ELG2138 Lecture 1

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ELG2138 Lecture 1

© All Rights Reserved

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ELG2137

1/11/2016

Prof. Sawsan Abdul-Majid, P. Eng. SMIEEE

Faculty of Engineering

University of Ottawa

Winter2016

1

Module 1 :Operational Amplifiers

Outline

1/11/2016

• Introduction to operational amplifier( OA).

• Simplified OA circuit

• Ideal operational amplifier

• Voltage follower

• Inverting Operational Amplifier

• Non-Inverting operational Amplifier

• Design problem examples

• H.W

2

Introduction to Operational Amplifier

High-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a

single-ended output.

OM symbol

1/11/2016

Gain :Measure of the ability of a OA to increase the power or amplitude of a

signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some

power supply to the signal.

Gain is : the ratio of the signal amplitude or power at the output port to the

amplitude or power at the input port.

Inside the OA: Interconnection of resistors and transistors, …

Role : Single most important integrated circuit for analogue design

History : realised with vacuum tubes , moved to PCB, to IC

Purpose : To perform mathematical operation( add, subtract, integrate, 3

differentiate)

Integrated Vs Discrete OA

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Integrated OA: a) μ A741 integrated circuit OA has eight connecting pins. (b)

The correspondence between the circled pin numbers of the integrated circuit

and the nodes of the operational amplifier.

Discrete OA

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The plus sign identifies the noninverting input(3). Minus sign identifies the

inverting input(2).

The power supplies are used to bias the operational amplifier, causing certain

conditions that are required for the operational amplifier to function properly.

Important to note :

2: inverting input

3 :non inverting input, 5

4: – power supply

7: + power supply,

6: output

1/11/2016

Transfer plot : OA output voltage Vo as a function of the differential

input vi

Practical limitation of OA is that the magnitude of its output

voltage cannot exceed (Vc).

ion

Positive saturation V0 ( V sat)= +V c

Negative saturation Vo (V sat)= -Vc

6

Operational amplifiers are complicated devices that exhibit both linear

and nonlinear behavior. The operational amplifier output voltage and out

put current, vo and io, must satisfy three conditions for an operational

amplifier to be linear, the three conditions are:

1/11/2016

The saturation voltage V sat, the saturation current I sat, and the slew rate

limit SR are all parameters of an operational amplifier.

For example, if a μA741 operational amplifier is biased using +15V and

-15V power supplies, then

7

V sat =14 V; i sat = 2 mA; and SR = 500,000 V/s

1/11/2016

8

OA equivalent circuit

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R I , input resistance is very high

Ro, output resistance is very low

A, open loop gain , typically 10 5

With R i >>1,

V+(t) = V-(t)

9

Ideal Operational Amplifier

Consider simple module that is linear the power supplies are frequently omitted

from the drawing of an operational amplifier circuit.

Be carful not to overlook the power supply currents.

R i , very large

A, very large

V0, I 0 finite

V+ = V-

i+=I-

V0 <Vc to limit the

saturation

Voltage follower(Buffer)

One of the early applications of operational amplifiers was to build

circuits that performed mathematical operations.

V0(t)=Vs(t) , inverting input is short circuited to the output

1/11/2016

Unity gain buffer, feed back system

V s = V0 11

Gain = V o / V s =1

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12

Since A is very big , so V0 = Vs

Buffer (Voltage follower) Application

Unity gain

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Consider the above circuit with no buffer

13

Out put current is applied by Vo / RL

Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OA

1-The node voltages at the input nodes of ideal operational amplifiers are equal. v1=v2

2. The currents in the input leads of an ideal operational amplifier are zero.

i1=i 2=0. These currents are involved in the KCL equations at the input nodes of the operational

amplifier.

3-The output current( i0 )of the operational amplifier is not zero. This current is involved in the KCL

equations at the output node of the operational amplifier. Applying KCL at this node adds another

unknown to the node equations. If the output current of the operational amplifier is not to be

determined, then it is not necessary to apply KCL at the output node of the operational amplifier.

1/11/2016

15

Inverting Operational Amplifier

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16

Non –Inverting OA

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17

Design problem 1, Ideal OA

Find vo and io .

Solution :

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18

Design problem Example 2 ( voltage follower)

Determine the voltage v 0 for the circuit shown below.

Solution:

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Apply KCL at node a:

amps are equal, so .

19

Introduction to

Electric Circuits

Ninth Edition

James A. Svoboda • Richard C. Dorf

Chapter 6

The Operational Amplifier

Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

H.W:

• Download and install the trial version of Multisim

• http://www.ni.com/multisim/try/

• Practice at home.

1/11/2016

21

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