You are on page 1of 10

PALAMANERI HEP (480 MW)

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF CONCRETE LINING IN ROCK

ROCK CLASS A (VERY GOOD ROCK)


Concrete Lining without Reinforcement

Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m


Axial Force = 250 kN (Tension)
Moment = 1 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 300 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-20

Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = 250 X 103


300 X 1000
= 0.883 N/mm2 < 3.2 N/mm2
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

250 X 103
= 1087 mm2
Ast = 230
Provide 16 Ф @ 175 c/c in the middle of section = 1149 mm2
And dist. Steel as 16 Ф @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement

ROCK CLASS B (FAIR ROCK)


Concrete Lining without Reinforcement

Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m


Axial Force = 500 kN (Tension)
Moment = 2 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 300 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-20

Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = 500 X 103


300 X 1000
= 1.67 N/mm2 < 2.8 N/mm2
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)
500 X 103
= 2174 mm2
Ast = 230
Provide20 Ф @ 135 c/c in the middle of section = 2319 mm2
And dist. Steel as 16 Ф @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement = 10.05 mm2
ROCK CLASS C (POOR ROCK)
Concrete Lining without Reinforcement

Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m


Axial Force = 890 kN (Tension)
Moment = 7 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 300 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-20

Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = 890 X 103


350 X 1000
= 2.54 N/mm2 < 2.8 N/mm2
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)
Provide 25 Ф @ 115 c/c in the middle of section
And dist. Steel as 16 Ф @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement

ROCK CLASS D (VERY POOR ROCK)

Concrete Lining without Reinforcement

Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m


Axial Force = 1300 kN (Tension)
Moment = 10 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 450 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-25

Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = 1300 X 103


450 x 1000

≈ 2.89 < 3.2 N/mm2


(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

ROCK CLASS E (VERY POOR ROCK)

Concrete Lining without Reinforcement

Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m


Axial Force = 1470 kN (Tension)
Moment = 13 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 500 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-25
Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = 1470 X 103
500 x 1000

= 2.94 < 3.2 N/mm2


(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

ROCK CLASS F (EXTREMELY POOR ROCK)

Concrete Lining with Reinforcement

Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m


Thickness of Lining = 500 mm
Axial force 'T' = 1810 kN
Moment 'M' = 15 kNm

Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = 1810 X 103


500 x 1000

= 3.62 > 3.2 N/mm2


(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)
Hence, Reinforcement is needed to resist the tensile forces

Here, Tensile Force is very large , as compared to the Moment , so eccentricity will be small

Eccentricity 'e' = M/T = 15 X 106 = 8.29 mm


1810 X 103

In this case, the line of action of the forces lies within the section between the
two layers of steel as shown in the figure below ;

↓ b ↓
At1 d'

D
d1

D e−−−−−−−−−−−−− Axis through C.G. of steel
→T

d2

At2 d'
↑ ↑
The whole section is in tension and the concrete area is ineffective.
The total tensile force acts at a distance 'e' from the c. g. of steel areas, if σ st1 and σst2 are stresses in
steel areas , At1 and At2 , respectively.
Taking moment of tensile forces about the bottom steel,
σst1 X At1 X (d1 + d2) = T (d2-e)
T (d2-e)
or, At1 =
σst1 X (d1 + d2)

= 1810 X 103 (170 - 8.3)


= 2384.2 mm2
0.87 X 415 (170 + 170)

And σst1 X At1 + σst2 X At2 = T

T - σst1 X At1
or, At2 =
σst2

1810X103 - 0.87X415X2500
= = 2513.2 mm2
0.87 X 415

Provide 20 Ф @ 125 c/c on each face


Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = T
Ac + m(Ast)
= 1810 X 103
494974 + 11 X 5026
= 3.29 > 3.2 N/mm2
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)
Just greater than permissible , so it is O. K.
(VERY POOR ROCK)
Concrete Lining with Reinforcement (for internal pressure)

Finished diameter of Tunnel = 10 m


Thickness of Lining = 600 Mm (= D)
Axial force 'T' = kN
Moment 'M' = kNm
Grade of Conc. = M-20
Cover To R/F = 50 mm
Permissible Stress in Concrete = 2.8 N/mm2
Permissible Stress in Steel in = 230 N/mm2 (grade fe 415)
direct tension and flexural tension (Clause: B - 2.2, IS 456 : 2000)

Here, Tensile Force is very large , as compared to the Moment , so eccentricity will be small

As per Carranza -Torres article – Mechanical analysis of circular lines with particular reference to composite supports (Page 1
-Tunnel underground space technology(2009)
r = 5
b = 0.5 m
s = 0.5 m
n=b/s= = 1
D1 = E1A1/(1-v12)
K1 = E1 I1/(1-v12)
For steel
E1 = 200000 Mpa
A1 = 0.00475 m2
v1 = 0.25
I1 = 0.0000513 m4
D1 = 1013333333.33
= 1013.33 MN
K1 = 10944000
= 10.944 MN/m2

For shotcrete
t2 = 0.4 M
E2 = 20000 Mpa
v2 = 0.15
A2 = (1/n) x bt2 – A1 = 0.19525 m2
I2 = (1/n) x bt2^3 /12 – I1 = 0.002615367 m4
D2 = E2 A2/(1-v22) = ###
= 3994.88 MN
K2 = E2 I2/(1-v22) = 53511338.45
= 53.51 MN/m2
teq = sqrt (12(K1+k2)/(D1+D2)) = 0.393 m
Eeq=n(D1+D2)/(bteq) = 25488 Mpa
G= Eeq/2(1+v) = 10892 Mpa

K1/n(K1+K2) = 0.1697919872
K2/n(K1+K2) = 0.8302080128

M1(kNm) =
Beam L/C Node Fx kN Fy kN Mz kNm MK1/n(K1+K2)
3 1 LOAD CASE 1 3 -356.113 78.508 -83.448 -14.17
4 362.927 47.144 100.278 17.03
4 1 LOAD CASE 1 4 -362.695 45.52 -100.278 -17.03
5 363.575 92.709 72.226 12.26
5 1 LOAD CASE 1 5 -370.201 32.465 -72.226 -12.26
6 361.883 106.933 27.96 4.75
6 1 LOAD CASE 1 6 -372.789 14.567 -27.96 -4.75
7 384.847 119.215 -37.296 -6.33
7 1 LOAD CASE 1 7 -400.706 6.648 37.296 6.33
8 429.65 104.391 -95.398 -16.20
8 1 LOAD CASE 1 8 -440.48 33.535 95.398 16.20
9 450.455 71.348 -117.876 -20.01
20 1 LOAD CASE 1 20 -423.403 29.977 -51.386 -8.72
21 423.754 126.511 -0.418 -0.07
21 1 LOAD CASE 1 21 -421.853 6.412 0.418 0.07
22 422.898 149.983 -77.467 -13.15
22 1 LOAD CASE 1 22 -411.476 -12.024 77.467 13.15
1 413.196 168.226 -174.202 -29.58
23 1 LOAD CASE 1 2 -351.648 147.109 6.359 1.08
3 362.039 -20.235 83.448 14.17
24 1 LOAD CASE 1 1 -353.646 220.668 174.202 29.58
2 367.41 -92.08 -6.359 -1.08
-29.578103752
y 125 mm
A 4750 mm2
I 51300000 mm4
fy 230 N/mm2
M 29580000 knm
F 89900 N

σt/0.6fy + σbt/0.66fy IS 800:1984, Cl 7.1.2

0.1371472159 + 0.4748091133 = 0.611956329 <1 OK


Page -8
N = σcA/FS – 9Q2FS/4σcA

FS = 0.67
A = 392987.2 mm2
σt = 2.5 Mpa
N = 1466370.3 - 1.534401E-06 Q2

N Q Q
-1000000.0 551310.2 -551310.2
-500000.0 793601.3 -793601.3
0.0 977580.2 977580.2 12000000.0
500000.0 1132043.8 -1132043.8
1000000.0 1267826.2 -1267826.2 10000000.0
1500000.0 1390411.2 -1390411.2

N (in N)
2000000.0 1503031.4 -1503031.4 8000000.0
2500000.0 1607782.1 -1607782.1
6000000.0
3000000.0 1706113.5 -1706113.5
3500000.0 1799078.5 -1799078.5
4000000.0
4000000.0 1887470.1 -1887470.1
4500000.0 1971903.6 -1971903.6
2000000.0
5000000.0 2052867.2 -2052867.2
5500000.0 2130756.6 -2130756.6
0.0
6000000.0 2205897.5 -2205897.5 0.0 1000000.0 20000
6500000.0 2278561.8 -2278561.8 -2000000.0
7000000.0 2348979.3 -2348979.3 Q( in N)
7500000.0 2417346.5 -2417346.5
8000000.0 2483832.5 -2483832.5
8500000.0 2548584.7 -2548584.7
9000000.0 2611732.0 -2611732.0
9500000.0 2673388.2 -2673388.2
10000000.0 2733654.0 -2733654.0
omposite supports (Page 10-12)
Fx1 = FxD1/(n(D1+D2)) Fx2 = FxD2/(n(D1+D2))
+M(D2K1 – D1K2)/ -M(D2K1 – D1K2)/
M2(kNm) = (nR(D1+D2)(K1+K2)) (nR(D1+D2)(K1+K2))
MK2/n(K1+K2)
-69.28 -71.51 -284.60
83.25 72.78 290.15
-83.25 -72.73 -289.96
59.96 73.09 290.48
-59.96 -74.43 -295.77
23.21 73.04 288.84
-23.21 -75.25 -297.54
-30.96 78.11 306.74
30.96 -81.32 -319.39
-79.20 87.55 342.10
79.20 -89.75 -350.73
-97.86 91.91 358.55
-42.66 -85.33 -338.07
-0.35 85.74 338.01
0.35 -85.36 -336.50
-64.31 86.07 336.83
64.31 -83.76 -327.72
-144.62 84.74 328.46
5.28 -71.19 -280.46
69.28 72.71 289.33
144.62 -72.69 -280.96
-5.28 74.38 293.03
-89.7450150808
1000000.0 2000000.0 3000000.0

Q( in N)