Lean Six Sigma Program Name

<Project Title (State From ... To)>
< Last Name, First Name > Wave No: <xx> Review Date: <xx/xx/xxxx>

Define

Measure Analyze Improve Control

LEAN SIX SIGMA

Define

Lean Six Sigma Program Name
Measure Analyze Improve Control

LEAN SIX SIGMA

Measure Phase Road Map
Define Measure Analyze Improve

Measure

Control

Activities
• Identify Key Input, Process and Output Metrics • • • • • • • • • • • Develop Operational Definitions • Develop Data Collection Plan • Validate Measurement System • • Collect Baseline Data • Determine Process Performance/Capability • Validate Business Opportunity • Value Stream Map for deeper understanding & focus • • Quick Wins (Control Plans) • Measure Gate Review •
3

Tools
High/Low level process Maps Value Stream Map Operational Definitions Data Collection Plan Statistical Sampling Measurement System Analysis (MSA), Gage R&R Constraint Identification Setup Reduction Generic Pull Kaizen TPM Control Charts Process Capability, Cp & Cpk

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Project Charter
Problem/Goal Statement
Problem: Describe problem in non-technical terms Statement should explain why project is important; why working on it is a priority Goal: Goals communicate “before” and “after” conditions Shift mean, variance, or both? Should impact cost, time, quality dimensions Express goals using SMART criteria Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Resource Requirements, Time Boundaries Explain leverage and strategic implications (if any)

Measure

Financial Impact
State financial impact of project Expenses Investments (inventory, capital, A/R) Revenues Separate “hard” from “soft” dollars State financial impact of leverage opportunities (future projects)

Team
PES Name PS Name DC Name GB/BB Name MBB Name Core Team Team Member 1 Team Member 2 Team Member 3 Team Member 4 Extended Team Team Member 1 Team Member 2 Project Executive Sponsor (if different from PS) Project Sponsor/Process Owner Deployment Champion Green Belt/Black Belt Master Black Belt Role % Contrib. LSS Training SME XX YB TM XX GB SME XX PS SME XX YB BFM IT XX XX Not Trained Not Trained 4 Tollgate Define: Measure: Analyze: Improve: Control:

Tollgate Review Schedule
Scheduled XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX Revised XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX Complete XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX

Review high-level schedule milestones here:
Phase Completions Tollgate Reviews Trials

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Attitude Charting & Key Constituency Map
Key Constituents Map
Operations 25% Finance 37% Customer 13% HR 25%

Measure

“Critical mass must be won-over”

40% 35% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 15% 10% 5% 0% Innovators

Attitude Charting 35%

15%

Early Adopters

Late Adopters

Resistors

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5

Sample Size: Continuous Data
Use this calculation for CONTINUOUS data
Desired Confidence Level (90%, 95%, 99%, etc)? * Population Standard Deviation (# hours/days/etc)? ** What Precision is Required (within # hours/days/etc)? Minimum Sample Size (n): 95 3 1

Measure

1.96 (Confidence Interval: Za/2) 3 (Sigma) 1 (Delta) n = ((Za/2 * Sigma)/Delta)^2

34

* Population Standard Deviation: Your best estim ate based on your know ledge of the data or previous sam ples of sim ilar data. Exam ple - based on sim ilar data from a previous project you assum e Std Dev for call length = 5 m inutes. ** Error: Exam ple - if you w ant to estim ate average call length w ithin +/- 1 m inute, you w ould specify an error of 1.

Finite Population Correction (if n/N >0.05 or 5% where N = Total Population Size): n= N= n (finite) = 34 400 31 Calculated minimum sample size (above) Total population size n (finite) = n / (1 + n/N)

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6

Sample Size - Discrete Data
Use only when n * PB >= 5 Desired Confidence Level (90%, 95%, 99%, etc)? * What Precision is Required (within 5, 10, 15%, etc)? ** Defective Data (50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 15%, etc)? 95 1 0.2

Measure

Use this calculation for "YES/NO," "TRUE/FALSE," "DEFECTIVE/NOT DEFECTIVE" (binomial or discrete) types of data.
1.96 (Confidence Interval: Za/2) 0.01 (Delta) 0.002 (P B)

Minimum Sample Size (n):

76

n = (Za/2/Delta)^2 * P B (1-P B )

* Error: Exam ple - if you w ant to es tim ate the proportion defective w ithin +/-2%, you w ould s pe cify an e rror of 2. ** Defective Data: Your es tim ated pe rce ntage of the overall population that w ould be cons ide re d "de fe ctive " data. Exam ple - bas e d on the spec, you e xpect a de fe ct rate of 12%. If you don't know and w ant to be cons ervative, use 50%

Finite Population Correction (if n/N >0.05 or 5% where N = Total Population Size): n= N= n (finite) = defects expected: 76 925 70 0 Calculated minimum sample size (above) Total population size n (finite) = n / (1 + n/N)

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7

Data Collection Plan
Performance Measure Operational Definition Data Source and Location How Will Data Be Collected Who Will Collect Data When Will Data Be Collected Sample Size Stratification Factors

Measure

How will data be used?

VOC MSA Process VSM Financials Others

For each performance measure (Y), update a data collection plan Include MSA measure plan (Gantt chart, MS project plan is Optional) Add Financial measure plan if separate from performance Y Add any Time Study or other data collection plans for Value Stream Map Sample Size Calculation Use additional slides if needed

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Operational Definitions

Measure

Y – Continuous data (Process start/stop and cycle time boundaries (such as the unit of measure (ex minutes), the unit (the thing you are measuring), will you include weekends, holidays, non-business hours?) Y – Discrete data (Define Success/Defect or other attribute values you will measure X – The subgroups values or X-factor groupings you will use on your project data collection Other unique terms that apply to your project that require clear operational definitions Use additional slides as needed to complete your operational definitions Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
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9

Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
Gage R&R Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Operator*Part Part-To-Part Total Variation Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Operator*Part Part-To-Part Total Variation %Contribution VarComp (of VarComp) 0.0015896 3.70 0.0005567 1.29 0.0010330 2.40 0.0003418 0.79 0.0006912 1.61 0.0414247 96.30 0.0430143 100.00 Study Var %Study Var StdDev (SD) (6 * SD) (%SV) 0.039870 0.23922 19.22 0.023594 0.14156 11.38 0.032140 0.19284 15.50 0.018488 0.11093 8.91 0.026290 0.15774 12.68 0.203531 1.22118 98.13 0.207399 1.24439 100.00
100 P e rc e nt

Measure

Gage R&R (ANOVA) for Response
Components of Variation
% Contribution % Study Var

Response by Part
10.00 9.75 9.50

50

0

Gage R&R

Repeat

Reprod

Part-to-Part

1

2

3

4

5 Part

6

7

8

9

10

R Chart by Operator
1 Sa m ple R a nge 0.10 2 3 UCL=0.1073 10.00 9.75 9.50 0.00 LCL=0 1

Response by Operator

0.05

_ R=0.0417

Xbar Chart by Operator
1 10.00 Sa m ple M e a n 2 3 UCL=9.8422 _ _ X=9.7996 LCL=9.7569 10.00 A v e ra ge 9.75 9.50 1 2 3 4

2 Operator

3

Number of Distinct Categories = 7

Operator * Part Interaction
Operator 1 2 3

Measurement system is acceptable with the Total % Contribution <10%

9.75 9.50

5 6 Part

7

8

9 10

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MSA Conclusions
Type of Measurement Error Discrimination (resolution) Bias Stability Repeatability Description The ability of the measurement system to divide into “data categories” The difference between an observed average measurement result and a reference value The change in bias over time The extent variability is consistent

Measure

The measurement systems are acceptable. The data is considered to have no potential for significant error. Need to be careful to appropriately use the data during the Analyze Phase.
Considerations to this Project Work hrs can be measured to <.25 hrs. Tool usage measure to +- 2 min. No bias - Work hours and radar startstop times consistent through population. No bias of work hrs & radar usage data. Not an issue. Labor and radar usage is historical and felt to be accurate enough for insight and analysis. Remarks in usage data deemed not reproducible, therefore were not considered in determining which radars were used in each op n/a to this process.

Reproducibility Variation

Different appraisers produce consistent results The difference between parts

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11

Probability Plot
Probability Plot of Anderson-Darling Normality
Normal - 95% CI
99.9 99 95 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 1 0.1

Measure

Mean StDev N AD P-Value

24.74 4.177 100 0.380 0.397

Percent

10

15

20

25 QTY

30

35

40

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12

Baseline Basic Statistics
The current process has a non-normal distribution with the P-Value < 0.05 but does have a normal bell-shape. Since the mean and median are the same in days (29) +/- 0.5 days, we will not transform data. The range is 35 and the standard deviation is 2.7 days
Mean Median 28.8 28.9 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4

Measure

Summary for Delivery Time

A nderson-Darling Normality Test A -Squared P-V alue < Mean StDev V ariance Skew ness Kurtosis N Minimum 1st Q uartile Median 3rd Q uartile Maximum 28.805 29.000 1.95 0.005 29.128 2.677 7.169 0.201075 -0.471714 266 24.000 27.000 29.000 31.000 35.000 29.451 29.000 2.927

24

26

28

30

32

34

95% C onfidence Interv al for Mean 95% C onfidence Interv al for Median 95% C onfidence Interv al for StDev 9 5 % Confidence Intervals 2.468

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Control Chart
The current baseline delivery time is stable over time with both the Moving Range (MR) (3.22 days) and Individual Average (29.13 days) experiencing common cause variation 255 data points collected with zero subgroups, thus the I&MR control chart selected
I-MR Chart of Delivery Tim e
40 Individual V alue 35 30 25 20 1 28 55 82 109 136 Observation 163 190 217 244

Measure

UCL=37.70

_ X=29.13

LCL=20.56

10.0 M oving Range 7.5 5.0 2.5 0.0 1 28 55 82 109 136 Observation 163 190 217 244

UCL=10.53

__ MR=3.22

LCL=0

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Baseline Process Capability
266 data points collected between 11/1/04 thru 11/30/04 Mean 29 days, St. Dev. 2.9 days, CP is 1.16 indicating process needs centering to the LSL of 10 and USL of 30 days. Cpk is .1 indicating that the process is exceeding the USL. With an overall PPM of 371,895 defects per million opportunity, the current process has a Sigma Quality Level of 1.8 or a 62% yield

Measure

P r ocess Capability of Deliv ery Time
LS L W ith in O v erall T arg et USL

P ote ntia l (W ithin) C a pa bility Cp 1.16 C PL 2.22 C PU 0.10 C pk 0.10 C C pk 1.16 O v e ra ll C a pa bility Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 1.24 2.37 0.11 0.11 0.35

P roce ss D a ta LS L 10 T a rge t 20 USL 30 S a m ple M e a n 29.1203 S a m ple N 266 S tD e v (W ithin) 2.87033 S tD e v (O v e ra ll) 2.69154

12

16

20

24
E xp. PPM PPM PPM

28

32

36
E xp. O v e ra ll P e rform a nce P P M < LS L 0.00 P P M > U S L 371895.18 P P M T ota l 371895.18

O bse rv e d P e rform a nce P P M < LS L 0.00 P P M > U S L 281954.89 P P M T ota l 281954.89

W ithin P e rform a nce < LS L 0.00 > U S L 379619.67 T ota l 379619.67

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15

Sigma Calculator: Continuous Data
1. Label The Normal Curve With The Following: Example: LSL = 8 Area 2 10 18 x x+s 2. Determine Area 1: Find Z1
702009 O ##

Measure

n n n n

X value X+s value USL & Shade Area To The Right LSL & Shade Area To The Left s

s

USL = 22 Area 1

Xbar 15 S 2 USL 18 LSL 5 Sigma = 3 Sigma

Enter Values in Yellow Mean (Average) Standard Deviation Delete if no USL (Upper Specification Limit) Delete if no LSL (Lower Specification Limit) Sigma Quality Level

Z1 =

USL – x s

=

( (

)

( )

)

=

1.5

Example: The average processing time = 15 days (Xbar = 15) The standard deviation was 2 days (s = 2) A unit processed longer than 18 days was too late to the customer (USL = 18) A unit processed faster than 5 days was too early to the customer (LSL = 5)

Look up Z1 in Normal Table

Norm Dist (Z1) = Normal Table Look Up for Z1

=

0.933193

Area 1 = 1 – Look Up

Area 1 = 1 – Norm Dist (Z1) = 1 –

(

)

=

0.066807

3. Skip this step if there is no LSL 2. Determine Area 2: Find Z2 Z2 = LSL – x s =

( (

)

( )

)

=

-5

Look up Z2 in Normal Table

Norm Dist (Z2) = Normal Table Look Up for Z2

=

2.87E-07

Area 2 = Look Up

Area 2 =

2.87E-07 0.066807

Sigma Quality Level = 3

4. Determine Total Area:

Total Area = Area 1 + Area 2 =

(

) )

+

(

)=
= =

5. Yield = 1 – Total Area

Yield = 1 – Total Area = 1 – = x 100%

(

0.933193 93.3193%

6. Process Sigma Comes From Table Look Up Of Yield

SigmaST = Look Up Value in Sigma Table

=

3.00

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Sigma Calculator: Discrete Data

Measure

General Worksheet For Calculating Process Sigma
Enter Values Below in Yellow N= 200 D= 35 O= DPMO = #DIV/0! Sigma = #DIV/0!

1 Number Of Units Processed 2 Total Number Of Defects Made (Include Defects Made And Later Fixed) 3 Number Of Defect Opportunities Per Unit 4 Solve For Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) 5 Look Up Process Sigma In Abridged Sigma Conversion Table

Example: 200 pairs of boots were supplied (N = 200) 35 shoelaces were found broken (D = 35) Each shoe had 1 lace and there were 2 shoes per pair (O = 2)

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Quick Wins
5s 4-Step Setup Reduction Inventory Reduction MSA Improvements Price reductions Reduced DOWNTIME (Non-value added steps or work) Pull System Kaizen events Other
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18

Measure

5s
Sort
? ?
ITEM NAME

Measure

5s FORM
IDENTIFICATION
TAG NUMBER TAG DATE TAGGED BY

Set Order
? ?

CLASSIFICATION RAW MATERIAL WIP
FINISHED GOOD
QUANTITY

TOOLS SUPPLIES EQUIPMENT REASON

FURNITURE OFFICE MATERIAL BOOKS/MAGAZINES
CELL / AREA

OTHER (EXPLAIN)

Shine
? ?

UNNECESSARY DEFECTIVE NON-URGENT

LEFTOVER MATERIAL UNKNOWN OTHER (EXPLAIN) DISPOSITION REQUIRED

Standardize
? ?

DISCARD
IN-CELL STORAGE

TRANSFER LONG-TERM STORAGE OTHER (EXPLAIN)

Sustain
? ?

REDUCE
ACTION DESCRIPTION

ACTION TAKEN
APPROVED BY DATE NEW LOCATION NEW CELL / AREA

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PDCA
Plan: ? ? Do: ? ? Check: ? ? Act: ? ?

Measure

?

Plan

?

Do

?

Check

? Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here

Act

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20

Benchmark Analysis
CTQ Process Capability (X/Y) Benchmark Gap / Opportunity Source Assumptions

Measure

Risks

Based on the information above, what is the performance objective*?
• • •

Reduce defects by % Reduce long-term DPMO from Improve short-term Z from

to to .

.

*If you do not benchmark, performance standards are based on:
• • •

For a process with ≤ 3 sigma level, decrease % defects by 10x. For a process with > 3 sigma level, decrease % defects by 2x. Other….please explain (corporate mandate, compliance/legal, VOC data, etc)

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O

10.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

ntim e
CTQ Importance

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%

Company

D el iv C er om y pl et e W O rd ar er ra nt y R et ur In ns ve nt or y Tu C rn or s re ct In vo ic e Pr ic

Sp ec i

Key Buying Factor Analysis

al O

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22

Comp 1 Comp 2

e rd R er el at Le io ad ns Ti hi m p N e M ew an Pr ag od em uc en tD t ev el op m Br en an Pr t od d Im uc ag tO e ff e rin Pr g ox Br im ea ity dt h to C us to m er

Measure

Comp 3

Sources of Waste
Defect Overproduction Transportation Area 1 <Area 1> <Sub area 1> Area 1 Sub area 1 Sub area 1

Measure

Sources of Waste ?

NVA
Area 1 Sub area 1 Processing Motion Area 1 Area 1 Sub area 1 Sub area 1 Inventory Waiting

? ? ? ?

5%

5%

5% 5%

< Insert your waste percentage as shown in pie chart >

30%

10%

40%

Defect Overproduction Transportation Waiting Inventory Motion Processing

? ?

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Sample Value Stream Mapping Symbols
Machining Quotes
C/T = 36 Sec Set Up Time 7 Min Uptime 86% Data Box Process Box 1
Personnel

Measure

I
Queue/ Inventory

Flow (Physical) Flow (Information) Electronic Information

Electronic Data System
Sign Off Point

Physical Pull “Go See” Monitoring

FIFO
FIFO Lane

Truck Shipment

Physical Transport

Supplier/ Customer

Push Systems

Project Burst
24

Supermarket Replenishment

Kanban Station

Paper Kanban

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Value Stream Map – “Current State”
Service lead time = 384 min
SUPPLIERS

Measure

Order Mgmt Supervisor

Customer call time = 24 min
Phone Call
Trigger: Completion Criteria: Cycle Time: Takt Time: Number of People: Number of Approvals: Items in Inbox: % Rework: # of Iterations (cycles): # of Databases: Top 3 Rework Issues: 1. 2. 3.

Weekly Update

CUSTOMER

Phone Call

Manual Update

Order Mgmt Screen for Acct Mgr

Automate Monitoring

P/T = 3 min
2-5 day s

Lost calls=10% Volume=1200

Large Business 6 Customers

Small Business 5 Customers Simplify/ Mistake Proof

Order Mgmt Customer Info

Forecast Improvement

Improve Visibility Order Mgmt
4

Simplify/ Combine Order Mgmt Pricing
4 4

Order Mgmt Shipping Info 20 Orders

DIST
10

4

Product Need

Pick Pack & Ship

P/T = 2 min
Home

P/T = 6 Min Error Rate=0% Volume=800
6 min

P/T = 6 Min Error Rate=2% Volume=800
6 min

P/T = 2 Min Error Rate=1% Volume=800

P/T = 120 Min Error Rate=1% Volume=1200

3 Customers

Error Rate=2% Volume=800
2 min

5 min 3 min 2 min

240 min 120 min

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25

Value Stream Map (VSM) - “As Is”
< ERP >
Supplier Customer

Measure

Questions
What are the biggest Opportunity areas?

<Right Click, and select Add Text>

<Step1>
1

<Step3>
2

<Step3>
1
What is VA to NVA percentage? <Right Click, and select Add Text>

What is the Takt Time? <Right Click, and select Add Text>

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Value Stream Map (VSM) - “IDEAL”
< ERP >
Supplier Customer

Measure

Questions
What is the VA to NVA percentage? <Right Click, and select Add Text>

<Step1>
1

<Step3>
2

<Step3>
1

How was IDEAL future state VSM constructed?

<Right Click, and select Add Text>

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27

Spaghetti Diagram
EAST Foyer To Office Parking Lot

Measure

Lines indicate paper/information travel: - No set path - Lots of rework

Supply Room (paper and office supplies) Records Room (Order Management)

Order Taker 1

Order Entry 1

Order Entry 2

Order Entry 3

Reception

Order Taker 2 Order Taker 3

Printer, Fax OM Supr Office Copier

OM Lead

CC & Val 2 CC & Val 3

CC & Val 1

Indicates an in-box or outbox where work (forms/ information) waits to be worked on or transferred

Restrooms Vault (finance) Engineering Offices

Cafeteria

Planning & Scheduling

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28

AS-IS Process Mapping Symbols

Measure

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29

Swim Lane Process Map
Client Mgr
Notify HR of employee exit date

Oval shapes – Start/Stop of process Diamonds – Decision points Rectangles – process steps Half-Moon – Delay/Queue Time

Measure

Note: Steps in blue shapes are non-value added steps

Client HR

Places information into HR database

Sends exit date to IT, telecom & facilities

Avg. Delay 2 days

Form require approval?

No

Re-verifies with mgr on employee’s exit status

Yes Client Contact
Sends Email to Admin Secure approval(s) Avg. Delay 2 days Sends Email to Admin Avg. Delay 2 days

NT Admin

Create ticket if request coming directly from client

Utilize e-mail vendor’s web tool to submit delete request to vendor

Admin closes ticket and manager notified

Admin

Avg. Delay 1 day Avg. Delay 4 days

Avg. Delay 1 day

Generates ticket & forwards to Admin Mark request as completed on admin web site

Email Vendor Bonacorsi Consulting

Delete account

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Process Map
Process Map (A 10 feet view)
Inputs C/N/Co/S Process Steps Outputs

Measure

Questions
How was the data collected? <Right Click, and select Add Text>

What is percentage of NVA to VA? <Right Click, and select Add Text> Has the hidden factory been quantified?

FPY <Right Click, Add Text> RTY <Right Click, Add Text>

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Business Impact
State financial impact of project Separate “hard or Type 1” from “soft Type 2 or 3” dollars State financial impact of future project leverage opportunities
Annual Estimate
Revenue Enhancement Expenses Reduction Loss Reduction Cost Avoidance Total Savings
• Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ? • Type 1: ? • Type 2: ? • Type 3: ?

Measure

Replicated Estimate

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Business Impact Details
Show the financial calculation savings and assumptions used.
Assumption #1 (i.e. source of data, clear Operational Definitions?) Assumption #2 (i.e. hourly rate + incremental benefit cost + travel)

Measure

Type 1: Describe the chain of causality that shows how you determined the Type 1 savings. (tell the story with cause–effect relationships, on how the proposed change should create the desired financial result (savings) in your project )

Type 2: Describe the chain of causality that shows how you determined the Type 2 savings. (tell the story with cause–effect relationships, on how the proposed change should create the desired financial result (savings) in your project ) Show the financial calculation savings and assumptions used.
Assumption #1 (i.e. Labor rate used, period of time, etc…) Assumption #2 (i.e. contractor hrs or FTE, source of data, etc…)

Describe the Type 3 Business Impact(s) areas and how these were measured
Assumption #1 (i.e. project is driven by the Business strategy?) Assumption #2 (i.e. Customer service rating, employee moral, etc…)

Other Questions
Stakeholders agree on the project’s impact and how it will be measured in financial terms? What steps were taken to ensure the integrity & accuracy of the data? Has the project tracking worksheet been updated?

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33

Current Status
Key actions completed Issues Lessons learned Communications, team building, organizational activities
Upcoming Deliverables/Tasks - 2 weeks out Due Revised Due

Measure

Lean Six Sigma Project Status and Planning
Deliverables/Tasks Completed last week Comments

W/E:

Comments

For deliverables due thru: Actions Scheduled for next 2 Weeks Deliverable/Action Who Due Revised Due Comments/Resolution Need Help

Issue/Risk

Current Issues and Risks Who Due Revised Due Recommended Action Need Help

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Next Steps
Key actions Planned Lean Six Sigma Tool use Questions to answer Barrier/risk mitigation activities

Measure

Lean Six Sigma Project Issue Log
No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Description/Recommendation

Status Open/Closed/Hold

Due Date

Last Revised: Revised Due Date

Resp

Comments / Resolution

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35

Measure

Stop

Tollgate Checklist

Tollgate Review

Does the team understand or has gathered the right data to help understand the process? Has the team baselined current process performance?

Measure

Has a more detailed Value Stream Map been completed to better understand the process and problem, and where in the process the root causes might reside? Has the team conducted a value-added and cycle time analysis, identifying areas where time and resources are devoted to tasks not critical to the customer? Has the team identified the specific input (x), process (x), and output (y) measures needing to be collected for both effectiveness and efficiency categories (i.e. Quality, Speed and Cost Efficiency measures)? Has the team developed clear, unambiguous operational definitions for each measurement and tested them with others to ensure clarity and consistent interpretation? Has a clear, reasonable choice been made between gathering new data or taking advantage of existing data? Sample size & sampling frequency established to ensure valid representation of the process we’re measuring? Measurement system checked for repeatability and reproducibility, potentially including training of data collectors? Has the team developed & tested the data collection form for usability and that it can provide consistent, complete data? Has baseline performance and process capability been established? How large is the gap between current performance and the customer (or project) requirements? Has the team been able to identify any ‘Quick Wins’? Has the team begun to fill in the financial benefits worksheets for type 1 and 2 savings? Have any opportunities to do Kaizen projects been identified to accelerate momentum and results? Have ‘learnings’ to-date required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have these changes been approved by the Project Sponsor and the Key Stakeholders? New risks to project success have been identified, added to the Risk Mitigation Plan, & mitigation strategy put in place?

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Sign Off

Measure

• I concur that the Measure phase was successfully completed on MM/DD/YYYY • I concur the project is ready to proceed to next phase: Analyze

Enter Name Here
Green Belt/Black Belt

Enter Name Here Enter Name Here
Sponsor / Process Owner Deployment Champion

Enter Name Here
Financial Representative

Enter Name Here
Master Black Belt

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This Training Manual and all materials, procedures and systems herein contained or depicted (the "Manual"), are the sole and exclusive property of Bonacorsi Consulting, L.L.C. The contents hereof contain proprietary trade secrets that are the private and confidential property of Bonacorsi Consulting. Unauthorized use, disclosure, or reproduction of any kind of any material contained in this Manual is expressly prohibited. The contents hereof are to be returned immediately upon termination of any relationship or agreement giving user authorization to possess or use such information or materials. Any unauthorized or illegal use shall subject the user to all remedies, both legal and equitable, available to Bonacorsi Consulting. This Manual may be altered, amended or supplemented by Bonacorsi Consulting from time to time. In the event of any inconsistency or conflict between a provision in this Manual and any federal, provincial, state or local statute, regulation, order or other law, such law will supersede the conflicting or inconsistent provision(s) of this Manual in all properties subject to that law. © 2006 by Bonacorsi Consulting, L.L.C. All Rights Reserved.

Steven Bonacorsi is a Senior Master Black Belt instructor and coach. Steven Bonacorsi has trained hundreds of Master Black Belts, Black Belts, Green Belts, and Project Sponsors and Executive Leaders in Lean Six Sigma DMAIC and Design for Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies.
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Define

Lean Six Sigma Program Name
Measure Analyze Improve Control

LEAN SIX SIGMA

Abridged Process Sigma Conversion Table…
Long-Term Yeild 99.99966% 99.9995% 99.9992% 99.9900% 99.8000% 99.9970% 99.9960% 99.9930% 99.9900% 99.9850% 99.9770% 99.9670% 99.9520% 99.9320% 99.9040% 99.8650% 99.8140% 99.7450% 99.6540% 99.5340% 99.3790% 99.181% 98.930% 98.610% 98.220% 97.730% 97.130% 96.410% 95.540% 94.520% 93.320% 91.920% 90.320% 88.50% 86.50% 84.20% 81.60% 78.80% 75.80% 72.60% 69.20% 65.60% 61.80% 58.00% 54.00% 50% 46% 43% 39% 35% 31% 28% 25% 22% 19% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% Process Sigma (ST) 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 Defects Per 1,000,000 3.4 5 8 10 20 30 40 70 100 150 230 330 480 680 960 1350 1860 2550 3460 4660 6210 8190 10700 13900 17800 22700 28700 35900 44600 54800 66800 80800 96800 115000 135000 158000 184000 212000 242000 274000 308000 344000 382000 420000 460000 500000 540000 570000 610000 650000 690000 720000 750000 780000 810000 840000 860000 880000 900000 920000 Defects Per 100,000 0.34 0.5 0.8 1 2 3 4 7 10 15 23 33 48 68 96 135 186 255 346 466 621 819 1070 1390 1780 2270 2870 3590 4460 5480 6680 8080 9680 11500 13500 15800 18400 21200 24200 27400 30800 34400 38200 42000 46000 50000 54000 57000 61000 65000 69000 72000 75000 78000 81000 84000 86000 88000 90000 40 92000 Defects Per 10,000 0.034 0.05 0.08 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.7 1 1.5 2.3 3.3 4.8 6.8 9.6 13.5 18.6 25.5 34.6 46.6 62.1 81.9 107 139 178 227 287 359 446 548 668 808 968 1150 1350 1580 1840 2120 2420 2740 3080 3440 3820 4200 4600 5000 5400 5700 6100 6500 6900 7200 7500 7800 8100 8400 8600 8800 9000 9200 Defects Per 1,000 0.0034 0.005 0.008 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.07 0.1 0.15 0.23 0.33 0.48 0.68 0.96 1.35 1.86 2.55 3.46 4.66 6.21 8.19 10.7 13.9 17.8 22.7 28.7 35.9 44.6 54.8 66.8 80.8 96.8 115 135 158 184 212 242 274 308 344 382 420 460 500 540 570 610 650 690 720 750 780 810 840 860 880 900 920 Defects Per 100 0.00034 0.0005 0.0008 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.007 0.01 0.015 0.023 0.033 0.048 0.068 0.096 0.135 0.186 0.255 0.346 0.466 0.621 0.819 1.07 1.39 1.78 2.27 2.87 3.59 4.46 5.48 6.68 8.08 9.68 11.5 13.5 15.8 18.4 21.2 24.2 27.4 30.8 34.4 38.2 42 46 50 54 57 61 65 69 72 75 78 81 84 86 88 90 92

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Table of the Standard Normal (z) Distribution
z
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

0.00
0.0000 0.0398 0.0793 0.1179 0.1554 0.1915 0.2257 0.2580 0.2881 0.3159 0.3413 0.3643 0.3849 0.4032 0.4192 0.4332 0.4452 0.4554 0.4641 0.4713 0.4772 0.4821 0.4861 0.4893 0.4918 0.4938 0.4953 0.4965 0.4974 0.4981 0.4987 0.4990 0.4993 0.4995 0.4997

0.01
0.0040 0.0438 0.0832 0.1217 0.1591 0.1950 0.2291 0.2611 0.2910 0.3186 0.3438 0.3665 0.3869 0.4049 0.4207 0.4345 0.4463 0.4564 0.4649 0.4719 0.4778 0.4826 0.4864 0.4896 0.4920 0.4940 0.4955 0.4966 0.4975 0.4982 0.4987 0.4991 0.4993 0.4995 0.4997

0.02
0.0080 0.0478 0.0871 0.1255 0.1628 0.1985 0.2324 0.2642 0.2939 0.3212 0.3461 0.3686 0.3888 0.4066 0.4222 0.4357 0.4474 0.4573 0.4656 0.4726 0.4783 0.4830 0.4868 0.4898 0.4922 0.4941 0.4956 0.4967 0.4976 0.4982 0.4987 0.4991 0.4994 0.4995 0.4997

0.03
0.0120 0.0517 0.0910 0.1293 0.1664 0.2019 0.2357 0.2673 0.2969 0.3238 0.3485 0.3708 0.3907 0.4082 0.4236 0.4370 0.4484 0.4582 0.4664 0.4732 0.4788 0.4834 0.4871 0.4901 0.4925 0.4943 0.4957 0.4968 0.4977 0.4983 0.4988 0.4991 0.4994 0.4996 0.4997

0.04
0.0160 0.0557 0.0948 0.1331 0.1700 0.2054 0.2389 0.2704 0.2995 0.3264 0.3508 0.3729 0.3925 0.4099 0.4251 0.4382 0.4495 0.4591 0.4671 0.4738 0.4793 0.4838 0.4875 0.4904 0.4927 0.4945 0.4959 0.4969 0.4977 0.4984 0.4988 0.4992 0.4994 0.4996 0.4997
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0.05
0.0190 0.0596 0.0987 0.1368 0.1736 0.2088 0.2422 0.2734 0.3023 0.3289 0.3513 0.3749 0.3944 0.4115 0.4265 0.4394 0.4505 0.4599 0.4678 0.4744 0.4798 0.4842 0.4878 0.4906 0.4929 0.4946 0.4960 0.4970 0.4978 0.4984 0.4989 0.4992 0.4994 0.4996 0.4997

0.06
0.0239 0.0636 0.1026 0.1406 0.1772 0.2123 0.2454 0.2764 0.3051 0.3315 0.3554 0.3770 0.3962 0.4131 0.4279 0.4406 0.4515 0.4608 0.4686 0.4750 0.4803 0.4846 0.4881 0.4909 0.4931 0.4948 0.4961 0.4971 0.4979 0.4985 0.4989 0.4992 0.4994 0.4996 0.4997

0.07
0.0279 0.0675 0.1064 0.1443 0.1808 0.2157 0.2486 0.2794 0.3078 0.3340 0.3577 0.3790 0.3980 0.4147 0.4292 0.4418 0.4525 0.4616 0.4693 0.4756 0.4808 0.4850 0.4884 0.4911 0.4932 0.4949 0.4962 0.4972 0.4979 0.4985 0.4989 0.4992 0.4995 0.4996 0.4997

0.08
0.0319 0.0714 0.1103 0.1480 0.1844 0.2190 0.2517 0.2823 0.3106 0.3365 0.3529 0.3810 0.3997 0.4162 0.4306 0.4429 0.4535 0.4625 0.4699 0.4761 0.4812 0.4854 0.4887 0.4913 0.4934 0.4951 0.4963 0.4973 0.4980 0.4986 0.4990 0.4993 0.4995 0.4996 0.4997

0.09
0.0359 0.0753 0.1141 0.1517 0.1879 0.2224 0.2549 0.2852 0.3133 0.3389 0.3621 0.3830 0.4015 0.4177 0.4319 0.4441 0.4545 0.4633 0.4706 0.4767 0.4817 0.4857 0.4890 0.4916 0.4936 0.4952 0.4964 0.4974 0.4981 0.4986 0.4990 0.4993 0.4995 0.4997 0.4998

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