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Biology b) AGRICULTURE

i. To produce high quality agricultural

1. What is BIOLOGY? products

 It is derived from two Greek words ii. To clone plants and animals of good

 ‘ bios ’ means “ life” strains


iii. To control and overcome the problem of
 ‘ logos ’ means “ the study of ” .
pests
2. It is a scientific study of living organism,
environment and interaction between them
c) INDUSTRY
i. To produce nutritious foods
IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGY
ii. In food processing and preservation

• Improved understanding on functions of


d) IN RESEARCH
organisms.
i. In genetic engineering
• Improved understanding on causes of
ii. In conservation and preservation of
disease.
endangered species
• Finding treatment for diseases.
• Improved understanding on ecology.
THE DIFFERENT FIELDS of STUDY in
• Better management on environment
problems. BIOLOGY

• Improved quality and production of food. 1. Anatomy The study of body structure
1. The knowledge of biology is widely used in the such as bones and muscles
field of 2. Biochemistry The study of basic molecular of
a) MEDICINE life
i. To create NEW MEDICINE to cure 3. Bacteriology Study of bacteria
diseases 4. Biotechnology Study of application of
ii. To invent MODERN MEDICAL biological science to the
EQUIPMENT and procedures to treat manufacturing industry
patients such as haemodialysis 5. Botany Study of plants
techniques 6. Cytology Study of cells
iii. To invent NEW VACCINES to prevent 7. Ecology The study of the interactions
diseases between the organisms and
between the organisms and
the abiotic environment

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8. Genetic Study of the inheritance The Characteristics of Living
9. Human Biology Study of the human body things?
10. Marine Biology Study of the marine life such
as corals, fishes etc 1. Cell is basic unit of life that is highly
11. Microbiology Study of microorganisms such organized.

as bacteria, virus, alga etc 2. They response to stimuli.


12. Physiology Study of the functions and life 3. Nutrition – they feed to obtain energy.
processes of organism 4. Respiration – they break down food to
13. Taxonomy Study of the classification of obtain energy.

organisms 5. Metabolism – they are capable to


14. Zoology Study of animals increasing in size and number.
6. Reproduction – they produce offspring.
7. Excretion – they expelled wastes.
8. They are able to adapt to different
environments.

The levels of Organization in an Organism

Biosphere

Ecosystem Atom

Environment Molecules

Habitat
Cell organelles
Population

Species Cell

Organism Tissue

Systems Organ
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THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
1. The scientific method is usually used in investigations
2 The scientific method usually consists of the following basic steps:
(a) Defining the problem  Starts with an observation of a specific phenomenon
 Come out with an inference ( logical conclusion )
(b) Making hypothesis  Hypothesis is a general statement for a possible
explanation for an observation
(c) Planning the experiment  Involving:
 Determine the apparatus and materials needed
 Identify the variables: manipulated, responding
fixed.
 Determine the procedures
 Determine the observations
 The correct and safe technique to be used needs to be
determined
(d) Controlling variables  Manipulated ; changes in it will cause an observable
event
 Responding : is a dependent variable which is the
outcome of the experiment
 Fixed : controlled variables. Need to be kept
constant throughout the experiment.
(e) Conducting the experiment  all the apparatus , materials and specimens need to be
handle carefully.
 All the variables need to be considered and all the
observation need to be observed carefully without any
favoritism.
(f) Recording the results  The data collected need to be accurate
 Data can be presented in the form of tables.
 Data can be represented in the form ph graphs.

(g) Analyzing the results  Its done via graph & calculation
(h) Interpreting the data  Its done via graph & calculation
(i) Drawing conclusion  A rational conclusion is drawn to support the hypothesis.
(j) Prepare the report  Send it to your school teacher.

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Test Power
1. Which of the following defines the field of 5. State the final component in an experiment

study called Histology? report

A. The study of history A. Conclusion

B. The study of tissues B. Analyzing and interpreting data

C. The study of structure C. Result

D. The study of viruses D. Procedure

2. A scientist carries out his investigation on 6. When forming a hypothesis for an

bacteria, viruses, algae, protozoa and fungi. experiment, which variables should be

What is his field of study in Biology? considered?

A. Zoology I. Controlled variable

B. Bacteriology II. Manipulated variable

C. Microbiology III. Responding variable

D. Genetics IV. Constant variable


A. I and II only
B. II and III only
3. A student is interested in studying the
C. III and IV only
interaction of living things with the
D. I, II and IV only
environment. What is the field of study to be
pursued?
A. Physiology 7. In an experiment to study respiration of yeast
B. Entomology in the absence of oxygen, two sets of
C. Taxonomy apparatus were set up. Set A contains yeast

D. Ecology and sugar while set B has sugar only and no


yeast. What is the role of set B?
A. As a variable in the experiment
4. A student is interested in studying plants.
B. As a control experiment
Which career should the student choose?
C. As a standard experiment
A. Botanist
D. As a manipulated experiment
B. Zoologist
C. Physiotherapist
D. Ecologist

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8. A student observes that green peas will only 11. During an experiment, a student carefully
germinate in the presence of water. What records the results obtained. The student
problem statement can be derived from this also carries out each step of the experiment
observation? carefully and makes sure no accidents
A. What is the effect of sunlight on occur. What scientific attitudes and noble
germination? values does the student practice?
B. What is the effect of temperature on I. Having an interest and curiosity
germination? towards the environment
C. What is the effect of water on II. Being honest and accurate
germination? III. Being systematic
D. What is the effect of air on germination? IV. Being responsible about the safety of
oneself and others
A. I and III only
9. In an experiment to study the effect of
B. II and IV only
temperature on the rate of chemical reaction,
C. I, II and III only
the experiment was conducted at different
temperature. Which type of variable is D. I, II, III and IV

temperature in the experiment?


Question 12 – 14 are based on the situation below
A. Controlled variable
B. Manipulated variable
C. Responding variable
D. Constant variable

10. Which is the correct order of steps in


conducting a scientific investigation using
scientific methods?
Figure above shows the apparatus of an
W – Forming a hypothesis
experiment to study the movement of water
X – identifying the problem molecules across the semipermeable membrane
Y – Forming a conclusion of a visking tubing. Water molecules will move
Z – Conducting the experiment
from the distilled water to the sucrose solution.
A. W, X, Y, Z
B. X, Z, W, Y
C. X, W, Z, Y
D. Z, X, W, Y

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12. A student carried out the experiment and 14. What data has to be collected in the
observed the level of the situation in the experiment?
capillary tube every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. A. Time
What hypothesis can be made from the B. Temperature
observation? C. Concentration of the sucrose solution
A. The level of solution in the capillary tube D. Level of solution in the capillary tube
remains the same
B. The level of solution in te capillary tube
goes up slightly 15. A student wants to study the effect of
C. The level of solution in the capillary tube temperature on the rate of enzyme reaction.
goes down with respect to time and In the experiment, the enzyme amylase,
remains the same after a certain time water bath at various temperatures and
D. The level of solution in the capillary tube starch solution are used. Which of the
goes up with respect to time and remains following variables should be used to form a
the same after a certain time. hypothesis in this experiment?
I. The volume of starch solution as the
controlled variable
13. State the three types of variables in the
experiment II. The water bath at various temperatures
as the manipulated variable
Controlled Manipulated Responding
variable variable variable III. The time needed to breakdown the

Level of starch as the responding variable


A. Temperature Time
solution in IV. The volume of amylase as the
the capillary responding variable
tube A. I and II only
B. Time Temperature Level of B. II and III only
solution in
C. III and IV only
the capillary
D. I, III and IV only
tube
C. Temperature Level of Time
solution in the
capillary tube
D. Level of Time
solution in the
capillary tube

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Test Power 2 both

1. Biology is a science because


5. Biology forms the basis for the study of
A. Biologist are scientists
A. Construction
B. Biology makes use of scientific knowledge
B. Engineering
C. Studying biology involves doing
C. Automobiles
experiments
D. Food technology
D. Biology uses scientific methods to study
about life
6. Which of these studies is related to the study
on Plantae kingdom?
2. A scientist wishes to test the effect of a new
A. Zoology
drug on blood sugar levels in diabetics.
A suitable control for this experiment would B. Botany

be C. Ecology

A. A group of normal people not given the D. Microbiology

drug
B. A group of diabetics given the drug 7. The study on genes and chromosomes is
C. A group of diabetics not given the drug classified under
D. A group of normal people given the drug A. Biochemistry
B. Physiology

3. Which of these careers do not need the C. Genetics

knowledge of biology? D. Biotechnology

A. Genetic engineering
B. Biotechnology 8. Most biological terms are derived from
C. Botany A. English
D. Geology B. Latin
C. Greece

4. Which statement best describes what is biology? D. French

A. Biology is study of life


B. Biology is a study of life and environment
C. Biology is a study of changes caused by
living things in the environment
D. Biology is a study about life, the
environment and the interaction between

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9. The study of biology involves a series of 12. The planning of an experiment
steps. What is the correct sequence of steps A. Writing the problem statement
involved in scientific method? B. Formulating the hypothesis
A. Identifying problem, making a hypothesis, C. Choosing the materials and apparatus
controlling the variables, conducting the D. Writing the report
experiments, drawing a conclusion
B. Making a hypothesis, planning the
13. Which of the following involves the first step of
investigation, identifying the problem,
scientific method?
conducting the experiment, writing the
A. Forming a hypothesis
report
B. Making observations
C. Controlling the variables, making a
C. Conducting an experiment
hypothesis, collecting data, interpreting
D. Predicting the results of an experiment
the data, drawing a conclusion
D. Making a hypothesis, controlling the
variables, planning the investigation,
14.
analyzing the data, drawing a conclusion
A.
B.
10. What is a hypothesis? C.
A. A statement which has been proven to be D.
true
B. An opinion which has not been proven to
15.
be true
A.
C. A statement made after interpreting the
B.
data
C.
D. A conclusion made after conducting the
D.
experiment

16.
11. A factor that changes in an experiment is
A.
called
B.
A. The control
C.
B. The hypothesis
D.
C. An inference
D. A variable

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17.
A.
B.
C.
D.