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With reference to
Project report submitted to Andhra University, Visakhapatnam in partial Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree in
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
Regd.No. Under the esteemed guidance of
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES
ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
This is to certify that project report entitled “BRAND
AWARENESS” with reference to AIRTEL, VISHAKAPATNAM is a bonafide work done by with Regd.No: under my guidance and supervision during May to June 2008. This project is submitted to ANDHRA UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the award of degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION.
Date: Place: Vizianagaram
() Project Guide
I here by declare that this project report entitled “BRAND AWARENESS” with reference to “AIRTEL, VISHAKAPATNAM” has been prepared by me during the year 2008 in the month of June and July is partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of ANDHRA UNIVERSITY.
I also declare that this project is a result of my own effort and that it has not been submitted to any other university for the award of any Degree or Diploma.
Introduction Need for the Study Objectives of the Study Methodology Limitations of the Study
Industrial profile Company profile
Analysis of study
Summary Findings Suggestions
• Introduction • Need for the Study • Objectives of the Study • Methodology • Limitations of the Study
Marketing Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. In a most simple and non-technical language, marketing may be explained as a business function entrusted with the criterion and satisfaction of customers to achieve the aims of business itself in popular usage, the term "marketing" refers to the promotion of products, especially advertising and branding. However, in professional usage the term has a wider meaning. It can be divided into four sections. Often called the "four Ps'". They are: Product - The product management aspect of marketing deals with the specifications of the actual good or service, and how it relates to the end-user's needs and wants. Pricing – This refers to the process of setting a price for a product, including discounts. Promotion -This includes advertising, sales promotion,
publicity, and persona! Selling. And refers to the various methods of promoting the product, brand or company.
NEED FOR THE STUDY
The study was conducted to know the brand awareness regarding Airtel cellular providers from the customers of different cellular service providers. He study totally revolves around the opinions and feed back from the users. An opinion survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to know the users' view on the services provided by Airtel with special emphasis on the other cellular users. The study was also done to estimate the performance of the Airtel mobiles with the other cellular service providers, and
to whether the customers know about different services provided by the Airtel mobiles. Understanding the level of customer satisfaction with : Reference to Airtel • Coverage • Call centers • Billing
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To understand the concept of Brand Awareness of Airtel Cellular. 2. To find the awareness strategies of the Airtel brand. 3. To know how many cellular users know about the services provided by Airtel. 4. To find out the reasons for the retention of the Airtel customers. 5. To collect the suggestions and complaints of other cellular service providers. 6. To know the customer preferences. 7. To understand the problems of mobile customers. 8. To study the basic need of the customer for switching from one Cell Company to another. 9. To compare the service of “Airtel” with that of the other market players. customers of
This study is done using the following primary and secondary data: Primary Data: The primary data was collected by a market survey in Visakhapatnam. Questionnaire was prepared and administrated by taking a sample of 100 consumers, which contains different categories of consumers like students,
businessmen and employees. Secondary Data: The secondary data comprises of various Books, Journals, Periodicals and other published magazines are included in the study. Data was also collected from the company's records and from the websites "www.Airtel.co.in"'.
Deliberate sampling: Deliberate sampling is known as purposive or non-
probability sampling. This sampling method involves purposive or deliberate selection of particular units of the universe for constituting a sample, which represents a universe. When population elements are selected for inclusion in the sample on the basis of access it can be called convenience sample.
Simple random sampling: This type of sampling also known as chance sampling or probability sampling. Where each and every item in population has an equal chance of inclusion in this sample and each one of the possible sample, in case of finite universe, has the sample probability of being selected. Systematic sampling: In some instances the most practical way of sampling is to select every 15th name of list, every 10th house on one side of house of street and so on. Sampling of this type is known as systematic sampling. Stratified sampling: If the population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogeneous group than a stratified sampling techniques applied so as to obtain representative sample. Quota sampling: In stratified sampling the cost of talking random samples from individual strata is often so expensive that interviewers are simply given quota to be filled from different strata, the actual selection of items for sample being left to the interviewer’s judgment.
Cluster and area wise sampling: Cluster sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or the clusters rather than individual elements inclusion in the sample. Multi-stage sampling: This is the further development of the idea of cluster sampling. This technique is meant for big enquires extending today considerably large geographical area like entire country. Sequential sampling: This is somewhat a complex sample design where the ultimate size of the sample is not fixed in advance but it is determined accordingly to the mathematical decisions on the basis of information yielded as study progress.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The sample size was comparatively very small compared to the population and there are chances that it may not represent the whole population. The time and cost factors affected the size of the sample. A few of the questions asked were ranking based and hence there was every possibility of biased user opinion. There were only three open ended questions, which were comparatively low when compared to the number of the number of closed ended questions in the questionnaire keeping in the respondent's precious time. Most of the samples were collected during the office time. So there is a chance of receiving some wrong responses due workload from the respondents. Many of the respondents gave oral complaints, but hesitated to write those complaints in the complaints column.
• Industrial profile • Company profile
INDUSTRY PROFILE MARKETING
Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest definitions of Marketing is When eBay recognized that people
“Meeting needs profitably.
were unable to locate some of the items they desired most and created an online auction clearing house as when IDEA noticed that people wanted good furniture of a substantially lower price and created knock-down furniture. Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relations in ways that benefit the organization and its stoke holders.
Four Basic Features of Modern Marketing Modern marketing is consumer oriented. Modern marketing starts and ends with the consumer. Modern marketing precedes and succeeds production. Modem marketing is the guiding element of business.
Importance of marketing: A high level of marketing activity is a prerequisite for a high level economic activity. It has been aptly remarked. "Nothing happens until somebody sells something. At present the urgency is for increased marketing and not merely for increase in production. This alone shows the importance of marketing as a potential force that commands high significance for society as a whole.
Perhaps the most distinctive skill of professional marketers is their ability to create, maintain, protect and enhance brands. Marketers say that "branding is the art and cornerstone of marketing. The American Marketing Association defines a brand as follows: A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. In essence, a brand identifies the seller or maker. It can be a name, trademark, logo, or other symbol. Under trademark law, the seller is granted exclusive rights to the use of the brand name in perpetuinity. Brands differ from other assets such as patents and copyrights, which have expiration dates. A brand is essentially seller's promise to deliver a specific set of features, benefits, and services consistently to the buyers. The brands convey a warranty of quality. But a brand is an even more complex symbol.
It can convey up to six levels of meaning: 1. Attributes: A brand brings to mind certain attributes. Mercedes suggests expensive, well-built, well-engineered,
durable, high-prestige automobiles. 2. Benefits: Attributes must be translated into functional and emotional benefits. The attribute "durable" could translate into functional benefit years". The attribute "I won't have to buy another car for several "expensive" translates into the
emotional benefit “the car makes me feel important and admires.' 3. Values: The brand also says something about the producer's values Mercedes stands for high performance, safety and prestige. 4. Culture: The brand may represent a certain culture. culture: organized, efficient,
The Mercedes represents German high quality. 5.
Personality: The brand can project a certain personality.
Mercedes may suggest a no-nonsense boss (person), a reigning lion (animal), or an austere place (object). 6. User: The brand suggests the kind of consumer who buys or uses the product. We would expect to see a 55-year-old top executive behind the wheel of a Mercedes, not a 20-year-old secretary.
If a company treats a brand only as a name, it misses the point. The branding challenge is to develop a deep set of positive associations for the brand. Marketers must decide at which level(s) to anchor the brand's identity. One mistake would be to promote only attributes. First, the buyer is not as interested in attributes as in benefits. Second, competitors can easily copy attributes. Third, the current attributes may be come less desirable later. Promoting the brand only on one benefit can also be risky. Suppose Mercedes touts its main benefit as "high performance". Then several competitive brands emerge with high performance as compared to other benefits. Mercedes needs the freedom to maneuver into a new benefit positioning. The most enduring meanings of a brand are its values, culture, and personality. They define the brand's essence, The Mercedes stands for high technology, performance and success. Mercedes must project this in. its brand strategy. Mercedes must resist marketing an inexpensive car bearing the name; doing so would dilute the value and personality. Mercedes has built up over the years.
Brand, the hip, catches all word of the New Economy. It suggested all a company needed succeed was awareness. Image, as they say, was everything. Pat Harpell saw it up close as the CEO of Harpell Inc., an integrated marketing firm in Maynard, Massachusetts. Over the past few years, many entrepreneurs have called on her to create branding programs, and she could see that old-fashioned branding strategies had gone astray. “That’s not a branding program; that's a logo." she says. "Basic business principles fell apart."' Branding turned into a game of being seen for the sake of being seen, without giving consumers a reason to buy. What ultimately fell apart was the connection between companies and consumers. Branding turned into a game of being seen for the sake of being seen, without giving consumers reason to buy. "There's been a tremendous abuse of branding," says Jeff Dufresne, managing director of Brand Storm, a brandconsulting group in Cincinnati. "I think people got confused and thought branding was just throwing some ill-conceived
advertising out there to gain awareness." With the dotcom fallout, companies are relearning the basic lessons of what makes a successful brand-mainly that you can't live on image only. Eyeballs don't equal sales, and logos don't create loyalty. Consumers want to know what you arc all about
and why they should trust you enough to purchase your product. This will our lives. Branding a has become a monologue instead of never change, no matter how much technology alters
dialogue. Entrepreneurs need to leave their ivory
office towers and talk to people. It’s that dialogue that's beer, missing lately, Koehn says, and it's essential to any branding strategy. Branding has become a monologue instead of a dialogue. Entrepreneurs need to leave their ivory office towers and talk to people. They need to be responsive to their customers. They have to make sure their branding messages are understood by everyone inside the company. “Over the last few years. People didn't realize how hard branding really is.” Koehn says. But its rewards are equal to is-s difficulty. Harpell recently studied a group of new companies to see how ingrained their branding messages were inside those companies. She found that many employees weren't aware of their companies' branding messages at all. brand connection, no teaching of “There were no and no
communicating with consumers,” Harpell says. The web's problems, too. When management and
technology consulting firm Accenture and technology research company Online Insight surveyed 2000 online consumers last
year, they found that a lot of the givens about the web that marketers operate under are false. While most of the marketing is aimed at youth, the average online shopper is 35 to 44. Entrepreneurs also assumed that advertisements drew
consumers to their sites while customer’s survey veiled on search engines. And the low prices companies touted weren't what customers were looking for; they wanted satisfying customer encounter that was Fast and convenient. "Branding is about more than the sock puppet. It's about the total customer experience," says Kelly Dixon, co-author of the study and director of e-branding at Accenture in Chicago. "Companies haven't focused on the entire package." Consumers developed a love-hate relationship with late-'90s branding strategies. Observes David Schumann, consumer
psychologist and associate dean at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. On one hand, seeing logos invade every inch of public space has left U.S consumers over-exposed to branding. On the other hand, consumers are paying attention, if only briefly, to discover whether you'll reveal that one clear benefit your product or service offers that'll make them try it. The problem is this "one clear benefit" has been missing in plenty of branding campaigns, and Schumann sees companies facing the fallout: consumers sticking with the products they've trusted for a long time instead of taking a chance on products they don't really understand. When the value proposition is missing,
Schumann says, risk-averse consumers will go with what they know. Brand Awareness: In developing brand, it is important to design
communication messages that reflect the brand's unique value for specific audiences. Med stat helps healthcare providers strengthen their brand awareness efforts with those customers likely to use their service as well as determine the most effective media for communicating their brand value to the target audience based on lifestyle and media preference. DEFINITION:
The act of creating public awareness of a specific brand in
order to maximize its recognition, successful brand awareness strategies should define a company's uniqueness and set it apart from competitors". Quite simply, if potential customers do not know about a company, they will not purchase from it. Therefore, one of the preeminent goals of any business should be to build brand awareness, albeit, in cost-effective manner as possible. Consumers tend to make purchasing decisions based on peer recommendations and direct experience, as well as traditional advertising methods. This is why it is necessary to build brand awareness strategies out by instilling trust among consumers. Thus trust must be achieved through credibility, rather than just a catchy advertising campaign. Promotional
increasingly effective at building trust and acquiring new customers. Online brand awareness strategies are used frequently, albeit with differing levels of success. These online brand awareness strategies can include the use of advertising including banners, sponsorships, and email/newsletter advertising, online PR, affiliate marketing, etc.
Cellular Telephony: The technology that gives a person the power to
communicate anytime anywhere has spawned an entire industry in mobile telecommunications. Mobile telephones have become a business/economy, The most prevalent wireless standard in the world today is GSM. The GSM association (Global System for Mobile
Communication) was instituted in 1987 to promote and expedite the adoption, development, deployment and evolution of the GSM standards for digital wireless communications. The GSM association was formed as a result of a European community agreement on the need to adopt common standards suitable for cross border European mobile communications. Starting of primarily as a European standard, the group special mobile as it was then called, soon came to represent the global system for
mobile communication as it achieved the status of a world wide standard. GRM is today, the world’s leading digital standard
accounting for 68.5% of the global digital wireless market. The Indian government when considering the introduction of cellular services into the country, made a landmark decision to introduce the GSM standard, leap fogging obsolescent
technologies/standards. Although cellular licenses were made technology neutral in September 1999, all the private operators are presently offering only GSM based mobile services. The new licenses for the 4'1 cellular licenses that were awarded in July 2001 too, have opted for GSM technology to offer their mobile services. Cellular Industry in India: The government of India recognizes that the provision of a world class telecommunication infrastructure and information is the key to rapid economic and social development of the country. It is critical not only for the development of the technology industry, but also has widespread
ramifications on the entire economy of the country. It is also anticipated that going forward, a major part of the GDP of the country would be contributed by this sector. Accordingly, it is of vital importance to the country that there be a comprehensive and forward looking telecommunications policy which creates an enabling framework for the development of this industry.
and exciting wireless markets in the world. The first telegraph line in India
History of telephony in India:
was commissioned in October 1851 for the East India Company. That was the beginning of India's electronic contact with the world. A hundred years later, the first automatic telephone exchange opened in Calcutta. From then to 1995, (when the first cellular phone call was made at the princely cost of Rs 16.80 per minute) for the average Indian, getting a telephone connection meant having contacts at the right places. Of course, what is playing out in India is just one exciting chapter in the global wireless revolution - a revolution that has ensured that mobile phones are the most widespread
communication devices on earth. There are more than 50 million subscriptions as 1st October 2007; the company is one of the world’s fastest growing telecom companies. It offers its mobile services under the Airtel brand and is headed by “Sunil Mittal”, India’s 6th richest man with a total worth of US$27 billion. Some analysis advises taking slightly more conservative figure. They point out that there is some degree of over-counting by cellular service operators in the mad rush to report higher subscriber’s numbers, it is often hard to tell just how many active subscribers each operator has. While post-paid customers need to surrender their number to recover their deposits, there is no such compulsion for prepaid customers, who account for well
over 80% of the subscriber base.
And most operators allow a
pre-paid subscriber to exist in the system for anything ranging from 45days to 6 months, even after they have stopped buying talk-time. So, many of those subscribers simply do not exist. Even the specter of -double counting cannot take away from the fact that India's mobile party is in full swing. And that it is likely to continue at least for the next couple of years.
Everyone - the Government, Vendors, Handset manufacturers, and operators -is pulling out all the stops to make sure that the party doesn't end prematurely. The introduction of the unified license has sorted out the key regulatory concerns. Sure there are still a few direct investment limits to 74%. The equipment and handset vendors are keeping the growth story going. If two years ago, capacity enhancement cost over $100 per subscriber, it is under $40 now. Nokia is now getting increasingly aggressive in the Indian telecom equipment market. Recent data suggests that its equipment rates have
come down to S25 per subscriber- once again, among the lowest in the world. In just a decade, the Indian telecom sector has transformed itself from a musty tome of arcane into a growth story on
Cellular communications telephones arena, have how revolutionized we perceive the voice
communications. Traditionally cellular phones remained out of hands of most consumers due to their high cost. As a result, cell phone carriers have invested time and resources into finding ways to give the systems higher capacity and thus lower cost. Cell systems are benefiting from this research and starting to develop into large-scale consumer products. Today, cellular phones are truly consumer electronics devices with over 75 million subscribers. Since cell phones have ceased to be an exclusive status symbol of high-powered lawyers and are now in the hands of million of consumers. They are now incredibly cost sensitive. Specifically it is not the cost of the device that counts, but the cost of using the device. Today, more than ever, cellular companies are looking for ways to bring down the call cost to attain even higher market penetration, especially in metropolitan areas. In this report, we will begin by examining how eel! Phone systems work, paying close attention to details in system design that reduce cost and increase quality. After knowing about how an eel! Phone system works, we will examine the various cell phone systems in existence, examining the details of their
operation and how that impacts the cost of using the system and call quality on the system.
An Overview It is common knowledge that cellular phone? (Referred to as "cell'' phones from here on) are wireless phones; however, many of us have confusion about how a cell phone works.
Essentially, cell phones use high-frequency radio signals to
communicate with "cell towers" located throughout the calling area. Cell phones communicate in the frequency range of 806-890 MHz and 1850-1990 MHz for the newly allocated "PCS" frequency range.
When the user wants to make a call, the cell Phone sends a
message to the tower, asking to be connected to a given telephone number. If to the tower has sufficient resources to grant the request, a device called a "switch" patches the cell phone's signal throughout to a channel on (he "Public Switched Telephone Network"(other\vise known as P S T N). This call now takes a wireless channel as well as PSTN channel that will be held open until the call is completed.
This channel cannot be used for anyone else's call until the
cell phone call is discontinued. The above simple description of how ceil phones work, we will add technical details about various facets of cell phone systems throughout the remainder of this section. CELLULAR PHONES As the name implies, cell phone systems are made up of many small "cells". Each cell in a cell phone system represents the area served by one cell phone tower, The concept of cells is key behind the success of cell phones because by spacing many cells fairly close to each other, the cell phones may broadcast at very low power levels (typically 200m\V 1W, depending on system). Since the cell phones may broadcast at low power levels, they use small transmitters and small batteries, and thus are able to tit in a shirt pocket, unlike amateur radios can occupy a tabletop. Cells are typically spaced around 1-2 miles apart but can be spaced up to 20 miles apart in rural areas. In loaded areas with many obstacles (such as tall buildings), the cell sites may be spaced closer together, some technologies, like PCS, require closer cell spacing due to their higher frequency and lower power operation. Additionally, buildings interfere with cell signals coming from outside so many buildings have their own "micro cell1'. The Kingdome and New York subway are two examples of where micro cells are used. Micro cells may also be used to
increase overall capacity within a heavily populated area such as city's core downtown area. In fact, homes may have "Pico cells'' connected to the home's PSTN connection to allow the eel] phone to be used as a cordless phone.
ENCODING AND MULTIPLEXING
Overview With thousands of cellular phone calls going on at any given time within a city , it certainly would not work for everyone to talk on the came channel at once(as in CB and short-wave radios). Therefore, several different techniques were developed by cell phone manufacturers to split up the available bandwidth into many channels each capable of supporting one
conversation. The following sections will discuss each technology and how it works. Analog vs. Digital While the distinctions between analog and digital encoding is probably obvious to most readers, a short discussion is included for those who are not. Essentially, analog broadcasts audio as a series of continuously changing, voltage representing the amplitude of the levels
When sent on the cell phone network using the standard frequency modulation (meaning voltage levels translate into frequency shifts) into channel separated by 30 KHz, we find that the amplitude can be effectively transmitted at 15 KHz due to Nyquist limitations.
Instead of sending data as various voltage levels, a digital signal quantizes the voltage levels into a number of bits (typically 2 or 25(5 representing an S-bit encoding). These bins are encoded as a binary number and sent as a series of Is and Os. This allows for digital compression in the encoding stage enabling voice to be sent at as little as 8000 bits per second. FDMA FDMA stands for "frequency division multiple access1' and though it could be used for digital systems, is exclusively used on all analog cellular systems. Essentially, FDMA splits the allocated spectrum, in many channels. In current analog cell systems, each channel is 30 KHz. When a FDMA cell phone establishes a call, it reserves the frequency channel for the entire duration of the call. The voice data is modulated into this channel frequency band (using frequency modulation) and sent over the airwaves. At the receiver, the information is recovered using a Band Pass Piker. The phone uses a common digital control channel to acquire channels. FDMA systems arc least efficient cellular system since each wasted analog channel can only used by one user at a time, not only are those channels larger than necessary given modern digital voice compression, but they are also whenever there is silence during the cell phone conversation. Analog signals are also especially susceptible to
noise and there is no way to filter it out. Given the nature of the signal, analog cell phones must use higher po\ver(between 0 and 3 watts) to get acceptable call quality. Given these shortcomings , it is easy to see why FDMA is being replaced by newer digital techniques. TDMA TDMA stands for "time division multiple access". TDMA builds on FDMA by dividing conversations by frequency and time. Since Digital compression allows voice to be sent at well under 10 kilobits per second(equivalent to 10 KHz). TDMA fits three digital conversations into FDMA channel(which is 30 KHz) by sampling a persons voice for say 30 million seconds, then transmitting it in 10 milliseconds; the system is able to offer 3 timeslots per channel in a round-robin fashion. This technique allows compatibility with FDMA while enabling digital services and easily boosting system capacity by three times. While TDMA is good digital system, it is still somewhat inefficient since it has no flexibility for varying digital rates( high quality voice, low quality voice, pager traffic) and has no accommodations for silence in a telephone conversation. In other words , once a call is initiated, the channel/timeslot pair belongs to the phone tor the duration of the call. TDMA also requires strict signaling and timeslot by synchronization. A digital control channel provides synchronization functionally as well as adding
voice mail and message notification. Due to the digital signal , TDMA phones need only broadcast at 600 milliwatts.
CDMA CDMA stands for "Coded Division Multiplexed Access11 and is both the most interesting and the harden ro implement multiplexing method. CDMA has been likened to a party; when everyone talks at once, no one can understand, however, if everyone speaks a different language, then they can be understood. A CDMA system hay no channels, but instead encodes each call as a coded sequence across the entire frequency spectrum. Each conversation is modulated, in the digital domain, with a unique code(called a pseudo-noise code) that makes it distinguishable from the other calls in the frequency spectrum. Using a correlation calculation and the code the call was encoded with, the digital audio signal can be extracted from the other signals being broadcast by other phones on the network. From the perspective of one call, upon extracting the signal, everything else appears to be low-level noise. As long as there is sufficient separation between the codes (said to be mutually orthogonal), the noise level will be low enough to recover the digital signal. Each signal is not, in fact, spreads across the whole spectrum (12.5MHz for traditional cellular or 60MHz in PCS cellular), but is spread across 1.25MHz "pass-bands." CDMA systems are the latest technology on the market and are already equipping TDMA in terms of cost and call quality, since CDMA offers far greater capacity and variable data rated
depending on the audio activity, many more users can be hi into a given frequency spectrum and higher audio quality can be provided. The current CDMA systems boast at
least three times the capacity of TDMA and GSM systems. The fact that CDMA shares frequencies with neighboring cell towers allows for easier installation of extra capacity. So extra capacity can be achieved by simply adding extra cell sites and shrinking power levels of nearby sites. CDMA technology also allows lower cell phones power levels(200 milliwatts) since the modulation techniques expect to deal with noise and are well suited to weaker signals. The downside to CDMA is the complexity of deciphering and extracting the received signals, especially if there are multiple signal path (reflections) between the phone and the cell tower (called Multi-path interference). As a result, CDMA phones are twice as expensive as TDMA phones and CDMA cell site equipment is 3-4 times the price of TDMA equivalents. GSM: GSM stands for "Global System for Mobile Communication." GSM is mostly a European system and \is largely unused in the US. GSM is interesting in that is uses a modified -and far more efficient version of TDMA. GSM keeps the idea of timeslots and frequency channels, but corrects several major shortcomings. Since the GSM timeslots are smaller than TDMA, they hold less date but allow for data rates starting at 300 bits per second. Thus, a call can use many timeslots as necessary up to a limit of 13 kilobits per second. When a call is inactive (silence) or may be compressed more, fewer timeslots are used. To facilitate filling in
gaps left by unused timeslots, calls do "frequency hopping" in GSM. This means that calls will jump between channels is used to communicate the frequency hopping and other information between the cell tower and the phone. To compare with the other systems, is should be noted that GSM requires 1 Watt of output power from the phone. CALL HANDOFF It is apparent that cells must somehow overlap, and when a user travels between cells, one cell must hand the eel! off to the other cell. The cells must also not interfere with each oilier. Tins is accomplished by giving each cell a slightly different chunk of the frequency spectrum(note that CDMA does do not do this) and by measuring power levels. When the power level of the user begins to fade, the cell tower determines which cell is the closest cell. Upon finding this information, the current cell tower sends an over-the-air message to the new ceil tower and to the cell phone. At this point, the new cell tower picks up the call and the old drops the call as the cell phone switches frequencies. This type of handoff is called a 'hard handoff' since the audio feed is lost for between 10 milliseconds and l00 milliseconds while the new tower picks up the signal. Often these "hard" handoffs fail when the new tower tries to pick the call up, leading to frequent dropped calls. In most systems, each cell tower typically receives a 1.8MHz frequency spectrum. In normal cellular systems that
have a 12.5MHz spectrum (not the high-band PCS systems that have more bandwidth), this allows for 7 ceils before ceils have to reuse frequencies. Generally, there are 0-2 cells and 10-20 miles separating cells using the same frequency in order minimize interference. A discussion of call handoff s not complete without CDMA technology. Since CDMA uses the entire spectrum available, there is no real distinction between cells in terms of frequency use. Since each cell is scattered across a whole 1.25MHz pass band in CDMA, every cell tower can access the whole 12.5 MHz spectrum(60 MHz in a PCS system), this means that there is no necessity to change frequencies during a handoff since everyone is using the same frequencies. Therefore, two cell towers intercept the signal where the cells overlap. This means no sudden switch, since this handoff (called a "soft handoff) is actually handled in the switch, changing from one weaker audio feed to a stronger audio feed. This technique removes the loud "pop" associated with normal "hard" handoffs and greatly reduces problems with dropped calls. SECURITY One of the largest problems in wireless communication is security. There are two worries: other people listening into phone calls and other people illegally billing time to a users
account(called "phone cloning'').
Unfortunately, analog phones transmit in plain FM, and provide no security. For instance, a few years ago, Newt Gingrich had a cell phone conversation taped by someone using a simple police scanner, which is designed to receive police activity on the CB frequencies. Since analog phones have such weak security, the architects of digital technology designed digital phones with much more robust security. Digital phones employ encryption to secure the phone and the conversation. Encryption is used in TDMA and COM A to make sure that works by picking a key that is used in an equation that compresses the audio. The encrypted key is sent to the cell tower so the cell tower knows how to decode the conversation. Therefore, even if the person with the scanner finds the channel and time slice you are using, they would need to find the encryption code to make sense of the signal. It is also important to mention that CDMA also uses its modulation code to provide increased security, resulting in over four billion possible
encryption codes. Cell phones also must be protected from cloning by encrypting the eel! phone number and related information. When sending the information to the switch, cloning is prevented. Wireless Data In the modern times, we depend on e-mail and on the World Wide Web. We have access to these resources at home and at the offices, and we would like to use these resources while
traveling. This is the goal that "wireless data" hopes to accomplish. Analog Modems Analog modems are the simplest type of wireless data. Analog modems work on any cellular system by simply encoding the digital data as audio signals. Analog cellular moderns make the same squealing sounds as the ordinary desktop computers analog modem, but operate al far slower speeds. On an analog modem, these modems typically average between 4800 to 9600 bits per second. This is slower than the maximum possible rate because of the inefficiency of converting digital to analog. It should also be noted that digital systems do not support analog modems since their data compression would damage the analog modem signal, preventing it from being decoded by the receiving modem. Packet Networks) By using some of the channels of TDMA and FDMA(is-1367 and amps standards) network as large aggregated digital data lines, packetized digital data may be sent over this line. CDPD describes how every cell phone on the network may insert packets on this shared data channel without causing collisions, which would happen if two packets were sent at the same time by two different phones. CDPD is useful since it runs on top of Data (CDPD Over Is-136 And Amps
FDMA systems as well as newer TDMA systems and offers 19.2 kilobits per second data rate. Using a teemed system, the CDPD protocol can be scaled by adding more frequency channels. GSM: GSM uses an antiquing method to send data by sampling sending computer data as it would send voice data. GSM allows every phone to be "data enabled". Since the GSM network is already a packet network of sorts because of its frequency hopping. It requires no additional hardware to support data. GSM allows data rates in multiples of 300 bits per second, up to 64 kilobits per second.
THE PLAYERS OF WIRELESS MARKET
a) Bharti Tele - Ventures: Bharti Tele-Ventures is the most aggressive acquirer of wireless connections and it is mainly focusing on penetrating in the circles of India. It has got wireless subscribers of 10 million and 19.48% of the total market share. b) Hutchinson Telecom: Hutchinson telecom has got profitable operations. It is now mainly focusing on consumer prepaid market. It is launching different easy recharges for the prepaid customers. It has got subscribers of 7 million and 15,41% of the total market share. c) Tata Tele Services: Tata Tele Services is a later starter but banking of new subscriptions. It is poised to be one of the Pan- Indian operators. It has got 1.3 million subscribers and a market share of 1.87% d) BSNL: BSNL focused on consumer wireless and voice. It has a strong last-mile edge that could be leveraged for data services and broadband. It has got 5.2 million subscribers and 15.66% of the total market share.
COMPANY PROFILE AIRTEL
All of us communicate all the time. And AIRTEL believes that's the way it should be. All of us communicate whether it's mid day or mid night: Whether it's someone at the other end of the world, or the other end of the room . Technology shouldn't control when and with whom you can communicate. About Airtel Airtel, of course is a new product in Andhra Pradesh which was a product of the Bharti Tele-ventures LIMITED. It provides mobile. broadband & telephone (fixed line), long
distance(international& national) and enterprise service. It was established as Public Limited company on July 07 in the year 1995. The proportionate revenue as per the Indian GAAP Accounts are RS 81,558 million(year ended March 31.2005Audited); Rs 50,369 million(year ended march 31, 2004-Audited). The Proportionate EBITDA is Rs 30,658 million(year ended March 31,2005-Audited) and RS 17,055 million (year ended March 31, 2004-Audited) as per the Indian GAAP Accounts, The shares in issue as at December 31,2005 are
1,890,061,154. The listings of the Bharti tele-ventures limited are The Stock Exchange, Mumbai(BSE), and The National Stock Exchange Limited of India Limited(NSE).
Market Capitalization as on March 20,2006 is Approximately Rs.727 billion and the closing BSE share price = Rs 384.65. The customer base of the Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited is there are 18,450,074 GSM mobile customers and 1,290,246
broadband & telephone(fixed line) customers as at the month ended February 28,2006. Operational is that network of Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited
it provides GSM mobile services in all the 23 telecom
circles in India, thus being the only telecom operator having an all India presence. It provides broad band(DSL) and telephone services(fixed line) in 15 telecom circles in India. About our Mobile: It's the instrument that will change your life making communication simple and effective, besides keeping you within a phone call away from any one on the planet, always. However it is to be made sure that your handset is GSM 1800 compatible handset. Battery This is the heart of your phone. Before using your battery for the first time, charge it up to 6-8 hours depending on the phone you are using. Adapter/Charger
This is the food for your battery. Connect it to your phone and plug it to an electric point to make sure your batter," never lets you down. SIM card: Subscriber identification Module This little card needs to be inserted into your phone . It will instantly connect you to, the AIRTEL network, and put you in touch with the world. Your SIM card will already have the numbers of all the Dial-in-Services and SMS based services, which you can access directly from the phone book built into your AIRTEL phone . Getting Connected Before you say "HELLO" for the first time on your AIRTEL phone, make sure you check two things : • Your battery is full charged. • Your SIM card is properly inserted.
Saying 'Hello' These keys vary depending upon the model of your cell phone or the button you use to make a call of the button you use to end a call. The button bearing the instruction "call" key(generally in green color) or "Yes" or "Semi" or “Ok" is used to make a call and the button bearing the instruction "cancel" key(generally in red color) or "No" or "C" is used to end the call.
Making calls from your AIRTEL mobile To make a local call If you are calling n landline in your city/town, dial 0891 followed by the landline number in case of Visakhapatnam i.e.. you have to dial the local code followed by the landline number to be called. Eg: 0891-2538791. To call a local cellular number Directly dial the 10 digit cellular number you want. Eg: 98490XXXXX, 98660XXXXX. To call a three digit landline number Dial the three digit landline number you want. E<;; 108. To call an STD number Dial the STD code followed by the landline number you want same as that of you have called a local number in Visakhapatnam. Eg: 040XXXXXXXX if called to a landline in Hyderabad. To call a cellular number outside Andhra Pradesh
Dial "0" (zero) followed by the 10 digital cellular number you want. Eg:098100XXXXX. To make a call out of the country Dial 00 or + followed by code and finally the the country code, then the area number you want. Eg:
00449743XXXX. To make a call to a cellular number in another country. Dial 00 or -t- then the country code and the cellular number you want. Eg; 001225389XXXX. To leave a message on a pager Dial the local city/town code followed by the pager number. Eg;0891XXXX. For Customer’s Security: A1RTEL phone is built with in built safety features. Getting familiar with them will prevent misuse of your phone. Personal Identification Number(PJ.N) This 4 digit password helps ensure that not just anyone can use your AIRTEL phone. To activate it we have to fellow the instructions given in the ceil phone user guide. Once activated you are given a default password 0000. You can change this through the menu setting on your AIRTEL mobile. If the incorrect PIN is entered thrice in succession, your SIM card will be blocked.
Personal Unblocked Key (PUK) This 8 digit number used to unblock your SIM card. If the PUK is incorrectly entered 10 times, your SIM card will be permanently damaged. It will (hen have to be replaced by a new one. If your card does not get blocked you can call 24 hour AIRTEL CUSTOMER CARE at 98490 98490 or 121. toll free number from your AIRTEL phone. Our personnel will help you unblock it. Be Careful The SIM card can get completely damaged if: It is inserted or removed often, or handled in a rough manner. Something is stuck onto to it, scratched or written upon, or cut. It is exposed to a very high/low temperature or to a magnetic field. An incorrect PUK is entered 10 times. Replacements A SIM card can be conveniently replaced at The AIRTEL Shop in the city, at an additional charge. Your AIRTEL phone number will not be changed when you replace the SIM card.
To prevent misuse of the AIRTEL phone in the case the owner loses it. he can call 24 hour AIRTEL Care at 98490-98490 or 121 toll free number from any AIRTEL phone. The AIRTEL SIM will be disconnected till you collect your new one.
AIRTEL VALUE ADDED SERVICES
Preactivated STD/ISD The STD and ISD facility comes preactivated on your AIRTEL prepaid, so you do not have to bother about paying
deposits or having minimum balance in your account to make STD/ISD call. Caller Line Identification Presentation This feature on your AIRTEL Prepaid facilitates the display of the calling party's number. This facility comes at no extra charge and allows you to recognize the caller. Calling facility till the last rupee Fun till the end! You don’t have to bother about a minimum balance required to make any calls. Prepaid National Roaming Airtel Prepaid is the first prepaid mobile card in the country to provide "All India Roaming", that comes preactivated with your connection. So that you can make outgoing calls in
Delhi, UP(west), Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Ultaranchal, Mumbai, Maharashtra, Goa, Guiarat. Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Kerala, Kolkata. While roaming in the rest of India like West Bengal and Bihar, where Airtel is not present, you get the facility of receiving calls and sending SMS. You can
also now make and receive calls, send and receive SMS while roaming on. Hutch/Orange, Idea, BPL networks in India. You can also send SMS while roaming in Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, UP (west) and Utlaranchal(northern region only). International Roaming Airtel prepaid makes sure you to stay connected while you trot across the globe, letting you receive incoming calls and send SMS while roaming in more than 100 countries with 150 plus networks. SMS(Short Messaging Service) Share those interesting one-liners, important reminders and rib-tickling jokes, with anyone, anytime, anywhere in the world. ROAMING : With the Airtel roaming we will be able to whoever we want or whenever we want irrespective of which part of India or the world you are in, on our existing Airtel number. Now one can always stay connected, no matter where they are, with the Airtel Roaming facility, one can use their Airtel phone in over 100 countries worldwide and over 530 cities across India. Airtel Roaming makes life easy and convenient for its subscribers.
So whenever you are always just a local phone call away from those who need you because you pay for the long distance part of any incoming call. And to make life much simple.-:, you will get only one bill that will include all your expenses. Roaming is the best way to say in touch, wherever you go in India or around the world. Airte! brings roaming along with its roaming partners. With roaming you will have just one phone number wherever you travel across the world. Payment Options Now the Airtel customers can pay their bills easily through the wide range of payment options. Cash. Cheque. Credit Card. Pay Online. ATM Networks
Reference Interconnect Offer The Reference Interconnect Offer from Bharti Cellular Limited covers the technical and commercial arrangement for interconnection between the network of Bharti Cellular Limited and the network of the interconnection seeker. This offer covers the following: 1. Physical interconnection between the networks. 2. Charges for Other Services wherever applicable. 3. Charges for Sharing of Infrastructure Elements, wherever applicable. 4. Applicable Technical standards. 5. Interconnect Unbundled Network Elements. 6. Interconnect usage Charges for Origination, Termination,
• Theoretical framework
THEORITICAL FRAME WORK
What Is Brand Equity? The American Marketing Association defines a brand as “a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.” A brand is thus product or service that adds dimensions that differentiate may be functional, rational or tangible – related to product performance of the brand. They may also be more symbolic, emotional or intangible – related to what the brand represents.
Branding has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer from those of another. The
earliest signs of branding in Europe were the medieval
guilds’ requirement that craftspeople put trademarks on their products to protect them-selves and consumers against inferior quality. In the fine arts, branding began with artists signing their works. Brands today play a number of important roles that improve consumers’ lives and enhance the financial value of firms. The Role of Brands Brands identify the source or maker of a product and allow consumers – either individuals or organizations – to assign
Consumers may evaluate
depending on how it is branded. Consumers learn about brands through past experiences with the product and its marketing program. They find out which brands satisfy their needs and which ones do not. As consumers’ lives become more
complicated, rushed, and time-starved, the ability of a brand to simplify decision-making and reduce risk is invaluable.3 Brands also perform valuable functions for firms. First, they simplify product handling or tracing Brands help to organize inventory and accounting records. A brand also offers the firm legal protection for unique features or aspects of the product. The brand name can be protected through registered
trademarks; manufacturing processes can be protected through parents; and packaging can be protected through copyrights and designs. These intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can safely invest in the brand and reap the benefits of a valuable asset.
Brands can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again. Brand loyalty
provides predictability and security of demand for the firm and creates barriers to entry that make it difficult for other firms to
enter the market. Loyalty also can translate into willingness to ay a higher price – often 20 to 25 percent more. Although competitors may easily duplicate manufacturing processes and product designs, they cannot easily match lasting impressions in he minds of individuals and organizations from years of marketing activity and product experience. In this sense, branding can be seen as a powerful means to secure a competitive advantage. To firms, brands thus represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property that can influence consumer behavior, be brought and sold, and provide the security of sustained future revenues to their owner. Large earning multiples have been paid for brands in mergers or acquisitions, starting with the boom years of the mid-1980s. The price premium is often justified on the basis of assumptions of the extra profits that could be extracted and sustained from the brands, as well as the tremendous difficulty and expense of creating similar brands from scratch. Wall Street believes that strong brands result in better earnings and profit performance for firms, which, in turn, creates greater value for shareholders. Much of the recent interest in brands by senior management has been a result of these bottom-line financial considerations. “Marketing Memo:
The Brand Report Card” lists 10 key characteristics based on a review of the world’s strongest brands.
The Scope of Branding How then do you “brand” a product? Although firms
provide the impetus to brand creation through marketing programs and other activities, ultimately a brand is something that resides in the minds of consumers. A brand is a perceptual entity that is rooted in reality but reflects the perceptions and perhaps even the idiosyncrasies of consumers. Branding is endowing products and services with the power of a brand. Branding is all about creating differences. To brand a product, it is necessary to teach consumers “who” the product is – by giving it a name nd using other brand elements to help identify it – as well as “what” the product does and “why” consumers should care. Branding involves creating mental structures and helping consumers organize their knowledge about products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making and, in the process, provides value to the firm. For branding strategies to be successful and brand value to be created, consumers must be convinced that there are meaningful differences among brands in the product or service
category. The key to branding is that consumers must not think that all brands in the category are the same. Brand differences often are related to attributes or benefits of the product itself. Gillette, Merck, Sony, 3M, and others have been leaders in their product categories for decades due, in part, to continual innovation. through Other brands create means. competitive Coca-Cola,
Calvin Klein, Gucci, Tommy Hilfiger, Marlboro, and others have become leaders in their product categories by understanding consumer motivations and desires and creating relevant and appealing images around their products. Branding can be applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. It is possible to brand a physical good (Camphell’s soup, Pantene shampoo, or Ford Mustang automobiles), a service (Singapore Airlines, Bank of America, or BlueCross/BlueShield medical insurance), a store (Nordstrom department store, Foot Locker specialty store, or Safeway supermarket), a person (Tom Clancy, Britney Spears, or Andre Agassi), a place (the city of Sydney, state of Texas, or country of Spain), an organization (UNICEF, American Automobile Association, or The Rolling Stones), or an idea (abortion rights, free trade, or freedom of speech).
Defining Brand Equity Brand equity is the added value endowed to products and services. This value may be reflected in how consumers think feel, and act with respect to the brand, as well as the prices, market share, and profitability that the brand commands for the firm. Brand equity is an important intangible asset that has psychological and financial value to the firm. Marketers and researchers use various perspectives to study brand equity.Customer-based approaches view brand equity from the perspective of the consumer – either an individual or an organization.12 The premise of customer-based equity models is that the power o a brand lies in what customers have seen, read, heard, learned, thought, and felt about the brand over time. In other words, the power of a brand lies in the minds of existing or potential customers and what they have experienced directly and indirectly about the brand. Customer-based brand equity can be defined as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand. A brand is said to have positive customer-based brand equity when consumers react more favorably to a product and the way it is marketed when the brand is identified as compared to when it is not. A brand is said to have negative customer-based brand equity if consumers
react less favorably to marketing activity for the brand under the same circumstances. There are three key ingredients to this definition. First, brand equity arises from differences in consume response. If no differences occur, then the brand name product can essentially be classified as a commodity or generic version of the product. Competition would then probably be based on price. Second, these differences in response are a result of consumer’s knowledge about the brand. Brand knowledge consists of all the thoughts, feelings, images, experiences, beliefs, and so on that become associated with the brand. In particular, brands must create strong, favorable, and unique brand associations with customers, as has been the case with Volvo (safety), Hallmark (caring), and Harley-Davidson
(adventure). Third, the differential response by consumers that makes up the brand equity is reflected in perceptions,
preferences, and behavior related to all aspects o the marketing of a brand. Table 9.1 summarizes some o these key benefits of brand equity. The challenge for marketers in building a strong brand is therefore ensuring that customers have the right type of experience with products and services and their marketing
programs to create the desired brand knowledge structures for the brand. Brand Equity as a Bridge From the perspective of brand equity, all the marketing dollars spent each year on products and services should be thought of as investments in consumer brand knowledge. The quality of the investment in brand building is the critical factor, not necessarily the quantity, beyond some minimal threshold amount. It is actually possible to “overspend” on brand building if money is not spent wisely. In the beverage category, brands such as Michelob, Miller Lite, and 7Up saw sales decline in the 1990s despite sizable marketing support, arguably because of poorly targeted and delivered marketing campaigns. And there are numerous examples of brands that amass a great deal of brand equity by spending on marketing activities that create valuable, enduring memory traces in the consumers’ minds. Despite being outspent by such beverage brand glants as CocaCola, Pepsi, and Budweiser, the California Milk Processor Board was able to reverse a decades-long decline in consumption of milk in California partly through its well-designed and executed “Got Milk?” campaign.
At the same time, the brand knowledge created by these marketing investments dictates appropriate future directions for the brand. Consumers will decide, based on what they think and feel about the brand, where (and how) they believe the brand should go and grnat permission (or not) to any marketing action or program. New products such as Crystal Pepsi, Levi’s Tailored Classic suits, Fruit of the Loom laundry detergent, and Cracker Jack cereal failed because consumers found them inappropriate. A brand is essentially a marketer’s promise to deliver predictable product or service performance. A brand promise is the marketer’s vision of what the brand must be and do for consumers. At the end of the day, the true value and future prospects of a brand rest with consumers, their knowledge about the brand, and their likely response to marketing activity as a result of this knowledge. Understanding consumer brand
knowledge – all the different things that become linked to the brand in the minds of consumers – is thus of paramount importance because it is the foundation of brand equity. Virgin, the brainchild of England’s flamboyant Richard Branson, vividly illustrates the power enjoyed and responsibility assumed by a strong brand.16.
Building Brand Equity Marketers building brand equity by creating the right brand knowledge structures with the right consumes. This process depends on all brand-related contacts – whether marketerinitiated or not. From a marketing management perspective, however, there are three main sets of brand equity drivers: 1. The initial choices for the brand elements or identities
making up the brand (e.g., brand names, URLs, logos, symbols, characters, spokespeople, slogans, jingles, packages, and
signage), Old Spice uses bright-red packaging and its familiar ocean schooner to reinforce its nautical theme while also launching deodorant and antiperspirant extensions adding the High Endurance and Red Zone brand names20.
The product and service and all accompanying marketing
activities and supporting marketing programs. Joe Boxer made its name selling colorful underwear with its signature yellow smiley face. Mr.Lickyy, in a hip, fun way. The company spent almost zero on advertising clever stunts and events garnered publicity and word of mouth. An exclusive deal with Kmart has generated strong retail support.21
Other association indirectly transferred to the brand by
linking it to some other entity (e.g. a person, place, or thing). Subaru used the rugged Australian Outback and actor Paul Hogan of Crocodile Dundee movie fame in ads to help crafts the brand image of the Subaru Outback line of sports utility wagons.
Choosing Brand Elements Brand elements are those trade markable devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements. Nike hs the distinctive “swoosh” logo, the empowering “Just Do It” slogan, and the mythological “Nike” name based on the winged goddess of victory. Brand elements can be chosen to build as much brand equity as possible. The test of the brand-building ability of these elements is what consumers would think or feel about the product if they only knew about the brand element. A brand element that provides a positive contribution to brand equity for example, would be one where consumers assumed or inferred certain valued associations or responses. Based on its name alone, a consumer might expect ColorStay lipsticks to be longlasting and SnackWell to be healthful snack foods.
BRAND ELEMENT CHOICE CRITERIA. There are six criteria in choosing brand elements (as well as more specific choice consideration in each case). The first three (memorable,
meaningful, and likable) can be characterized as “brand building” in terms of how brand equity can be built through the judicious choice of a brand element. The latter three (protectable,
adaptable, and transferable) are more “defensive” and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in a brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of different opportunities and constraints. 1. Memorable. How easily is the brand element recalled? How easily recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Short brand names such as Tide, Crest, and Puffs an help. 2. Meaningful. To what extent is the brand element credible and suggestive of the corresponding category? Does it
suggest something about a product ingredient or the type of person who might use the brand? Consider the inherent meaning in names such as DieHard auto batteries, Mop & Glo floor wax, and Lean Cuisine low-calorie frozen entrees. 3. Likeability. How aesthetically appealing do consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likable visually, verbally,
and in other ways? Concrete brand names such as Sunkist, Spic and Span and Firebird evoke much imagery.
4. Transferable. Can the brand element be used to introduce
new products in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? Volkswagen chose to name its new SUV, Touareg, ater a tribe of colorful Saharan nomads. Unfortunately, historically they were also notorious slave owners, which created a negative press backlash in the United States.
5. Adaptable. How adaptable and updatable is the brand element Betty Crocker has received over eight makeovers through the years – although she is over 75 years old, she doesn’t look a day over 35! 6. Protectible. How legally protectible is the brand element ? How competitively protectible? Can it be easily copied? It is important that names that become synonymous with product categories – such as Kleenex, Kitty Litter, Jell-I, Scotch Tape, Xerox, and Fiberglass – retain their trademark rights and not become generic.
Designing Holistic Marketing Activities
Although the judicious choice of brand elements and secondary associations can make important contributions to building brand equity, the primary input comes from the product or service and supporting marketing activities. Brands are not built by advertising alone. Customers come to know a brand through a range of contracts and touch points: personal with observation company and use, word of mouth,
experiences, and payment transactions. A brand contact can be defined as any information-bearing experience a customer or prospect has with the brand, the product category, or the market that relates to the marketer’s product or service. Any of these experiences can be positive or negative. The company must put as much effort into managing these experiences as it does in producting its ads.
The strategy and tactics behind marketing programs have changed dramatically in recent years. Marketers are
creating brand contacts and building brand equity though many avenues, such as clubs and consumer communities, trade shows, event marketing, sponsorship, factory visits, public relations and press releases, and social cause marketing..
Analysis of Study
ANALYSIS OF BRAND AWARENESS OF AIRTEL SERVICES TO THE CUSTOMERS OF OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS Number of samples collected: 100: Out of the samples chosen, maximum respondents were male and minimum respondents were female. All the respondents were in the age group of 20-55 years. Sex Male Female Number of Respondents 90 10
From the tale it is incident that the number of male respondents who are considered for the survey are 90%. It is incident that 10% of the respondents were female.
Kind of Service Out of the 100 samples chosen, maximum people were using the Prepaid Service. Out of the chosen samples the minimum number of
respondents are using the post-paid services. Kind of Service
Number of Respondents 70 30
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 M ale
70% of respondents have chosen prepaid service since they want to be economical and can have an idea on the amount being spent.
30% of the respondents have chosen postpaid service since they had confidence of controlling their bill amount. And of them used Postpaid because their respective offices mostly provides them.
C on nection Type 70
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 P repaid P ostpaid 30
Occupations of the Respondents Maximum number of respondents were students. They were mostly satisfied by the services offered by Airtel to its customers, mainly its SMS and its value added services. Occupation Public Sector Employee Private Sector Employee Business Men Students Others Number of Respondents 5 30 20 40 5
From the table, the survey regarding the occupations of the employees it is incident that: a) 5% of the total Airtel customers belongs to “Public Sector”. b) 30% of the customers belongs to the “Private Sector”. c) 20% of the customers are “Business Men”. d) 40% of the customers belongs to “Student Community”. e) 5% of the customers are comprised with the other type of category.
According to the survey the student community comprises other maximum customer proportion i.e., 40%.
40 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Public Sector Private Sector Business Men Employee Employee Students Others 5 30
Factors Considered while taking cell connection Out of 100 respondents, maximum respondents will look in for the services and the call charges the service provider is providing to them. Some of the respondents looked in for all the factors like Brand image, services, call charges and availability. Only very few respondents looked in for the availability and the Brand Image individually. Factors Considered Brand Image Services Call charges Availability All the above Number of Respondents 05 25 30 10 30
From the table the following factors are observed regarding the “Factors that are considered while taking a cellular connection”. i. 5% of the respondents will consider “Brand Image” as the main criterion while taking a cellular connection. ii. 25% of the respondents will consider “Services” Provided by the service provider. iii. 30% of the respondents considers “Call Charges as the main criterion while taking a cellular connection.
105 of the respondents considers the “Availability” factor as the main criterion while taking a cellular connection.
And finally 30% of the respondents considers all the above stated factors while taking the cellular connection.
30 30 25 25
15 10 10 5 5
0 Brand Im age Services C all charges Availability All the above
Services Provided by the Current Service Provider Maximum number of respondents said that the services provided by their current service provider is satisfactory. Some of the respondents said that the services are good. Many of the respondents were unsatisfied with the services provided by their current service provider. Rate of Satisfaction Excellent Good Satisfied Not Satisfied Number of Respondents 11 20 44 25
The above table determines the rate of satisfactions of customers who are using other than Airtel. 11% of the respondents have said that the services provided by their current service provider are “Good”. 44% of the total respondents have said that the services provided by the current service provider were “Satisfactory”. And 25% of the respondents have said that the services provided by the current service provider are “Not Good”. And that they were not satisfied at all with the services.
44 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 E xc elle n t Good S atisfied N o t S a tisfie d 11 20 25
How they are aware of various service providers Many of the respondents have answered that they have to came to know about various service providers through advertisements. Some of them have aid that they came to know about different service providers through friends and News Papers. Very less amount of people have got aware of various cell service providers through Hoardings. Only two customers have aid that they have cam to know about the cell service providers through all the above stated means. Means of Awareness Hoardings News Papers Friends Advertisements Number of Respondents 4 20 40 36
The following are the observations that are made from the study regarding the “Means of Awareness”. a) Only 4% of the total respondents are aware of the cell service providers through “Hoardings”. b) 20% o the respondents are aware of the product through “News Papers”.
c) 40% of the total respondents through “Friends”.
are aware of the product
d) And 36% of the respondents are aware of the product through “Advertisements”. The maximum number of respondents got aware of the product through “Friends” and only 4% of the respondents “Hoardings”. are aware of the product through
40 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hoardings News Papers Friends Advertisements 20 36
Are you aware of Airtel Services
Many of the customers are aware of the Airtel Services and offers. These respondents know about Airtel through various means and mainly through friends. Very few of the respondents do not know about the Airtel services and offers. Awareness about Airtel Yes No Number of Respondents 60 40
From the survey it is incident that only 60% of the total respondents are aware of the Airtel product and its services. 40% of the respondents are not aware of the Airtel product and the services being provided them.
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 40
Have you used Airtel Connection Before Many of the respondents said that they haven’t used the Airtel connection before. And only few of them have used Airtel before and have shifted from Airtel to other service provider. Usage of Airtel Yes No Number of Respondents 28 72
From the survey it is incident that only 28% of the total respondents have used Airtel connection in the past. 72% of the respondents have not used the Airtel connection before
72 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 28
Reasons for shift to other service provider The respondents who have used Airtel and shifted to other cell service provider have answered to this question. Many of them said that they have shifted to other cell service provider due to high call charges in Airtel. Shifting Reasons High Call Charges Improper Signal Want to try new operator Others Number of Respondents 15 0 10 3
From the above table it is incident that the customers who have used Airtel before have shifted due to the following reasons. a. 15 respondents out of 28 respondents have shifted from Airtel due to “High Call Charges”. b. None of them have shifted due to the improper signal coverage. c. 10 respondents out of the total respondents have shifted from Airtel for the reason that they want to try a new cellular service
d. 3 respondents have shifted from Airtel due to other reasons like; they family influences etc.
16 14 12 10 8 6
3 4 2 0 High Call Charges Im proper Signal W ant to try new operator Others 0
Interested in using Airtel In future Many of the respondents want to use Airtel in the future if any customer related benefits are provided. They also said that if the call charges have been reduced they will be definitely using Airtel. The Post-Paid customers who have shifted from Airtel said that it is the wrong billing in Airtel which made them toshift from Airtel. Some of them don’t want to shift from their current cell service provider. Usage of Product Yes No Number of Respondents 64 36
From the survey conducted regarding the usage of the Airtel cellular in the future the respondents have responded in the following way: a) 64% of the total respondents have said that they are interested in using Airtel in the future. b) 36% of the total respondents have said that they are not interested in using Airtel connection in the future.
64 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 36
Rating about the services provided by Airtel
Out of 100 respondents only 60 respondents know about the Airtel services an offers.
Many of the customers have accepted that the services provided by Airtel are excellent regarding the Network coverage and signal quality.
Some of them have stated that the customer care and the call charges are satisfied and.
They have stated that the value added services provided by Airtel are good.
On an average the customers rating for the services provided by Airtel are good when compared other cell service providers.
1. Rating for Network coverage: Network Coverage Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied Number of Respondents 30 15 05 0
From the above table the following interpretation is made regarding the network coverage of Airtel.
Out of the 60 respondents who are aware of Airtel product 40 respondents have said that the network coverage of Airtel is “Excellent”.
15 respondents of the total respondents have stated that the network coverage of Airtel is “Good”.
05 of the respondents have stated that the network coverage is “Satisfactory”.
There were no “Unsatisfied” customers regarding the Airtel network coverage.
20 15 15
10 5 5 0
0 Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied
II. Rating for the Customer Care: Out of the 60 respondents many of the respondents have said that the customer regarding Airtel is not so good as other cell service providers do. Customer Care Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied Number of Respondents 10 35 10 5
From the above table the following interpretation is made regarding the Customer Care of Airtel: a. 10 respondents out of 60 respondents have stated that the customer care regarding Airtel is “Excellent”. b. 35 respondents have stated that the customer care regarding customer care is “Good”. c. 10 respondents have stated that the customer care is “Satisfied”. d. 5 respondents have stated that the customer care of Airtelis “unsatisfied”.
35 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 E xcelle n t G oo d S atis fie d U n S a tisfied
III) Rating for the Call Charges: Out of the 60 respondents many of them have said that the call charges in Airtel are somewhat high when compared to the other cell service providers. charges are excellent in Airtel. Call Charges Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied Number of Respondents 1 24 30 5 Only one responded that the call
From the survey regarding the rating of the customers towards the call charges the following points are noted:
Only one respondent have stated that the call Airtel have been “Excellent”.
24 respondents of the 60 respondents have stated that the call charges of Airtel are “Good”.
30 respondents have stated that the call charges of Airtel are “Satisfied”.
And 5 respondents have stated that the call charges of Airtel are “Unsatisfied”.
30 30 24 25
10 5 5 1
0 E xce lle nt G o od S a tisfie d U n S atisfied
IV) Rating for the value added services in Airtel: Out of the 60 respondents many of the respondents have said that the value added services provided in Airtel are good but the SMS offers are satisfactory when compared to the other cell service providers. Value added services Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied Number of Respondents 4 30 16 10
From the above table the survey revealed the following factors regarding the Value Added Services provided by Airtel. a. 4 respondents of 60 respondents who are aware of Airtel have stated that the value added services provided by Airtel are “Excellent”. b. 30 of the respondents have stated that the value added services of Airtel are “Good”. c. 16 respondents have stated that the value added services are “satisfied”. d. And 10 respondents have stated that the value added services of Airtel are “Un satisfied”.
15 10 10 4 5
0 E x c e lle n t G ood S a tis fie d U n S a tis fie d
Customer Rating for Various Cell Services Providers 54% of the respondents have rated Airtel the First place among various cell service providers. 30% of the respondents have rated Hutch the First place. 8% of the respondents have ranked idea Cellular First place. 5% of the respondents have ranked BSNL with the first place. 3% of the respondents have ranked Reliance with the first place. None of the respondents have given first place TATA Indicom.
• Summary • Findings • Suggestions
Total number of samples collected are 100. Out of the 100 samples chosen, maximum number of respondents were male (90) and minimum respondents were female (10).
Out of the 100 samples chosen, maximum people were using Pre~ Paid service and minimum number of people were using the Post-Paid service.
Out of the 100 respondents 70% were using Pre-Paid Service and 30% of them were using the Post-Paid service.
Out of the 100 respondents 5 are public Sector Employees, 30 are Private Sector Employees, 20 respondents are
Businessmen. 40 respondents are students and 5 respondents are others like un employees, Auto drivers.
Out of the 100 respondents, 30 respondents considers the Brand image, services, call charges, availability while choosing a cell connection. 30 respondents consider only call charges, 25 respondents consider only the services, ID respondents considers the availability of the services and only 5
respondents considered the Brand image of the cell service provider.
Out of the 100 respondents, 44 are satisfied with their current cell service provider. 25 respondents are not satisfied with
their current service provider. 20 respondents have said that the services of the current service provider are good. Only 11 respondents have responded that the services provided by their current cell service provider are excellent.
Out of the 100 respondents, 40 of them have said that they are aware of various cell service providers through friends. 36 respondents are aware of the services through the
advertisements. 20 of the respondents are aware through the newspapers. Only 4 respondents are aware through hoardings.
Out of the 100 respondents, 60% of the respondents are aware of the Airtel services, only 40% of the respondents are not aware of the Airtel services.
Out of the 100 respondents only 28 respondents have used Airtel before, and 12 of the respondents have not used Airtel connection before.
15 respondents have shifted due to the high call
charges. 10 of them wanted to shift in order that they want to try a new operator. 3 of them have shifted due to other reasons.
Out of the 100 respondents 64 of them are interested in using Airtel in the future, 36 respondents are not interested in using Airtel in the future.
Out of the 60 respondents who are aware of the Airtel services, 40 people have stated that the network coverage is excellent, 15 of them have said that the coverage is good, 5 of them have said that the network coverage is satisfied.
Out of 60 respondents who are aware of the Airtel services, 10 of them have said that the customer care in Airtel is excellent, 35 of them have said that the customer care is good,. 10 were satisfied and 5 of them were dissatisfied with the customer care in Airtel.
Out of the 60 respondents who are aware of Airtel, only one have said that the call charges in Airtel are excellent, 24 of them have said that they are good, 30 of them were satisfied and 5 of them were dissatisfied with the call charges in Airtel.
Out of the 100 respondents 54% have given first place for Airtel, 30% for Hutch, 8% (or Idea, 5% for BSNL, 3% for reliance and none of them gave first place for Tata indicom.
Many of the respondents who are using cell phones of various service providers other than Airtel arc aware of Airtel Brand; it's features and the various other services of Airtel.
Some of the respondents who are dissatisfied with their current cell service provider wanted to shift to Airtel if they provide low call charges and better customer care.
Some of the Hutch Post-Paid customers have complained about the wrong billing which is less in Airtel when compared to the other service providers.
Airtel brand has attained a good awareness mainly due to its advertisements, which clearly explains about the offers they are providing.
In many rural areas also Airtel has its network coverage and due to this aspect it gained lot of importance as well.
Seethamadhara have less coverage.
The company has many parts in the same city or in the same region having low frequency of signals due to which the customer are facing problem.
From the Survey reports the suggestions that can be made are: Awareness programs: Still more awareness programs have to be implemented in order to attract more customers like: 1. Increase advertisement campaigns. 2. Increase programs. 3. Establishment of Hoardings in rural areas also. 4. Bringing awareness through issue of pamphlets in the Electronic media usage for the awareness
newspapers. Consumer Retention: Airtel has to implement some more retention programs like: 1. Extra talktimes should be given to the potential customers who are there for more than 2 years in the subscriptions. 2. Some festival offers should be given in order to retain the customers. 3. If more messages and extra talk time benefits are given then it can help for the retain for the potential customers. Airtel has to increase the customer care centers in order to concentrate more on the customer’s queries and their problems.
The reduction in the call charges can still attract more number of customers who are willing to shift to Airtel from other service providers.
Name Age Address : : : Sex: Male/Female
Occupation: a) Public Sector Employee c) Business e) Others (please specify) Mobile No._______________________
b) Private Sector Employee d) Student
1) Which ceil service are you using currently a)Airtel b) Hutch c)idea d) BSNL e) Reliance f) Tata Indicom 2) flow long are you using this connection ? ..................... 3) What factors do you consider while taking a cell connection ? a) Brand image b) Services c) Call Charges d)Availability e) All the above 4) How are the services provided by your current cell service provider a) Excellent b) Good c) Satisfied d) Not Satisfied 6) Are you aware of Airtel services and offers. a) Yes b)No 7) Have you used Airtel connection before a) Yes b)No 8) If yes which type of Airtel connection have you used before ? a) Pre-paid b) Post-paid 9) What is the reason for your change to other cell service provider a) High call charges b) Improper signal
c) Want to try new operator d) Others 10) Are you interested in using Airtel in future ? a) Yes b)No 11) How do you feel about different services provided by Airtel S.n o 1. 2. 3. 4. Description Network Coverage Customer Care Call Charges Other Benefits (Value Added services) Excelle Goo Satisfi Un nt d ed Satisfied
12) How do you rank different cell service providers? Airtel ( ) Hutch ( ) Idea ( ) BSNL ( ) Reliance ( ) Tata indicom ( ) 13) Complaints if any: …………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………. 14) Suggestions: …………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………….
1) MARKETING MANAGEMENT - by Philip Kotler 2) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - by C.R. Kothari 3) STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT - by G.C Beri 4) LESSONS ON SERVICES MARKETING - by Ram mohan rao 5) GLOBAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT - by Keesan warren J Web Sites: http://www.Airtel.co.in http://www.Baniboovvcb.com http://www.netmba.com http://www.coai.com
Brand A unique and identifiable symbol, association, name or
trademark, which serves to differentiate competing products or services. Both a physical and emotional trigger to create a relationship between consumers and the product/service.
Brand Attributes Functional or emotional association that are assigned to a brand by its customers and prospects. Brand attributes can be either negative or positive and can have varying degrees of relevance and importance to different customer segments.
Brand Audit A comprehensive and systematic examination of all collateral (both tangible and intangible) which relates to a brand.
Brand Awareness The proportion of
Realization by a consumer of the existence and availability of a particular product. Brand awareness is a common measure of marketing communications effectiveness. Unaided awareness is
spontaneous; added or prompted awareness is when the name is recognized among others that are listed or identified.
Brand Equity The value – both tangible and intangible that a brand adds to a product/service.
Brand Essence The core characteristic that defines a brand.
Brand Expansion The exposure of a brand to a broader target customer market, geographic market, or distribution channel.
Brand Extension The application of a brand beyond its initial range of products, or outside of its category. This becomes possible when the brand image and attributes have contributed to a perception with the consumer/user where the brand and not the product is the decision driver.
Brand Identify A unique set of association that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand should stand for and imply a potential promise to customers. It is important to note that a brand identity refers to the strategic
goal for a brand, while brand image is what currently resides in the minds of consumers.
Brand Image A unique set of associations within the minds of target customers which represent what the brand currently stands for and implies the current promise to customers. (Note that brand image is what is currently in the minds of identify is inspirational). consumers, whereas brand
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