What is Hardness?

Hardness is the property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration. However, the term hardness may also refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting.

Measurement of Hardness:
Hardness is not an intrinsic material property dictated by precise definitions in terms of fundamental units of mass, length and time. A hardness property value is the result of a defined measurement procedure. Hardness of materials has probably long been assessed by resistance to scratching or cutting. An example would be material B scratches material C, but not material A. Alternatively, material A scratches material B slightly and scratches material C heavily. Relative hardness of minerals can be assessed by reference to the Mohs Scale that ranks the ability of materials to resist scratching by another material. Similar methods of relative hardness assessment are still commonly used today. An example is the file test where a file tempered to a desired hardness is rubbed on the test material surface. If the file slides without biting or marking the surface, the test material would be considered harder than the file. If the file bites or marks the surface, the test material would be considered softer than the file. The above relative hardness tests are limited in practical use and do not provide accurate numeric data or scales particularly for modern day metals and materials. The usual method to achieve a hardness value is to measure the depth or area of an indentation left by an indenter of a specific shape, with a specific force applied for a specific time. There are three principal standard test methods for expressing the relationship between hardness and the size of the impression, these being Brinell, Vickers, and Rockwell. For practical and calibration reasons, each of these methods is divided into a range of scales, defined by a combination of applied load and indenter geometry.

Rockwell Hardness Test
The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter. The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0 (Fig. 1A) usually 10 kgf. When equilibrium has been reached, an indicating device, which follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes in depth of penetration of the indenter is set to a datum position. While the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load is applied with resulting increase in penetration (Fig. 1B). When equilibrium has again been reach, the additional major load is removed but the preliminary minor load is still maintained. Removal of the additional major load allows a partial recovery, so reducing the depth of penetration (Fig.

1C). The permanent increase in depth of penetration, resulting from the application and removal of the additional major load is used to calculate the Rockwell hardness number.

HR = E - e
F0 = preliminary minor load in kgf F1 = additional major load in kgf F = total load in kgf e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1 measured in units of 0.002 mm E = a constant depending on form of indenter: 100 units for diamond indenter, 130 units for steel ball indenter HR = Rockwell hardness number D = diameter of steel ball

Fig. 1.Rockwell Principle Rockwell Hardness Scales Minor Load Major Load Total Load Value of F0 F1 F E kgf kgf kgf 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 50 90 140 90 90 50 140 50 140 60 100 150 100 100 60 150 60 150 100 130 100 100 130 130 130 130 130

Scale A B C D E F G H K

Indenter Diamond cone

1/16" steel ball Diamond cone Diamond cone 1/8" steel ball 1/16" steel ball 1/16" steel ball 1/8" steel ball 1/8" steel ball

L M P R S V

1/4" steel ball 1/4" steel ball 1/4" steel ball 1/2" steel ball 1/2" steel ball 1/2" steel ball

10 10 10 10 10 10

50 90 140 50 90 140

60 100 150 60 100 150

130 130 130 130 130 130

Typical Application of Rockwell Hardness Scales
HRA . . . . Cemented carbides, thin steel and shallow case hardened steel HRB . . . . Copper alloys, soft steels, aluminium alloys, malleable irons, etc. HRC . . . . Steel, hard cast irons, case hardened steel and other materials harder than 100 HRB HRD . . . . Thin steel and medium case hardened steel and pearlitic malleable iron HRE . . . . Cast iron, aluminium and magnesium alloys, bearing metals HRF . . . . Annealed copper alloys, thin soft sheet metals HRG . . . . Phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, malleable irons HRH . . . . Aluminium, zinc, lead HRK . . . . } HRL . . . . } HRM . . . .} . . . . Soft bearing metals, plastics and other very soft materials HRP . . . . } HRR . . . . } HRS . . . . } HRV . . . . } Advantages of the Rockwell hardness method include the direct Rockwell hardness number readout and rapid testing time. Disadvantages include many arbitrary non-related scales and possible effects from the specimen support anvil (try putting a cigarette paper under a test block and take note of the effect on the hardness reading! Vickers and Brinell methods don't suffer from this effect).

Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test
The Rockwell Superficial hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone (N scale) or hardened steel ball indenter. The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0 (Fig. 1A) usually 3 kgf. When equilibrium has been reached, an indicating device that follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes in depth of penetration of the indenter is set to a datum position. While the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load, is applied with resulting increase in penetration (Fig. 1B). When equilibrium has again been reach, the additional major load is removed but the preliminary minor load is still maintained. Removal of the additional major load allows a partial recovery, so

reducing the depth of penetration (Fig. 1C). The permanent increase in depth of penetration, e, resulting from the application and removal of the additional major load is used to calculate the Rockwell Superficial hardness number.

HR = E - e
F0 = preliminary minor load in kgf F1 = additional major load in kgf F = total load in kgf e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1, measured in units of 0.001 mm E = a constant of 100 units for diamond and ball indenters HR = Rockwell hardness number D = diameter of steel ball

Fig. 1.Rockwell Superficial Principle Rockwell Superficial Hardness Scales Minor Load Major Load Total Load Value of Indenter Type F0 F1 F E kgf kgf kgf 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 12 27 42 12 27 42 12 27 15 30 45 15 30 45 15 30 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Scale

HR 15 N N Diamond cone HR 30 N N Diamond cone HR 45 N N Diamond cone HR 15 T HR 30 T HR 45 T HR 15 W HR 30 W 1/16" steel ball 1/16" steel ball 1/16" steel ball 1/8" steel ball 1/8" steel ball

HR 45 W HR 15 X HR 30 X HR 45 X HR 15 Y HR 30 Y HR 45 Y

1/8" steel ball 1/4" steel ball 1/4" steel ball 1/4" steel ball 1/2" steel ball 1/2" steel ball 1/2" steel ball

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

42 12 27 42 12 27 42

45 15 30 45 15 30 45

100 100 100 100 100 100 100

The Brinell Hardness Test
The Brinell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a 10 mm diameter hardened steel or carbide ball subjected to a load of 3000 kg. For softer materials the load can be reduced to 1500 kg or 500 kg to avoid excessive indentation. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds in the case of iron and steel and for at least 30 seconds in the case of other metals. The diameter of the indentation left in the test material is measured with a low powered microscope. The Brinell harness number is calculated by dividing the load applied by the surface area of the indentation.

The diameter of the impression is the average of two readings at right angles and the use of a Brinell hardness number table can simplify the determination of the Brinell hardness. A well structured Brinell hardness number reveals the test conditions, and looks like this, "75 HB 10/500/30" which means that a Brinell Hardness of 75 was obtained using a 10mm diameter hardened steel with a 500 kilogram load applied for a period of 30 seconds. On tests of extremely hard metals a tungsten carbide ball is substituted for the steel ball. Compared to the other hardness test methods, the Brinell ball makes the deepest and widest indentation, so the test averages the hardness over a wider amount of material, which will more accurately account for multiple grain structures and any irregularities in the uniformity of the material. This method is the best for achieving the bulk or macro-hardness of a material, particularly those materials with heterogeneous structures.

Brinell Hardness Number Calculator

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Vickers Hardness Test
The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds. The two diagonals of the indentation left in the surface of the material after removal of the load are measured using a microscope and their average calculated. The area of the sloping surface of the indentation is calculated. The Vickers hardness is the quotient obtained by dividing the kgf load by the square mm area of indentation.

F= Load in kgf d = Arithmetic mean of the two diagonals, d1 and d2 in mm HV = Vickers hardness

When the mean diagonal of the indentation has been determined the Vickers hardness

may be calculated from the formula, but is more convenient to use conversion tables. The Vickers hardness should be reported like 800 HV/10, which means a Vickers hardness of 800, was obtained using a 10 kgf force. Several different loading settings give practically identical hardness numbers on uniform material, which is much better than the arbitrary changing of scale with the other hardness testing methods. The advantages of the Vickers hardness test are that extremely accurate readings can be taken, and just one type of indenter is used for all types of metals and surface treatments. Although thoroughly adaptable and very precise for testing the softest and hardest of materials, under varying loads, the Vickers machine is a floor standing unit that is more expensive than the Brinell or Rockwell machines.

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There is now a trend towards reporting Vickers hardness in SI units (MPa or GPa) particularly in academic papers. Unfortunately, this can cause confusion. Vickers hardness (e.g. HV/30) value should normally be expressed as a number only (without the units kgf/mm2). Rigorous application of SI is a problem. Most Vickers hardness testing machines use forces of 1, 2, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100 kgf and tables for calculating HV. SI would involve reporting force in newtons (compare 700 HV/30 to HV/294 N = 6.87 GPa) which is practically meaningless and messy to engineers and technicians. To convert a Vickers hardness number the force applied needs converting from kgf to newtons and the area needs converting form mm2 to m2 to give results in pascals using the formula above. To convert HV to MPa multiply by 9.807 To convert HV to GPa multiply by 0.009807

Microhardness Test
The term microhardness test usually refers to static indentations made with loads not exceeding 1 kgf. The indenter is either the Vickers diamond pyramid or the Knoop elongated diamond pyramid. The procedure for testing is very similar to that of the standard Vickers hardness test, except that it is done on a microscopic scale with higher precision instruments. The surface being tested generally requires a metallographic finish; the smaller the load used, the higher the surface finish required. Precision microscopes are used to measure the indentations; these usually have a magnification of around X500 and measure to an accuracy of +0.5 micrometres. Also with the same

observer differences of +0.2 micrometres can usually be resolved. It should, however, be added that considerable care and experience are necessary to obtain this accuracy.

Knoop Hardness Indenter Indentation The Knoop hardness number KHN is the ratio of the load applied to the indenter, P (kgf) to the unrecovered projected area A (mm2)

KHN = F/A = P/CL2
Where: F = applied load in kgf A = the unrecovered projected area of the indentation in mm2 L = measured length of long diagonal of indentation in mm C = 0.07028 = Constant of indenter relating projected area of the indentation to the square of the length of the long diagonal. The Knoop indenter is a diamond ground to pyramidal form that produces a diamond shaped indentation having approximate ratio between long and short diagonals of 7:1. The depth of indentation is about 1/30 of its length. When measuring the Knoop hardness, only the longest diagonal of the indentation is measured and this is used in the above formula with the load used to calculate KHN. Tables of these values are usually a more convenient way to look-up KHN values from the measurements.

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Vickers Pyramid Diamond Indenter Indentation The Vickers Diamond Pyramid harness number is the applied load (kgf) divided by the surface area of the indentation (mm2)

Where: F= Load in kgf d = Arithmetic mean of the two diagonals, d1 and d2 in mm HV = Vickers hardness The Vickers Diamond Pyramid indenter is ground in the form of a squared pyramid with an angle of 136o between faces. The depth of indentation is about 1/7 of the diagonal length. When calculating the Vickers Diamond Pyramid hardness number, both diagonals of the indentation are measured and the mean of these values is used in the above formula with the load used to determine the value of HV. Tables of these values are usually a more convenient way to look-up HV values from the measurements.

Knoop vs. Vickers
Comparing the indentations made with Knoop and Vickers Diamond Pyramid indenters for a given load and test material:

• • • • • • •

Vickers indenter penetrates about twice as deep as Knoop indenter Vickers indentation diagonal about 1/3 of the length of Knoop major diagonal Vickers test is less sensitive to surface conditions than Knoop test Vickers test is more sensitive to measurement errors than knoop test Vickers test best for small rounded areas Knoop test best for small elongated areas Knoop test good for very hard brittle materials and very thin sections

There is now a trend towards reporting Vickers and Knoop hardness in SI units (MPa or GPa) particularly in academic papers. Unfortunately, this can cause confusion. Vickers hardness (e.g. HV/30) value should normally be expressed as a number only (without the units kgf/mm2). Rigorous application of SI is a problem. Most Vickers hardness testing machines use forces of 1, 2, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100 kgf and tables for calculating HV. SI would involve reporting force in newtons (compare 700 HV/30 to HV/294 N = 6.87 GPa) which is practically meaningless and messy to engineers and technicians. To convert a Vickers hardness number the force applied needs converting from kgf to newtons and the area needs converting form mm2 to m2 to give results in pascals using the formula above. To convert HV to MPa multiply by 9.807 To convert HV to GPa multiply by 0.009807 Or use conversion calculator

Mohs Hardness Scale
The Mohs hardness scale for minerals has been used since 1822. It simply consists of 10 minerals arranged in order from 1 to 10. Diamond is rated as the hardest and is indexed as 10; talc as the softest with index number 1. Each mineral in the scale will scratch all those below it as follows: Diamond Corundum Topaz Quartz Apatite Fluorite Calcite Gypsum Talc 10 9 8 7 5 4 3 2 1

Orthoclase (Feldspar) 6

The steps are not of equal value and the difference in hardness between 9 and 10 is much greater than between 1 and 2. The hardness is determined by finding which of the standard minerals the test material will scratch or not scratch; the hardness will lie between two points on the scale - the first point being the mineral which is scratched and the next point being the mineral which is not scratched. Some examples of the hardness of common metals in the Mohs scale are copper between 2 and 3 and tool steel between 7

and 8. This is a simple test, but is not exactly quantitative and the standards are purely arbitrary numbers. The materials engineer and metallurgist find little use for the Mohs scale, but it is possible to sub-divide the scale and some derived methods are still commonly used today. The file test is useful as a rapid and portable qualitative test for hardened steels, where convention hardness testers are not available or practical. Files can be tempered back to give a range of known hardness and then used in a similar fashion to the Mohs method to evaluate hardness.

The Scleroscope Hardness Test
The Scleroscope test consists of dropping a diamond tipped hammer, which falls inside a glass tube under the force of its own weight from a fixed height, onto the test specimen. The height of the rebound travel of the hammer is measured on a graduated scale. The scale of the rebound is arbitrarily chosen and consists on Shore units, divided into 100 parts, which represent the average rebound from pure hardened high-carbon steel. The scale is continued higher than 100 to include metals having greater hardness. In normal use the shore scleroscope test does not mark the material under test. The Shore Scleroscope measures hardness in terms of the elasticity of the material and the hardness number depends on the height to which the hammer rebounds, the harder the material, the higher the rebound. Advantages of this method are portability and non-marking of the test surface.

The Durometer
The Durometer is a popular instrument for measuring the indentation hardness of rubber and rubber-like materials. The most popular testers are the Model A used for measuring softer materials and the Model D for harder materials. The operation of the tester is quite simple. The material is subjected to a definite pressure applied by a calibrated spring to an indenter that is either a cone or sphere and an indicating device measures the depth of indentation.

Hardness Conversion Table
Approximate Hardness Equivalents Covering Range of Rockwell C and Rockwell B Scales
VPN DPH A B C D E HV/10 1865 92 80 87 1787 92 79 86 ROCKWELL SCALES F G H K 15N 30N 45N 15T 30T 45T 97 92 87 96 92 87 BRINELL BHN BHN 500kg 3000kg SCLEROSCOPE U.T.S. Kpsi Mpa

1710 91 78 85 1633 91 77 84 1556 90 76 83 1478 90 75 83 1400 89 74 82 1323 89 73 81 1245 88 72 80 1160 87 71 80 1076 87 70 79 1004 86 69 78 940 86 68 77 900 85 67 76 865 85 66 75 832 84 65 75 800 84 64 74 772 83 63 73 746 83 62 72 720 82 61 72 697 81 60 71 674 81 59 70 653 80 58 69 633 80 57 69 613 79 56 68 595 79 120 55 67 577 78 120 54 66 560 78 119 53 65 544 77 119 52 65 528 77 118 51 64 513 76 117 50 63 498 75 117 49 62 484 75 116 48 61 471 74 116 47 61 458 74 115 46 60 446 73 115 45 59 434 73 114 44 59 423 72 113 43 58 412 72 113 42 57 402 71 112 41 56 392 71 112 40 55 382 70 111 39 55 372 70 110 38 54 363 69 110 37 53

96 96 96 95 95 95 95 94 94 94 93 93 93 92 92 91 91 91 90 90 89 89 88 88 87 87 86 86 86 85 85 84 84 83 83 82 82 81 80 80 79 79

91 91 90 89 89 88 87 87 86 85 84 84 83 82 81 80 79 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 60 59 58 57

86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 64 63 62 61 60 59 57 56 55 54 53 51 50 49 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 40

739 722 705 688 670 654 634 615 595 577 560 543 523 512 496 481 469 455 443 432 421 409 400 390 381 371 362 353 344

101 99 97 95 92 91 88 87 85 83 81 80 78 76 75 74 72 71 69 68 67 66 64 63 62 60 58 57 56 55 54 52 51 50

320 310 300 290 282 274 266 257 245 239 233 227 221 217 212 206 200 196 191 187 182 177 173 169

2206 2137 2069 2000 1944 1889 1834 1772 1689 1648 1607 1565 1524 1496 1462 1420 1379 1351 1317 1289 1255 1220 1193 1165

354 69 109 36 52 345 68 109 35 52 336 68 108 34 51 327 67 108 33 50 318 67 107 32 49 310 66 106 31 48 302 66 105 30 48 294 65 104 29 47 286 65 104 28 46 279 64 103 27 45 272 64 103 26 45 266 63 102 25 44 260 63 101 24 43 254 62 100 23 42 248 62 99 22 42 243 61 98 21 41 238 61 97 20 40 234 60 97 19 230 59 96 18 226 59 96 17 222 58 95 16 217 58 95 15 213 58 94 14 208 57 93 13 204 57 92 12 200 56 92 11 196 56 91 10 192 56 90 9 188 55 89 8 184 54 88 7 180 54 87 6 176 53 86 5 172 53 85 4 168 52 84 3 164 51 83 2 160 51 82 1 156 50 81 0 152 50 80 148 49 79 144 49 78 141 48 77 139 47 76

91 91 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 81 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 73 71 70 69 68 66 64 63 61 59 58 56 54 53 51 49 48 46 44 43

78 78 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 73 73 72 72 71 71 70 69

56 55 54 53 52 51 50 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 42

38 37 36 35 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 26 24 23 22 21 20

100 100 100 99 98 97 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 91 90 89 88 87

93 93 93 92 92 92 92 92 92 91 91 91 91 90 90 90 90 89 89 89 88 88 88 87 87 87 86 86 86

82 82 81 81 80 80 80 79 79 79 78 78 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 74 73 72 72 71 70 70 69 68 68

72 71 70 69 69 68 68 67 67 66 66 65 64 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49

201 195 189 184 181 179 177 175 171 169 167 163 162 160 157 154 151 148 145 142 140 137 135 133 130 128 126 124 122

336 327 319 311 301 294 286 279 271 264 258 253 247 240 234 228 222 218 214 210 208 205 203 200 195 193 190 185 180 176 172 169 165 162 159 156 153 150 147 144 141 139

49 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 34 33 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 26 26 25 25 25 24 24 24

165 160 156 152 147 144 140 137 133 129 126 124 121 118 115 112 109 107 106 104 102 100 99 98 96 95 93 91 88 86 84 83 81 79 78 76 75 73

1138 1103 1076 1048 1014 993 965 945 917 889 869 855 834 814 793 772 752 738 731 717 703 690 683 676 662 655 641 627 607 593 579 572 558 545 538 524 517 503

137 47 135 46 132 46 130 45 127 45 125 44 123 44 120 43 118 43 116 42 115 42 114 42 113 41 112 41 111 40 110 40 108 39 107 39 106 38 105 38 104 38 103 37 102 37 101 36 100 36 100 35 99 35 98 35 97 34 96 34 95 33 95 33 94 32 93 32 92 31 91 31 90 31 90 30 89 30 88 29 88 29 87 28

75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34

100 41 99 39 99 38 98 36 100 98 35 100 97 33 99 96 31 98 96 30 98 95 28 97 95 27 96 94 25 96 94 24 95 93 22 95 92 21 94 92 19 93 91 18 93 91 16 92 90 15 91 90 13 91 89 12 90 88 10 90 88 9 89 87 7 88 87 6 88 86 4 87 86 3 87 85 86 85 85 84 85 83 84 83 84 82 83 82 82 81 82 81 81 80 80 79 80 79 79 78 79 78 100 78 77 100 77 77 99

86 85 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 52 51

85 85 85 84 84 84 83 83 83 82 82 82 81 81 81 81 80 80 80 79 79 79 78 78 78 77 77 77 76 76 76 75 75 75 74 74 74 73 73 73 72 72

67 66 66 65 64 64 63 62 62 61 60 60 59 58 57 57 56 55 55 54 53 53 52 51 51 50 49 49 48 47 46 46 45 44 44 43 42 42 41 40 40 39

49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 11 10 9 8 7 6

120 118 116 114 112 110 109 107 106 104 102 101 99 98 96 95 94 92 91 90 89 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 79 78 77 76 75 74 74 73 72 71 71 70

137 135 132 130 127 125 123 121 119 117 116 114 112 110 108 107 106 104 102 101 99

87 28 86 28 86 27 85 27 85 26 84 26 84 25 83 25 83 24 82 24 82 24 81 23 81 23 80 22 80 22 79 21 79 21 78 21 78 20 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 74 73 73 72 72 71 71 70 DPH A HV/10 VPN

33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

77 76 76 75 74 74 73 73 72 71 71 70 70 69 68 68 67 67 66 65 65 64 64 63 62 62 61 61 60 59 59 58 58 57

B C D E

69 68 68 67 66 66 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 56 56 55 55 55 54 54 53 53 BHN BHN F G H K 15N 30N 45N 15T 30T 45T 500kg 3000kg ROCKWELL SCALES BRINELL SCLEROSCOPE

76 75 75 74 74 73 73 72 71 71 70 70 69 69 68 67 67 66 66 65 65 64 64 63 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 58 58 57

99 99 98 98 98 97 97 97 96 96 96 95 95 95 94 94 93 93 93 92 92 92 91 91 91 90 90 90 89 89 88 88 88 87

50 49 48 47 46 45 45 44 42 42 41 40 39 38 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 24 23 22 21

72 71 71 71 70 70 70 69 69 69 68 68 68 68 67 67 67 66 66 66 65 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 63 62 62 62 61 61

38 38 37 36 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 31 30 29 29 28 27 26 26 25 24 24 23 22 22 21 20 20 19 18 17 17 16 15

5 4 3 2 1

Kpsi Mpa U.T.S.

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