
(a) American, (b) Asiatic,
(c) Mediterranean and (d) English
1. Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island Red, New Hampshire - American
2. Brahma, Cochin, Langshan - Asiatic
3. Leg horn, Minoxa - Mediterranean
4. Cornish, Australorp - English

Indigenous Breeds
Aseel – Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
Busra – Gujarat and Maharastra
Chittagong – Eastern India
Karaknath – Madhya Pradesh

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(i) Indian Breeds
The Indian breeds of hen include Aseel, Chittagaog, Ghagus and Basra. Their egg
laying capacity is around 200 eggs per year.
(ii) Exotic Breeds
These breeds are important from other countries and include White leghorn, Notes
Minorca, Rhode Island red. These birds have high egg laying capacity but carry
less flesh as compared to Indian birds.
(iii) Upgraded variety
Some improved varieties have been developed in India by hybridisation such as
B 77, ILS 82 etc. They grow fast and also have as high an egg laying capacity as
the exotic varieties and are better suited to the Indian climate.
Poultry Feed
Depending upon the requirement of meat or egg production, poultry feed mainly
consists of maize, rice, wheat bran, ground nut cake, fish meal, lime stones, bone
meal, common salt, vitamins and minerals.

33.6 GENETIC IMPROVEMENT IN ANIMALS


The application of laws of animal health and reproduction genetics has contributed
towards increase in milk, egg and meat productivity. The increase in egg production
brought about the silver revolution in the area of animal husbandry. The methods
being widely used are artificial insemination and embryo transplant.

(i) Artificial insemination


Artificial insemination involves collection of semen from a healthy bull of the
desired breed, its storage at low temperatures and introduction into the females of
cattle of other breeds for bringing about fertilisation using sterilised (germ free)
equipment. Advantages of this method are:
(a) Up to 3000 females can be fertilised from semen collected from one bull.
(b) The semen can be stored for a long period and transported over long
distances.
(c) Economical and high success rates of fertilisation.

(ii) Embryo transplant


This method of breed improvement has been quite successful in sheep and goat.
In this method, embryos (depending on their period of development) from superior
breeds are removed during the early stages of pregnancy and are transferred to the
other female with inferior characters, in whose body the gestation period is
completed. By this technique, quality and productivity in the livestock can be
improved. Unlike artificial insemination, this method has low success rate due to
greater chances of contamination.

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33.7 COMMON DISEASES OF ANIMALS
Domestic animals often suffer from various diseases caused due to infection by
bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and worms.
(a) Cattle
Notes Common diseases in cattle are as follows:

Category of Pathogen Disease Symptoms

Bacteria Anthrax Swelling on the body reduced yield of milk


Tuberculosis Dry husky cough, Lungs are affected.
Virus Foot and Mouth disease Excessive salivation, Lameness and fever
Rinder pest Blood stained high fever diarrhoea
Protozoa Trypanosomiasis Intermittent fever and death
Fungus Ringwork Rounded scabs on head and neck.

(b) Poultry Disease


Rearing of poultry birds requires properly ventilated place and vaccination of new
born chicks. Poultry diseases can be classified as infectious or non-infectious. Non-
infectious diseases are caused by faulty management, faulty feed preparation and
inadequate diet or nutritionally deficient disease. Infectious diseases are classified
according to the type of disease causing organisms and are as follows.
Parasitic (external) – Lice, mites, tick and fleas
(internal) – Round worms, tapeworm and hexamitiasis
Protozoan – Coccidiosis in chicken, leucocytozoonosis
Bacterial – Pullorum, Typhoid, Paratyphoid, fowl cholera
Viral – Ranikhet disease, fowl pox, infectious bronchitis, infection
bursitis, avian encephalomycytis, Marek disease, leukosis,
chronic respiratory disease, Hepatitis etc.
Fungal – Aspergillosis, Moniliasis

INTEXT QUESTIONS 33.2


1. Name common bacterial diseases and their symptoms in cattle.
............................................................................................................................
2. Name any two improved varieties of poultry birds.
............................................................................................................................
3. Name any two draught animals
(i) ..................................................................................................................
(ii) ..................................................................................................................
96 BIOLOGY
Animal Husbandry MODULE - 6B
Economic Biology
4. State two methods which we can make genetic improvement in the animals?
(i) ..................................................................................................................
(ii) ..................................................................................................................
5. A certain cattle is suffering from blood stained and high fever diarrhoea. Name
the disease and its pathogen. Notes
............................................................................................................................
6. Mentioned common diseases in the birds.
............................................................................................................................

WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT


l Animal husbandry deals with breeding, feeding and caring of domestic animals.

l Gir, Red, Sindhi, Sahiwal and Tharparker are some high-yielding varieties of
cows.

l Friesian, Jersey, Swiss are high-yielding exotic varieties of cows.

l Cattle dung provides manure, fuel, and bio-gas for cooking and lighting.

l Sheep provide milk, wool, hide and manure.

l Bikaneri, Kashmiri, Gaddi are some important breed of sheep.

l Indian Poultry birds provide more meat.

l Aseel, Ghagus, Chittagong and Basra are some good varieties of Indian Poultry.

l ILS 82 and B 77 are improved varieties of Indian poultry.

l Artificial insemination and embryo transplant are methods of genetic


improvement.

l Cattle may be affected by bacterial, viral , fungal or protozoan diseases.


l Ranikhet and Fowl pox are diseases of poultry birds.

TERMINAL QUESTIONS
1. Define the term animal husbandry.

2. Discuss the importance of artificial insemination.

BIOLOGY 97
MODULE - 6B Animal Husbandry
Economic Biology
3. Classify animals according to their importance. Also give two examples of each
category.

4. Name any three diseases that affect cattle, also name the pathogen involved and
give one symptom of each.
Notes

ANSWER TO INTEXT QUESTIONS

33.1 1. Animal Husbandry


2. See section 33.1
3. Gir, Red Sindhi, Sahiwal
4. Roughage and concentrate
33.2 1. Anthrax - swelling on the body tuberculosis by husky cough, lungs are
affected
2. ILS 82, B 77
3. Horse, mule, camel
4. (i) Artificial insemination (ii) embryo transplant
5. Render pest, virus
6. Ranikhet, cowl pox

98 BIOLOGY
Scope of Livestock in Indian Economy Livestock Census, Trends in
Livestock Production

Livestock production performance has been more impressive than that of food grain
production. Milk, egg, meat, and fish showed impressive growth rates of 5to10%.The
minimum targeted growth rate for attaining self sufficiency in milk, fish, meat and egg
by 2001 AD are 5.54, 6.25, and 5.54 % per annum respectively.
Livestock represents the only way in which the natural vegetation that covers large parts
of India can be converted in to products that can be used by man. It provides drought
power and manure to the crop enterprise and this in turn provides feed and fodder. The
value of out put from the livestock sector was Rupees 79684 crores in 1994-95 which
was 9.3% the Total (GDP).

Fortunately India is blessed with a tremendous livestock wealth. It has the largest
population of cattle and buffalo in the world and its breeds are admired for heat
tolerance and inherent resistance to diseases and ability to thrive under different climatic
condition.
The cattle population of India is very large. According 1991 census the cattle population
was estimated at 467.9 million this comprised of 203.1 million catties, 83.1 million
buffaloes 50.7million sheep, 115.3 million goats and 12.1 million pigs. The others were
estimated at 3.6 million. The poultry population constituted a 400 million.

Milk production:

India ranks first with the average milk production of 78 million tons per annum. This has
been the achievement of 70 million dairy farmers and also through the striated efforts of
the animal husbandry practices, cattle cross breeding projects and cooperative dairy
farming. It is worthwhile to mention that the per capita availability of milk to the lacto
vegetarian Indians is estimated at 214 grams per day. It has been the only source of
sufficient energy, minerals, vitamins and animal proteins. A 60% of the total milk
production enters in. to the market in the form of dahi, butter, ghee, khoa and
shrikhand. Besides this the conventional dairy products including milk powder, Ice cream
and cheese are also manufactured. During last 20 years the supply f milk has been
possible in sufficient quantities through the pasteurization plants and chilling units.

Animal draught power:

The bullock pair may be regarded as the backbone of Indian Agriculture. Though the
animal draught power does not relate with human nutrition directly. Indirectly it
contributes in the production of food grains; the renowned draught animals (cattle and
buffaloes) include Khillar, Amrit mahal, Hallikar, Red kandhari, Ongole, Malvi, Rathi,
Nagore, Neman, Hariyana, Gir, and Deoni. There are about 86 million draft animals,
which comprise of 76 million bullocks. 8 million buffaloes, 1 million camels and donkeys.
The horsepower obtained from 1 bullock is equivalent 0.75 H.P.
Mechanization in Agriculture has been to the tune of 20% only. Whereas 80% of the
agriculture/farm operations are done by bullock drawn .implements. It is estimated that
40,000 mega watts, of Energy (Traction power) is made available through the use of
draft animals and the value of this has been estimated Rs. 5000/- crores.

Meat production:

Flesh foods are rich in protein and are good sources of vitamin B12 which is absent in
plant food. India's meat production is hardly 2% (4.08 million tons) of the global meat
production 209.31 million tons in 1995. Out of total meat produce in India 54% is from
mutton and chevon, 26% from beef 13% from chicken and 7% from pork. Even though
70% of India’s populations consume meat the per capita availability of meat is less than
5 kg per year. As compared to worlds average of 14 kg per year
Broiler production in India is recent one rearing poultry for meat purposes started only in
seventies, but the growth is significant Broiler production which was only 4 million in
1971 increased to around 215 million in 1991.
The poultry industry has achieved a spectacular growth during last thirty years. The
24'billion eggs produced in 1991 represented 13 fold increase compared to 1951.
With the annual production of 27 billion eggs (1995-96) India stands fifth in world. The
government has promoted the poultry development through intensive poultry
development project (IPDP) launched in third five years plan, (1969-74). Improved
breeds like RIR, WLH and Australia. The per capita availability of eggs in India is only 30
per annum as against the ICMR recommendation of 180 per year.

Fish production:

Fish is a cheap source of animal protein and a good source of calcium. The fish
production of India has risen to 4.95 million tons in 1995-96. The per capita availability
of fish in 1996 was 5.4 kg whereas the ICMR recommendation for total meat including
fish is 10.95 kg per annum.

Farm yard manure for organic farming:

A minimum of 10-20 kg dung is obtained on an average from every cow or buffalo. This
is an excellent source of F.Y.M. or compost manure. This is badly needed to improve the
inherent soil fertility, and to have the extended manorial effect on the crops parts. Dung
cakes are utilized as a source of fuel in rural parts of India. It is estimated that 640
million tons of cow dung is being utilized to meet the house hold fuel requirements.
Besides the cow dung, goat extreta, and poultry dropping can also be better utilized for
organic manure.

Present Trends:

As a result of various dairy development programmers the country is having presently


233 processing plants and 46 milk products factories. The cooperative public sector
plants and organized private plants have an estimated handling capacity of 8.65 million
liters per day (MLPD). Various cattle improvement project have been-started in 600
community blocks. The country has now 122 intensive cattle development programmes
(ICDP) 140 cattle breeding farms, 40 Exotic cattle farms and 48 frozen semen banks in
operation. These activities has resulted in enhancing the milk production by 494.11% in
the past three decades although increase in breedable cows and buffaloes 22-23%
during the same period.
Through a net work of over 4200C milk producers cooperative organized under the
operation floot. Programme, a National milch grid has been successfully established. This
grid covers besides the four-metropolitan cities. Nearly 200 cities and towns
The fallen and slaughtered cattle and buffaloes also contribute hides and skins, bones
and hooves etc. The hides and skins, from cattle and buffalo are estimated at 0.82
million tons annually.

Employment generation:

Animal Husbandry & Dairying may be regarded as a source to create the employment in
rural areas all round the year. Indian Agriculture is mainly dependent on monsoon and
hence agriculture field faces certain bottlenecks to provide employment during such
periods. On an average Agriculture sector may provide 200 days employment to the
rural persons. This means they have to find alternate source of employment for income
during the rest of the year. Dairy farming, sheep and goat rearing, poultry production,
pig farming rabbit rearing are the alternate sources of mix farming. It may be possible to
generate the employment for the farmers as well as land less laborers who can do this
job themselves, or it may be possible to employ young and the old family persons as a
side business. Many of the operations in Animal Husbandry and Poultry Farming can be
done by the rural women. It is estimated that on an average 35 million human
years/annum employment generation has been potential through this sector.

Terminology Used in Livestock Production

Type: It is a commonly accepted standard that combines those characteristics essential


in adopting an animal for a particular purpose e.g. milk, meat wool or work.

Breed: It is groups of animal that are result of breeding & selection have certain
distinguishable characteristics.

OR

A group of animals related by decent & which are similar in most of the characters like
general appearance, size, colors, horns it is called breed.

OR

A breed may be defined as a cluster domestic animal of a species where individuals are
homogenous in certain distinguishable characteristics which differ from one to other
group of animals.

Species: A group of individuals which have certain common characteristics that


distinguish them from other group of individuals with in species the individuals are fertile
when in different species they are not.

Sire: The male parent of the calf.

Dam: Female parent of the calf.

Calf: Young one of cattle or buffalo below the age of six months is called calf.

Heifer: The younger female of cattle above age of six months to first calving.

Cow: The adult female of cattle from the date of first calving is called cow.

Bull: It is unsaturated of, cattle used for breeding or covering the cows.

Bullock: It is the castrated male of cattle used for work.

Service: The process in which mature male covers the female i.e. in heat with the
object to deposit spermatozoa in the female genital tract is called service.

Conception: The successful union of male and female gametes & implantation of zygote
is known as conception.
Gestation: It is the condition of female when developing foetus in present in the uterus.

Gestation period: The period from the date of service (actual conception) to the date of
parturition is termed as parturition period or pregnancy period. This period varies
according to species of animals e.g. is cows 279-283 days, in buffalo 310 days, sheep
148-152 days, goat 150-152 days.

Parturition: The act of giving birth to young one is called parturition.

Lactation period: The period after parturition in which the animal produces milk.

Dry period: The period after lactation in which the animal does not produce milk.

Calving interval: The period between two successive calving is calving interval.

Average: It is the sum of production divided by No. of animals.

West average: It is the average daily milk yield of a cow is lactation.

Total milk yield. of a lactation (kg or Lt).


W.A = ----------------------------------------------------------
Lactation period (days)

Herd Average: It is average daily milk yield of milling animal in a herd.

Total milk yield of a day


H. A. = ————————————--
No. of milking animals

Overall average: It is average daily milk yield of the animal in the period of calving
interval.

Total milk yield of lactation


O.A. = ——————————————
Calving interval (days)

Environment: The sum of all external influences to which an individual is exposed.

Genotype: The complete genetic make up of an individual- or its combination of genes


it possesses which influences its characters. Several different genotypes may.

Phenotype: The external appearance or some other overall or measurable


characteristics of an individual or it is the actual expression of the character as
determined by his genes & the environment in which he has lived.

Half sib: Half brothers or half sisters

Full sib: Full brothers or full sister.

Heridity: The occurrence of genetic factors derived from each of its parent in an
Individual.

Heritability: The percentage of variation in individual characteristics between related


individuals which is due to true genetic difference.

Repeatability: It is the expression of the same trait at different times in the life of the
same individual or the tendency of an individual to repeat its performance e.g. dairy cow
in successive lactation.

Allel: One or two or more alternative foms of a gene. Alleles are those genes which may
appear at same locus in homologus chromosomes.

Gene: It is the unit of inheritance, which is transmitted in gametes or reproductive cells.


It is the physical basis of heredity.

Dominance: A gene is said to be dominant when its characteristic effect is expressed in


the heterozygote as well as homozygote, i.e. Aa < AA. Ability of gene to cover in block
out expression of its allele or genes that have observable effect when present in any one
member of a chromosome pair

Recessive: Genes which have no. observable effect unless present in both members of
a chromosome pair.

Epistasis: Interaction of two or more pairs of a gene that are not allele to produce a
phenotype that they do not produce when they occur separately.

Lethal: (Deadly) A gene or genes that cause death of an individual which are possessed
by them during pregnancy or at the time of birth.

Prepotency: The ability of certain individuals to stamp or impress their characters upon
their offspring or prepotency is the ability to transmit characteristics to offspring to a
marked degree.

Fertility: Ability of an animal to produce large number of living young.

Fecundity: It is the potential capacity of the female to produce functional ova regards of
what happens to them after they are produced.

Sterility: Inability to produce any offspring.

Free martin: A sterile heifer born twin with the male.

Cryptorchids:The failure of testes to descend fully into the scrotum. If one testes is in
scrotal position the male is usually fertile but if both are retained in the abdominal cavity
sterility usually reported.

Atavism:The reappearance of a character after it has not appeared for one or more
generation.

Buller: Cow always in estrus condition.

Teaser: A vasectomized (castrated) bull used to detect the heat or estrus of female
(cow).

Herd: It is a group of cattle or buffalo.

Flock: It is the group of sheep, goat or poultry birds.


Steer: The male cattle that is castrated when he is still a calf or before the development
of sexual maturity is called steer.

Veal: The meat of calf below the age of 3 months.

Beef: The meat of- cattle past calf stage.

Pork: The meat of swine.

Mutton: The meat of sheep & goat.

Chevon: The meat of goat

Wedder: A castrated sheep is called wedder.

Prolificacy: Ability to produce large number of offsprings. The animal is said to be


prolific.

Variation: The degree to which individuals differ with respect to the extent of
development of expression of characteristics.

Puberty: It is the period when reproductive tract & secondary sex organs/characteristics
start to acquire their mature form. Before on set of puberty the reproductive tract of
heifer grows proportionately to body growth but beginning at about 6 months age
growth rate of these organs is much grater than body growth. At about 10 months of
age the rapid growth phase of the reproductive tract ceases & this signifies the end of
puberty. Heifer reaches puberty earlier than bull.

Inheritance: Transmission of genetic factors from parent to offspring’s.

Germplasm: The material on the basis of heredity taken collectively. The sum of gene
constitution of an individual.

Foetus: A term for developing young one during last quarter of pregnancy.
General Information:

Act of Average
Sr. No Species Female Male Young one
parturition Life Years
1 Cattle Cow Bull Calf Calving 16-20

2 Local buffalo Buffalo Buffalo Bull Calf Calving 16-20 .

3 Goat Doc Buck Kid Kidding 12-15 .

4 Sheep Ewe Ram Lamb Lambing 12-15 .

5 Swine Sow Bore Litter Furrowing 8- 10

6 Horse Mare Stallion Foal Whelping 18-22

7 Ass Jennet Jack Foal Whelping 14-18

8 Fowl Hen Cock Chick Hatching 3-4

Chick
9 Duck Duck Drake Hatching 4-5
(Duckling)
Terms Used in Poultry Production

Hen: A matured female chicken generally above 20 weeks of age.

Cock: A matured male chicken above 20 weeks of age.

Pullet: A young female chicken from 9 to 20 weeks of age.

Cockerel: A young male chicken from 5-8 months of age.

Chick: A young male or female fowl below S weeks of age.

Day-old chick: Hatched out chick is called as day-old-chick up to 24 hours.

Grower: A young chick of 9lh week of 20lh week of age of either sex.

Brood: A group of chicks of same age raised in one batch is called as a brood.

Brooding: The process of rearing the young chick from day old stage to 4 to 6 weeks of
age during which, heat is to be provided to keep them warm.

Brooder: A device for providing artificial heat to the chicks.

Broiler: They are the hybrid chicks having rapid growth and attaining about 1.5 kg
weight during the period of 6 weeks of age. Sold for table purpose within 8 to 10 weeks
period. They possess a very tender and delicious meat.

Capon: It is a young male birds of which testicle are removed.

Layer: An egg laying female chicken up to one year after starting the laying of eggs.

Broody: A hen which has stopped laying eggs temporarily.

Clutch: The number of eggs laid by a bird on consecutive days. A clutch of 3-4 eggs is
preferred.

Moulting: The process of shading old feathers and growth of new feather in their place
moulting normally occurs once in a year.

Culling: Removal of unwanted bird from the flock is known as culling e.g. old non-laying
birds, sick birds and masculine hens are removed.

Pause: It is the period between two clutches in which eggs are not laid by hen.

Hen-day-production: This is arrived by dividing total eggs laid in the season by the
average number of birds in the house.

Hen-housed-average: This is arrived at by dividing the total number of eggs laid in the
season by the number of birds originally placed in the house. No deductions are made
for any losses from the flocks.
5/7/2016 Essay on Domestic Animals of India

On the basis of their utility, the breeds of cattle are classified into 3 groups:

(i) Milch breeds,

(ii) Drought breeds, and

(iii) General utility breeds.

There are some high milk yielding imported breeds of cattle. They are called as exotic
breeds.

The following are some exotic breeds of importance:

(i) Holstein­Friesian:

It is a native cow of Holland. It is generally white or black in colour and yields upto
7000 litres of milk per lactation. It is preferred in dairying.

(ii) Jersy:

It is a native cow of Jersy Island, it is small and black, red or white spotted in colour.
Each cow yields about 4500 litres of milk per lactation.

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5/7/2016 Essay on Domestic Animals of India

(iii) Red­Dane:

This is a cross­breed of Denmark. It is red in colour and yields about 6000 litres of milk
per lactation.

Cross­breeding:

Mating of animals belonging to different breeds is called cross breeding. Cross­
breeding is done to develop breeds of cattle with desirable characters superior to that of
the parents. Cross­breeding of dairy animals is carried out to increase the capacity of
production of milk. Indian cows have been cross­bred with exotic breeds to increase
milk production.

Two good varieties of cows have been developed by such cross­breeding. They are
Karanswiss at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal and Sunandhini at the
National Dairy Research Institute, Kerala. Considerable cross­breeding have been
carried out using imported bulls during the last 50 years.

The Indian Sindhi cattle has been cross bred with the exotic european breeds like
Holstein Friesian and Jersy. The progeny of these crosses have a better milk yielding
capacity than their parents.

Advantages of cross­bred cattle:

1. Calves grow faster, attain maturity quite early and reproduce in about 2 years.

2. Breeding period lasts for more than 10 months and reproduce regularly once in 15 to
20 months. Give birth to 8 calves during their life span.

3. Lactation period lasts for more than 10 months. Some breeds yield upto 4300 kg of
milk per year.

4. More resistant to diseases.

Artificial insemination:

It is a method by which semen (fluid carrying spermatozoa) is at first collected from a
known bull and then the semen in required quantity is introduced mechanically into
the reproductive tract of the cow. In this method, the semen obtained from a single
ejaculation (emission of semen) of a bull can be used to inseminate as many as 550
cows.
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5/7/2016 Essay on Domestic Animals of India

Recent techniques are now available to freeze and store the semen of cattle which could
be used when there is a need. The frozen semen could be stored over 20 years at a
temperature between – 79°C and – 196°C. Such frozen semen could be used to
inseminate the cows all over the country as and when required.

Significance:

1. In artificial insemination healthy and superior variety of bulls can be used to
inseminate a number of cows.

2. Collected semen can be transported in vials {­ small medicine bottle) to distant
places and used. Hence, there is no need to transport the bulls for the purpose of
insemination.

3. Collected semen in vials is always available but not the required bulls needed for
insemination.

Superovulation:

It is a technique by which gonadotropic hormone is injected into the female body and
forcing the female to ovulate large number of ova. This technique is in use for cows. A
selected high milk yielding donor cow is injected with the gonadotropic hormones to
induce superovulation and the ova are fertilized by artificial insemination. The
fertilized ova are then used for transplantation.

Embryo transplantation:

Embryo transplantation technique is being used to increase fertility in cattle. This
technique involves transfer of embryo from a donor cow into the uterus of a carrier cow
or surrogate cow for further development and birth. For this purpose, a high milk­
yielding cow is given hormonal injections to induce superovulation.

Then, the cow is inseminated with the semen of a selected good quality bull to fertilize
the superovulated ova. The developing embryos are collected from this cow and
transplanted into surrogate cows for further development and finally giving birth to
calf. It is now possible to deep freeze (­ 196°C) the young embryos and store them for
several years. They could be used when needed.

Invitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer Technique:

In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF­HI) technique was initially developed for
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5/7/2016 Essay on Domestic Animals of India

the production of human test tube babies. This technique has been now adopted for the
cattle also. By using this technique, hundreds of ova collected from selected donor cows
ai e fertilized in the laboratory by frozen sperms of good variety bulls.

2. Indian Buffaloes:
The scientific name of Indian buffalo is Bubalus bubalis. It is also commonly called as
water buffalo. It is a subgenes of genus Bos to which cattle belongs under family
Bovidae, order Artiodactyla and class Mammalia. In terms of number, the buffaloes
constitute about one third of total cattle number in India. But buffaloes produce almost
three times more milk than the cows and contain 50% more fat.

The average milk production from one buffalo is about 1020 kg per year as against 220
kg per year by a cow. Buffaloes possess a greater resistance to diseases and have a long
life span. Buffalo hide is an important raw material for the leather industry. The outer
skin of buffalo hide is about 3 to 5 times stronger than that of cattle hide.

Among the seven breeds, the best known breeds of Indian buffaloes are the Murrah,
Jaffabadi, Bhadawari and Surti. While the milk breeds are found in Punjab, Rajasthan
and Gujarat, draught breeds are mainly confined to Central and South India.

The uterine and ovarian cycle of the buffalo is 21 days. The duration of heat is usually 11
days. The female buffaloes show sign of heat at night, attains maximum at mid night.
The oestrous symptoms become very weak during the hot dry months (April to June)
and are known as silent­heat. The length of gestation or baby carrying period of
buffaloes varies between 276 and; 340 days, but on an average it lasts for 307 days or
10 months.

In India the breeding season starts from September and continues upto February and
calving season (giving birth to calf) from July to November. During breeding season the
bulls become very active sexually and female buffaloes show maximum ovarian activity.
Improved breed of buffaloes are being produced by Artificial insemination in numerous
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A.I. stations in India.

In milch buffaloes, the lactation period is about 281 days. Calf mortality in buffaloes
generally occurs during autumn and winter months before the age of 3 months. The
death occurs due to diseases like pneumonia, enteritis, hepatitis, ascariasis and bloat.
The calves also suffer from diarrhoea, dysentery etc.

The buffaloes have lower heat tolerance. For this reason they dip themselves in water to
cool their body during summer. Buffaloes consume large quantity of coarse fodder
which are not readily eaten by cattle.

3. Sheep (Ovis Aries) and Goats (Capra Hircus):
According to live stock census, India has more than 41 million sheep and more than 80
million goats. Sheep .are reared for wool, skin and meat. Goats are reared for milk,
meat, skin and wool. Droppings of sheep and goats are a valuable source of manure. In
India, the wool yielding sheep are primarily concentrated in dry part of Rajasthan,
Kutch, Saurashtra and North Gujarat.

Sheep having superior wool­type are raised in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, hilly
districts of Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. The main goat raising states
of our country are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, M.P., Maharashtra,
Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, U.P. and West Bengal.

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For breeding it is essential to select ewes (female sheep) and ram (male sheep) or goats
which are found most suitable for local conditions. Different breeds are known for
quality of wool and mutton or meat yield. Improvement of local breeds with respect to
the quality and quantity of wool can be achieved through cross­breeding with exotic
breeds (high yielding imported breed) of sheep like Dorset Horn, Suffolk Correidale or
Merino.

Sheep are economical converter of grass into meat and wool. Unlike goats, they hardly
damage tree. Sheep dung is a valuable fertiliser. Since they feed on different kinds of
plants, they are considered as important weed destroyer. Sheep farming is not a costly
affair as it does not require expensive building and maintenance.

4. Pigs (Sus scrofa):
Pigs constitute one of the most useful domestic animals of man. Pig meat is called pork.
It is comparatively cheaper and is mostly taken by the poor. Pig hide is used as leather
and its bristles are used for making brushes. The fat obtained from the pig is used for
soap manufacture. Pig dropping (faecal matter) is a good source of nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium for agriculture.

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From the pig meat or pork ham, bacon and sausages are prepared. The management of
pig is called piggery. Pigs feed on garbage, kitchen waste, vegetables and human
excreta. In India, pig rearing and pork production are the primitive practices. However,
pig rearing is almost entirely in the hands of poor people who follow old methods. For
this reason, the country pigs are mostly neglected and do not grow into an economic
group of animals.

5. Horses, Donkeys and Mules:
Horses, donkeys and mules are the beasts of burden and therefore, they are used for
transporting man and materials.

Horses (Equus equus):

Horses are one of the most useful and faithful pet of man. They are intelligent and fast
learners who can adapt to all sorts of climatic conditions. Horses are the main source of
transport at high altitudes, used by civilians, police and army. Because the horses run
fast and have great stamina, they are reared for racing and polo.

There are six important Indian breeds of horses are given below:

In comparison to other animals, horses have a low reproductive rate. They are more
difficult to breed and have a long gestation period. Horse­breeding by controlled
natural mating has been in practice for long time in our country. Rearing, training and
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medical care of race and polo­horses needs high professional skills.

6. Donkeys (Equus Asinus):
Donkeys are very similar to horses but have smaller and stouter body. They are the
most simple and unselfish animal. They can withstand adverse weather conditions and
can work continuously without rest. There are two types of donkeys in India—small
grey and large white. The large white is also called wild ass and occurs in Rann of
Kutch.

Mules:

A mule is a hybrid of male donkey (called jack) and a female horse (called mare). The
hybrid from a female donkey and a male horse is called hinny. Mules are sterile i.e. they
are unable to produce young ones. Mules show hybrid vigour (they are larger than a
donkey and sturdier than a horse).

7. Camels (Camelus):
Camels are large and strong animals found in arid (= dry) condition. They can travel
long distances in extreme hot, dry deserts with little food and water. For this reason,
they are rightly called as the ship of the desert. Camels walk easily on sand and can
carry heavy loads to places where there are no roads.

They have adapted very well to desert life in following manner:

1. They can walk in the desert without food and water continuously for 10 to 12 days.

2. Long neck and thick foot pads help them to walk easily on loose hot sand.

3. They can live on thorny shrubs.

4. Thick skin over their body prevents water loss.

5. Their eyes and nostrils have special structures which prevent the entry of sand
particles into their structures.

6. The hump present on camel’s back is filled with adipose tissue (= fat). It supplies
energy to the animal under starvation.

7. Their breathing rate is very slow. Hence, less water evaporation occurs through
expiration. They pass out less than half a litre of urine in a day (water conservation
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measures).

There are two species of camels. The Bacterian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) and
Arabian or Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromidarus) (Fig. 7.5). The Bactrian camel has
two humps whereas the Arabian camel has only one hump. In India only Arabian
camels are found. Some Indian breeds of camels are Jaisalmeri, Sindhi and Bikaneri
found in Rajasthan and Gujarat. The breeding season lasts for 5 months from
November to March.

8. Elephants (Elephas):
Elephants are the largest land animal. They are found in forests with tall trees where
bamboos grow in large number. The elephants are herbivorous and voracious feeder.
The Indian elephant is Elephas maximus. Elephant gets sexual maturity between the
age of 8 to 12 years. Their gestation period is longest (22 months). They live up to 90
years of age. The African elephant Loxodonta africana is more strongly built than the
Indian elephant with large ears and tusks.

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BREEDS OF CATTLE

INDIGENOUS BREED
Indigenous Breeds are classified under three groups based on utility / purpose.
a) Milch breeds / Milk breeds
b) Dual Purpose breeds
c) Draught breeds

Milch Breeds / Milk Breeds:
The cows of these breeds are high milk yields and the male animals are slow or poor work animals. The examples of Indian milch breeds are shahiwal, Red
Sindhi, Gir and Deoni The milk production of milk breeds is on the average more than 1600 kg per lactation

Dual Purpose Breeds:
The  cows in these  breeds are  average  milk yielder  and  male animals  are  very useful for  work. Their  milk production per  lactation  is 500  kg to 150  kg. The
example of this group is Ongole, Hariana, Kankrej, Tharparker, Krishna valley, Rathi and Goalo Mewathi.

Draught Breeds:
The male animals are good for work and Cows are poor milk yielder are their milk yield as an average is less than 500 kg per lactation. They are usually white in
color. A pair of bullocks can haul 1000 kg. Net with an iron typed cart on a good road at walking speed of 5 to 7 km per hour and cover a distance of 30 ­ 40 km
per day. Twice as much weight can be pulled on pneumatic rubber tube carts. The example of this group Kangayam, Umblacherry, Amritmahal, Hallikar.

Cart Pulling Bull & Ploughing Bull

Exotic breed – Milch – Jersey, Holstein Friesian

Milch Breed
Red Sindhi

Hailing from the Kohistan, Sindh province in present Pakistan, this breed is one of the most distinctive cattle breeds of india.
Mainly available in Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa.
Under good management conditions the Red Sindhi averages over 1700 kg of milk after suckling their calves but under optimum conditions there have
been milk yields of over 3400 kg per lactation.

Red Sindhi

Sahiwal

Originally Belonging to the Montgomery district of Present Pakistan
Mainly found in Punjab, Haryana, U.P, Delhi, Bihar and M.P.
Milk yield – Under village condition :1350 kg
Milk yield   – Under commercial farms: 2100 kg
Age at first calving ­32­36 months
Calving interval – 15 month

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Sahiwal

Gir

Mainly found in Gir forest areas of South Kathiawar
Gir Cows are good Milk – yielder
Milk yield   – Under village condition : 900 kg
Milk yield    – Under commercial farms: 1600 kg

Gir

Deoni

Mainly found in North western and western parts of A.P.
Cows are good milk producers and bullocks are good for work

Milch and Draught breeds
Hariana

Mainly found in Karnal, Hisar and Gurgaon district of Haryana, Delhi and Western M.P Milk yield –1140 ­4500 kgs
Bullocks are powerful for road transport and rapid ploughing

Hariana

Tharparkar

Mainly found in Jodhpur, Kutch and Jaisalmer
Milk yield   – Under village condition :1660 kg
Milk yield   – Under commercial farms: 2500 kg

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Tharparkar

Kankrej

Mainly found in Gujarat
Milk yield – Under village condition :1300 kg
Milk yield– Under commercial farms : 3600 kg
Age at first calving ­36 to 42 months
Calving interval – 15 to 16 months
Bullocks are fast, active and strong. Good for plough and cart purpose

Kankrej

Draught Breeds
Kangayam

This breed, in its native area, is also known by other names of Kanganad and Kongu though the name Kangayam is well­known. These cattle are bred in
the southern and southeastern area of the Erode district of Tamilnadu in India.
Mainly found in Coimbatore, Erode, Namakkal, Karur and Dindigul districts of Tamil Nadu.
Best suited for ploughing and transport. Withstands hardy conditions.

Kangayam

Amritmahal

Mainly found in Karnataka.
Best suitable for ploughing and transport.

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Amritmahal

Hallikar

Mainly found in Tumkur, Hassan and Mysore districts of Karnataka
Bullocks are strong, well spirited, quick and steady in the field as well as on road.

Hallikar

Umblacherry

Origin: Tanjore district in Tamilnadu.

Distinguishing characters:

This breed has similar characters as kangayam.
Bulls are fearly temperament. They are used for ploughing in Thanjore delta area.
Calves are red in colour when born and become grey in colour after 6 months of age.
Cows are poor milker with average milk yield of 300 kg/lactation.
Male animals are good for hard work.

Umblacherry

Photo Source: http://eng.gougram.org/photo­gallery/?album=IndianCowBreeds

EXOTIC BREEDS

Jersey

Origin: This breed was developed from the island of jersey in the English channel off the coast of France.

Distinguishing Characters:

The Jersey is one of the oldest dairy breeds, having been reported by authorities as being purebred for nearly six centuries
The color in Jerseys may vary from a very light gray or mouse color to a very dark fawn or a shade that is almost black. Both the bulls and females are
commonly darker about the hips and about the head and shoulders than on the body.
Age at first calving : 26­30 months
Intercalving – 13­14 months

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Milk yield – 5000­8000 kg
Dairy milk yield is found to be 20 liter whereas cross bred jersey, cow gives 8­10 liter per day.
In India this breed has acclimatized well especially in the hot and humid areas

Jersey

Holstein Friesian

Origin: This breed is originated in Holland.

Distinguishing Characters:

Holsteins are large, stylish animals with color patterns of black and white or red and white.
Holstein heifers can be bred at 15 months of age, when they weigh about 800 pounds. It is desirable to have Holstein females calve for the first time
between 24 and 27 months of age.
Milk yield ­ 7200­9000 kg.
This is by far the best diary breed among exotic cattle regarding milk yield. On an average it gives 25 liter of milk per day, whereas a cross breed H.F. cow
gives 10 ­ 15 liter per day.
It can perform well in coastal and delta areas.

Holstein Friesian

CROSS BREEDING:
It is mating of animals of different breeds. Cross breeding is followed for breeding animals for milk production and meat production. In India zebu breeds of cows
and  nondescript  cows are  crossed  with exotic breeds like Holstein Friesian,  Brown  Swiss  and  Jersey bulls  or their  semen, to enhance  the  milk production
potential of the progeny.

a. As selection is a slow process of genetic improvement cross breeding has been taken up as the national breeding for improving milk production in India .
Cross breeding word was initiated at NDRI Bangalore, Live Stock farm and Allahabad Agricultural Institute. At present cross breeding work is going on at
Military dairy farms, NDRI Karnal, All India coordinated Research project son Cattle, Collaboration projects like Indo­Swiss, Indo Australian, Indo­Danish,
projects and also in the field in farmer’s he. The feeding and management of the crosses would be better, to enable them to express their production
potential.
b. In general the cross breeds were found to have higher birth weight, faster growth rate, earlier age at first calving, higher weight ; at first calving, higher
lactation yield, longer lactation period) shorter service period, dry period and milk production and breeding efficiency.
c. There are several exotic breeds being used in cross breeding programme, namely Holstein Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss and Reddane Holstein
Friesian is found to be best suited for fluid milk supply in cities, and where higher feed inputs can be provided and where the temperature is temperate or
sub­tropical. In contrast Jersey crosses are ideal when the milk is meant for product manufacture and where feed inputs are limited and the climate is trop.

Advantage:

1. The desirable characters of the exotic parent are transmitted to the progeny which the indigenous parent does not have.
2. In India Cross­breeding and cows is done by using the exotic bulls and the progeny inherit the desirable characters of the parent like high milk yield early
maturity, higher birth weigh of calves, better growth rates, better reproductive efficiency and indigenous parents characters like, heat tolerance, disease
resistance ability to thrive on scanty feeding and coarse fodder etc.
3. In pairs the way to evolve new breeds with desirable characters. Hybrid vigour is made use of in the progency.
4. Results are seen more quickly in characters like milk yield in the crossbred progeny.

Disadvantages:

1. The breeding merit of cross breed animals may be slightly reduced.
2. Cross breeding requires maintenance of two or more pure breeds inorder to product the cross breeds.

(Source: http://bieap.gov.in/DairyAnimalManagementTheory.pdf)

Cross­breed cattle
The crossbreeds are having exotic inheritance from Jersey, Brown Swiss or Holstein Friesian or a combination of these different breeds. Jersey breed is known
for the milk fat percent and Holstein for the high quantity of milk.

Cross­breed cattle in India

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S. Name of the Native
Specific region Assembling centre Remarks
No Breed breed
India, Pakistan & other
1 Brown Swiss Switzerland ­ Asian Dairy breed
countries
Holstein Province of North Holland Throughout the country
2 Holland Dairy breed
Friesian and West Friesland (crossbreds)
British Crossbreds available in
3 Jersey Island of Jersey Dairy breed
 Isles all states.
(Source: National Dairy Development Board )

Indigenous cattle of India

Breeding
S. Habitat/Main Assembling Areas of
Breed Tract Remarks
No. State Center demand
Districts
Dodbalapur,
Chickballapur,
Harikar,
Dharwar, North
Devargudda,
Kanara, Bellary (KT)
Tumkur, Chikkuvalli,
Anantur & Chittur Draught
1 Hallikar Karnataka Hassan & Karuvalli,
(A.P.), Coimbatore breed
Mysore Chittavadgi (T.N.)
North Arcot, Salem
North Arcot (T.N.)
(T.N.)
Hindupur,
Somaghatta,
Anantpur (A.P.)
Avanashi, Tirppur,
Southern Districts of Draught
2 Kangayam Tamil Nadu Erode Kannauram,
Tamil Nadu breed
Madurai Athicombu
Pakistan All
3 Red Sindhi ­ ­ ­ Dairy breed
parts of India
Umarkot, Balotra (Jodhpur),
4 Tharparkar Pakistan(sind) Naukot, Dhoro Puskar (Ajmer), ­ Dairy breed
Naro Chor Gujarat State
Vaikom, Mannuthy
5 Vechur Kerala ­ ­ ­
(Kerala State)
(Source: National Dairy Development Board)

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COMMON FEED AND FODDER

CEREAL GRAINS
(Maize, Barley, Oats, Wheat, Rice, Rye, Millets, Sorghum and Bajra)

Cereal Grains:  CP: 8-12%


 TDN: 68-72%
 Cereal grains are rich in starch containing  Fat: 2-5%
8-12% of crude protein with low lysine  Low in lysine,
and methionine, 2-5% fats, less than Methionine.
0.15% of calcium and relatively higher  P in the form of
phosphorus to the extent of 0.3-0.5%. phytates
 Phosphorus in cereals is present in the  Ca; 0.15%; P 0.3 –
form of phytates, which has the ability to 5.0%
immobilize dietary calcium.
 Cereal grains are rich source of thiamine
and vitamin E but deficient in vitamin A
and riboflavin except yellow maize, which
is rich in provitamin A.
 The commonly used cereals in feed are
maize, barley, oats, wheat, rice etc,.

Maize or Corn (Zea maize):

 Maize has high metabolisable energy


value with low fibre content and 8-13% of
crude protein.
 The maize kernel contains two main
proteins Zein and Glutelin.
 Recently, new variety of maize (Floury 2)
was produced at UK with high
methionine and lysine.
 High TDN: 85%
 Farm animals are fed with crushed maize.
 Prone to Aflatoxin
 Flaked maize decreases the acetic acid to
propionic acid proportion in rumen and  Flaked maize depress
milk fat%
hence depresses the butterfat content of
milk.
 Improperly stored maize having higher
moisture content are prone to aspergillus
flavus infestation and produce aflatoxin.

Barley (Hordeum vulgare):

 Barley has high fibre content with 6-14%


of crude protein having low lysine and
less than 2% of oil content.
 Barley is a main concentrate food for
fattening pigs in UK.
 The awns of barley should be removed,
crimped or coarsely ground before
feeding poultry or swine.
 Veriety “Notch 2” developed at UK is rich
in lysine.
COMMON FEED AND FODDER

Main ingredent used for


fattening of pigs in UK

Oats (Avena sativa):

 Oats has highest crude fibre of 12 - 16%


with 7-15% of crude protein.
 Methionine, histidine and tryptophan are
deficient in oats but abundant in glutamic
acid.
 Cattle and sheep are fed with crushed or
bruised oats whereas pigs and poultry are
Abundant in Glutamic acid
fed with ground oats.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum):

 Wheat contains 6-12% of crude protein.


 The endosperm contains prolamin
(gliadin) and glutelin (glutenin) protein
mixture, which is referred as gluten.
 Wheat gluten decides whether the flour is
suitable for bread or biscuit making.
 Strong gluten is preferred for bread
making since it form dough, which traps  Strong gluten suitable
the gasses, produced during yeast for bread making.
fermentation.  Do not feed finely
 Finely milled wheat is unpalatable to ground wheat to farm
animals because it forms the pasty mass animals
in the mouth and may lead to digestive
upset.

Rice (Oryza sativa):

 The crude protein and energy values are


comparable to maize.
 It is widely used for human consumption.

Nutritive value comparable to


Maize

Rye (Secale cereale):

 Rye is similar to wheat in composition


and regarded as least palatable among
cereals.
 Rye is prone to ergot infestation. Rye
should be crushed and fed to livestock.
COMMON FEED AND FODDER

Millets :

 Millets are cereals having high percent of


fibre and produce small grains and are
mostly grown in tropics.e.g. Sorghum,
Bajra, etc.

Sorghum /Jowar / Milo (Sorghum vulgare):

 Sorghum is similar to maize in chemical


composition but they have higher protein
and low fat than maize.
 Pig and poultry can be fed with cracked
grain whereas cattle are fed with ground
sorghum.

Lower in fat than Maize

Bajra / Cumbu (Pennensetum typhoides):

 Nutritive value of bajra is similar to


sorghum with 8-12% of crude protein and
rich tannin content.
 Seeds are hard so they have to be ground
or crushed before feeding to cattle.

Rich in Tannin

MILLING BYPRODUCTS

Bran: 

 It is the outer coarse coat of the grain separated during


processing. E.g. rice bran, wheat bran, maize bran.
COMMON FEED AND FODDER

Rice bran:

 Rice bran is a valuable product with 12-14% of protein


and 11-18% oil mostly with unsaturated fatty acids and
hence it becomes rancid rapidly.
 The oil removed rice bran is available as deoiled rice
bran in the market for livestock feeding.

De-oiled Rice bran is fed


to livestock

Wheat bran:

 Wheat bran is an excellent food for horses with more


fibre content.
 It is laxative when mashed with warm water but tends to
counteract scouring when it was given dry.
 It is not commonly fed to pigs and poultry because of the
fibrous nature and low digestibility.

Laxative, good for horse;


cattle

Flour:

 Flour is soft, finely ground meal of the grains with 16% CP: 16%;CF:1.5%
protein and 1-1.5% crude fibre consisting primarily of
gluten and starch from endosperm. E.g. corn flour.

Gluten: 

 Gluten is a tough substance obtained after the removal of


starch from flour.
 This is not usually given as a feed to non- ruminants due
to poor quality protein, bulkiness, unpalatability.
 E.g. corn gluten

Middling:

 A byproduct from flour milling industry comprising 15-20% protein Deficient


several grades of granular particles of bran, endosperm in Calcium
and germ.
 Middlings contain 15-20% protein and deficient in
calcium.

Grain screening: 

 Small imperfect grains, weed seeds and other foreign


materials of value as a feed, separated through cleaning
of grains with screen is calledgrain screening.
COMMON FEED AND FODDER

 Nutritive value varies according to proportion of weed


and foreign materials.

Polishing:

 During rice polishing this byproduct accumulates to  CP: 12%


contain 10-15% protein, 12% fat and 3-4% crude fibre.  Rich in B-
 It is rich in B- complex and good source of energy. Complex &
 Due to high fat content rancidity may occur. Energy

Molasses:

 It is a byproduct produced during juice / extract


prepared from selected plant material.
 It is a concentrated water solution of sugars,
hemicellulose and minerals.
 Four varities of molasses are commonly available viz.
 Cane molasses,
 Beet molasses,
 Citrus molasses and
Cane molasses – 3% CP,
 Wood molasses.
 Cane molasses is a product of sugar industry and
Beet molasses – 6% CP,
contains 3% protein with 10% ash.
 While Beet molasses is a product during production of
Citrus molasses – 14%
beet sugar and has higher protein (6%).
CP,
 Citrus molasses is bitter in taste with highest protein
(14%) and produced when oranges or grapes are Wood molasses – 2% CP
processed for juice.
 Wood molasses is a product of paper industry with 2%
protein and palatable to cattle.
 Molasses is a good source of energy and an appetiser. Good source of energy
 It reduces dustiness in ration and is very useful as binder
in pellet making. Appetiser
 Molasses can be included upto 15% in cattle ration and
upto 5% in poultry ration. Reduces dustiness
 The molasses quality in terms of sweetness is indicated
in Brix unit. Binder in pellet making
 Cane molasses usually have 80.0 degree Brix unit.
Upto 15% in cattle ration

Upto 5% in poultry feed


ration.
COMMON FEED AND FODDER

ANIMAL AND VEGETALE FAT

 Dairy cows in early lactation demands a high-energy


ration.
 A higher level of energy in the ration can be achieved
by increasing the amount of cereal grains.
 However, higher levels of grain are not desirable
owing to negative effects on rumen metabolism.
 In this juncture, fats have received increased interest
and are considered to be potential source of energy in
the rations of lactating cows.
 Hence, strategies that would actually enable more fat
to be included in the ruminant diet through protected
fat gained considerable importance.  High producing
 Similarly high growth rate in broilers / egg production livestock and poultry
in layers lead to increased energy density in diet and needs high energy feed
this could be achieved only by inclusion of fat in the to meet their
diet. nutritional demand.
 Fat (Vegetable /Animal) provides 2.25% more energy
than carbohydrate or protein.
 Fat; oil provides 2.25 %
 Oil and fat reduces the dustiness in feed and lessens more energy than
the wear on feed mixing equipments. protein and
 Vegetable oils like corn oil, Groundnut oil, sunflower Carbohydrate.
oil and animal fat like lard, tallow are extensively used
in livestock / poultry feeding.
 Higher level of PUFA
 Animal fat contains saturated as well as unsaturated
leads to rancidity.
fatty acids of C20, C22, C24.
 Vegetable fats contain greater proportion of linoleic
acid.  Anti oxidants like BHT
 Higher level of poly unsaturated fatty acids leads to or Ethoxyquin should
rancidity and therefore anti oxidants like Butylated be included in high fat
hydroxytoluene (BHT) or Ethoxyquin should be diet.
included in high fat diet.
PRESENT STATUS OF MEAT, POULTRY AND FISH INDUSTRY IN
INDIA

19.1 Current Status of Meat Industry in India


Animal food is considered as good source of quality nutrients viz. fat, protein,
carbohydrates and minerals. Digestibility of animal source protein is 90-97% while
vegetable origin proteins have 75-99%. However, proteins of animal origin are more
completely digested and nutritionally superior than those of plant origin. Protein
digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), protein efficiency ratio (PER)
and biological value (BV) of animal and plant proteins are 0.9-1.0 and 0.42-0.70; 3-
4 and 1.5-2.6; 74-94 and 65-73 respectively.� On the other hand, plant origin
proteins are deficient in at least one of more essential amino-acids e.g. some cereals
in lysine and some legumes in methionine but the animal proteins contain all
essential amino acids.
India has the largest livestock population (485 million) which represent about 55%
(96 million) and 16% of the world�s buffalo and cattle populations respectively
(17th Census 2003). The country ranks second in goats, third in sheep and camels,
and seventh in poultry populations in the world. Although India has been the top
producer of milk (>115 MT, 15% global production) which is one of the primary
produce of the livestock sector, the meat production is only 5 million tonesannually
representing mere 2% of the world production. Nearly three million tonnes of broiler
meat and about 2.86 million tonnes of eggs are produced annually in India. Growing
at about 20 per cent annually the domestic poultry market is currently estimated at
about Rs. 49,000 crore.
The domestic market is mostly confined to fresh meat because of the eating habits
of the Indians. Therefore hardly 40-50% of the total processing capacity of over 1
million tones per annum is utilized. Among processed meat, 6% of production of
poultry meat is sold in the processed form of which only 1% is marketed as value
added ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook types. Of the total meat produced, only about 1%
is converted into value added products like sausages, ham, bacon, kababs, meatballs,
etc.
Buffalo meat production was at 2.85 million tons in 2010 and is expected to increase
marginally through 2012 (growing at 3%). The growth is primarily due to increasing
domestic consumption, growing exports and a new trend of raising male buffalo
calves for meat production. Spent buffalo cows are also used for meat
purpose. Currently, the processing level of buffalo meat is estimated at 21%.
The buffalo meat share in total meat exports from India is more than 90 percent (in
value terms), followed by 3% per cent share of goat and sheep meat and the rest
comprising of poultry meat and animal casings. Exports of other types of meats such
as from pork, poultry, and processed meat are almost negligible due to higher costs,
inadequate meat processing facilities, and infrastructure constraints. For exports
mostly deboned frozen buffalo meat is used. The demand for bovine meat has
increased over the years in the global markets resulting in higher prices of cattle
meat. This has opened new opportunities for us and led to increase in buffalo meat
exports from India in recent years.
Beef exports are forecast to rise 5 percent in 2012 on robust global demand,
particularly to Southeast Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. India accounts for
nearly half of world growth in 2012 on increased supplies and price-competitive
shipments to emerging markets. The export is restricted to very few products. The
export from sheep and goat is very low. As per APEDA statistics (2010-11), the
export of buffalo meat is 7, 09,437tonnes (Rs. 8412 crore), processed meat
1,19,08tonnes (value Rs 253 crore), poultry products 6,19,150 tonnes (Rs 301 crore)
while that of animal casings it is 1809 tonnes (Rs. 35 crores). Buffalo milk is not
very remunerative because of competitive disadvantages and the export is largely
restricted to few countries in the Middle East.
Slaughter rate for cattle as a whole is 20%, for buffaloes it is 41%, pigs 99%, sheep
30% and 40% for goats. In India there are about 3,900 licensed & authorized
slaughter houses besides around 26,000 unauthorized slaughter houses.
Furthermore, there are 13 export-oriented, modern, integrated abattoirs or meat
processing plants registered with the Agricultural and Processed Food Export
Development Authority (APEDA). In addition to these, there are 24 meat processing
and packaging units, which receive dressed carcasses from approved municipal
slaughter houses for the export of meat. According to the Ministry of Food
Processing Industries (MFPI), about 70% of poultry processing is in
the organised sector and 30% is in the unorganised sector. Nearly 60-70% of the
broiler industry is located in the southern states, as is much of the layer industry.
Per capita consumption of meat from beef and veal put together in 2011 was only
1.6 kg. Mutton and lamb is relatively smaller segment where demand is outstripping
supply, which explains the high prices in domestic market. The production levels
have been almost constant at 950,000 MT with annual exports of less than 10,000
MT. This has restricted large processing companies from developing business
interests in this sector. Production of meat is governed under local by-laws as
slaughtering is a state subject. Processing of meat is licensed under the Meat Food
Products Order (1973).
19.2 Status of Poultry Sector
India is the third largest producer of eggs and ninth largest producer of poultry meat
in the world. The poultry industry has registered significant growth. In 2010-11,
India�s egg production reached 61.5 billion eggs, up 68% from 36.6 billion in
2000-01. As per FAOSTAT latest production data for the year 2010, India ranks 3rd
in egg production in the world. Poultry exports are mostly to Maldives and Oman.
Indian poultry meat products have good markets in Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia and
Singapore. Among Indian states, Andhra Pradesh stands as the highest egg producer.
Both public and private sector organizations have played important role in the
poultry industry. India at present has only five egg powder plants which is
inadequate considering the fact that export demand for different categories of
powder viz., whole egg, yolk and albumen are increasing. There is a huge scope for
the growth of poultry industry as the country's annual per capita consumption is only
2.4 kgs. Per capita consumption has grown from 1.22 kgs in 2001 to 2.26 kgs in
2010, an increase of 185%. The National Institute of Nutrition has recommended
180 eggs and 11 kg of meat per capita consumption for our country
India's poultry product exports are mainly confined to eggs and egg powder, which
are growing due to cost competitiveness and logistical advantages. There are no
restrictions on exports of poultry and poultry products. The government provides
some transportation subsidies (Rs 3-15 per kg) for its exports. For the development
of meat export from India the industry has demanded some immediate measures like
financial assistance for upgradation of export oriented abattoirs/processing plants.
Inclusion of buffalo meat under APEDA's Transport Assistance Scheme for new
markets in Africa/CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) where freight cost
from India for refrigerated containers is much higher than from competing countries.
Restoration of DEPB rates for frozen buffalo meat. Exemption from Service Tax on
transportation of meat products processed for exports. This is presently applicable
only for fruits, vegetables, eggs or milk even for domestic consumption.
19.3 Status of Fisheries Sector
India is the second largest producer of fish in the world, contributing about 5.54
percent of the global production. The total fish production during 2010-11 was 8.29
million tonnes with a contribution of 5.07 million tonnes from the inland sector and
3.22 million
tonnes from the marine sector. The value of output from the fisheries sector at current
prices during 2009-10 was Rs. 67,913 crore which is 4.9 per cent of the total output
of agriculture & allied sectors. India�s marine product exports have for the first
time crossed USD 2 billion. During 2010-11, the volume of fish and fish products
exported was 8,13,091 tonnes worth Rs. 12,901 crore registering the highest growth
rate of 10% in volume of fish exports in recent years.
19.4 Future Strategies for Sustainable Growth of Meat, Poultry and Fisheries
Sectors
In view of the immense potential of the meat, poultry and fisheries sector,
policymakers have recommended certain critical measures to support this vital
segment of the Indian agriculture. Modernization of abattoirs, setting up of rural
abattoirs and registration of all slaughter houses in cities/towns are essential for
quality meat production. Besides, setting up of large commercial meat farms have
been recommended to address the traceability issues necessary for stringent quality
standards of CODEX. It has also been suggested that the goat sector has immense
potential and needs to be supported in terms of higher investment, community
approach and establishment of proper linkages between the processing industry and
the market. Similar approach is needed for sheep sector which has remained almost
static for a long time. Poultry sector in the country has now emerged as organized
industry and important issues like breeding farms, hatchery, feed mills, equipment
manufacture, feed supplements, drug and vaccine production, etc. have been
addressed in a very satisfactory way. However marketing of the final product still
remains mostly in the hands of traders which need to be addressed properly. The
other important issues for the poultry sector are improved Feed Conversion Ratios
(FCR) and quick control measures for tackling disease outbreaks.The overall growth
rate in livestock sector is proposed to be revised to 5 per cent during the current Plan
with a 4 per cent growth rate for milk sector and 6�8 per cent for poultry and meat
sector.
The marine fisheries sector is expected to grow at the rate of 2.0 percent annually
and it is estimated that 3.669 MMT of marine fish would be harvested by the year
2016-17. With
this production, the country will be exploiting about 83 percent of its potential
harvest of 4.419 MMT. The developments and trends in fish production in the inland
sector suggest that a growth rate of 8.0 percent can be achieved by the inland sector.
With this growth rate, it is estimated to reach a fish production target of 7.910 MMT
by the end of the Twelfth Plan Period (2016-17). The strategies adopted for
achieving the targets are to include integrated approach for enhancing inland fish
production and productivity with forward and backward linkages right from the
production chain. This has to also include input requirements like quality fish seeds
and fish feeds and creation of required infrastructure for harvesting, hygienic
handling, value addition and marketing of fish. It is proposed to revamp the Existing
Fish Farmers Development Authority (FFDAs) and cooperative sectors, besides
actively involving the self help groups and youths in intensive aquaculture activities.
Sustainable exploitation of marine fishery resources especially deep sea resources
and enhancement of marine fish production through sea farming,mariculture,
resource replenishment programme like setting up of artificial reefs etc are the other
measures that could enhance marine fisheries sector.
Mixed Farming and Its Related Terms

Mixed Farming:

Mixed farming is defined as a system of farming on a particular farm which includes crop
production, raising live stock, poultry, fisheries, bee keeping etc. to sustain and satisfy
as many needs of the farmer as possible. Subsistence is important objective of mixed
farming. While higher profitability without altering ecological balance is important in
farming system.

Organic Farming:

Organic farming is a special type of farming in mixed farming. Organic farming is a


method of farming mainly depends on organic recycling. Industrial agricultural chemicals
like fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides etc. are not used or the minimum extent necessary.
However, organic farming cannot replace the chemicals production technology since
there is need for higher and higher production with ever growing population on limited
land.

Cropping System:

Cropping system is an important component of farming system: It represents cropping


pattern used on a form and their interaction with resources, other farm enterprises and
available technology, which determine their makeup.

Cropping Pattern:

Cropping pattern means the proportion of area under various at a point of time in a unit
area. Or it indicates the yearly sequences and spatial arrangement of crops and fallow in
an area.

Crop sequence and crop rotation are generally used synonymously.

Crop Rotation:

Crop rotation refers to recurrent succession of crops are so chosen that soil health is not
impaired.

Cropping Scheme:

Cropping scheme is the plan according to which crops are grown on individual plots of a
farm with an object of getting maximum return form each crop without impairing the
fertility of soil is known as cropping scheme.

Mixed Farming and Its Advantages

Mixed farming:

Mixed farming is one which crop production is combined with the rearing of livestock.
The live stock enterprises are complementary to crop production; so as to provide a
balance and productive system of farming. In mixed farming at least 10% of its gross
income must be contributed by livestock activity. The upper limit being 45% under
Indian condition. So the farm on which at least 10 to 49% income is found from livestock
is called mixed farm. In mixed farming cow and buffaloes are included with crop
production. If farmers are rearing cows, buffaloes, sheep goat, and fisheries with crop
cultivation this type of farming is called diversified farming.

The scope of mixed farming to combination of crops and their complementary livestock
enterprises of mixed farming would certainly include a vast majority of our farms,
establishing a complementary relationship between crop and livestock enterprises.

Enterprises Contribution to gross Farming type


income of farm
1. Cow and Buffalo only 10 to 49% Mixed farming
2. Cow, buffalo and poultry 10 to 49% Diversified farming

Advantages:

1. It offers highest return on farm business, as the by products of farm are properly
utilized.
2. It provides work throughout year.
3. Efficient utilization of land, labour, equipment and other resources.
4. The crop by products such as straw, bus, fodder etc. is used for feeding of livestock
and in return they provide milk.
5. Manures available from livestock maintain soil fertility.
6. It helps in supplying all the food needs of the family members.
7. Intensive cultivation is possible.
8. If one source of income is lost he can maintain his family from other source of
income.
9. Milk cattle’s provide draft animals for crop production and rural transport.
10. Mixed farming increases social status of the farmer.

In India the livestock is much closed connected with agriculture because animal power is
the main source of power in agriculture. FYM is the main source for maintaining soil
fertility and animals make good use of subsidiary and by-products on farms and in turn
they provide milk under such circumstances mixed farming will most suit in Indian
conditions.

Disadvantages:

1. Indigenous method of cultivation is used till now.


2. Draft and milch animals should be sold when they fail in production.
3. Healthy calf should be reared to replace age old animals.

Required of Mixed Farming:

i) Complicated management practices.


ii) Sound cropping scheme.
iii) Good cattle in suitable number.
iv) Transport facility.
v) Marketing facilities.