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~ COMMON ENGLISH aad ERRORS \ 1. INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMAR: GRAMMAR: A system of rules setting forth the current standard of usage of a given language. BASIC UNIT OF GRAMMAR; Word OTHER _ UNIT: Ol GRAMMAR; Phrase, Clause, Sentence, Paragraph WORDS ARE CLASSIFIED _INTO DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH: A. NAMING WORDS: 4._NOUN- word that names people, places, things, qualities, actions, ideas or relationships Ex.: Peter, man, cat, book 2, PRONOUN: word that takes the place of a noun Ex.: he, she, it, they B. ACTION WORDS: 3, _VERB- word that specifies an action, state, feeling or existence Ex.: write, play, appear C.: MODIFYING WORDS: 4, ADJECTIVE- word that describes a noun or pronoun Ex.: beautiful, black, difficult OKMA RESEARCH H-OUT 07-002 5. ADVERB- word that describes a verb, adjective or another adverb Ex.: quickly, slowly, fast D. CONNECTING WORDS: 6. PREPOSITION word that relates a noun or pronoun phrase or clause to another word in the sentence. A preposition always has an object. Ex.: to the dance of Bulacan under the table 7. CONJUNGTION- _word _ that connects words, phrases or clauses Ex.: and, but, or, nor, consequently, however, moreover, furthermore, nevertheless, therefore E, EXPRESSIVE WORDS: 8.___ INTERJECTION- words that express emotion Ex.: alas, oh, wow 2. NOUNS: RULE: Nouns may either be SINGULAR (one) or PLURAL (more than one) in number. Most nouns are pluralized by adding “s”, “’s”,"es" or “ie: Some nouns do not follow this general rule. Examples: GENERAL RULE: + centavo- centavos editor-in-chief. editors-in-chief son-in-law- sons-in-law ‘spoonful- spoonfuls; spoonsful cupful- cupfuls; cupsful P-p’s 6- 6's Miss- Misses echo- echoes EXCEPTIONS: passerby- passersby formula- formulae forum: fora basis- bases analysis- analyses crisis- crises diagnosis- diagnoses parenthesis- parentheses criterion- criteria memorandum. memoranda curriculum. curricula datum- data medium- media shelf- shelves Mr.- Messrs. Mrs.- Mesdames focus: foci alumnus- alumni (men) alumna- alumnae (women) datum- data ox-oxen fish- fish sheep- sheep news-news 3. PRONOUNS: a. CASES OF PRONOUNS: RULE: “CASE” ‘is a change in the form of a houn or pronoun to indicate its relation to other words in a sentence. Nouns and Pronouns have 3 Cases -- SUBJECTIVE CASE, OBJECTIVE CASE and POSSESSIVE CASE. SINGULAR PLURAL 1% PERSON: tied Nominative | we Objective me us Possessive my, mine our, ours 2°4 PERSON: Nominative you you Objective you you Possessive your, yours your,yours 3" PERSO! Nominative he, she, it they Objective him, her, it them Possessive his,her, their, hers, its theirs 4. SUBJECTIVE __CASE-_These pronouns function as SUBJECT and PREDICATE NOUN! Examples: a) AS SUBJECT: My brother, my sister and (J, me) were brought up by a kind aunt. b) AS PREDICATE NOUNS: The winner is (she, her). The winner Is (1, me). 2, OBJECTIVE _CASE- These pronouns function as DIRECT OBJECT, INDIRECT OBJECT and IBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION, eeauaiae: a) AS DIRECT OBJECT My mother spanked (he, him). b) AS INDIRECT OBJECT ‘Ana baked (her, she) a cake. 2) AS OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION The manager had to choose between (he and I, him and me). 3.__POSSESSIVE _CASE- These pronouns indicate possession. ' RULE: Be careful to make a distinction between POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS, and CONTRACTIONS, POSSESSIVE — CONTRACTIONS: PRONOUNS: your you're ( you are) hers here’s (here is) his he’s (he is) its it’s (itis) whose who's (who is) their they're (they are) Examples: (its, It's) quite obvious that (your, you're) the one who resembles (your, you're) father and (their, they're) uncle. (Whose, Who's) recipe is (his, he’s) baker going to use for (your, you're) birthday cake? (Your, You're) invited to a party. RULE: In an elliptical clause (an unfinished ' clause) beginning with “as” or “than”, supply the missing words in order to find out the proper Case for the pronoun. Examples: We shall not talk with one as arrogant as she (as she is). My mother loves my brother more than me (more than she loves me). She reads faster than_1 (than | read). I can do it as well as they (as they can doit). 1 should see you more frequently than her (than | should see her). RULE: In an appositive, the subsequent pronoun (appositive) follows the Case of the antecedent noun or ‘pronoun, Examples: We are all going he, she and I. (Subjective Case) Ana wants to ask a favor from them-— Roger, him and her, (Objective Case) RULE: if a sentence has 2 or more clauses, one must isolate the clause containing the Relative Pronoun and determine its function in said clause, independent of the other clause, in order to determine its proper Case-— whether subjective case (who), objective case (whom) or possessive case (whose). Examples: The man (who, whom) did the mischief is innocent. Maria is the officer (who, whom) the principal talked with. This is the person (who, whom) we can trust). When you went there, (who, whom) did you submit your application to? RULE: The Relative Pronouns “who” and “whom” refer to a person, The relative pronoun “which” refers to a thing, The relative pronoun “that” refers to a person or a thing. Examples: The student who came yesterday was looking for you. The book which 1 bought is expensive. The actor that you are looking for is here, The gift that I gave is expensive. ULE: Compound Personal Pronouns are simple pronouns combined with “self” in order. fo refer_back or to intensify their antecedents. Examples: 1 found myself in hot water. She sewed the dress herself. iw ULE: Compound Personal _ Pronouns should never be used if there is no antecedent noun or pronoun to refer back to. Examples: Her brother and (herself, she, her) will go. Grandmother sent brother and. (myself, |, me) gifts on our birthdays. RULE: There is no such Compound Personal Pronoun as ‘“theirself”. “themself” or “theirselves”. AGREEMENT OF PRONOUN AND ANTECEDEN’ RULE: ‘A subsequent pronoun must agree with its antecedent noun or pronoun in NUMBER, GENDER and PERSON. If two or more antecedent pronouns or nouns are joined by “or” or “nor”, the subsequent pronoun agrees with the nearer antecedent _noun or pronoun. Examples: Neither the students nor Ricky would admit that he cared to come. He likes anything or anybody who can help him. He likes anybody or anything which can help him. Either Gina or Eric will be spanked by his mother. Neither Erle nor Gina will be spanked by her mother. Neither Francis nor Pearl has ever seen (his, her, their) father before. Francis and Pearl are going to visit (his, her, their) grandmother today. 4, VERBS: A. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: RULE: A verb must agree with its subject in NUMBER, whether SINGULAR (one) ‘or PLURAL (more than one). Most nouns are pluralized by adding 4g”, 5" , tes” or “ies”. On the other hand, most verbs are singularized by adding \ Examples: v That girl walks to school everyday. Those girls walk to school everyday. The echoes vibrate inside the cave. The echo vibrates inside the cave. RULE: A verb agrees with its subject, not with its predicate noun. Examples: Cebu’s main product is mango chips. The main part of this machine (is. are) the large rollers. The large rollers (is, are) the main part of this machine. RULE: A verb agrees with a delayed subject. Examples: In front of the people stands a mango tree. Beneath the trees flutters a butterfly. RULE: After the expletive “there”, the verb is singular or plural, depending on the number of the subject that follows. Examples: There comes Pablo with his other brothers. There were a boy and a girl who dropped by. RULE: A verb does not agree with a word or words which intervene between it and the subject. Examples: A new list of rules (has been, have been) issued. Each of the students (requires. require) attention. One of the children (is, are ) expected to go. You, the moderator, (Is, are) ‘supposed to guide the discussion. One man, not the people, is guilty. RULE: ‘A Collective Noun has a singular verb when the group acts as a unit. A Collective Noun has a plural verb when the group acts separately. Examples: The team is happy. The team wear their uniforms. RULE: - Phrases beginning with the words “in the company of”, “including”, “with”, “together with”, “in_addition to”, “as well_as”, “no less than”, “and not” and “but not” which come between the subject and the verb do not affect the number of the verb. Examples: The professor, together with his students, eats in the cafeteria daily. The ‘plaintiffs, including their lawyer, were cited for contempt. The steak with onions tastes good. Jimmy and not his brothers deserves. full credit for the job. RULE: Quantities and sums, or multiples of numbers expressing a single idea require a singular verb. Examples: Forty meters is the length of this pool. Ten pesos is too much to pay for a booklet. Five minutes is enough time for this exercise. Rue Fractions or nouns beginning with “a. portion of”, ‘a part of” and fa number of’ have a singular verb if the object of the “of the...” phrase that follows is' singular, and vice-versa. Examples: One sixth of the cake was eaten. Half of the students are going. A portion of the bread is already stale. A portion of the offerings are going to be spent on the church construction. RULE : When “all” means everything, it has a singular verb. Ex: Allis not lost when hope lingers. ! When “all” stands for a_group of individuals, it has a plural verb. Ex.: All were required to sign a paper. RULE: When “none” refers to a noun which is not countable, it has a singular verb. Ex.: None of the rice was left. When “none” refers to a countable noun, it has a plural verb. Ex.: None of the students were ~ present. RULE: An adjective which functions as a noun requires a plural verb. Ex.: The poor are blessed. The rich are humbled. RULE: When “or”, “nor”, “neither...nor” and “either...or’ connect two subjects, the verb agrees with the nearer subject. « Examples: Either the professor or his students are coming. Neither the students nor their professor is coming. schemes was Neither of his acceptable. RULE: Relative Pronouns (e.g, who, whom, which) with plural antecedents require plural verbs and vice-versa. Examples: The guest who_is coming hails from Australia. The guests who are coming hail from Australia. She is one of the most active members who have been with us. He was one of the candidates who were able to fulfill their pledges. RULE: Verbs in the Subjunctive Mood are always plural, (See discussion under “MOODS OF VERBS”.) Examples: I wish. were a king. I demand that the defendant vacate the land. It is important that she read this article. It is necessary that he talk with her. I move that the President cancel the resolution, if she were a man, she will be a lawyer. MOODS OF VERBS: RULE: MOODS of verbs denote the way in which the statement is tegarded by the writer-- whether as a fact, an impossibility or a command! request. Verbs may be in the INDICATIVE MOOD, SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD or IMPERATIVE MOO! 4. INDICATIVE MOOD- Verbs in the Indicative Mood state a fact or aska question regarding a fact. It is also used in a conditional clause beginning with “if? or “unless” when ‘one is sure that the condition states a fact. Examples: The book is on your study table. (Statement of Fact) Where are the books? (Question of Fact) If he is sick (and the statement is probably true), he should be excused. (Condition states a fact) 2, SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD: Verbs in the Subjunctive Mood are always plural. Verbs in the Subjunctive Mood are used to express the following: a. State a wish or desire Ex.: I wish were a king. b, State a demand Ex.: { demand that the defendant vacate the land. c. State a necessity Examples: it is important that she read this article. It is necessary that he talk with her. It Is expected that every citizen obey the laws. d, State a motion Ex.: | move that the President cancel the resolution. ' e. State an impossible supposition or an uncertainty/ a doubtful situation Examples: if she were a man, she will be a lawyer. Assuming Albert Einstein were alive, will he be as popular? She would not have been jailed were ‘she completely honest (and the ‘statement is probably false). RULE: A sentence which has a conditional clause that begins with an “if or “unless” uses a verb in the Indicative Mood if the condition is probably true and the Subjunctive Mood if the condition is probably false _or impossible. Example: INDICATIVE MOOD- If he is sick (and the statement is probably true), he should be excused. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD- If he were you (and the statement is probably false. / impossible), he would probably be rich by now. INDICATIVE MOOD. She has to take the test unless she is sick (and the statement is probably true). SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD- Unless she were a man (and the statement is probably false/ impossible), she will have to take a pap smear test. 3, IMPERATIVE MOOD: Verbs in the Imperative Mood — express a command or a request. Verbs in the Imperative Mood are always in the present-plural form. Examples: Close the door. (Command) Please come on time so that we can leave early. (Polite command) Join our club and invite your friends too. (Request) . TENSES OF VERBS: ‘TENSE of verbs indicates the time of the action or state being expressed by a verb. The basic Tenses of verbs are the following: |. SIMPLE TENSE: a. PRESENT TENSE: The action takes place at the present time/ at the time of speaking. Ex.: | study in school everyday. b, PAST TENSE- The action took place In the past. Ex.: I studied in school yesterday. ¢. FUTURE TENSE- The action will take place in the future. Ex. I will study in school tomorrow. 2. PERFECT TENSE: a. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE- The action began in_the past_and_is completed/ perfected or continuing at the time of speaking. Examples: 1 have studied in ICA for ten years now. Since last month, | have gone to the museum only twice. b. PAST PERFECT TENSE- The action jan_in_the and is completed or perfected before another past action. Thus, the sentence must have_2 verbs and the earlier_verb is in the Past Perfect Tense. Examples: The guests had left already when she arrived. The meeting had begun when she enteré Your telegram came soon after | had mailed my letter to you. 1 had_rung the doorbell for five minutes before the doorman opened it. By the time we arrived, the meeting had turned into a gossip session. Miss Santos suddenly realized that she had forgotten her key. c, FUTURE PERFECT TENSE- The future action will be completed or perfected before a future time, Examples: Before 9:00 tomorrow morning, we shall_have studied for 9 hours already. By the time we get home, he will have already slept. He will have left for Visayas before we get our pay. The textbook will_have been printed before the schoolyear opens. RULE: Do not shift verb tenses within a sentence unnecessarily if the 2 verbs occurred during the same time. Examples: While many suffer from hunger, some rich people (waste, wasted, will waste) food. When I was a young girl, | (am, was, will be) afraid of dogs. when she The meeting began entered. A graphic illustration of “TENSES” is found below: PAST PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT D. VERB FORMS: RULE: Just as verbs have a Simple Tense and a Perfect Tense, they also have a Simple Tense Form and a Perfect Tense Form. Examples: 1 SIMPLE PRESENT- study PRESENT PERFECT- have studied SIMPLE PAST- studied PAST PERFECT- had studied SIMPLE FUTURE- will study; shall study FUTURE PERFECT- will have studied; shail have studied RULE: Regular Verbs in the Simple Past Tense or the Past Perfect Tense usually end in “d” or “ed”. However, Irregular Verbs do not. Examples of Irregular Verbs: The cat (lied, lay) peacefully in the warm sun yesterday afternoon. The water had (rised, rose, risen) in the river. Baby fell asleep before he had (drinked, drank, drunk) his milk. The murderer had been (hanged,' hung) long before he arrived. The play had already (beginned, began, begun) when we arrived. We had been (showed, shown) some rock specimens at the museum even before the new specimens were delivered. The choir had (singed, sang, sung) already when the visitors came. After he had (dived, dove) off the dock, he (swimmed, swam, swum) quickly to the boat. The balloons had (bursted, burst) when he arrived. He has (beared, bored, bore, borne) the burden for several years now. He has (loosed, loosened) the knot of his shoelaces. He has (wringed, wrunged, wrung) out the clothes this morning. RULE: A verb phrase is composed of the MAIN VERB and the AUXILIARY VERB, Main Verbs accompanied by the Auxiliary Verbs IS, ARE. WAS and WERE are in the Past Participle Form, and not the Simple Tense Form or the Past Perfect Tense Form. Examples: She is seen in the movies. He was bitten by a dog. The squatters are_moved to a new relocation site. The plates were broken. RULE: Main Verbs accompanied by the Auxiliary Verbs DID, DO, DOES, SHOULD, WOULD and WILL are in the present-plural form even if the subject is singular and even if the action took place in the past. Examples: Does she (think, thinks) I'm joking? She should (stop, stops) her habit of making faces. Did he (went, go, goes) to the party yesterday? He would (marry, marries) her soon. E. VOICES OF VERBS: | RULE: VOICES of verbs indicate whether the subject is doing the action or not. Verbs may either be in the PASSIVE VOICE (if the subject Is not doing the action) or the ACTIVE VOICE ( if the ‘subject is doing the action). Examples: She studies her lesson diligently. (Active Voice) Her lesson is studied diligently. (Passive Voice) RULE: ' Do not shift voices within a sentence. Examples: WRONG: He wanted so much to top the class that his lessons were studied diligently. CORRECT- He wanted so much to top , the class that he studied his lessons diligently. 5. ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS: RULE: Adjectives and adverbs have 3 DEGREES SIMPLE, COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE--- to indicate a greater or lesser quality as compared to two or more persons or things. Adjectives and adverbs in the COMPARATIVE DEGREE __(which compare 2 persons or things) are the word “ER. usually preceded by “MORE” or end with the suffix Adjectives and adverbs in the SUPERLATIVE DEGREE __(which compare more than 2 persons or things) are usually preceded by the word “MOST” or end with the suffix EST’, Examples: ‘SIMPLE: beautiful (adjective) slowly (adverb) pretty (adjective) fast (adverb) COMPARATIVE ‘more beautiful (adjective) more slowly (adverb) prettier (adjective) fastest (adverb) SUPERLATIVE most beautiful (adjective) most slowly (adverb) prettiest (adjective) fastest (adjective) RULE: Some aidjectives and adverbs have irregular forms for the Comparative Degree and the Superlative Degree. Examples: SIMPLE cComP. SUPER. good better best bad worse worst little less least badly worse worst RULE: Avoid double Comparatives or double Superlatives. ul Examples: WRONG: CORRECT: more better _ better most best best more greater greater RULE: Distinguish among the adjectives “this”, “these”, “that” and “those”. Examples: IE OBJECT IS NEAR: This apple is rotten. (Singular) These apples are rotten. (Plural) IF OBJECT IS FAR: That apple’ is rotten. (Singular) Those apples are rotten. (Plural) 6. PREPOSITIONS: RULE: Use the preposition “on” to precede the complete date which states the month, day and year. Ex: (On, In) June 5, 1972, Mr. Reyes died. Use the preposition “in” to precede the incomplete date which states only the month and the year, or only the year, or only the month. Examples: 1 (On, In) 1972, Mr. Reyes died. (On, In) June 1972, Mr. Reyes died. The schoolyear always begins (in. on) June. RULE: Use the preposition “between” if there are 2 persons involved. Use the preposition “among” if there are more than two persons involved. Examples: The money was divided (between. among) Ana and Ed. The money was divided (between, among) the three heirs. RULE: Use the preposition “at” to precede the complete address which states the number, the street and the city. Ex.: I live (in, on, at) 64 Katipunan Road, White Plains, Quezon City. RULE: Use the’ preposition “‘on” to precede the name of the street. Ex.: [ive (in, on, af) Katipunan Road. RULE: Use the preposition “in” to precede the name of the city. Ex, I live (in,on, at ) Quezon City. 7. TIPS FOR INCREASING YOUR FLUENCY IN ENGLISH: TIP NO. 1: PRACTICE , PRACTICE, PRACTICE. GET AN ENGLISH BUDDY. TIP NO. 2: DO NOT SPEAK IN TAGLISH. FILL UP THOSE BLANKS! TIP NO. 3: EXPAND YOUR VOCABULARY. FIND OUT THE MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY. LEARN AND USE A NEW WORD EVERYDAY AND JOT IT DOWN. TIP_NO. 4: STUDY THIS HAND-OUT CAREFULLY.