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AMU_AMiT_Civil Eng’g Dep’t 2014/15

SAP 2000 V 14.0.0 TRAINING MANUAL

“The software will give you a result, whether the input is right or wrong. The rightness of the
output depends on the validity of the input.” I

Manual I: THE ANALYSIS OF BEAM


Applications of Beam Analysis:

The analysis of beams is applicable in the following areas:

 Analysis of beams – under various loading conditions,


 As an approximate analysis of stairs – where the inclined part will be treated as a
horizontal part by distributing the load over a projected length,
 Analysis of one way slabs, etc.

Steps for beam analysis using SAP 2000

1. Open the SAP 2000 software. This can be done by various means.
i) Double click on the shortcut icon of the software that appears on the desktop. Or
ii) If the software is pinned to the taskbar, double click on it.
2. Set the unit.
On the displayed interface of the software, at the bottom of the right hand corner, you
will find a drop down list of units. From this list select the suitable set of unit for your
analysis purpose. I will proceed with KN, m, ◦C.
3. Begin a new model.
File>New Model (And the following New Model options will be displayed.)

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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SAP 2000 V 14.0.0 TRAINING MANUAL

 Select Grid Only from the options. This will help you draw a beam of any shape, span
arrangement and support condition.
 To proceed from this point onwards let us make use of examples to get the clear idea of
how to perform the analysis.
@teliku_Example #1/beam
 Span length: 5m
 Supports: Fixed at the left end & Roller at the right end.
 Cross section: D=500mm and b=300mm
 Materials C-25 and S-300
 Loadings:
 DL= 12KN/m (Note that this dead load doesn’t include the self-weight of
the beam, because the program will calculate this value depending on the
Weight per Unit volume value that we will feed in.)
 LL=4.25 KN/m (where does the live load on a beam come from?)

Let us resume from where we stopped.

 A quick grid lines dialogue box will be displayed on the screen you are working on.

 Number of grid lines- these are the set of lines that can help us draw our beam model,
provided that they will give us the joints where we will assign the supports and a frame

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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SAP 2000 V 14.0.0 TRAINING MANUAL

element or portion of a frame element with different kind of loading. These are the two
criteria’s for defining the No of Grid Lines.
I intend to draw the beam along the x-axis.
 No of grid lines on x-axis: 2 (Since there is only one span two grids that will
define the boundary are enough. In addition to this the loading on this span does
not vary.)
 Set the No of grids on y- and z- axis to 1 as we intend to draw a line along x-axis.
 Grid Spacing- this will help us define the span length.
 x-direction grid spacing= 5
 the grid spacing in y- and z- direction assign 1.
 OK!
The following window will be displayed.

4. Defining Material
Define > Materials > Add new Material
To define our C-25 concrete:
 Material Name and display color= C25
 Material type= Concrete (select this from the list that you will get after clicking on the
drop down arrow)
 Weight per unit volume= 24 KN/m3
 Modulus of Elasticity, E= 29,000,000 KN/m2 (EBCS 2 specifies that E= 29 GPa for C25
concrete. Note that for the other classes of concrete the value of E is different.)
 Poisson’ ratio= 0.15 (the code specifies that the value of poisson ratio can be adopted
between 0 and 0.2)
 Coefficient of thermal expansion= 0.00001

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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SAP 2000 V 14.0.0 TRAINING MANUAL

Specified concrete compressive strength= 20,000 (for C25 concrete, the characteristics
cylinder compressive strength as specified in EBCS 2)
 OK! > OK!
To define our reinforcement bar:
Define > Materials > Add new materials
 Material name and display color: S300
 Material type: Rebar (choose this from the drop down list)
 Weight per unit volume= 77 KN/m3 (for a rebar which is made of steel)
 E=200,000,000 KN/m2 ( 200 GPa)
 U=0.3
 Α= 0.00001
 Min yield stress= Expected yield stress= 300000 KN/m2
 Min tensile stress= Expected tensile stress= 500000 KN/m2
 OK! > OK!

AASHTO M31 M Grade Grade 300 Grade 420 Grade 520

Equiv. European bars B500B Ks60

(Old AASHTO M31 Grade) (40) (60) (75)

Tensile strength, min. MPa 500 620 690

Yield strength, min. Mpa 300 420 520

5. Define the Section


 Define > Section Properties > Frame Sections > Add new property … (an add frame section
property dialogue box will be displayed.)
 Frame section property type: Concrete
 Select the rectangular cross-section by clicking on it, since it is the type of beam we are
working with.
 Section name: BEAM
 Material: Select concrete from the drop down list
 Depth =0.5m
 Width = 0.3m
 Click on concrete reinforcement
 For a rebar material for both longitudinal and tie, select S300 from the drop down list.
 Design type: Beam (M3 Design only)
 Concrete cover: 0.025m (both at the top and at the bottom)
 OK > Ok > Ok!
6. Draw the Beam
 Click somewhere in the left window to make it active; i.e the window you are working on
 Set the window you are working on to xz- plane

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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SAP 2000 V 14.0.0 TRAINING MANUAL

 Click the Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon button ( ) or use the Draw menu > Draw
Frame/Cable/Tendon command. If you accessed the Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon
command via the Draw menu, the Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon button will depress
verifying your command selection.
Note that the cursor will change from the select mode ( ) to the draw mode.
The following dialogue box will also appear on the screen. Make sure that the section
type is beam.

 Click on each joints (from left to right) to draw the beam. Note that when the cursor is on
the joint, the joint will be displayed by a red color. The drawn member will be displayed
in yellow color.
 Click on an esc key on your keyboard to get back to the select mode. Alternatively, you
can click on the Select button .
7. Assign the Supports
 Select the left joint by clicking on it. (if you have selected it right, it will be displayed by a cross of
broken lines)
 Assign > Joint > Restraints

->fixed support; -> pin support; -> roller support AND -> hinge.

 Select the fixed support from the restraint options that are displayed, as the left end support is
fixed. > OK!
 Following similar procedure assign a roller support at the right joint.

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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8. Define Load Patterns


 Define > Load patterns (And the following will be displayed on the screen)

 As you can see the dead load is already defined. Since there is also a live load that
acts on the beam let us define it.
 Load pattern name: LIVE
 Type: Select live from the drop down list
 Make sure that the self-weight multiplier for live load is zero.
 Click on Add New Load Pattern > OK!
9. Delete the Modal load case, as we are not running a dynamic analysis.
 Define > Load cases > Click on the Modal > Delete Load Case > Yes > Ok!
10. Define load combination
 Define > Load combinations > Add New Combo
 Load combination name: Combo1
 Insert a scale factor of 1.3 for Dead > Add > Select a load case name of Live
from the drop down list > Insert a scale factor of 1.6 for live > Add > Ok >ok!
11. Assign the Loads
 Select the beam by clicking on it. The selected element will be displayed by a broken
line.
 Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed (both the dead and live load are distributed)
 Load pattern name: DEAD
 Since the dead load we are working with is a distributed uniform load, insert a
value of 12 KN/m @ Uniform Load.
 Ok!
 Select the beam by clicking on it.
 Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed
 Load pattern name: LIVE (select from the drop down list)
 Since the dead load we are working with is a distributed uniform load, insert a
value of 4.25 KN/m @ Uniform Load.
 Ok!

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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12. Run the Analysis


 Analyze > Set analysis options > Plane Frame > OK!
 Analyze > Run Analysis > Run Now
 You will be asked to save the model. Save the model wherever you want. Once you saved
the model, the program will complete the analysis.
13. Graphically view the results
Display > Show forces/ stresses > Frames/ Cables/…
 Case or Combo name: COMB1
 Component: Moment 3-3 (to see the bending moment diagram)
 Scaling: Auto
 Option: Show values on diagram
 OK!
 The bending moment diagram will appear on the window.
 Right click on the member will generate all the results at this point. And we can see the
support reactions, the deflection, the shear force and the bending moments at critical
sections.
 We can then use these values for design of the sections.

@teliku_Example #2/beam

4m 3m 1.5m

Use the same section and the same material as in example #1. Assume the beam is only under an action
of dead loads which are shown in the figure above.

 Open the program > set the units > File > New Model > Grid Only.
 In the quick grid lines fill the following data accordingly.
No of grid lines: Since the beam is of three spans we need at least 4 grid lines in the x-direction,
as we will draw our beam along x-axis. If there are two or more kinds of distributed load
arrangements on the beam, we may need more than four grid lines, as per the specific case. In
the y- and z- direction set the number of grid lines to 1.
Grid spacing: 4 in x-direction (since there are three different span lengths, we will edit this
later); use 1 for the other directions. -> OK!
 Set the left window to an xz- plane view by clicking on xz on the toolbar.
 Right click somewhere on the left window > Edit Grid data > Modify or show system.
And a Define Grid System Data dialogue box will be displayed.

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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 Display grid as: Spacing


 Span A->B is 4m. Note that this value will be entered in the box in front of Grid ID A.
Similarly, 3m @ B and 1.5m @ C.
 Then OK > OK!
Now we have a grid line that can let us draw the beam
 Define the materials and the section of the beam inexactly the same way as in example #1.
 The next step is drawing the beam.
Draw > Draw Frame/ Cable/ Tendon.
Caution: To draw the beam, we should click on each frame joint, one after the other starting
from the left end. If we draw as one member by clicking at the two ends only, it won’t let us
impose the different loading conditions on each span and it also won’t let us assign the interior
supports.
 Assign respective supports at each point as shown in the figure.
 No need to define load patterns, as DEAD load is already program defined.
 Delete the modal load case.
 No need to define load combination, since there is only one load. Had there been more than
one load we will follow exactly the same procedure as in example #1.
ASSIGNING OF THE LOADS
 Select the span between A and B by clicking on it.
Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed
 Load pattern name: DEAD
 Since the dead load we are working with is a distributed uniform load, insert a value
of 4 KN/m @ Uniform Load.
 Ok!
 Select the span between B and C by clicking on it.
Assign > Frame Loads > Point load
 Load pattern name: DEAD
 Since the dead load we are working with is a point load acting at mid-span,
Check the distance measurement as Relative,
@Distance= 0.5 -> Load =15KN (Note that the 0.5 relative distance indicate the mid-
span AND at the other points in the table the load should be ZERO.)
 Ok!
 Select the span between C and D by clicking on it.
Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed
 Load pattern name: DEAD
 Check the distance measurement as relative
 Since the dead load we are working with is a distributed triangular, insert a values as
follows: @ Distance= 0, Load =5 KN/m AND set the remaining points in the dialogue box
as @Distance=1, Load=0.
 Ok!

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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 Run the analysis and view the results!!!

REMEMBER, PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT!

EXERCISES:

1. If you are performing an analysis of stair as an approximate beam by projecting the inclined
length to a horizontal plane, you will encounter the same situation.
Section: D=150 mm and b= 1250 mm
Use the same material as in the examples.

1.2 m 2.5 m 1.2 m

Loading condition on each span:

AB BC CD
Dead load (KN/m) 5 6.25 5
Live load 3 3.45 3
2. Perform analysis of a 12 m simply supported I-section beam under a superimposed dead load of
35 KN/m and a live load of 12.5 KN/m.
 Outside height= 0.3048 m
 Top-flange width= 0.127 m
 Top flange thickness= 9.652 mm
 Web thickness= 6.350 mm
 Bottom flange width = 0.127 m
 Bottom flange thickness= 9.652 mm

To define the properties of structural steel material, please refer EBCS 3/ 95.

Good luck!

Prepared by: ትልቁ (Nigussie HAILU Jr.) E-mail: nigus_teliku@yahoo.com


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