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Circuit Theory II

ELG2137

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Prof. Sawsan Abdul-Majid, P. Eng. SMIEEE
Faculty of Engineering
University of Ottawa
Winter2016

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Module 1 :Operational Amplifiers
Outline

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• Introduction to operational amplifier( OA).
• Simplified OA circuit
• Ideal operational amplifier
• Voltage follower
• Inverting Operational Amplifier
• Non-Inverting operational Amplifier
• Design problem examples
• H.W
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Introduction to Operational Amplifier
High-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a
single-ended output.

OM symbol

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Gain :Measure of the ability of a OA to increase the power or amplitude of a
signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some
power supply to the signal.
Gain is : the ratio of the signal amplitude or power at the output port to the
amplitude or power at the input port.
Inside the OA: Interconnection of resistors and transistors, …
Role : Single most important integrated circuit for analogue design
History : realised with vacuum tubes , moved to PCB, to IC
Purpose : To perform mathematical operation( add, subtract, integrate, 3
differentiate)
Integrated Vs Discrete OA

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Integrated OA: a) μ A741 integrated circuit OA has eight connecting pins. (b)
The correspondence between the circled pin numbers of the integrated circuit
and the nodes of the operational amplifier.

Discrete OA
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The plus sign identifies the noninverting input(3). Minus sign identifies the
inverting input(2).
The power supplies are used to bias the operational amplifier, causing certain
conditions that are required for the operational amplifier to function properly.

Important to note :
2: inverting input
3 :non inverting input, 5
4: – power supply
7: + power supply,
6: output
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Transfer plot : OA output voltage Vo as a function of the differential
input vi
Practical limitation of OA is that the magnitude of its output
voltage cannot exceed (Vc).

ion
Positive saturation V0 ( V sat)= +V c
Negative saturation Vo (V sat)= -Vc

During this course we shall consider ;OA operates in linear region

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Operational amplifiers are complicated devices that exhibit both linear
and nonlinear behavior. The operational amplifier output voltage and out
put current, vo and io, must satisfy three conditions for an operational
amplifier to be linear, the three conditions are:

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The saturation voltage V sat, the saturation current I sat, and the slew rate
limit SR are all parameters of an operational amplifier.
For example, if a μA741 operational amplifier is biased using +15V and
-15V power supplies, then
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V sat =14 V; i sat = 2 mA; and SR = 500,000 V/s
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OA equivalent circuit

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R I , input resistance is very high
Ro, output resistance is very low
A, open loop gain , typically 10 5
With R i >>1,

i+(t)= -i-(t) = (V+(t) - V-(t)) / Ri = 0

V+(t) = V-(t)
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Ideal Operational Amplifier
Consider simple module that is linear the power supplies are frequently omitted
from the drawing of an operational amplifier circuit.
Be carful not to overlook the power supply currents.

R i , very large
A, very large
V0, I 0 finite
V+ = V-
i+=I-
V0 <Vc to limit the
saturation
Voltage follower(Buffer)
One of the early applications of operational amplifiers was to build
circuits that performed mathematical operations.
V0(t)=Vs(t) , inverting input is short circuited to the output

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Unity gain buffer, feed back system

V s = V0 11

Gain = V o / V s =1
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Since A is very big , so V0 = Vs
Buffer (Voltage follower) Application
Unity gain

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Consider the above circuit with no buffer

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Gain is still unity , OA draws no current from the driving circuit.

Out put current is applied by Vo / RL
Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OA

1-The node voltages at the input nodes of ideal operational amplifiers are equal. v1=v2
2. The currents in the input leads of an ideal operational amplifier are zero.
i1=i 2=0. These currents are involved in the KCL equations at the input nodes of the operational
amplifier.
3-The output current( i0 )of the operational amplifier is not zero. This current is involved in the KCL
equations at the output node of the operational amplifier. Applying KCL at this node adds another
unknown to the node equations. If the output current of the operational amplifier is not to be
determined, then it is not necessary to apply KCL at the output node of the operational amplifier.
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Inverting Operational Amplifier

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Non –Inverting OA

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Design problem 1, Ideal OA
Find vo and io .

Solution :

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Design problem Example 2 ( voltage follower)
Determine the voltage v 0 for the circuit shown below.

Solution:

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Apply KCL at node a:

The node voltages at the input nodes of ideal op

amps are equal, so .

Using voltage division:

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Introduction to
Electric Circuits
Ninth Edition
James A. Svoboda • Richard C. Dorf

Chapter 6
The Operational Amplifier