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carranza torres

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You are on page 1of 10

Concrete Lining without Reinforcement

Axial Force = 250 kN (Tension)

Moment = 1 kNm

Thickness of Lining = 300 mm

Grade of Concrete = M-20

300 X 1000

= 0.883 N/mm2 < 3.2 N/mm2

(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

250 X 103

= 1087 mm2

Ast = 230

Provide 16 Ф @ 175 c/c in the middle of section = 1149 mm2

And dist. Steel as 16 Ф @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement

Concrete Lining without Reinforcement

Axial Force = 500 kN (Tension)

Moment = 2 kNm

Thickness of Lining = 300 mm

Grade of Concrete = M-20

300 X 1000

= 1.67 N/mm2 < 2.8 N/mm2

(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

500 X 103

= 2174 mm2

Ast = 230

Provide20 Ф @ 135 c/c in the middle of section = 2319 mm2

And dist. Steel as 16 Ф @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement = 10.05 mm2

ROCK CLASS C (POOR ROCK)

Concrete Lining without Reinforcement

Axial Force = 890 kN (Tension)

Moment = 7 kNm

Thickness of Lining = 300 mm

Grade of Concrete = M-20

350 X 1000

= 2.54 N/mm2 < 2.8 N/mm2

(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

Provide 25 Ф @ 115 c/c in the middle of section

And dist. Steel as 16 Ф @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement

Axial Force = 1300 kN (Tension)

Moment = 10 kNm

Thickness of Lining = 450 mm

Grade of Concrete = M-25

450 x 1000

(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

Axial Force = 1470 kN (Tension)

Moment = 13 kNm

Thickness of Lining = 500 mm

Grade of Concrete = M-25

Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = 1470 X 103

500 x 1000

(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

Thickness of Lining = 500 mm

Axial force 'T' = 1810 kN

Moment 'M' = 15 kNm

500 x 1000

(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

Hence, Reinforcement is needed to resist the tensile forces

Here, Tensile Force is very large , as compared to the Moment , so eccentricity will be small

1810 X 103

In this case, the line of action of the forces lies within the section between the

two layers of steel as shown in the figure below ;

↓ b ↓

At1 d'

D

d1

↓

D e−−−−−−−−−−−−− Axis through C.G. of steel

→T

↑

d2

At2 d'

↑ ↑

The whole section is in tension and the concrete area is ineffective.

The total tensile force acts at a distance 'e' from the c. g. of steel areas, if σ st1 and σst2 are stresses in

steel areas , At1 and At2 , respectively.

Taking moment of tensile forces about the bottom steel,

σst1 X At1 X (d1 + d2) = T (d2-e)

T (d2-e)

or, At1 =

σst1 X (d1 + d2)

= 2384.2 mm2

0.87 X 415 (170 + 170)

T - σst1 X At1

or, At2 =

σst2

1810X103 - 0.87X415X2500

= = 2513.2 mm2

0.87 X 415

Tensile Stress developed in Concrete = T

Ac + m(Ast)

= 1810 X 103

494974 + 11 X 5026

= 3.29 > 3.2 N/mm2

(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

Just greater than permissible , so it is O. K.

(VERY POOR ROCK)

Concrete Lining with Reinforcement (for internal pressure)

Thickness of Lining = 600 Mm (= D)

Axial force 'T' = kN

Moment 'M' = kNm

Grade of Conc. = M-20

Cover To R/F = 50 mm

Permissible Stress in Concrete = 2.8 N/mm2

Permissible Stress in Steel in = 230 N/mm2 (grade fe 415)

direct tension and flexural tension (Clause: B - 2.2, IS 456 : 2000)

Here, Tensile Force is very large , as compared to the Moment , so eccentricity will be small

As per Carranza -Torres article – Mechanical analysis of circular lines with particular reference to composite supports (Page 1

-Tunnel underground space technology(2009)

r = 5

b = 0.5 m

s = 0.5 m

n=b/s= = 1

D1 = E1A1/(1-v12)

K1 = E1 I1/(1-v12)

For steel

E1 = 200000 Mpa

A1 = 0.00475 m2

v1 = 0.25

I1 = 0.0000513 m4

D1 = 1013333333.33

= 1013.33 MN

K1 = 10944000

= 10.944 MN/m2

For shotcrete

t2 = 0.4 M

E2 = 20000 Mpa

v2 = 0.15

A2 = (1/n) x bt2 – A1 = 0.19525 m2

I2 = (1/n) x bt2^3 /12 – I1 = 0.002615367 m4

D2 = E2 A2/(1-v22) = ###

= 3994.88 MN

K2 = E2 I2/(1-v22) = 53511338.45

= 53.51 MN/m2

teq = sqrt (12(K1+k2)/(D1+D2)) = 0.393 m

Eeq=n(D1+D2)/(bteq) = 25488 Mpa

G= Eeq/2(1+v) = 10892 Mpa

K1/n(K1+K2) = 0.1697919872

K2/n(K1+K2) = 0.8302080128

M1(kNm) =

Beam L/C Node Fx kN Fy kN Mz kNm MK1/n(K1+K2)

3 1 LOAD CASE 1 3 -356.113 78.508 -83.448 -14.17

4 362.927 47.144 100.278 17.03

4 1 LOAD CASE 1 4 -362.695 45.52 -100.278 -17.03

5 363.575 92.709 72.226 12.26

5 1 LOAD CASE 1 5 -370.201 32.465 -72.226 -12.26

6 361.883 106.933 27.96 4.75

6 1 LOAD CASE 1 6 -372.789 14.567 -27.96 -4.75

7 384.847 119.215 -37.296 -6.33

7 1 LOAD CASE 1 7 -400.706 6.648 37.296 6.33

8 429.65 104.391 -95.398 -16.20

8 1 LOAD CASE 1 8 -440.48 33.535 95.398 16.20

9 450.455 71.348 -117.876 -20.01

20 1 LOAD CASE 1 20 -423.403 29.977 -51.386 -8.72

21 423.754 126.511 -0.418 -0.07

21 1 LOAD CASE 1 21 -421.853 6.412 0.418 0.07

22 422.898 149.983 -77.467 -13.15

22 1 LOAD CASE 1 22 -411.476 -12.024 77.467 13.15

1 413.196 168.226 -174.202 -29.58

23 1 LOAD CASE 1 2 -351.648 147.109 6.359 1.08

3 362.039 -20.235 83.448 14.17

24 1 LOAD CASE 1 1 -353.646 220.668 174.202 29.58

2 367.41 -92.08 -6.359 -1.08

-29.578103752

y 125 mm

A 4750 mm2

I 51300000 mm4

fy 230 N/mm2

M 29580000 knm

F 89900 N

Page -8

N = σcA/FS – 9Q2FS/4σcA

FS = 0.67

A = 392987.2 mm2

σt = 2.5 Mpa

N = 1466370.3 - 1.534401E-06 Q2

N Q Q

-1000000.0 551310.2 -551310.2

-500000.0 793601.3 -793601.3

0.0 977580.2 977580.2 12000000.0

500000.0 1132043.8 -1132043.8

1000000.0 1267826.2 -1267826.2 10000000.0

1500000.0 1390411.2 -1390411.2

N (in N)

2000000.0 1503031.4 -1503031.4 8000000.0

2500000.0 1607782.1 -1607782.1

6000000.0

3000000.0 1706113.5 -1706113.5

3500000.0 1799078.5 -1799078.5

4000000.0

4000000.0 1887470.1 -1887470.1

4500000.0 1971903.6 -1971903.6

2000000.0

5000000.0 2052867.2 -2052867.2

5500000.0 2130756.6 -2130756.6

0.0

6000000.0 2205897.5 -2205897.5 0.0 1000000.0 20000

6500000.0 2278561.8 -2278561.8 -2000000.0

7000000.0 2348979.3 -2348979.3 Q( in N)

7500000.0 2417346.5 -2417346.5

8000000.0 2483832.5 -2483832.5

8500000.0 2548584.7 -2548584.7

9000000.0 2611732.0 -2611732.0

9500000.0 2673388.2 -2673388.2

10000000.0 2733654.0 -2733654.0

omposite supports (Page 10-12)

Fx1 = FxD1/(n(D1+D2)) Fx2 = FxD2/(n(D1+D2))

+M(D2K1 – D1K2)/ -M(D2K1 – D1K2)/

M2(kNm) = (nR(D1+D2)(K1+K2)) (nR(D1+D2)(K1+K2))

MK2/n(K1+K2)

-69.28 -71.51 -284.60

83.25 72.78 290.15

-83.25 -72.73 -289.96

59.96 73.09 290.48

-59.96 -74.43 -295.77

23.21 73.04 288.84

-23.21 -75.25 -297.54

-30.96 78.11 306.74

30.96 -81.32 -319.39

-79.20 87.55 342.10

79.20 -89.75 -350.73

-97.86 91.91 358.55

-42.66 -85.33 -338.07

-0.35 85.74 338.01

0.35 -85.36 -336.50

-64.31 86.07 336.83

64.31 -83.76 -327.72

-144.62 84.74 328.46

5.28 -71.19 -280.46

69.28 72.71 289.33

144.62 -72.69 -280.96

-5.28 74.38 293.03

-89.7450150808

1000000.0 2000000.0 3000000.0

Q( in N)

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