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INTRODUCTION

Human motives are based on needs, whether consciously or subconsciously felt.


Some are primary needs, such as the physiological. Requirements for water, air, food and
shelter. Other needs may be regarded as secondary, such as self-esteem, status, affiliation
with others, affection, giving accomplishment, and self assertion. Motivation is a general
term applying to the entire class of live, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces.

"Motivation" is a Latin word, meaning "to move". Human motives are internalized
goals within individuals. A motive is an inner state that energies, activates or moves and
directs or channels behavior towards goals. All human behavior is designed to achieve certain
goals and objectives. Such goals directed behavior revolves around the desire for need
satisfaction. The needs set up drives to accomplish goals. Motivation consists of the three
interaction and interdependent elements of needs, drives and goals.

The purpose of motivation is to create conditions in which people are willing to work
with zeal, initiative, interest and enthusiasm, with a high personal and group more
satisfaction, with sense of responsibility, and discipline and with pride and confidence in a
most cohesive manner so that the goals of an organization are achieved effectively.

A positive motivation involves the possibility of increased motive satisfaction, while


negative motivation involves the possibility of decreased motive satisfaction. "Positive" or
incentive motivation is generally based on reward .According to Flippo, positive motivation
is a process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or
reward. People work for incentives on the form of the four ‘Po’s of motivation; praise,
prestige, promotion and pay cheque."Negative" or "fear" motivation is based on force and
fear. Fear causes persons to act in a certain way because they are afraid of the consequences
in they don't. If workers do not work, they are threatened with mechanism. Negative
motivation has certain limitations, through its use only the minimum of effort is put in to
avoid punishment. Moreover the imposition of punishment frequently result in frustration
among those punished, leading to the development of maladaptive behavior.

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NEED OF THE STUDY:

The focus of the present study is to find the importance of motivation of employees in
Sagar cement.

It is also intended to study how the employees motivate and what are the motives
behind their motivation in the organization.

An attempt has also been made to study the impact of selected biographical factors,
naively, age, sex, designation, marital status, salary, length of service in the present
organization.

Scope of study

The present study confined to the Motivation Sagar cement. The study also covered
the procedure of Employee Motivation measures implemented in the company and the
opinions of employees regarding the Employee Motivation measures implemented by the
company.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

The objectives of the study are:

1. To identify the needs of the employees.

2. To identify the motivators those are motivating employees in the organization to


achieve their goals

3. To examine the level of motivation in employees to perform the job.

4. To know the impact of motivation on job satisfaction this leads to job performance.

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RESEARCH METHOLODOGY:

The researcher was attempting to submit briefly the methodology adopted by him to
make his subject of the study more effective and useful in both academic and practical fields.
In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data that are appropriate. There are
several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ considerably in context of money
cost, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher. Since, the subject of the study
needs methodology of empirical study nature of project the study more effect. The researcher
has adopted both methods namely primary and secondary for collecting the data. Information
regarding motivation has been collected through publications like human capital and
available old literature forms the sources of secondary data for the study.

Primary data:

The researcher has adopted questionnaires method for collecting more reliable and
accurate data for the purpose of the study. Personal interviews have been conducted to the
employees to discuss the factors that are behind their motivation and to justify the study. The
research discussed on many issues relating to the motivation.

Secondary data.

Secondary data’s are in the form of finished products as they have already been treated
statistically in some form or other. The secondary data mainly consists of data and
information collected from records, company websites and also discussion with the
management of the organization. Secondary data was also collected from journals, magazines
and books.

SAMPLE DESIGN:

The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample or what is popularly known
as the sample design. Since the topic is on motivation almost all department employees have
been taken for the sample study. The researcher has made sample design on satisfied
sampling basis to interview the employees Sagar cement has been selected for sampling.

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SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

Samples of 100 employees working in different departments are taken into


consideration to conduct the study.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:

 The organization derived from the study may not be authentically applicable to the
organizations

 There were some difficulties in ranking their response to the statements.

 Based on those responses ranking was given on logical basis to the extent possible.

 The analysis of motivation is carried out based on only some identified factors. The
study is totally confined to the company premises only.

 As time period is not more it became inconvenient to gather much information.

 Some of the data is collected from secondary sources. Where accurate data is not
available.

 A sample of 100 employees is selected from the whole company to take opinion as
time is not sufficient.

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INDUSTRY PROFILE

In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and
hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to
the Romans, who used the term "opus caementicium" to describe masonry which resembled
concrete and was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and
pulverized brick additives which were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder
were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment and cement. Cements used in
construction are characterized as hydraulic or no hydraulic.

The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete—the
bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to form a strong building material which is durable
in the face of normal environmental effects.

Concrete should not be confused with cement because the term cement refers only to
the dry powder substance used to bind the aggregate materials of concrete. Upon the addition
of water and/or additives the cement mixture is referred to as concrete, especially if
aggregates have been added.

History of the origin of cement

It is uncertain where it was first discovered that a combination of hydrated no


hydraulic lime and a pozzolan produces a hydraulic mixture (see also Pozzolanic reaction),
but concrete made from such mixtures was first used on a large scale by Roman engineers.
They used both natural pozzolans (trass or pumice) and artificial pozzolans (ground brick or
pottery) in these concretes. Many excellent examples of structures made from these concretes
are still standing, notably the huge monolithic dome of the Pantheon in Rome and the
massive Baths of Caracalla.

The vast system of Roman aqueducts also made extensive use of hydraulic cement.
The use of structural concrete disappeared in medieval Europe, although weak pozzolanic
concretes continued to be used as a core fill in stone walls and columns.

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Modern cement

Modern hydraulic cements began to be developed from the start of the Industrial Revolution
(around 1800), driven by three main needs

 Hydraulic renders for finishing brick buildings in wet climates

 Hydraulic mortars for masonry construction of harbor works etc, in contact with sea
water.

 Development of strong concretes.

In Britain particularly, good quality building stone became ever more expensive during a
period of rapid growth, and it became a common practice to construct prestige buildings from
the new industrial bricks, and to finish them with a stucco to imitate stone. Hydraulic limes
were favored for this, but the need for a fast set time encouraged the development of new
cements. Most famous was Parker's "Roman cement." This was developed by James Parker
in the 1780s, and finally patented in 1796. It was, in fact, nothing like any material used by
the Romans, but was a "Natural cement" made by burning septaria nodules that are found in
certain clay deposits, and that contain both clay minerals and calcium carbonate. The burnt
nodules were ground to a fine powder.

This product, made into a mortar with sand, set in 5–15 minutes. The success of
"Roman Cement" led other manufacturers to develop rival products by burning artificial
mixtures of clay and chalk. John Smeaton made an important contribution to the development
of cements when he was planning the construction of the third Eddystone Lighthouse (17559)
in the English Channel. He needed a hydraulic mortar that would set and develop some
strength in the twelve hour period between successive high tides. He performed an exhaustive
market research on the available hydraulic limes, visiting their production sites, and noted
that the "hydraulicity" of the lime was directly related to the clay content of the limestone
from which it was made. Smeaton was a civil engineer by profession, and took the idea no
further. Apparently unaware of Smeaton's work, the same principle was identified by Louis
Vicat in the first decade of the nineteenth century. Vicat went on to devise a method of
combining chalk and clay into an intimate mixture, and, burning this, produced an "artificial
cement" in 1817.

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James Frost working in Britain, produced what he called "British cement" in a similar
manner around the same time, but did not obtain a patent until 1822. In 1824, Joseph Aspdin
patented a similar material, which he called Portland cement, because the render made from it
was in color similar to the prestigious Portland stone.

All the above products could not compete with lime/pozzolan concretes because of
fastsetting (giving insufficient time for placement) and low early strengths (requiring a delay
of many weeks before formwork could be removed).

Hydraulic limes, "natural" cements and "artificial" cements all rely upon their belite
content for strength development. Belite develops strength slowly. Because they were burned
at temperatures below 1250 °C, they contained no alite, which is responsible for early
strength in modern cements.

The first cement to consistently contain alite was made by Joseph Aspdin's son
William in the early 1840s. This was what we call today "modern" Portland cement. Because
of the air of mystery with which William Aspdin surrounded his product, others (e.g. Vicat
and I C Johnson) have claimed precedence in this invention, but recent analysis of both his
concrete and raw cement have shown that William Aspdin's product made at Northfleet, Kent
was a true alitebased cement. However, Aspdin's methods were "ruleofthumb" Vicat is
responsible for establishing the chemical basis of these cements, and Johnson established the
importance of sintering the mix in the kiln.

William Aspdin's innovation was counterintuitive for manufacturers of "artificial


cements", because they required more lime in the mix (a problem for his father), because they
required a much higher kiln temperature (and therefore more fuel) and because the resulting
clinker was very hard and rapidly wore down the millstones which were the only available
grinding technology of the time. Manufacturing costs were therefore considerably higher, but
the product set reasonably slowly and developed strength quickly, thus opening up a market
for use in concrete. The use of concrete in construction grew rapidly from 1850 onwards, and
was soon the dominant use for cements. Thus Portland cement began its predominant role. it
is made from water and sand

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Types of modern cement

Portland cement

Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate), with small quantities of


other materials (such as clay) to 1450°C in a kiln, in a process known as calcinations,
whereby a molecule of carbon dioxide is liberated from the calcium carbonate to form
calcium oxide, or lime, which is then blended with the other materials that have been
included in the mix. The resulting hard substance, called 'clinker', is then ground with a small
amount of gypsum into a powder to make 'Ordinary Portland Cement', the most commonly
used type of cement (often referred to as OPC).Portland cement is a basic ingredient of
concrete, mortar and most nonspeciality grout. The most common use for Portland cement is
in the production of concrete. Concrete is a composite material consisting of aggregate
(gravel and sand), cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete can be cast in
almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can become a structural (load bearing) element.
Portland cement may be gray or white.

Portland cement blends

These are often available as underground mixtures from cement manufacturers, but
similar formulations are often also mixed from the ground components at the concrete mixing
plant.

Portland blast furnace cement

Contains up to 70% ground granulated blast furnace slag, with the rest Portland
clinker and a little gypsum. All compositions produce high ultimate strength, but as slag
content is increased, early strength is reduced, while sulfate resistance increases and heat
evolution diminishes. Used as an economic alternative to Portland sulfate resisting and low
heat cements.

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Portland flyash cement

Contains up to 30% fly ash. The fly ash is pozzolanic, so that ultimate strength is
maintained. Because fly ash addition allows a lower concrete water content, early strength
can also be maintained. Where good quality cheap fly ash is available, this can be an
economic alternative to ordinary Portland cement.

Portland pozzolan cement

includes fly ash cement, since fly ash is a pozzolan, but also includes cements made
from other natural or artificial pozzolans. In countries where volcanic ashes are available (e.g.
Italy, Chile, Mexico, the Philippines) these cements are often the most common form in use.

Portland silica fume cement.

Addition of silica fume can yield exceptionally high strengths, and cements
containing 520% silica fume are occasionally produced. However, silica fume is more usually
added to Portland cement at the concrete mixer

Masonry cements

Used for preparing bricklaying mortars and stuccos, and must not be used in concrete.
They are usually complex proprietary formulations containing Portland clinker and a number
of other ingredients that may include limestone, hydrated lime, air entertainers, retarders,
water proofers and coloring agents. They are formulated to yield workable mortars that allow
rapid and consistent masonry work. Subtle variations of Masonry cement in the US are
Plastic Cements and Stucco Cements. These are designed to produce controlled bond with
masonry blocks.

Expansive cements

Contain, in addition to Portland clinker, expansive clinkers (usually sulfoaluminate


clinkers), and are designed to offset the effects of drying shrinkage that is normally
encountered with hydraulic cements. This allows large floor slabs (up to 60 m square) to be
prepared without contraction joints.

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White blended cements

May be made using white clinker and white supplementary materials such as
highpurity met kaolin.

Colored cements

Used for decorative purposes. In some standards, the addition of pigments to produce
"colored Portland cement" is allowed. In other standards (e.g. ASTM), pigments are not
allowed constituents of Portland cement, and colored cements are sold as "blended hydraulic
cements".

Very finely ground cements

Made from mixtures of cement with sand or with slag or other pozzolan type minerals
which are extremely finely ground together. Such cements can have the same physical
characteristics as normal cement but with 50% less cement particularly due to their increased
surface area for the chemical reaction. Even with intensive grinding they can use up to 50%
less energy to fabricate than ordinary Portland cements.

NonPortland hydraulic cements

Pozzolanlime cements.

Mixtures of ground pozzolan and lime are the cements used by the Romans, and are to
be found in Roman structures still standing (e.g. the Pantheon in Rome). They develop
strength slowly, but their ultimate strength can be very high. The hydration products that
produce strength are essentially the same as those produced by Portland cement.

Slaglime cements.

Ground granulated blast furnace slag is not hydraulic on its own, but is "activated" by
addition of alkalis, most economically using lime. They are similar to pozzolan lime cements
in their properties. Only granulated slag (i.e. waterquenched, glassy slag) is effective as a
cement component.

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Supersulfated cements

These contain about 80% ground granulated blast furnace slag, 15% gypsum or
anhydrite and a little Portland clinker or lime as an activator. They produce strength by
formation of ettringite, with strength growth similar to a slow Portland cement. They exhibit
good resistance to aggressive agents, including sulfate.

Calcium aluminate cements

Hydraulic cements made primarily from limestone and bauxite. The active ingredients
are monocalcium aluminate CaAl2O4 (CaO · Al2O3 or CA in Cement chemist notation, CCN)
and mayenite Ca12Al14O33 (12 CaO · 7 Al2O3 , or C12A7 in CCN). Strength forms by
hydration to calcium aluminate hydrates. They are welladapted for use in refractory
(hightemperature resistant) concretes, e.g. for furnace linings.

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements

Made from clinkers that include ye'elimite (Ca4(AlO2)6SO4 or C4A3 in Cement


chemist's notation) as a primary phase. They are used in expansive cements, in ultrahigh early
strength cements, and in "lowenergy" cements. Hydration produces ettringite, and specialized
physical properties (such as expansion or rapid reaction) are obtained by adjustment of the
availability of calcium and sulfate ions. Their use as a lowenergy alternative to Portland
cement has been pioneered in China, where several million tons per year are produced.
Energy requirements are lower because of the lower kiln temperatures required for reaction,
and the lower amount of limestone (which must be endothermic ally decarbonated) in the
mix. In addition, the lower limestone content and lower fuel consumption leads to a CO2
emission around half that associated with Portland clinker. However, SO2 emissions are
usually significantly higher.

"Natural" Cements correspond to certain cements of the prePortland era, produced


by burning argillaceous limestones at moderate temperatures. The level of clay components
in the limestone (around 3035%) is such that large amounts of belittle (the low early strength,
high late strength mineral in Portland cement) are formed without the formation of excessive
amounts of free lime. As with any natural material, such cements have highly variable
properties.
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Geopolymer cements

Made from mixtures of water-soluble alkali metal silicates and aluminosilicate


mineral powders such as fly ash and met kaolin.

The setting of cement

Cement sets when mixed with water by way of a complex series of chemical reactions
still only partly understood. The component constituents slowly crystallise and the locking
together of the crystals gives it strength. Carbon Dioxide is slowly absorbed to convert the
Lime into insoluble calcium carbonate. After the initial setting, immersion in warm water will
speed up setting.

Environmental and social impacts

Cement manufacture causes environmental impacts at all stages of the process. These
include emissions of airborne pollution in the form of dust, gases, noise and vibration when
operating machinery and during blasting in quarries, and damage to countryside from
quarrying. Equipment to reduce dust emissions during quarrying and manufacture of cement
is widely used, and equipment to trap and separate exhaust gases are coming into increased
use. Environmental protection also includes the reintegration of quarries into the countryside
after they have been closed down by returning them to nature or recultivating them.

Climate

Cement manufacture contributes greenhouse gases both directly through the


production of carbon dioxide when calcium carbonate is heated, producing lime and carbon
dioxide,[14] and also indirectly through the use of energy, particularly if the energy is sourced
from fossil fuels. The cement industry produces about 5% of global manmade CO2 emissions,
of which 50% is from the chemical process, and 40% from burning fuel. The amount of CO2
emitted by the cement industry is nearly 900 kg of CO2 for every 1000 kg of cement
produced. One alternative, in certain applications, lime mortar, reabsorbs the CO2 chemically
released in its manufacture, and has a lower energy requirement in production. Newly
developed cement types from Novacem and Ecocement can absorb carbon dioxide from
ambient air during hardening.

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Fuels and raw materials

A cement plant consumes 3 to 6 GJ of fuel per tonne of clinker produced, depending


on the raw materials and the process used. Most cement kilns today use coal and petroleum
coke as primary fuels, and to a lesser extent natural gas and fuel oil. Selected waste and
byproducts with recoverable calorific value can be used as fuels in a cement kiln, replacing a
portion of conventional fossil fuels, like coal, if they meet strict specifications.

Selected waste and byproducts containing useful minerals such as calcium, silica,
alumina, and iron can be used as raw materials in the kiln, replacing raw materials such as
clay, shale, and limestone. Because some materials have both useful mineral content and
recoverable calorific value, the distinction between alternative fuels and raw materials is not
always clear. For example, sewage sludge has a low but significant calorific value, and burns
to give ash containing minerals useful in the clinker matrix.

Cement industry

In 2002 the world production of hydraulic cement was 1,800 million metric tons. The top
three producers were China with 704, India with 100, and the United States with 91 million
metric tons for a combined total of about half the world total by the world's three most
populous states.

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Modern cement

Modern hydraulic cements began to be developed from the start of the Industrial
Revolution (around 1800), driven by three main needs

 Hydraulic cement render (stucco) for finishing brick buildings in wet climates.

 Hydraulic mortars for masonry construction of harbor works, etc., in contact with sea
water.

 Development of strong concretes.

In Britain particularly, good quality building stone became ever more expensive during
a period of rapid growth, and it became a common practice to construct prestige buildings
from the new industrial bricks, and to finish them with a stucco to imitate stone. Hydraulic
lines were favored for this, but the need for a fast set time encouraged the development of
new cements. Most famous was Parker's "Roman cement". This was developed by James
Parker in the 1780s, and finally patented in 1796.

It was, in fact, nothing like any material used by the Romans, but was a "Natural
cement" made by burning sectarian – nodules that are found in certain clay deposits, and that
contain both clay minerals and calcium carbonate. The burnt nodules were ground to a fine
powder. This product, made into a mortar with sand, set in 5–15 minutes. The success of
"Roman Cement" led other manufacturers to develop rival products by burning artificial
mixtures of clay and chalk.

John Smeaton made an important contribution to the development of cements when he


was planning the construction of the third Eddystone Lighthouse (1755–9) in the English
Channel. He needed a hydraulic mortar that would set and develop some strength in the
twelve hour period between successive high tides.

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COMPANY PROFILE

Started on 20-01-1985 with an installe3d capacity of 200 TPD. Promoted by Sri S.


Veera Reddy, Managing Director, along with highly competent and successful technocrats.
Plant machinery is very contemporary and suitable a produce wide variety of cements.

Having lime stone mines of highest quality. Mineral available is suitable for all
varieties of cements.

Inherent strengths are

 Highly competent men.

 Latest generation sophisticated machinery.

 Highly quality minerals.

 Which are the three important prerequisites (M3, Men, Machinery, and
materials) for any good product? (The fourth M being marketing for
successful origination)

From the day one, Sagar Cements is a success storey and stood first in all areas of its
activities, made big strides and grown rapidly in phases to its present cement capacity of
18100 TPD.

Quality consistency is an ongoing activity at Sagar Cements. Top management’s


priority is always to implement new technologies with in a time frame even at huge
investment and to be one of the best quality cement producing industry in India. Management
considers technology up gradation is of highest priority and spent huge amounts towards
latest machinery, systems and pollution control equipment.

The important recent investments

 Latest world best cooler for efficient cooling and better quality( I.K.N.G mbh,
Germany)

 Usage of low ash imported Stone.

 Latest software for process optimization.

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The result is Sagar cements industry is of latest contemporary technology not only
when it was installed but also today and known in cement industry circle as one of the highly
efficient unit.

Quality was given the prime importance even during the construction stage of the
project itself. The layout planning, equipment sizing, technology absorption etc., were
considered purely based on quality aspect of view.

The quality control department is accorded highest status in work and produced very
high quality cement very consistently. During 98 an amount of Rs.40 lakes was spent for the
surveying and quality analysis of the available limestone in our mine. This is helping in
planning our mining activities to supply optimum quality limestone to factory; the consistent
well designed Raw Mix is helping in producing consistent quality cement.

To improve the quality:-

 Rs.30 corers is invested towards new machinery

 Works are under progress with a budgeted investment of 5.0 corers.

 Other schemes are also under study.

Cement is accepted and appreciated by many Govt. institutions and big builders. Company is
producing follow grade of cement.

 43 Grade ordinary Portland cement.

 53 Grade ordinary Portland cement.

 SRC (sulphate resistant Cement).

 IRST_40 (Railway sleeper cement).

 Super grade (Portland pozzolana Cement).

 Super steel Grade (Blast furnace slag cement).

Till date Sagar Cements could produce any specialty cement required by the market for
special application.

The following are few of the many highly critical constructions made with Sagar cements.
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Bombay

 Vasai Bridge (NBCC).

 Ircon Project.

 Thane crecke (Sulphate Resisting cement).

Chennai

 Madras Refineries Ltd.

 Metropolitan Railway Transport Projects. ( Intercity Railway Bridges)

Hyderabad

 Buddha Purnima Project.

 Khiratabad Fly over Bridge.

 Ashoka My home plaza.

 Railway sleeper cement (IRST_40).

Kakinada

 Nagarjuna Fertilizer’s & Chemicals Ltd.

 Kovvur to Rajamundry Bridge – III

Vizag

 Simhadri Thermal Power project. (E.C.C.C.)

 H.P.C.L.Project.

 Rain Calcining Limited (RCL).

Khammam

 Paleru dam

 Singarenicolleries ltd., Kothagudem

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Nalgonda

 Dindi Project

 Jhanphad Hydel power project

 Gurrampodu lift irrigation project

Vijayawada

 Hyderabad Industries limited Kondapally.

 Sagar Power ( Narsaraopet, atmakur) Irigation Projects.

Manufacturing process of 43 Grade & 53 Grade OPC.

It is produced by grinding of Lime stone, (Calcareous) Bauxite, clay& late rite in


suitable proportions in tube ball mill to a fine powder, which is called raw meal.

The raw meal is fed to rotary kiln through pre-heater with precalciner system. The
raw meal under goes chemical reactions and reaches to sintering temperature (1350 – 14000
C) and becomes clinker nodules. These clinker nodules are finally dropped in to grate cooler.
Here the clinker is cooled from 1300 to 100c and transported to clinker stockpile. During the
burning the strength giving clinker compounds are formed i.e., c3s, c2s,c3A, &c4AF.in
OPC43 grade clinker the c3s content is low (45%) and in 53 grade clinker the c3s cement is
higher (50-55%) . this clinker is ground to stable fineness with 3-4% gypsum in a ball mill.
These finally ground is called ordinary Portland cement 43&53 grade. 53 grade cement
requires higher fineness than 43 Grade cement to give early strength. 43 grade OPC clinker is
made from lower concentration of lime (CaO). 53 Grade OPC clinker requires higher
concentration of lime (CaO).

Application:

43 Grade OPC

Used for general concrete construction works where special properties are not required.
Its heat of hydration is lower than 53 grade OPC but offer lower resistance to sulphate than
P.P.C.

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53 Grade OPC

Used where high early strength are required. Thos helps in faster construction. The
ratio of sand and metal to cement can be higher.

Portland Pozzalana Cement

PPC is manufactured by grinding Portland cement clinker (53 Grade) and 15 – 25% fly with
3-4% gypsum. The fineness of PPC in higher to OPC cements.

Application

Super grade produces low heat of hydration than 43 grade OPC cements. And greater
resistance to the attack of aggressive waters then normal Portland cements. So minimum
water required for curing than others cements. It reduces the leaching of calcium hydroxide
liberated during the hydration of cement. One of the important reasons for using pozzolzna
cements has been the increased resistance they offer to attack by chemical agencies and
particularly seawater.

Its initial strength may be lower but later strength is higher than normal OPC. Its
superior properties are the cause for its present day world wide popularity. Its high resistance
and low porosity mad this grade of cement to be very good to constructions in general and
highly durable even in coastal areas.

Sagar Priya Special Grade, IRST_40

Sagar Priya Special Grade ordinary Portland cement confirming to IRST – 40 of Indian
Railways is made my Sagar cements limited which is having full facilities to produce
consistent quality to give better strength.

The minimum strength after 7 days id maintained more than IRS T-40 standard with 43
Mpa and are progressively increased the 7 days strength.

The magnesia content in the lime stone of our mines is below 1% hence the concrete
products made out off this cement are sound.

The fineness of cement manufactures is consistently above 380M2/Kg. this is achieved


due to closed circuit grinding method using O-sepa technology, which eliminates higher size
particles completely.
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Sagar Priya cements works has been inspected by RDSO, LUCKNOW and approved
our process and facilities. The cement made as per IRS T-40/1985 is tested by Railway
institute of technical and Economical services and recommended to supply for manufacturing
process of concrete sleepers.

Sagar Priya Sulphate Resisting Portland cement

Sagar Priya Sulphate cement generally knows as SRC made to IS, BS & ASTM
standards.

Selection of limestone in our mining area through surveying, core drilling and sample
collection of stone. Separate silo is required to store SRC raw meal iron ore fines from
Bellary are to be mixed in the raw mill process. Raw meal sample will be checked
thoroughly.

After confirming to the suitability then only passed to feed to kiln. For manufacturing
of SRC clinker low ash Stone is required (25-27%) for reducing the alumina content.

High blain (3000m2/kg) of cement is to be maintained and separates silo is required to


store the SRC.

The sulphate resisting properties in SRC are developed by restricting the C3A content
to below 5%. So there is no 0 excess C3A left to react with sulphates. Low heat of hydration,
less risk of the 3 rmal shrinkage.

Applications

SRC can be used in costal areas. Dockyards, Bridges , aqua farm tanks, sewerage and
effluent- carrying drains it will protects the structure from sulphate attacks. Suitable for
massive constructions suitable where soils having higher percentage of water soluble
sulphates, i.e. more than 0.5% at seashore. Penetration of sulphate ions into concrete made
with OPc can result in scaling and ultimately in some circumstances to complete
disintegration.

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Storage at the construction site

Cement which is stored unprotected for any considerable length of time absorbs
moisture causing lumps formation and resulting in a loss of hardening capacity.

So long as the lumps are easily crumbled between the fingers the strength will not be
seriously affected. If the cement is not properly stored at the construction site, about 10% of
strength is lot in a month’s time. So the period of storage should always be kept as a short as
possible.

Leakage: - No Proper Vibration of Concrete.

Cracks: - Settlement of foundations.

Cement & Concrete

Concrete is composed of a course aggregate forming the bulk of the mix, a fine
aggregate filling the voids between, and cement and water to bond the whole together. The
sand, or fine aggregate, and cement may together be regarded as a mortar in which the coarse
aggregate is set. The properties of the concrete depend primarily on the quality and amount of
this interstitial mortar and only secondarily on the coarse aggregate.

As per specification sand contain 5 to 50% of material passing on 52 sieve, the


maximum at 30 % the main bulk of the sand, which lies between a no 52 sieve and a 3/16
inch mesh should contain particles of varying size and does not consist predominantly of any
one size.

The proportions of cement and aggregate in concrete and expressed as one (1) cement.
X fine aggregate y coarse aggregate by volume or by weight, or alternatively as the weight of
cement per unit volume of mixed concrete.

The proper ties of the cement- sand motor, which binds the coarse aggregate together,
depends on the proportion of cement it contains the amount of water used, and on the fitness
of the sand. The finer the sand, the greater is the surface area it possesses, and hence the
larger the proportion of cement required to cover that surface. This is one reason why sand
should not be excessively fine and contain much material passing a 100 – mesh. An increase
in the amount of water above that necessary to give a workable mix renders the mortar

21
weaker and more permeable and increases the volume of voids which will be left empty when
the concrete dries out and excess water is removed. If the proportion of the sand in concrete is
not sufficient, then is if the mix is “ over Sand” the fragments of coarse aggregate will be
separated more than necessary by the excess mortar and the mortar itself will be leaner in
cement.

The coarse aggregate in concrete is normally quite insert and impermeable and it is the
cement mortar which is the point of attack by most destructive agencies, and which forms the
channel by which water can permeate in to the concrete.

The presence of an excess of this mortar in a weaker condition tends therefore type
lower the resistance of the concrete to attack. The proportion of sand required decreases as
the maximum size of the coarse aggregate increases. As a rough working role about 30 -40%
by volume of the aggregate should consist of sand when the maximum size of coarse
aggregate is ¾ inch, but this proportion has to be adjusted to suit the particular aggregates
used.

The use seawater is reinforced concrete should be avoided for increases the risk of
corrosion of reinforcement. It must never be used for mixing high alumina cement as it has a
very adverse effect on the strength.

The mixing and placing of concrete also play an important part in determining the
quality of the product. The ease with which concrete can be placed depends on the
workability of the max. The workability of concrete is measured by various tests such as the
slump test. The workability of concrete is influenced by the type and grading of the aggregate
as well as other factors.

The amount of water required of produce a given slump in a concrete mix increases
with the temperature of the mix. This increase from 60-100f raise the water requirement by
the order of 10% this results in a lower ultimate strength and increase in the subsequent
drying shrinkage. Concrete can be damaged by lack of proper curing. It is essential for the
development of high strength that the concrete should be kept moist for a period and nor
allowed to dry out rapidly.

Once a concrete has been cured under moist condition for a sufficient period, its
resistance to attack by chemical action is increased by allowing it to remain in air and dry out.
22
A film of calcium carbonate forms over the surface of the material, blocking the pores and
producing a hard and dense surface skin. And additional factor is involved in reinforced
concrete where steel bars are embedded in the material. The function of the concrete here is
not only to provide a medium to with stand the compressive stresses to which the reinforced
concrete member may be subject, but also to protect the steel reinforcement against
corrosion. Any corrosion of the reinforcement result in the formation of a film of iron oxide
over the metal occupying a volume about 2.2 times that of the iron from which it is formed.
The expansion which thus occurs results eventually in the flaking off or cricking of the
concrete overlies it. The corrosion hence damages not only the steel but also the concrete.
The degree of protection afforded to the reinforcement depends on the impermeability and
thickness of the concrete covering it. Reinforced concrete, which is exposed to seawater.
Reinforced concrete members may show the cracks arising from deflection under load (or)
from shrinkage of concrete.

Failures in Concrete Structure

Failures in concrete may be assigned three general causes.

 Unsuitable materials.
 Error in preparation, placing curing.
 Exposure to natural or artificial destructive agents.
Unsuitable materials
Unsuitable materials group defective cements, defective aggregates, and incorrect
proportions of cement and insufficient entrained air to give the required frost resistance and
excessive additions of admixtures.

Error in preparation, placing curing

Poor mixing and the use of too wet or dry mixes with the accompanying troubles of
segregation, the last being aggravated by insufficient ramming. Bad jointing two days work;
inadequate curing may also be grouped under this head. This shape of the voids present in a
fractured surface may give some indication of the consistence of the mix.

Small double holes with smooth surface and spherical shape are characteristic or rather
wet mixers, while the presence of numerous voids of irregular shape and an uneven
distribution of the fine aggregate indicates the use of a mix which has been too dry for the
23
degree of ramming employed. Bad grading of the aggregates is also usually indicated by the
appearance of the fractured surface.

Aggregates

Concrete or mortar is made up of cement, water, and aggregates (store chips and sand)
and at times chemical additives. The aggregates, fine (sand) and coarse (stone chips) make up
about 75 % of the volume of concrete. Generally sp. Gravity of aggregates 2.4 and 2.90.

The aggregates from main matrix of the concrete or mortar. The aggregate particles are
hold together by cement matrix, formed out of the past of cement. While the coarse
aggregates from the main matrix, the fine aggregates from the filler matrix between the
coarse aggregates. With cement and water the entire matrix binds together into a solid mass
called concrete. The aggregates may be igneous (granite or basalt) of sedimentary (Lime
stone, etc,) rock.

Selections Factors of Aggregates

Sl.No Factors Influence of concrete property


1. Specific Gravity Strength/absorption
2. Chemical stability Durability
3. Surface texture Bond grip
4. Shape Water demand(strength)
5. Gradation or particle Water demand(strength)
6. Size distribution Bleeding and segregation
7. Maximum size Strength
8. Deleterious materials Water demand bound cohesion and durability.
Quality of Aggregate
The presence of clay, dust, slit or mud in aggregates beyond the permissible limits is
harmful, because it results in production of lower strength concrete. Generally grit and dust
portions of the aggregate will cause an increase in water demand and subsequent drop in
concrete strengths.

24
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

Rensis Likerthas called motivation as the core of management. Motivation is the core
of management. Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of the management in
inspiring the work force .It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinate or
to create the will to work among the subordinates .It should also be remembered that the
worker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is not
willing to work .creation of a will to work is motivation in simple but true sense of term.

Motivation is an important function which very manager performs for actuating the
people to work for accomplishment of objectives of the organization .Issuance of well
conceived instructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed .A manager has to
make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Effective
motivation succeeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination
to see that it is executed efficiently and effectively.

In order to motivate workers to work for the organizational goals, the managers must
determine the motives or needs of the workers and provide an environment in which
appropriate incentives are available for their satisfaction .If the management is successful in
doing so; it will also be successful in increasing the willingness of the workers to work. This
will increase efficiency and effectiveness of the organization .There will be better utilization
of resources and workers abilities and capacities.

The concept of motivation

The word motivation has been derived from motive which means any idea, need or
emotion that prompts a man in to action. Whatever may be the behavior of man, there is some
stimulus behind it .Stimulus is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motive
can be known by studying his needs and desires.

There is no universal theory that can explain the factors influencing motives which
control mans behavior at any particular point of time. In general, the different motives
operate at different times among different people and influence their behaviors. The process
of motivation studies the motives of individuals which cause different type of behavior.

25
Definition of Motivation.

According to Edwin B Flippo, “Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to


do their work through the possibility of gain or reward.

Significance of Motivation

Motivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their
loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization. The following
results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated.

1. The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with
opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will
cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towards
the goals of the enterprise.

2. Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and
knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will
also result in increased productivity.

3. The rates of labor’s turnover and absenteeism among the workers will be low.

4. There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers
themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease.

5. The number of complaints and grievances will come down. Accident will also be low.

6. There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be
less. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business.

Motivation Process.

1. Identification of need
2. Tension
3. Course of action
4. Result –Positive/Negative
5. Feed back

26
Theories of Motivation.

Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the
focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra,
1979). Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are
Mcclelland’s Achievement Need Theory, Behavior Modification theory; Abraham H
Mallows need hierarchy or Deficient theory of motivation. J.S. Adam’s Equity Theory,
Vrooms Expectation Theory, Two factor Theory.

McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory.

According to McClelland’s there are three types of needs;

Need for Achievement (n Ach);

This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons
who satisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire for improvement
and lack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts.
They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easily
achievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement.

Need for Power (n Pow)

It is the desire to control the behavior of the other people and to manipulate the
surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style,
while it negative application tends autocratic style.

Need for affiliation (n Aff)

It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in formation of
informal groups or social circle.

Behavioral Modification Theory;

According to this theory people behavior is the outcome of favorable and unfavorable
past circumstances. This theory is based on learning theory. Skinner conducted his researches
among rats and school children.

27
He found that stimulus for desirable behavior could be strengthened by rewarding it at
the earliest. In the industrial situation, this relevance of this theory may be found in the
installation of financial and non financial incentives.

More immediate is the reward and stimulation or it motivates it. Withdrawal of


reward incase of low standard work may also produce the desired result. However, researches
show that it is generally more effective to reward desired behavior than to punish undesired
behavior.

Abraham H Maslow Need Hierarchy or Deficient theory of Motivation.

The intellectual basis for most of motivation thinking has been provided by behavioral
scientists, A.H Maslow and Frederick Heizberg, whose published works are the “Bible of
Motivation”. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it has
wide impact for beyond academic circles. Douglous Mac Gregor has used Maslow’s theory to
interpret specific problems in personnel administration and industrial relations.

The crux of Maslow’s theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed
of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self
actualization needs. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal with a
hierarchy of needs of which some are lower ins scale and some are in a higher scale or system
of values.

As the lower needs are satisfied, higher needs emerge. Higher needs cannot be
satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is not a motivator. This resembles
the standard economic theory of diminishing returns. The hierarchy of needs at work in the
individual is today a routine tool of personnel trade and when these needs are active, they act
as powerful conditioners of behavior- as Motivators.

Hierarchy of needs; the main needs of men are five. They are physiological needs, safety
needs, social needs, ego needs and self actualization needs, as shown in order of their
importance.

28
Self-
Actualization

Ego Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

Fig (2.1)

The above five basic needs are regarded as striving needs which make a person do
things. The first model indicates the ranking of different needs. The second is more helpful in
indicating how the satisfaction of the higher needs is based on the satisfaction of lower needs.
It also shows how the number of person who has experienced the fulfillment of the higher
needs gradually tapers off.

Physiological or Body Needs: - The individual move up the ladder responding first
to the physiological needs for nourishment, clothing and shelter. These physical needs must
be equated with pay rate, pay practices and to an extent with physical condition of the job.

Safety: - The next in order of needs is safety needs, the need to be free from danger,
either from other people or from environment. The individual want to assured, once his
bodily needs are satisfied, that they are secure and will continue to be satisfied for foreseeable
feature. The safety needs may take the form of job security, security against disease,
misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial injury. Such needs are generally met by
safety laws, measure of social security, protective labor laws and collective agreements.

29
Social needs: - Going up the scale of needs the individual feels the desire to work in a
cohesive group and develop a sense of belonging and identification with a group. He feels the
need to love and be loved and the need to belong and be identified with a group. In a large
organization it is not easy to build up social relations. However close relationship can be built
up with at least some fellow workers. Every employee wants too feel that he is wanted or
accepted and that he is not an alien facing a hostile group.

Ego or Esteem Needs: - These needs are reflected in our desire for status and
recognition, respect and prestige in the work group or work place such as is conferred by the
recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participation in management and by fulfillment of
workers urge for self expression. Some of the needs relate to ones esteem

E.g.; need for achievement, self confidence, knowledge, competence etc. On the job, this
means praise for a job but more important it means a feeling by employee that at all times he
has the respect of his supervisor as a person and as a contributor to the organizational goals.

Self realization or Actualization needs: - This upper level need is one which when satisfied
provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organization that
are both providing and using reward/recognition programs makes the employee give up the
dependence on others or on the environment. He becomes growth oriented, self oriented,
directed, detached and creative. This need reflects a state defined in terms of the extent to
which an individual attains his personnel goal. This is the need which totally lies within
oneself and there is no demand from any external situation or person.

J.S Adams Equity Theory

Employee compares her/his job inputs outcome ratio with that of reference. If the employee
perceives inequity, she/he will act to correct the inequity: lower productivity, reduced quality,
increased absenteeism, voluntary resignation.

V rooms Expectation Theory

Vroom’s theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and
performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Reward may be either positive or negative.
The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated.
Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated.
30
Two Factor Theory

Douglas McGregor introduced the theory with the help of two views; X assumptions are
conservative in style Assumptions are modern in style.

X Theory

 Individuals inherently dislike work.

 People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve the objectives.

 People prefer to be directed

Y Theory

 People view work as being as natural as play and rest

 People will exercise self direction and control towards achieving objectives they are
committed to

 People learn to accept and seek responsibility.

Types of Motivation.

Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something


because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they
are learning is morally significant.

Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a
certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades)

Incentives

An incentive is something which stimulates a person towards some goal. It activates


human needs and creates the desire to work. Thus, an incentive is a means of motivation. In
organizations, increase in incentive leads to better performance and vice versa.

31
Need for Incentives

Man is a wanting animal. He continues to want something or other. He is never fully


satisfied. If one need is satisfied, the other need need arises. In order to motivate the
employees, the management should try to satisfy their needs. For this purpose, both financial
and non financial incentives may be used by the management to motivate the workers.
Financial incentives or motivators are those which are associated with money. They include
wages and salaries, fringe benefits, bonus, retirement benefits etc. Non financial motivators
are those which are not associated with monetary rewards. They include intangible incentives
like ego-satisfaction, self-actualization and responsibility.
INCENTIVES

Financial Incentives Non-financial incentives

- Wages and Salaries. - Competition


- Bonus - Group recognition
- Medical reimbursement - Job security
- Insurance - Praise
- Housing facility - Knowledge of result
- Retirement benefits. - Workers participation.
- Suggestion system.
- Opportunities for growth

Motivation is the key to performance improvement

There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to
drink; it will drink only if it's thirsty - so with people. They will do what they want to do or
otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the 'ivory tower'
they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus. Are
they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated, for
motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to
survive and succeed.

32
Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus:

 Job performance =f(ability)(motivation)

Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a
slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are
many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline,
there are broadly seven strategies for motivation.

There are broadly seven strategies for motivation.


 Positive reinforcement / high expectations

 Effective discipline and punishment

 Treating people fairly

 Satisfying employees needs

 Setting work related goals

 Restructuring jobs

 Base rewards on job performance

Essentially, there is a gap between an individual’s actual state and some desired state
and the manager tries to reduce this gap. Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and
manipulate this gap.

33
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

1. Is the physical working conditions are taken care by superiors?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent Percentage

1 Yes 40 40%

2 No 25 25%

3 Some time 25 25%

4 Can’t say 10 10%

Total 100 100

Superior take care of the physical working


condition
50%
40%
percentage

30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No Some time Can’t say
Options

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 40% employees said that
superior take care of the physical working condition, 25% disagreed with the above proposal,
25% said that some time and 10% can’t say.

34
2. Are you accustomed work under many supervisors for the same nature of work?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent Percentage

1 Yes 20 20%

2 No 50 50%

3 Some time 30 30%

4 Can’t say 0 0%

Total 100 100

Accustomed work under many supervisors


for the same nature of work
60%
50%
Percentage

40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No Some time Can’t say
Option

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 20% employees said that
accustomed work under many supervisors for the same nature of work, 50% disagreed with
the above proposal, 30% said that some time and 0% can’t say

35
3. Do you feel to do your duty out of your commitment to job or because of the fear of
survival?

A) Yes B) No C) Some times

S.No Options No. of Respondent Percentage

1 Yes 30 30%

2 No 70 70%

3 Some time 0 0%

Total 100 100

Feel to do your duty out of your commitment to


job or because of the fear of survival
80%
70%
60%
percentage

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No Some time
option

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 70% employees said that
feel to do their duty out of commitment to job, 30% disagreed with the above proposal, and
0% said that some time .

36
4. Do you feel that working atmosphere is friendly in nature at your work place?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent Percentage

1 Agree 20 20%

2 Disagree 50 50%

3 Agree to Some time 30 30%

4 Can’t say 0 0%

Total 100 100

Feel that working atmosphere is friendly in


nature at your work place
60%
50%
40%
percentage

30%
20%
10%
0%
Agree Disagree Agree to Some time Can’t say
option

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 20% employees said that
feel that working atmosphere is friendly in nature at work place, 50% disagreed with the
above proposal, 30% said that some time and 0% can’t say

37
5. Do you feel that you are having a good relation with all your peers and superiors?

A) Very good B) Average C) Below Average D) Low

S.No Options No. of Respondent Percentage


1 Very good 50 50%
2 Average 30 30%
3 Below Average 20 20%
4 Low 0 0%
Total 100 100

Feel that you are having a good relation with all


your peers and superiors
60%

50%

40%
percentage

30%

20%

10%

0%
Very good Average Below Average Low
option

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 50% employees said that
feel that having a good relation with all their peers and superiors, 30% said that Average with
the above proposal, 20% said that below average and 0% low.

38
6. Is work distributed in a fair manner in your deportment?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent Percentage

1 Yes 70 70%

2 No 15 15%

3 Some time 10 10%

4 Can’t say 5 5%

Total 100 100

Work distributed in a fair manner in


your deportment
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No Some time Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 70 % agreed work
distributed in a fair manner in your deportment, 15% disagreed with the above proposal, 10%
May or may not, 5% Can’t Say

39
7. Do you feel that your job is secured?

A)Yes B) No C) Doubtful D) can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Yes 65 65%

2 No 20 20%

3 Doubtful 10 10%

4 Can’t say 5 5%

Total 100 100

Feel that your job is secured


70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Yes No Doubtful Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 65 % yes feel that your job
is secured, 20% no with the above proposal, 10% May or may not

40
8. Do you feel job enrichment helps in individual development?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage


1 Agree 70 65%
2 Disagree 20 20%
3 Agree to some extent 5 5%
4 Can’t say 5 5%
Total 100 100

Feel job enrichment helps in


individual development
70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Agree Disagree Agree to some Can’t say
extent

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 70 % agreed feel job
enrichment helps in individual development, 20% disagreed with the above proposal, 5%
May or may not

41
9. “Technology and better work environment leads to more productivity” Do you agree?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage


1 Agree 50 50%
2 Disagree 20 20%
3 Agree to some extent 15 15%
4 Can’t say 15 15%
Total 100 100

Technology and better work environment


leads to more productivity
60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Agree Disagree Agree to some extent Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 50 % agreed technology and
better work environment leads to more productivity, 20% disagreed with the above proposal,
15% May or may not, 15% Can’t Say

42
10. Have you been informed about the objectives of your organization?

A) Yes B) No

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Yes 90 90%

2 No 10 10%

Total 100 100

Informed about the objectives of your


organization
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 90% Yes with the above
proposal, 10% No with the above proposal

43
11. Whether you are given any incentives / appreciation / rewards by the company when
you do your work?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Yes 65 65%

2 No 20 20%

3 Some time 10 10%

4 Can’t say 5 5%

Total 100 100

Incentives / appreciation / rewards by


the company
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No Some time Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 65 % yes incentives /
appreciation / rewards by the company, 20 % no with the above proposal, 10 % May or may
not, 5 % Can’t

44
12. Whether the salary package is the main motivating factor to you?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage


1 Agree 50 50%
2 Disagree 20 20%
Agree to some
3 15 15%
extent
4 Can’t say 15 15%
Total 100 100

Salary package is the main motivating


60%
factor
50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Agree Disagree Agree to some Can’t say
extent

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 50 % agreed salary package
is the main motivating factor, 20% disagreed with the above proposal, 15% May or may not,
15% Can’t Say

45
13. You feel that personal growth is more important that financial growth?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Agree 70 65%

2 Disagree 20 20%

3 Agree to some extent 5 5%

4 Can’t say 5 5%

Total 100 100

Personal growth is more important that


financial growth
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Agree Disagree Agree to some extent Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 70 % agreed personal
growth is more important that financial growth, 20% disagreed with the above proposal, 5%
May or may not.

46
14. Is your job suffice and challenging?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Yes 65 65%

2 No 20 20%

3 Some time 10 10%

4 Can’t say 5 5%

Total 100 100

Job suffice and challenging


70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Yes No Some time Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 65 % yes w job suffice and
challenging, 20 % no with the above proposal, 10 % May or may not, 5 % can’t

47
15. Whether your work is scheduled by yourself?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Yes 70 70%

2 No 15 15%

3 Some time 10 10%

4 Can’t say 5 5%

Total 100 100

Work is scheduled by yourself


80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No Some time Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 70 % agreed work is
scheduled by yourself, 15% disagreed with the above proposal, 10% May or may not, 5%
Can’t Say.

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16. Are you willing to take additional responsibilities?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Yes 65 65%

2 No 20 20%

3 Some time 10 10%

4 Can’t say 5 5%

Total 100 100

Take additional responsibilities


70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Yes No Some time Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 65 % yes take additional
responsibilities, 20 % no with the above proposal,10 % May or may not,5 % Can’t

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17. “In the present competitive business scenario there is no external motivation required; one
has to be on his own”. Do you agree?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage


1 Agree 50 50%
2 Disagree 20 20%
3 Agree to some extent 15 15%
4 Can’t say 15 15%
Total 100 100

Competitive business scenario there is no


external motivation required
60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Agree Disagree Agree to some extent Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 50 % agreed with the above
proposal, 20% disagreed with the above proposal, 15% May or may not, 15% Can’t Say

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18. Have you been informed about the objectives of your department?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Yes 70 70%

2 No 15 15%

3 Some time 10 10%

4 Can’t say 5 5%

Total 100 100

Informed about the objectives of your


department
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No Some time Can’t say

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 70 % agreed informed about
the objectives of your department, 15% disagreed with the above proposal, 10% May or may
not, 5% Can’t Say

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19. Are you satisfied with the welfare measures in Sagar cements?

A) Highly Satisfied B) Satisfied C) Neutral D) Dissatisfied E) Highly Dissatisfied

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage

1 Highly Satisfied 5 5
2 Satisfied 25 25
3 Neutral 22 22
4 Dissatisfied 40 40
5 Highly Dissatisfied 8 8
Total 100 100

Satisfied with the welfare measures


45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly
Dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 40% of respondents are
dissatisfied with the welfare measures adopted by the company, 25% are satisfied and also
we can infer that 22% seems to be neutral, 8% are highly dissatisfied and 5% are highly
satisfied.

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20. Are you satisfied with the existing working conditions?

A) Highly Satisfied B) Satisfied C) Neutral D) Dissatisfied E) Highly Dissatisfied

S.No Options No. of Respondent percentage


1 Highly Satisfied 3 3
2 Satisfied 35 35
3 Neutral 35 35
4 Dissatisfied 17 17
5 Highly Dissatisfied 10 10
Total 100 100

Satisfaction with the existing working


conditions
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly
Dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION

From the above table the interpretation can be drawn that 35% of respondents are
satisfied with the existing working condition, 35% seems to be neutral. Also we can infer that
17% are dissatisfied and 10% are highly dissatisfied. Only 3% are highly satisfied employees.

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FINDINGS

1. The study examines the readiness for employee empowerment in six aspects, namely
effective Communication, Value of people, Clarity, Concept about power, Information
and Learning.

2. A perusal of data pertaining to combination makes us to conclude that the Executives


have agreed to the effective down ward communication flow, which is a prerequisite for
empowerment.

3. However, in respect of concept about power, they are somewhat agreed to share the
power. As far as information sharing with lower rungs is concerned, they are very
positive.

4. As far as clarity is concerned, the executives are somewhat agreed i.e., neutral.

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SUGGESTIONS

The conclusions so far drawn from the study tempts to offer the following suggestions
for making the organization ready for empowerment. The conclusions drawn above convince
anybody to identify the following areas to chart out training programs for the executives to
make them completely ready for empowerment

1. A general training program covering the importance of and need for employee
empowerment in the light of global competition is to be designed in brainstorming
session involving internal and external experts.

2. The present study identifies the following areas in which training is to be undertaken.

 A training program may be undertaken for Executives in general and to Senior


Executives in particular to convince and make them accept the empowerment concept.

 Executives working in technical areas to be trained effectively in the areas of their


role and interpersonal dependence and relations to make empowerment more fruitful.

3. A training program may be undertaken about "Shared Leadership" which brings high
morale and high productivity and makes the empowerment a success. The subordinate
staff that is going to be empowered must be ready to take up this responsibility. A study
is to be conducted among the subordinate staff to find out their readiness to discharge the
new roles under this empowerment program. This helps in identifying the training areas,
to make the subordinate staff completely ready for undertaking empowerment.

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CONCLUSION

1. The present chapter makes an attempt to draw some conclusions. It should be


confessed here that the investigator is conscious of the limitations of the study and the
conclusion drawn on the basis of the sample from a single unit cannot be generalized
about the entire manufacturing sector.

2. The study examines the readiness for employee empowerment in six aspects, namely
effective Communication, Value of people, Clarity, Concept about power,
Information and Learning.

3. A perusal of data pertaining to combination makes us to conclude that the Executives


have agreed to the effective down ward communication flow, which is a prerequisite
for empowerment. With regard to value of people, the analysis leads to the conclusion
that the Executives give a reasonable value to the Human Resources in the
Organization.

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QUESTIONNAIRE
Name:…………………………………………………….
Age:………………………………………………………
Gender:……………………………………………………
Address:------------------------------------------------------------

1. Is the physical working conditions are taken care by superiors?


A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say
2. Are you accustomed work under many supervisors for the same nature of work?
A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

3. Do you feel you do your duty out of your commitment to job or because of the fear of
survival?

A) Yes B) No C) Some times

4. Do you feel that working atmosphere is friendly in nature at your work place?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

5. Do you feel that you are having a good relation with all your peers and superiors?

A) Very good B) Average C) Below Average D) Low

6. In your department work is distributed in a fair manner?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

7. Do you feel that your job is secured?

A) Yes B) No C) Doubtful D) can’t say

8. Do you feel job enrichment helps in individual development?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

9. “Technology and better work environment leads to more productivity” Do you agree?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

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10. Have you been informed about the objectives of your organization?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

11. Whether you are given any incentives / appreciation / rewards by the company when you
do at your work?
A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t
12. Whether the salary package is the main motivating factor to you?
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

13. You feel that personal growth is more important that financial growth?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

14. Is your job suffice and challenging?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

15. Whether your work is scheduled by yourself?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

16. Are you willing to take additional responsibilities?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

17. “In the present competitive business scenario there is no external motivation required; one
has to be on his own”. Do you agree?

A) Agree B) Disagree C) Agree to some extent D) Can’t say

18. Have you been informed about the objectives of your department?

A) Yes B) No C) Some time D) Can’t say

19. Are you satisfied with the welfare measures in Sagar cements?

A) Highly Satisfied B) Satisfied C) Neutral D) Dissatisfied E) Highly Dissatisfied

20. Are you satisfied with the existing working conditions?

A) Highly Satisfied B) Satisfied C) Neutral D) Dissatisfied E) Highly Dissatisfied

58
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOK AUTHOR PUBLISHER

Labour Trade Unionism and Punekar.S.D Himalaya Publishing


Industrial Relations

Research Methodology Methods Kothari C.R New age international


and techniques

Anniversary issue 1995 Business Today BUSINESS TODAY

Empowerment Demystified Daine Tracy DALAL STREET JOURNAL 1994

Web sites:

www.gartner.com

www.themanagementor.com

www.google.com

www.hr.com

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