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anales de psicología, 2017, vol. 33, nº 3 (october), 568-577 © Copyright 2017: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia.

Murcia (Spain) ISSN print edition: 0212-9728. ISSN web edition ( 1695-2294

Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in old age through positive psychology studies: a
scoping review
Lia Araújo1,2,*, Oscar Ribeiro1,3,4 and Constança Paúl1

1 UNIFAI/ICBAS and CINTESIS, University of Porto (Portugal).
2 ESEV and CI&DETS, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu (Portugal).
3 Higher Institute of Social Service of Porto (ISSSP) (Portugal).
4 University of Aveiro (Portugal).

Título: Bienestar hedónico y eudaimónico en la vejez a través de estudios Abstract: The study of aging through the lens of Positive Psychology al-
psicológicos positivos: una revisión de alcance. lows looking beyond the decline normally associated with advancing of age
Resumen: El estudio del envejecimiento a través de la lente de la Psicolo- and to consider rewarding experiences and strategies to promote a mean-
gía Positiva permite mirar más allá de la disminución normalmente asociada ingful aging. In order to gather evidence on the key conceptual and empiri-
con el avance de la edad y considerar experiencias y estrategias gratificantes cal advancements that illustrate the commitment of Positive Psychology
para promover un envejecimiento con propósito. Con el objetivo de reunir with aging issues a scoping review was conducted. Papers having “Positive
evidencia sobre los principales avances conceptuales y empíricos que ilus- Psychology” AND “Aging” (or similar words to aging) on their title, ab-
tran el compromiso de la Psicología Positiva con los temas del envejeci- stract or key-words were screened across main databases and aging related
miento, se llevó a cabo una revisión de alcance. Los artículos que tenían terms were searched in well-known journals of positive psychology. This
"Psicología Positiva" y "Envejecimiento" (o palabras similares al envejeci- strategy yielded 48 articles, 33 original scientific papers and 15 reviews.
miento) en su título, resumen o palabras clave fueron examinados en bases Main themes, study designs and instruments are presented and the end-
de datos principales y se buscaron términos relacionados con el envejeci- points are discussed according to the hedonic or eudaimonic perspective of
miento en revistas bien conocidas de psicología positiva. Esta estrategia the studies. Future directions related with the importance of comprehen-
arrojó 48 artículos, 33 trabajos científicos originales y 15 revisiones. Se pre- sive constructs and method approaches in the study of advancing age are
sentan los principales temas, diseños de estudio e instrumentos y se discu- highlighted.
ten los puntos finales de acuerdo con la perspectiva hedónica o eudaimóni- Key words: Positive Psychology; aging; hedonism; eudaimonia; well-being;
ca de los estudios. Se destacan las direcciones futuras relacionadas con la scoping review.
importancia de constructos comprensivos y estrategias metodológicas en el
estudio del avance de la edad.
Palabras clave: Psicología positiva; envejecimiento; hedonismo; Eudaimo-
nia; bienestar; Revisión del alcance.

Introduction tive psychology should be approached (Gallagher, Lopez, &
Preacher, 2009).
Positive Psychology has emerged in recent years as a breath One of the most controversial issues in the study of pos-
of fresh air. The focus on positive aspects of human experi- itive psychology is the disagreement between hedonic and
ence, like positive subjective experience, positive individual eudaimonic perspectives regarding concepts and pathways to
traits, and positive institutions, has been overcoming the well-being (Keyes, Shmotkin, & Ryff, 2002). This separation
traditional models based on pathology that had dominated has its origins in philosophical traditions that are clearly dif-
different disciplines over the years (Seligman & Csikszent- ferent. The hedonic well-being arises in Greece, fourth cen-
mihalyi, 2000). Although positive psychology has roots in tury B.C, and is understood as the pursuit of sensation and
the humanistic psychology, which focused heavily on happi- pleasure (Ryan & Deci, 2001). Here, subjective well-being
ness and fulfillment, it was only in the end of 20st century (SWB) is the most widely used approach, encompassing
that it began as a new area of psychology. This branch of three core components: life satisfaction, the presence of pos-
psychological sciences has been recognized thanks to several itive mood, and the absence of negative mood (Diener, Suh,
achievements of a core group of researchers and profession- Lucas, & Smith, 1999). On the other hand, the eudaimonic
als that succeeded the establishment of positive psychology perspective has its roots in Aristotle’s postulations, and pre-
networks and research centers, and other structural elements sents well-being as the realization of one’s true potential
of a structured discipline as the publication of books, journal (Ryan & Deci, 2001). The psychological well-being (PWB) is
special issues and journal articles, themed conferences, spe- one of the most accepted approaches of eudaimonic well-
cific graduated courses, among others (Linley, Joseph, Har- being and according to Ryff´s conceptualization, taps six dis-
rington, & Wood, 2006). Nevertheless, despite this great sci- tinct aspects of human actualization: autonomy, personal
entific development there are still inconsistencies and op- growth, self-acceptance, life purpose, mastery, and positive
posing perspectives about what well-being is, and how posi- relatedness (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Although different in their
definition of well-being, emergent assumptions point to the
importance of valuing simultaneously hedonic and eudai-
* Correspondence address [Dirección para correspondencia]: monic perspectives instead of comparing both, since each
Lia Araújo. UNIFAI, Department of Behavioral Sciences, Institute of one denotes important and complementary aspects of well-
Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto. Rua de Jorge Vi- being (Henderson & Knight, 2012).
terbo Ferreira, n.º 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal).

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Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in old age through positive psychology studies: a scoping review 569 The emergence of Positive Psychology has already led and developing effective interventions to build thriving in the field of gerontology into a movement known as “posi. and a scoping review is justified by the nature of this type of litera- sense of well-being and a sense of a life well lived in later ture review. of Arksey and O’Malley (2005) was used. 2002). “older people”. the Method loss of loved ones. engagement. like resources. & Sutton. charting the data.g. fulfilled and happy aging have emerged in recent review inquires the extent. “later life”. key-words. individuals in later life are need. and col- styles and behaviors that are adaptive to the new constraints lating. Bearing in mind (NIA. vol. The terms “Posi- tional and global levels as well as the implications in the in. selecting the studies. of the international forum for the science and application of cy of rigorous and coordinated research to close gaps in the positive psychology (Journal of Positive Psychology. titles. steps. studies that investigate the factors associated with a within the framework of Positive Psychology this systematic successful. Within a positive ap. Following this of aging. summariz- study of adult development which has reinforced many oth. But much effort in achieving a scientific understanding anales de psicología. difficult and challenging since there may be a number of oc- currences such as retirement. since the purpose was to appraise and summa- years (Vaillant. or will it be associat. ly interested in examine the development of hedonic and lasting. range and nature of the publica- years. 2012). A ful and transforming demographic force with many possible search of the electronic databases SCOPUS. a slowdown of activity. a scoping review of scientific arti- tion associated with the onset of aging can be particularly cles published over the last decade was conducted. For this reasons. 2011) and the World Health Organization (WHO. the aging-related research. which stated sessing study quality. indicate gaps in ready a focus on positive. (ii) high cogni. the most reasonable keywords and research strategy. abstract and keywords nearly 1. published in the last ten years (2003-2013) and written questions. a sustained sense of well. summarizing. the long-standing past contributions that had al. The choose for a in purposeful activities are essential to happiness. tive Psychology” AND “Aging” and other expressions relat- dividual is just in the beginning. nº 3 (october) . Papaioannou. The transi. ing research findings and identifying gaps. healthy and adaptive functioning previous research and route the way forward for further re- (Ryff. long. The urgen. across the databases. this study’s main purpose. Also the Selective Optimization with Compen. the full article was read. this review design allows the three well-known components of success in advancing a preliminary assessment of potential size and extent of age: (i) freedom from disease and disability. available studies and to identify the nature and extent of re- tive and physical functioning. PsycINFO and PUBMED was conducted.5 billion in 2050. We are particular- er researchers’ conclusions in referring that close. This focus on successful aging was rize the body of available research literature without as- originally developed by Rowe and Kahn (1997). “el- projected to grow from an estimated 524 million in 2010 to derly”) were searched in the title. searching “Aging” and similar words in recognized journals ed with more illness. Only articles from peer-review jour- oping countries (WHO. a systematic overview of the investment of Positive Psy- ity on life satisfaction and happiness at old age (Hill. 2003) seeks to deal with age. searching for rele- egies. 2017. and had considered in later life allows to consider strategies of adaptation and samples of individuals aged less than 60 years old were not promoting opportunities for positive change through adult included in this review (see Figure 1). perhaps chronic illness. disability. furthermore. with most of the increase in devel. Aiming to analyze the research on older persons developed proach. namely if population aging will be accompanied in English were searched. chology research in the study of aging in order to identify Therefore. life. vant studies. some exclusion criteria were also 2011). and dependency. and meaningful relationships. Journal available knowledge and the need for action based on evi. search. the same criteria were used for being. stages: identifying the research question. applied: documents that were editorials or author´s com- A perspective on positive human functioning and growth mentaries or had no article available. abstracts and well-known entities as the National Institute on Ageing and. 33. 2011). 2003) were recognized and strengthened. It seems important to have tive aging” which has emphasized the individual responsibil. and reporting the results. It is based on five related changes and deficits by praising empowerment strat. repercussions. This scenario raises several nals. 2007). In order to broaden the view on by a longer period of good health. and extended periods of activity. in some cases. and even acute illnesses or disability (Paúl. a brief search of literature was conducted to identify The global phenomenon of population aging is a power. as well as engagement eudaimonic approaches of well-being. what has been covered by previous scholars.. “old age”. based on investment in positive aspects. of Happiness Studies and Journal of Psychology of Well- dence-based policies have been suggested by international being). and (iii) social and productive search evidence (Booth. 2005). An example can be the Harvard Medical School’s tions of Positive Psychology about aging issues. For selecting the studies. For this scoping review the methodological framework sation model (Baltes & Smith. People aged 65 or older are ed to aging (e. The comprehension of its´ impacts at the na. Web of Science.

This process had required the analysis of each pa. . At the final stage sults/conclusions of the papers were summarized and classi. . The next stage of the work involved ‘charting’ key items and eudaimonic approaches (e. Keywords and Abstract.. Web of Science.g. Jornals of positive psychology research: . Main re. nº 3 (october) . A domains (usually identified in the title. key-words. Keywords and Abstract. . (n=63) Search Keywords on Title. (ii) tempt was made to identify patterns and directions in the eudaimonic and (iii) integration of both (in primary re. 1993). Search strategy and results.English language. Therefore. Infor. considered “descriptive-analytical method” within happiness. highlighted. Article retrieved for review 48 results analyzed Figure 1. 33. Ryan & Deci. summarizing and reporting the results. good life. findings. 2005). topics. personal growth. Waterman. This pro. Journal of Psychology of Well-being Articles retrieved for screening 94 results identified Exclusion criteria: . 2012. Research strategy Keywords: “Positive Psychology” AND “Aging” OR “Later Life” OR “Older adults” OR and databases “Elderly” OR “Old age”. making a new whole out of the parts. scientific papers) and secondary sources (reviews). research methods and domains approached were per by two researchers and was guided by important biblio. cedure. subjective well-being and related topics the narrative tradition (Arksey & O'Malley. PUBMED Complementary research strategy Keywords: “Aging” OR “Ageing” OR “Later Life” OR “Older adults” OR “Elderly” OR (n=31) “Old age”. The main searches). of collating.Journal of Positive Psychology. PsycINFO. an at- fied according to their well-being approach: (i) hedonic.SCOPUS. or de.Peer-review journals. Journal of Happiness Studies. . sample and outcome topics and measures considered by both emotional (hedonic) measures (only for primary researches). The same happened with the studies about human and collecting standard information on each study. 2017.Full article not available (n=8). 2001. allowing having a framework of the main issues graphic sources that clarify the main assumptions of hedonic anales de psicología.Published between 2003 and 2013.570 Lia Araújo et al.Samples of individuals with mean age < 60 years old (n=25). . third category grouped the studies that sought to combine pendent variable). Inclusion criteria: . involves were classified in the hedonic category and examined as a applying a common analytical framework to all the results whole. Search Keywords on Title. the studies with a clear focus on pleasure. Hen- of information obtained from the primary sources (original derson & Knight.Articles written in other languages (n=7). Databases: . vol. type of study.Editorials or commentary (n=6). and psychological (eudaimonic) well-being. potential. meaningfulness and other mation was recorded as follows: positive psychology main themes that are consistent with a eudaimonic perspective.

2013). Peterson. Results Grønbæk.). 2010 Sense of Coherence Scale (Antonovsky. review. 2004 Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener. Some other studies looked for change in well. Joulain. Ai. 2010. Teshuva.4 (Horner. 2013) to 35 sources). aged between 60 structs of well-being and related topics under investigation. 2013b Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper. & Markides. Tovel. 2013. & García. since the first one is about the effect of an concept (n=3). sense of coherence (n=3). Bailly. vol. 2013 anales de psicología. The last four topics. & Peterson. 2013. 2013a. 2013). & Allison. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale In relation to the methodology used in the original re. Park. 2013. Purvis. as a protector against decline (e. diversity of well-being instruments was identified (see Table tive life-span musicianship (Brodsky. The use of general questions about happiness and life mel. These topics and re. & Griffin. Niele. 2011). Of these. Griffin. Altruism and humor emerged in 1 pean surveys (SHARE .2 (Ramírez et al. Ostir. erator factor that enables older people to maintain mental A total of 48 results were ultimately included in the scoping health (Wiesmann & Hannich. hope (e. tirement in Europe. 1977) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale search articles. followed by the Scales of Psy- mension. 2013.. Table 1. 2013b. Emmons. nº 3 (october) .g. Wood & Joseph. 2011. 1977) 6 Keng & Wu. ies had more than 1000 participants. & Car.g. & Alaphilippe. Pérez. 2013b). positive affect 50 to 70 years old and with a mean age of 60. of these studies. & life. As expected. 2013a. 1987) 3 Cowlishaw. Kubzansky. hope (n=3).. 2004. satisfaction was also found. Larsen. were related to very specific approaches to well. Ramírez.. 2013). Sun. Radloff. (CES-D. 1999).. 2003) and coping resources (e. 1985) were the in- ods. perceived control (n=5). & Griffin. 2017. Alaphilippe.. ies. 2004) and as a mod- As shown in Figure 1. Bailly. Ostir. Instruments of Well-being NReferences Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (Radloff. 2013a. Brummett. and 93 years old and with a mean age of 71. & Barefoot. Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper. 2013).g. and 10 stud- spective references were positive health (Seligman. optimism (n=6). Vaillant. Ghandhi. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. hap. namely health (e. Godoy-Izquierdo. Chamorro. Health and Retirement Study). Palgi. & Peterson.. 1995) 4 Kim. 1999) 3 Angner.Survey of Health. Summary of instruments from primary sources. The other 34 instru- Mroczek. psychological well-being (n=3). 1987) and Subjective Happiness associated with well-being. Well-being was often considered as outcome or chological Well-Being (Ryff & Keyes.. Kim. Larsen. Tweed & Tweed.. themes that should be further studied. 3 studies used samples between 500 and 1000. 6 Gana. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in old age through positive psychology studies: a scoping review 571 covered by Positive Psychology in the field of aging and later being with aging (e. positive neurology (Kapur et al. ies the smaller sample had 56 individuals. 1985) Gana et al. spirituality (n=3). Joulain. the biggest sample had 18345 individuals aged from piness (n=10). 1). Babyak. Ottenbacher. Ageing.. A smaller part considered well-being as a predictor of functioning (e. & Colmenero. & Spiro. 2013.. 2006). Oishi. Wood & Joseph. and Re- article each one. Wiesmann & Hannich.g. & Markides. Browning. Saada. Serrano. 2013. Ramírez et al. & ments identified were used in only one or two different stud- Seligman. Palgi. Emmons. & Park. 94 sources were identified for review. 33. Park. a huge value of older workers (Peterson & Spiker. 2011). qualitative studies had smaller samples mary sources) and 15 results were reviews (secondary ranging from 8 participants (Baker & Ballantyne. (Diener. Tice. (n=7). also referred in 1 pub. 2013.g. Ottenbacher. 2005) and posi. subjective well-being (n=10). 2013a. Moreno. Most quantitative studies being and clearly assumed by their authors as emerging (n=15) included samples between 100 and 500 older adults. Among quantitative stud- Studies included in this review approached different con. 2009 Scales of Psychological Well-Being (Ryff & Keyes. This variation is related with the purpose and design (n=3). Isaacowitz. Amante.g. coping 2012). 1995) Sense of Coher- dependent variable in the investigation of factors that were ence Scale (Antonovsky. Bol- ling & Koenig. struments more often used. self. positive contributory In what regards to the data collection methods. purpose in life (n=2) groups. Gana. 29 used quantitative and 4 qualitative meth. 2013b. 2013. 33 original scientific research articles (pri. Sun. Miao. & Kendig. Tovel & Carmel. Whit- church. Palgi. and the other is based on three National and Euro- and mindfulness (n=2). Kurtz. Saada. Orte- ga. with samples that varied substantially in terms of di. The most frequent topics were life satisfaction (n=11). 2013. 2008).. Wiesmann & Hannich. intervention program using experimental and control positive attitudes toward aging (n=2). lication. participants (Chaitin et al.

‘‘In general how satis- 2 Peterson. & 1 Tweed & Tweed. Wiesmann & Hannich. & Wu.. & Li. and Pleasure scale (Hyde et al.. 2004 Life Engagement Test (Scheier et al. Vaillant. nº 3 (october) . 2006) 1 Broadbent.. Tovel. 1989) 1 Etezadi & Pushkar. 2002) The main endpoints of primary research were analyzed ed. & how would you say things are these days?” ) Veenhoven. & Taylor. 2004 Will To Live (Carmel. 2013 Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt. 2013 & Stones. 2013.. 1980) NEO-PI (for Emotional Instability.. 2012 2003) Dutch Scale of Subjective Well-being for Older Persons (Groningen. 2013.. 2013 State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger. 2017.. et al. 2013 Satisfaction with Life Scale (Pavot.. & Barefoot. neuroticism) (Costa. 2001) 1 Tovel & Carmel. 1975) 2 Tovel & Carmel.. 2013 Preparation for Future Care Needs (Sorensen & Pinquart. & Spiro. i. 2013 Memorial University of New Foundland Scale of Happiness (Kozma 1 Dai. 2002) 1 Tovel & Carmel. Mroczel. 2011 Control. 2013 General questions about life satisfaction (e. in the studies about subjective tion. tional competence in happiness and life satisfaction. & Giltay. 2013a. Levin. Grønbæk. 2013 Questions on Life Satisfaction (Henrich & Herschbach. ‘‘Taking all things together. economic resources and health in- anales de psicología. 2013 Positive and Negative Affect (Mroczek & Kolarz. 1983) 1 Ai et al. 2013b Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al. Zhang. 1991) 1 Isaacowitz. 2000) 1 Wiesmann & Hannich. 1961) 2 Keng... 2010 The Netherlands.. well-being (in 3 papers each) were: age/longevity.572 Lia Araújo et al. (Table 2). eudaimonic and integration of both the influence of positive affect and life satisfaction in health. 1995) 2 Wiesmann & Hannich. 2006 Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg. of social support. 1 Horner. 1991) 1 Ai et al. 1987) Dispositional Coping Inventory (Carver et al. 2011 McCrae. fied are you with your life as a whole these days?”) Wahl. 1998) 1 Palgi. 2004 Life Satisfaction Index (Neugarten et al. 1998) 1 Etezadi & Pushkar. Griffin. with con- monic and 11 on both approaches simultaneously. 2013 Bradburn affect balance scale-positive emotion (Bradburn. external resources. 1987) 1 Cowlishaw et al. 2003) 1 Tovel & Carmel. 2013. 1985) 2 Godoy-Izquierdo et al. 1992) 1 Ai et al. 33... health was the topic more frequently investigat. & Nguyen. 2013a Religious Involvement Scale (Chatters. 2003 Spirituality Perspective Scale (Reed. Oerlemans. Tempelman. 1988) 2 Etezadi & Pushkar. 2004 SOC questionnaire (Freund & Baltes. & Seligman. family. Autonomy. 2006) 1 Etezadi & Pushkar.. Taylor. Geleijnse. 2002) 1 Ai et al. Diener. 2013. 2013 Using Private Prayer as a Means for Coping (Ai et al. Brummett. Wiesmann & Hannich. 6 on eudai.. Instruments of Well-being NReferences General Self-Efficacy Scale (Sherer & Adams. & Sandvik. & McGillivray. Self-realization. 1983) 1 Godoy-Izquierdo et al. & Carmel. 2003) 1 Etezadi & Pushkar. Tadic.g. Schilling. 2013 16-Strength Questionnaire of Values in Action Classification of 1 Isaacowitz et al. 2013b. 1 Koopmans. Quadros-Wander. Ai et al. 2004 Satisfaction with Life Scale (Carmel & Mutran 1997) 1 Tovel & Carmel. Chatters.. 1983) 2 Godoy-Izquierdo. 2013 Happiness Scale (Godoy-Izquierdo & Godoy 2006) 1 Godoy-Izquierdo et al. 2013b Goal-Management Scale (Wrosch et al. 2013 Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem. 2013. Bakker. Colvin. 2013 Life Orientation Test (Scheier & Carver. 1985) Perceived Control Scale (Lachman & Weaver. Main results highlight the influence of health and func- according to the well-being approach of each study as previ.2 Peterson et al. 1969) 1 Tweed & Tweed. 2013.g. Babyak. and to ously stated: hedonic. This categorization of results allowed to identify Other topics further studied in association with subjective 16 results with a focus on hedonic well-being...e... 2013 General questions about happiness (e. troversial results about the influence of age in life satisfac- As presented in table 2. & Oswald. 2013 Hope Scale (Snyder et al.. 2011 Affect Balance Scale (Warr et al. Tovel & Carmel. 1965) 2 Wiesmann & Hannich. vol. 2013b SF-36 Health Survey (Bullinger. 2013 Personal Wellbeing Index (International Wellbeing Group. 2011) 1 Tovel & Carmel. 1995) 1 Wiesmann & Hannich. 2013. Zitman.. with results presenting the influence well-being.2003 Character Strengths (Peterson & Seligman. 2013 Philadelphia Geriatric Center Positive Morale Scale (Lawton.

with an art program relation and other associations are presented in Table 2.. Brummett Life satisfaction did not contributes to health. 2013. anales de psicología. Another paper evaluated the outcomes of faith to the agency component of hope and dispositional op- intervention.. being the topic more often addressed. Gana et al. et al. presenting an increase in life satisfaction and timism. 2010 A balancing process of re-appraisal enhanced resolution and the sense of stability contribute to positive attitudes towards common age-related constraints. Purpose in life contributes to prevent and protect against heart disease. health retained also a associated personality with affect. Oishi. external resources.. focusing on the contribution of religious than nonworking. 2013. have a contribution to life satisfaction in older adults... 2013. sense of coherence. intervention and reli- against certain diseases (e. Hedonic N References (N=16) Health and Subjective well-being 9 Angner et al. Such concept and resilience. Retirement and Subjective Well-being 3 Tadic et al. Other topics associated gion/spirituality). Eudaimonic N References (n=6) Health and Psychological Well-being 2 Kim et al. Tweed & Tweed. ling et al. was presented that higher pivotal role.. stroke).. forgiveness and gratitude leads to an increase in life satisfaction and happiness.. et Working older individuals are not happier than nonworking. forgiveness and gratitude. 2013.. that had provided opportunities for autonomous engage- Table 2. ence. 2013a. happiness through a program training of autobiographical Finally. hope and self-esteem with familial and social characteristics contributing to self. social support and proactive coping to successful aging Within studies with a clear eudaimonic approach. Personality and Subjective Well-being: 1 Griffin et al. National Health Insurance contributes to happiness and life satisfaction.... Summary of main results from primary sources. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in old age through positive psychology studies: a scoping review 573 surance in subjective well-being. Retirees who value practicality factors (e. Keng & Family and economics contribute to subjective well-being. ceived control. 2009. Results about topics previously presented point to the contribution of purpose in life in protecting (age. 2006. Griffin et al. vol. easy access to medical services) felt happier. intervention. life satisfaction. nº 3 (october) . were also found. showing that per- wards common age-related constraints. 2013b.. 2004 Age/Longevity and Subjective Well-being 3 Gana et al. 2012 Individuals facing formal retirement at age 65 or later experience an increase in subjective well-being.g. that working older individuals are not happier gion/spirituality. Increase in life satisfaction with age. 2013b Age/Longevity and Psychological Well-being 1 Wolverson et al. and in another one. Functional competence contributes to al. 2013 Program training autobiographical memory. 2013. 2013. with results that and functioning. ment and congruent self-expression. advancing age was present in five studies. 33. 2010 Happiness contributes to lower mortality.. showing relation between subjective and psychological well-being in that a sense of stability contribute to positive attitudes to... and retirement. health and mental health even in the presence of decline in health as a core topic was present in two papers.. al. Gana et No age-related decline of life satisfaction.. Kim et al. al.. 2013a. Koopmans et al. Psychiatric disorders and mood disorder were associated with life satisfaction. Schil- Positive affect contributes to a less decline in functional status and better health. sense of coher- affect. 2011. and reli- for instance.g. 2011 Positive emotion is associated with more social support received and provided even among people reporting elevated distress.. 2017. with find- level of extraversion contributes to higher levels of positive ings about the contribution of self-efficacy. Dai et Health contributes to happiness and life satisfaction. 2013b. in those studies that gathered hedonic and eu- memory. 2006 Higher extraversion contributes to higher levels of positive affect and lower neuroticism to higher levels of negative affect. Intervention and Subjective Well-being 1 Ramírez et al. External resources and Subjective Well-being 3 Dai et al. external resources.. Wu. that daimonic perspectives of well-being. 2013. Ostir et al. Horner. showing. Specific analysis on the with psychological well-being were: age/longevity. Peterson et al.

Comparing challenge and lost (Aldwin & Igarashi. 2013 Familial and social hardships that have been faced contribute to self-concept and resilience. zadi & Pushkar..Wiesmann & Hannich. 2017. seph.. since it as- anales de psicología. nº 3 (october) . Social support contributes to life satisfaction. Intervention and Psychological Well-being 1 Swindells et al. increasingly being studied are religion/spirituality and suc- 1985) for hedonic formulation. Religion/spirituality and Well-being: 1 Cowlishaw et al. 2013. 2013). look of Positive Psychology towards older age is still much resilience and coping as examples of important personal related with happiness and life satisfaction. 2013. 2013 Arts participation contributes to enhance eudaimonic well-being by providing opportunities for autonomous engagement. as well well-being in the face of adversity) are extremely important as the self-concept of an older adult were found to be pre.. & Griffin. One the other hand. Relationship between Subjective and Psychological Well-being 5 Broadbent et al.. Palgi. Older adults had higher levels of interpersonal and self-regulatory strengths.. on the contrary. 1995) for the eudaimonic.. positive attitudes toward aging. life satisfaction. Niele. 2013). strengths and psychological processes to maintain (or regain issues about the meaning and hope at this life stage. 33. 2003 Hope contributes to life satisfaction. there is a greater become part of well-being studies as key factors of positive emphasis on the first one. Other interesting topics we’ve identified that are subjective well-being (Diener. Isaacowitz et al. 2003 Intervention and Well-being 1 Baker & Ballantyne. since this life stage is characterized by diverse conditions of sent. Wiesmann & Hannich. 1995). Tovel & Car- specifically two of the best known models of well-being. sense of autonomy contribute to happiness.. three had specifi- cally referred “psychological well-being” as main topic and Taken together the results selected from the search process four had used the “Scales of Psychological Well-being (Ryff (Figure 1). Religion and spirituality have most recently (Ryff & Keys. Citizenship and loving relationships contribute to life satisfaction. Go- Perceived control and life engagement with an increased use of problem focused and posi. 2013a. 2013 Song writing stimulated positive emotions and meaning. Ten of the thirty-three primary psychological states in old age (Cowlishaw. Emmons. social support and proactive coping contribute to success.. 2013. mel. Affect balance. Wood & Jo- Low positive well-being contributes to depression. 2013. 2012. 2013a. vol. with a high impact in gerontological research.. External resources and Well-being 2 Wiesmann & Hannich. This review presents important clues on issues with adaptation to longer life constitute another theme quite recently aroused both at a conceptual and empirical levels examined throughout the studies presented in this review. 2013a. Wiesmann & Han- Physical health contributes to life satisfaction. Positive Psychology in aging and later life research over the Positive psychological traits and resources associated last 10 years. ful aging and mental health even in the presence of decline in health and functioning. tive reappraisal coping contribute to emotional well-being associated with wisdom. Hedonic and Eudaimonic N References (N=11) Health and Well-being 4 Tovel & Carmel. 2013 Spirituality contributes to a meaningful appraisal of life situation. External resources and Psychological Well-being 1 Chaitin et al. Isaacowitz et al. Larsen. and psychological well-being cessful aging. Teshuva. Religion/spirituality and Psychological Well-being: 1 Ai et al. Self-efficacy. Conversely. everyday competence and self-esteem contribute to life satisfaction. 2013. growth-related cognitive and creative challenge and congruent self-expression. sense of coherence. the concept of suc- main theme and 6 has used the “Satisfaction with Life Scale” cessful aging has been studied extensively in last decades. 2010 Age/Longevity and Well-being 3 Broadbent et al. Discussion (Diener et al. but clearly in a less representative manner. The Optimism..574 Lia Araújo et al. 1985). Sense of coherence. Isaacowitz et al. nich.. & Kendig. 2004 Religious faith factors contributed to the agency component of hope and dispositional opti- mism indirectly through the use of prayer as a coping strategy. we can have a broad picture of the investment of & Keys.doy-Izquierdo et al. purpose in life. 2013b. 2013. Ete- Primary perceived control contributes to life satisfaction. No suppression of self-control with age. 2003 Old-old participants maintain a higher general positive sense of Psychological well-being than midlife and young-old participants. sources analyzed had addressed “subjective well-being” as Browning. related to the definition and measurement of well-being.

since being old has different meanings across points proved to be a challenge since their motivations are family and society organizations. The results also reflected a largely pects: (i) the unique characteristics of later life.g. Also the fact that et al. Brdar. Thus. & Igarashi. methodologies and the difficulties of a proper comparison precisely. of particular value to an older population. due its potential on adaptive functioning in change and the achievement of personal goals (Baltes & aging. a greater emphasis on the ing on peer review. Vella-Brodrick. since they combine the benefits of validated to conclude that integrated models. C. (ii) new methodologi- period. There ies with new approaches that are coming up (namely flour- were also found studies with joint investigations of feelings ishing and optimal experience) must be developed. but also associated with the capacity being (hedonic) may be reached though psychological well- for cognitive growth (Ryff. 1997). & Koenig. as it had been investigated for a longer tention on issues related to well-being. 9. Swindells grey literature on the topics under analysis. but in most papers it was clear the A final word is to be said on the importance of looking emphasis in only one perspective. 2013. Aldwin. A. Bolling. is something often neglected though an important issue in The confront between hedonic and eudaimonic end.115 Psychology. themes within this eudaimonic per. instruments with the potential of open questions and an- claimed by different authors (e. 32. life satisfaction being (eudaimonic). Delle Fave. and in that sense we believe a cal research there is a tendency to consider separately the special attention is ought to be given to the following as- two general perspectives. 1961) and adaptation to further research. 33. Nevertheless. doi: 10. Baker & Ballantyne. often very closely linked. 2003).g. vol. art performance) can be seen as a limitation and must be considered in future can enhance well-being in advancing age. subsequently.G. Although interest. H.1177/1359105304042352 anales de psicologí 2011). which leads ies of this kind. which may reflects the lack of congruence in tive psychology related journals but this scope review aims. but in other hand it also means on aging issues. Journal of Health http://dx. H. Other limitations are related with the fact the great interest and efforts doing in the field of the well. 2013) since they prove that only English language sources were retrieved and reviewed appropriate programs (e.. This approach may exclude well-being issues (Rodgers & Herzog.N. are being considered. Tovel & age. (2004). 1989).. Another fact to deserve mention relates to the and probably important results could be found in books and three studies on intervention (Ramírez et al.. 2011). it seems remarkable to high. & Wissing. Conclusions tion. cal developments concerning multilevel modeling and con- spective were also identified. Life.. a several issue is the restriction to sources re- overcome through interviews and open questions about lated with positive psychology. Havighurst & Tobin.g. 2013). it seems important to em- light the study of this approach in the presence of decline in phasize the fact that a greater investment in integrated mod- health and functioning. swers. 2017. also in gerontologi..L. mention "positive psychology" or was not published in posi- ing result. as well as the investment in hedonic perspectives. song writing. nº 3 (october) . reviews. Re- References Ai.. aging research. S.. Tice. Annual Review of Gerontology & Geriatrics. ther commentary to this debate.. important research on well-being in old age that did not ty of available well-being instruments was also an astonish. which is justified by phenomenon of population aging that is occurring in all Waterman (1993) who argues that this approach enjoy more countries over the world justify a greater investment and at- scientific consensus.F. to analyze the specific focus of positive psychology of findings across studies. C.doi. (2012). Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in old age through positive psychology studies: a scoping review 575 sumes the possibility for continued growth and development cent trends are questioning if eudaimonia is a goal to be in old age. Freire. relay- ing and with promising results. Peterson. More recently. Although the goal of this article was not to add fur- Smith. Such an approach intends to clarify els remains essential in aging studies for detecting differ- resources associated with adaptation and. mainly referring to meaningful struct comparisons (hedonism and eudaimonism) and stud- pursuits that promote purpose and growth in life. We believe that this subject deserves (Neugarten. 435–450.. 115-130. An Ecological Model of Resilience in Late Faith-based and Secular Pathways to Hope and Optimism Sub. doi: constructs in Middle-aged and Older Cardiac Patients. The methodology should also be subject of considera. Distinct formulations have been presenting this achieved or is it a means of reaching well-being (Cohen- concept as not only good physical and cognitive functioning Mansfield & Poon. be ences and synergies among them and their specificities in old promoted through specific interventions (e. which promote flourishing in older adults is required. (iii) the of happiness and its association with human strengths and mixed method approach may have more advantages in stud- virtues that produce an array of meanings in life. The review did not account for study quality. A huge diversi. that only the databases of scientific papers were searched being study. Carmel. namely the lack of qualitative studies which is a finding that deserves some attention since the older population Some reflections about the limitations of this review are re- might have sensory and cognitive deficits that can be better quired: firstly.. The reconstruction of findings presented development of empirically validated interventions aimed to in the review did not account for cultural influences. T.1891/0198-8794. 2013.32. reinforcing that subjective well- (Rowe & Kahn. which have been so ac. 1992). forward our obtained results.

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