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Developments of the Quarter: Comment and Chronology

Source: Middle East Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Spring, 1954), pp. 184-204
Published by: Middle East Institute
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4322588 .
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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER:
COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY
Syrian Counter-Coup Homs, the first presidentof the republicunder
the Franco-Syriantreaty arrangementsof I936
ON DECEMBER Io, 1953, Syrian uni- and again when Col. Shishakli assumed direct
versity and secondary school students rule in DecemberI 95 I; and Sultan Pasha
struck in protest against the presentationof a al-Atrash, feudal lord of the Jabal Druze who
"derogatory" play at Aleppo College, an distinguishedhimself in the revolt of I925 by
American mission institution. This incident capturing a French tank bare-handed,thereby
might have been interpreted simply as an ex- adding a chapterto Syrian nationalist folklore.
pressionof anti-foreign feeling, but it was also The arousing of the Druze clans, with their
the first open demonstrationof insubordination strong ties in the mountainsof Lebanon,was a
since January I952, when the Governmentfor- seriousthreat to internal security.
bade all such demonstrations.With the benefit It is possible in the Middle East for an
of hindsight it can be recognized as a warning aroused public opinion to effect a coup d'etat
that opposition elements were gathering through the exercise of a recognized symbol
strength and courage. of passive resistance.It has been done in Iran
The Government recognized the rising po- through the instruments of bast (right of
litical dangerand on January27, I954, took sanctuary) and the closing down of the ba-
retaliatory action: it arrestedthirteen political zaar; and in Lebanon through a spontaneous
leaders who had refused to cooperatewith the shutting down of all business in Beirut. Such
new parliamentaryregime and were now sus- a show of popular solidarity can be fully as
pected of actively plotting against it. Among effective a political weapon as the violence
them were members of the National Bloc typifiedby the burningof Cairo on January26,
(Kutla), which had governed Syria prior to I952, and the PortsmouthTreaty riots in
the first coup d'etat in I949, and the Populist Baghdadin January I948. Normally, however,
(Sha'b) Party, which had played the major the successof a coup d'etat hinges on disaffec-
role in shaping the Constitution of I950 and tion in the army. There had always been a
running the Government until Col. Shishakli division within the Syrian officergroup as be-
abolished the Parliament in December I95I. tween the Arab unionists of the Hinnawi
The men arrested also included members of school and the nationalists of the Shishakli
the Arab Renaissance (Ba'th) and Socialist school. There were also those personalrivalries
partieswho had been involved in the attempted which emerge in any such group and were here
coup of DecemberI952, forced to flee the aggravated by Gen. Shishakli's attempt to
country, and permittedto return only after the legalize and consolidate his personal position
re-establishment of Parliament in October through the creation of a submissive parlia-
1953. These three groupsmight be roughly ment. The combinationof army dissidentsand
classified as conservative, middle of the road, political opponents centered in the north and
and radical. At one time or another over the the revolt of the Jabal Druze in the south was
past five years their leaders had been bitter overpowering and the Shishakli governmental
political opponents. The fact that they were structure collapsed after only four days of
suspected of conspiring together was evidence pronouncementsand rioting.
at once of how widespreadwas the opposition It may well be asked why the Shishakli
to Shishakli and how unstable any successor regime failed after it had given Syria a period
governmentwas likely to be. of stable, forward-looking government, and
That the anti-Shishaklicoup was a national despite Pres. Shishakli's show of moderation
as well as a partisan movement was demon- and desire for friendly relations with all po-
strated the next day, however, when Pres. litical groups. In the first place, there was no
Shishakliarrestedtwo popularheroes: Hashim justificationfor the Shishakliregimewhich was
al-Atasi, octogenarian elder statesman of acceptable either to the previous political
I84

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I 85

leaders or which exerted any popular appeal. with Iraq, for it has long been the entrepot
Pres. Shishakliargued that he had been forced between Mesopotamiaand the Mediterranean,
to close Parliament in December I95I because and Iraq was always the chief market for its
the Populists, never in a majority and there- textiles. A rapid developmentof the Jazirah in
fore forced to govern through a coalition, had northeastern Syria might have compensated
demonstrated their inability to safeguard for the current tariff barriers to trade with
Syria's national integrity. This process was Iraq, but the ShishakliGovernmentin Damas-
climaxed by a three-week Cabinet crisis in cus was slow in both stimulating and regulat-
NovemberI95I, followedby the appointment ing investment in the area, and Aleppo cotton
of the Dawalibi Government. The Populists, speculatorsfrequently lost in one year all that
on the other hand, asserted that it was Shi- they had gained in another. Talk of at least a
shakli himself who through pressure,intimida- Fertile Crescent unity was being concurrently
tion, and the maneuvers of his clique in the stimulated in Iraq by Prime Minister Fadil
Parliament (led by Akram al-Hawrani, the al-Jamali, himself an ardent supporter of the
Arab Socialist Minister of War who broke pan-Arab ideal. His proposalsat Amman and
with him in I952) robbedthe Governmentof at the Arab League meeting in Cairo in Janu-
authority. He abolishedParliament becausehe ary, as well as his known opposition to Shi-
feared that the new coalition under Dawalibi shakli (whose anti-federation attitude he
was strong enough to resist him, not because credited to French domination), may have
the country was in any real danger. There was emboldenedthe Aleppo Populists to come into
no national crisis to compare with that of the open.
December I948 which ushered in the first Numerous constitutional problems con-
Za'imcoupd'etatin I949. fronted Syria following the overthrow of the
Secondly, Gen. Shishakli did not have the ShishakliGovernment.The I953 Constitution
type of personality to capture the popular and Parliament were abolished, but the Na-
imagination once he had seized power. He tional Bloc had never even recognized the
rarely appeared in public, and did so only validity of the previous I950 Constitution. It
under formal circumstancessurroundedby the now agreed to do so and to cooperatewith the
panoply of the Army. He attracted none of Populists in a caretakerGovernment,provided
the popular appeal that Gen. Nagib attracted new elections were held by the middle of
to the military rule in Egypt. He did, it is true, June. Also, although the Parliament of I950-
avoid the personal ostentation that hastened 5 i had technically run out its term in No-
the undoing of Gen. Za'im, but this was a vember I953, it was agreed that it should
negative virtue. His efforts to build up the reassume office pending the elections. Nu-
Arab Liberation Movement failed to clarify merous Shishakli appointeesand sympathizers
his principlesor popularizehis rule. The Con- -including 5 provincial governors, 3 pro-
stitution of July I953 and the re-establishment fessors, and 4 ministers in the foreign service
of Parliament in October, honest attempts as -were dismissed;so also the SupremeCourt,
they may have been to start Syria out on a while that of 1950 was reconstituted.Members
path of responsibleparliamentarygovernment of the i95o-5i Parliamentwho had accepted
under a secure executive, were cynically re- seats in the Shishakli Parliament were barred
garded as mere fronts to legalize Shishakli's from resumingtheir seats. Draft laws were in-
personal power. All his offers of cooperation, troduced to return control of the gendarmerie
it is true, were for cooperationon his terms, from the Army to the Ministry of the Interior,
without any genuine sharing of authority. It to separatethe Prime MVlinister's bureausfrom
was a fatal mistake for Pres. Shishakli,having the bureaus of the Presidency, and in other
failed to win either political cooperationor pop- ways to restore all aspects of parliamentary
ular support,to pretendto himself that this was government. The Arab Renaissance Socialist
not the case and to try to run the country ac- party, led by Akram Hawrani and Michel
cordingly. He weakened his following among Aflak (an amalgamationof their former Arab
the military without winning that of the civil. Renaissance and Arab Socialist parties), re-
Underneath the opposition to the al-Shi- fused to cooperatein the new cabinet, holding
shakli regime runs the thread of pan-Arabism. out, it is believed, for larger representation,in
This traditional goal of Syrian nationalism is particular for the strategic Ministry of the
particularly strong among the Populists, cen- Interior. The strength of their following lies
tered in Aleppo. Aleppo has economic as well in student circles, and their continued opposi-
as sentimental reasons for a closer tie at least tion or even boycott of the coming elections,

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i86 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

with attendant student demonstrations,could of Kibya on the night of October I4-I5


prove to be extremely disturbing to the new aroused a spirit of revenge on the Arab side.
Government. If the purpose of the raid had been to teach
the Jordanians a lesson once and for all, the
The Nagib-Nasir Struggle lesson taught was not the one intended. In-
stead of cowing the Jordanians into staying
Concurrent with the overthrow of the Shi- at home, it aroused among all Arabs, in keep-
shakli Government in Syria, a struggle for ing with desert law, the spirit of a blood feud
power was taking place within the Revolution- in which adequateretributionmust be sought.
ary CommandCouncil in Egypt. The Commit- In addition, therefore, to the previous type of
tee's removal of President Nagib on Febru- infiltration by individuals into Israel for
ary 22 was shortlived; in responseto popular theft, or for a visit to one's former olive and
clamor he was back as President on Febru- orange groves, or for propertydestructionand
ary 27 and as Prime Minister and Chairmanof personal revenge, the prospectnow loomed of
*the Council as well on March 8. His rival, organized raids for the primary purpose of
Vice Chairman Nasir, and the real power in killing. Of such was the Arab ambush on
the Council itself, appearedto be discomfited March 17 of an Israeli bus and the killing of
by the turn of events, but President Nagib i I of its passengers southeast of Beersheba.
then forced the Council to proclaim general Investigators for the UN Mixed Armistice
elections and the restoration of Parliament Commission found that evidence as to the
(possibly with one-fifth to one-third of its origin of the attackers was inconclusive-
membersnamed by the Council) in July. they may have come from Jordan, or from
Whether President Nagib genuinelybelieved Egypt via Jordanianterritory,or directly from
that the time had come for Egypt to return Egypt -and that there was no evidence that
to parliamentaryrule, a full year short of the the Arab Legion had been involved, Israel
three-yeartransitional period which the Coun- is at a disadvantagein the fixing of guilt, as
cil declared in January I953 would be neces- all attacks upon the Arabs must of necessity
sary to complete the revolution, or whether he originate in Israel, the only question being the
was merely attempting to consolidatehis posi- extent of Army or Government implication.
tion by capitalizing on his popularity, is open In this case the failure of the Mixed Armistice
to question. But the step in any case was his Commission to charge Jordan with responsi-
undoing, for in addition to the opposition of bility resulted in an Israeli boycott of its activi-
personal rivals there were others who feared ties. Then on March 28 came the next major
that Nagib, in appealing to the people, would Israeli retaliation- a carefully planned attack
become their captive- the captive of extreme by armed forces on the Jordanian village of
nationalist,religious,or communistelements- Nahhalin, southwest of Bethlehem, in which
or alternatively, that a hasty return to parlia- g Arabs were killed. That the total was not
mentary government before reforms and in- more was in part due to local preparedness
vestigations had been carried through would and the presence, nearby, of Arab Legion
merely bring back the ancien regime. When reinforcements.
restrictions were relaxed, there was in fact It is apparentfrom the growing tensenessof
evidence that the "revolution"had not yet cut the situation that the Arabs have no intention
very deep; that the formergroupings,including of establishingeven a de facto relationshipwith
the Wafd and the Muslim Brotherhood,had Israel, or that Israel, despite its avowed desire
not been strippedof power by their suppression for peace, is preparedto make any substantial
and the condemnationof their leaders. These gesture to foster a will for peace among them.
sentiments (supported by staged street demon- In such an atmospherethere is little chance for
strations, now on behalf of military rule) any of the various forward-looking Jordan
apparently prevailed, and the Council on Valley proposalsto take root. These are cur-
March 29 indefinitely postponed elections in rently four in number: (i) the Israeli plans,
favor of merely naming an advisory council all modificationsin one way or another of the
representingprofessional,economic,social, and basic Hayes-Lowdermilkplan of I948, which
regional groups. envisaged the diversion of a major portion of
Jordan water from the valley westward to the
Arab-Israeli Tension coastal plain and south to the Negev; (2) the
UN-Eric Johnston plan (1953), in which the
The disciplinary raid which the Israeli water of the Jordan would be apportioned
Army launched against the Jordanian village among the states occupyingthe Jordan water-

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I87

shed in accordancewith the agricultural po- Hula and Lake Tiberias; Jordan in the Jordan
tentialities of that watershed (although Israel Valley south of the Yarmuk. The Johnston
did receive assurance that it might use its plan purports to disregard such political cir-
portion where and how it wished) ; (3) the cumstancesand view the problem solely on a
Yarmuk River scheme developed by Point basis of the most beneficialuse of the water -
Four and Jordan, with Syrian agreement,and by the same token the chancesof its acceptance
designed to irrigate the Yarmuk and lower by all parties are slim indeed. Problemsof eco-
(Arab-held) Jordan valley; and (4) an Arab nomic developmentare basic, but problemsof
League scheme, the details of which are un- politics assumepriority.
known, but which is being worked out as a The United States, rebuffed in its effort
counter-proposalto the Johnston plan. To each to clear away such political barriers to co-
of these, an economic and a political question operation with the Arabs, and in its direct
are posed: (i) To what degree and how can attempt to build a Middle East Defense Or-
the Jordan Valley be most economicallydevel- ganization based upon Turkish-Egyptian co-
oped, and thereforewhat proportionof Jordan operation, is now turning with greater chance
water, supplementedby wells and springs,must of successto a line of defense based on Turkey
be reserved to the valley? (2) What pro- and Pakistan. In building these ties, the U.S.
portion of water can each riverain state prop- has avoided a direct approach to the Arab
erly claim for its own use ? Israel is most states, and by not forcing them to declaretheir
interested in its coastal plain and southland; partisanship, perhaps stands a better chance
Syria in the upperJordan valley between Lake of winning their support.

Chronology
DECEMBER 1, 1953-FEBRUARY 28, 1954
Arab League ment of the study of Arab archeology and the
popularization of Arab classical literature.
(See also Aden and Aden Protectorates, Dec. 26: The Arab League Political Committee be-
gan sessions in Beirut to consider, among other
Palestine Problem.) things, the UN request for direct Jordan-Israel
'953
peace talks.
Dec. 5: The Arab Economic Council began a io- 1954
day meeting at Cairo. The Arab Ministers of Jan. 9: The Arab League Council began its 2oth
Education began a 2-week meeting at Cairo. session in Cairo. Dr. Fadil al-Jamali, Prime Min-
ister of Iraq, proposed that the eight member
Dec. 9: It was announced that the Jordanian
states unify their Ministries of Foreign Affairs,
Government had asked the Arab League Secre-
War, Education, Finance, and Economics.
tariat to bring to the notice of the Supreme De-
Jan. 15: The Political Committee rejected the UN
fense Council a proposal that the League should
summons for direct talks with Israel.
establish a munitions factory in Jordan.
Jan. 19: The Council announced its support for
Dec. I3j: The Arab Economic Council concluded Yemen in the latter's dispute with Britain over
its meeting after approving standing regulations alleged aggression in the Aden Protectorates
setting up a headquarters in Cairo, but with pro- area. It decided to send a mission to Yemen to
vision for the regular conference of the Council to assure the Imam of the League's support by all
be held in any of the Arab capitals, once a year the means in its power within the framework of
or more frequently if necessary. Sub-committees the League Charter.
of the Council had studied schemes for the estab- The Council decided to establish a special fund
lishment of a bank to help in the development of to help the peoples of North Africa. Contributions
Arab economy, exploitation of the Dead Sea min- were to be collected from the Arab states and
eral deposits, and formation of an Arab merchant other friendly governments.
fleet. The Council also approved the decision of the
Dec. 17: The Arab Ministers of Education con- Political Committee that relations between the
cluded their conference, after agreeing on a plan League states and the Asian group of nations
to standardize education in the Arab countries at should be improved by strengthening Arab dip-
a period of 6 years for primary education and a lomatic missions in Asia and by the development
further 6 years for secondary education. They of economic and cultural relations. The Council
approved a cultural agreement for their coun- recommended the same policy with regard to
tries, together with proposals for the encourage- Latin American countries.

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i 88 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

Jan. 24: The Political Committee called on its mem- tian, Lebanese, and Jordanian experts met in
ber nations to support General Franco in his Amman at the request of the Arab League to dis-
disputes with France over Morocco and with cuss the Arab counter-project to that of Eric
Great Britain over Gibraltar. Johnston for utilization of the Jordan waters.
Jan. 26: It was announced that the League had in- Feb. 22: The subcommittee of the Arab Economic
vited General Franco to visit the Arab states. Council ended a week's meeting in Beirut after
The invitation was accepted. recommending the establishment of an Arab Fund
Jan. 27: The Political Committee concluded its Bei- to finance the creation and maintenance of a uni-
rut meeting with the following accomplishments: fied Arab army. Money for the fund would be
(ii) referred Iraq's proposal on Arab unity to raised from oil royalties received by some Arab
member states for consideration; (2) requested countries and other sources.
member states which had not ratified the financial
and economic agreements to do so as soon as pos-
sible; (3) requested member states to continue ef-
Aden and Aden Protectorates
forts to frustrate attempts of Israel to sign a (See also Arab League.)
reparations agreement with Austria; (4) referred '953
a note on the shipment of equipment and muni- Dec. IO: Shaykh 'Umar Salim Dammani with 6o
tions from the port of Famagusta in Cyprus to followers raided Marwahah and engaged Aden
Israel to the Office for the Economic Boycott of Protectorate levies in a 2z hour battle in protest
Israel and requested the League Military Secre- against the construction of a 150-mile road from
tariat to study steps to prevent it; (5) referred to Lodar, in the Awdhali country, to Nisab in the
the Legal Committee a proposal to consider food- Awlaqi State. He then took refuge in Yemen.
stuffs as military smuggled goods; (6) referred to The British Agent and the Awdhali Sultan pro-
the Legal Committee a note on the establishment tested to the Beidha Governor, who promised to
of an Arab International Criminal Police Organi- warn the Shaykh that a recurrence would lead to
zation; (7) approved a report by the subcom- his expulsion from Yemen.
mittee recommending the cancellation of the Dec. 12: Shaykh 'Umar staged another raid, this
Permanent Palestine Committee because the Ad- time on a fortress occupied by the Protectorate
visory Committee, composed of Palestine experts levies. Six soldiers were killed. R.A.F. planes
in the Arab Governments, would suffice in co- were flown to the fortress with reinforcements.
operating with the League's Palestine Affairs Ad- (The Sultan had previously sentenced the Shaykh
ministration; (8) recommended that the Jorda- to pay a fine of ?i,ooo for ambushing a Protec-
nian Government appoint a committee to organize torate lorry, killing two soldiers, and wounding
the collection of subscriptions for the repair of a British officer.)
the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and asked Dec. 21: A ?i,300,000 Government of Aden loan
member states to instruct their diplomatic mis- was advertised in London for financing develop-
sions to cooperate in this; (9) approved the pro- ment works, including a power station, a tele-
posal that each Arab Government issue tempo- phone exchange, and major improvements to the
rary passports to Arab refugees residing in its water supply.
territory if they apply for them; (io) reaffirmed 1954
its previous decision that travelers whose pass- Jan. 19: Yemen submitted a complaint to the Arab
ports bear Israeli visas should not be granted League Council meeting in Cairo stating pressure
Arab visas; (ii) referred a draft anti-smug- was being used to accomplish a Federation of
gling law to the Economic Council; (I2) decided Aden Protectorates among the 9 border states
that for the time being the League would have claimed by both Yemen and Aden.
only one publicity bureau abroad, in New York, Jan. 27: The Arab League Council issued a state-
but recommended that the Council of Chiefs of ment condemning the British move to organize a
Arab Diplomatic Missions at Ankara look into Federation of Aden Protectorates and urged the
the matter of establishing one there. Sultans, Amirs, and Shaykhs who had accepted
The Political Committee postponed discussion the federation scheme in principle to refuse to
of: (i) the Lebanese proposal that League Coun- believe "imperialistic" claims.
cil meetings be held in public; (2) unification Feb. 17: An Arab League mission left Cairo for
and coordination of Arab diplomatic and con- Yemen to confer with Imam Ahmad.
sular representation; (3) a note regarding ap- Feb. 2_': Sultan Muhammad Shiqqi of Lower Yaffa
proval by the U.S. Congress of the entrance of was interrogated at Beidha by the Arab League
2,000 Palestine refugees and 4,000 orphan chil- mission investigating the Yemeni complaint for
dren to the United States. the Arab League Political Committee. Speaking
The League Council approved the actions of for ii regional leaders, he told the mission that
the Political Committee and declared that its ses- there had been no attempt by the Aden Govern-
sion would be continued on Feb. 20. ment to influence their choice of joining the pro-
The Council postponed discussion of the Arab posed federation. Asked by the mission if the
League budget until the next session. states had any wish to join Yemen, he said only
Feb. 15: A committee composed of Syrian, Egyp- if Yemen made substantial social progress.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I89

Din announced that a substantial stock of arms


Egypt and explosives had been found under the garage
(See also Sudan.) of Hasan al-Ashmawi, one of the arrested
Brotherhood leaders.
'953 Maj. Wahid Ramadan, leader of the Libera-
Dec. 9: The British delegation to the Big Three
tion Rally's youth section, stated that the move-
conference at Bermuda asserted that Britain
ment would teach "religious observance and or-
could make no further concessions regarding
thodoxy" to "combat destructive ideologies and
(ir) wearing of uniforms by British technicians
religious fanaticism," thus by implication con-
which were to remain at the Suez base, and (2)
demning the extremist and terrorist wing of the
the conditions under which in time of a world
Muslim Brotherhood. Maj. Ibrahim Tahawi dis-
crisis British troops could be sent back to the
closed that the Rally had 1,200 branches in Egypt
base.
and that branches had also been established in
Fu'ad Sirag al-Din, former secretary of the
Damascus, Rome, and Paris.
outlawed Wafd party, went on trial before the
Revolutionary Military Tribunal on 9 counts of Jan. i8: The trade pact with Rumania, initialed in
December, was ratified.
abuse of power and of using the Wafd to up-
hold the regime of former King Faruq. Three Egyptian Air Force enlisted men were
Dec. Io: Sir Ralph Stevenson, British Ambassador, wounded when a British patrol in the Suez Canal
left London to resume his post in Cairo after a Zone fired on an Egyptian truck.
6-months' illness. Jan. i9: Alexandria police arrested 4 men described
Dec. 15: Thirty-six Conservative members of the as members of the Egyptian Communist Party,
British Parliament presented a motion opposing together with a student known for Communist
withdrawal of British troops from the Suez activity.
Canal base. Jan. 22: Two British soldiers disappeared in the
Dec. 27: Col. 'Abd al-Fattah Hasan, commander in Canal Zone after a visit to El-Hammada village
chief of Egyptian armed forces in the Sudan, was near Tel el-Kebir. The men were members of
appointed Deputy Minister for Sudan affairs, to a malaria control unit.
assist Maj. Salah Salim. It was announced that the British and Egyptian
governments had exchanged notes of protest re-
Dec. 29: Aneurin Bevan, contender for leadership
garding recent Canal Zone incidents.
of the British Labour Party, and his wife arrived
in Cairo as guests of Indian Ambassador Sardar Jan. 2_': On the first anniversary of the proclama-
Pannikar. tion of the formation of the Liberation Rally,
President Nagib reviewed a parade of 40,ooo na-
1954
tional guardsmen, youth, and women's groups in
Jan. 3: Shaykh Muhammad al-Khadr Husayn, rec-
Republican Square. Speaking to the assemblage,
tor of al-Azhar University, resigned for reasons
President Nagib decried "imperialist" efforts to
of health.
keep Egypt tied to an agricultural economy and
Jan. 4: Lt. Gen. Aziz al-Masri, Ambassador to
announced that his regime would undertake
Moscow, arrived in Cairo for consultations.
"great projects to stamp out poverty" through
Jan. 5: Turkish Ambassador Hulusi Fuat Tugay industrialization.
was ordered to leave Egypt after having de-
Jan. 30: Fu'ad Sirag al-Din, former Wafdist Sec-
nounced the Nagib regime following the confis-
retary, was sentenced to I5 years' imprisonment
cation of property belonging to his wife, a distant
by the Revolutionary Tribunal for corruption and
relative of ex-King Faruq.
abuse of office. The Revolutionary Council con-
Jan. 12: A score of students were injured, 4 seri- firmed the sentence.
ously, in an outbreak of fighting at Cairo Uni-
Feb. I: Forty-four persons were indicted on charges
versity between members of the Muslim Brother-
of plotting to establish a Communist regime in
hood and the Liberation Rally.
Egypt. The defendants were to be tried by the
Jan. I3: Supreme Guide Hasan al-Hudaybi of the Supreme Military Court.
Muslim Brotherhood and 77 other leaders of the
Feb. 2: Ex-Queen Narriman was granted a "final
organization were arrested and the organization
and first-degree" divorce from ex-King Faruq by
dissolved on the ground that it had engaged in
political activities. Similar action was taken the Heliopolis Muslim Relations Court.
against Brotherhood leaders in Alexandria and Feb. _: A 30-year concession to explore for oil in
Port Said. Egypt's Western Desert was granted to the
Jan. 14: A 6-day nationwide state of emergency Conorada Petroleum Corporation of New York.
was declared as policemen and troops continued The company agreed to spend at least $8 million
their arrest of leaders of the Muslim Brother- over-a 6-year period in exploration and other
hood. An official communique said the top leaders prospecting work.
would be tried as traitors for allegedly plotting Feb. so: National Guidance Minister Salah Salim
with British officials to overthrow the Nagib said, among other things, that Egypt favored
regime. British authorities in Cairo called these "some sort of unity" [of the Arab states], but
allegations "complete nonsense." that Egypt had not offered any assistance to Syria
Jan. I7: Minister of Interior Zakaria Muhay al- in its current crisis since it was Egypt's policy

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I90 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

not to interfere with the domestic affairs of any been inspired by leftist agents and foreign
Arab nation. officers.
Feb. 13: Emile Bustani, prominent Lebanese deputy, In a display of unity, Gen. Nagib attended a
arrived in Egypt as personal envoy of Lebanese Cabinet meeting and accompanied Prime Min-
President Chamoun to discuss the Syrian-Iraqi ister Nasir on a visit to wounded demonstrators
tension with Egyptian leaders. in a hospital.
Feb. 17: The Government newspaper al-Gumnuri-
yah stated that Egypt favored "simultaneous
federation" of the Arab states and was opposed Ethiopia
to the formation of any blocs within the Arab '954
League. Jan. 12: The White House in Washington an-
Feb. 25: Minister of National Guidance Salah nounced that Emperor Haile Selassie would visit
Salim announced that President Nagib had re- the U.S. in May.
signed the presidency "three days ago" after be-
ing denied "absolute autocratic authority" by the
Revolutionary Command Council. Col. Gamal
India
'Abd al-Nasir, Vice President and Vice Prime (See also Kashmir, Pakistan.)
Minister, succeeded as Prime Minister and head
of the Revolutionary Command Council. The '953
Dec. 2: A 5-year bilateral trade agreement, effec-
presidency was to remain vacant until new elec-
tive immediately, was signed with the Soviet
tions could be held. General Nagib was kept un-
Union.
der guard as a precaution against a popular dem-
Dec. 3: U.S. Vice President Richard M. Nixon gave
onstration. Colonel Nasir assured the Western
a resume of U.S. foreign policy before Prime
powers that the new regime would not swing the
Minister Nehru and about 300 members of both
country away from the West.
houses of Parliament.
Feb. 26: The Revolutionary Command Council
Dec. 6: The Working Committee of the Congress
named two new Vice Prime Ministers - Dr.
Party adopted a resolution strongly condemning
'Abd al-Galil al-'Umari, former Finance Min-
the Western powers for what it called their new
ister; and Wing Comdr. Gamal Salim, present attempt to consolidate their hold "politically and
Communications Minister. economically" on many countries in Asia and
Feb. 27: At the end of a day-long meeting among Africa.
the representatives of the factions within the Dec. II: A 79-mile road was opened between
junta led by Maj. Khalid Muhi al-Din and Col. Raxaul, India, and Katmandu, Nepal.
Gamal 'Abd al-Nasir, an announcement was Addressing a public meeting at Dehra Dun,
made to the press by Maj. Muhammad Rabiah Prime Minister Nehru declared that strength-
that Gen. Nagib would come back to power as ening Pakistan's army with U.S. aid would have
President of the "Parliamentary Egyptian Repub- serious repercussions, not only in India but also
lic." Street crowds shouted "down with Salim!" throughout Southeast Asia.
Gen. Nagib at his home told correspondents, A nonofficial cultural delegation from Commu-
"This dissension has been a tempest in a teapot." nist China received an enthusiastic public recep-
Col. Nasir was quoted as saying that the events tion from members of Parliament, the Communist
of the few previous days had been the "work of Party of India, and other prominent Indian
the devil" and that the Revolutionary Command leaders.
Council would heal the breach and go on as Dec. I6: The Prime Minister ordered the Congress
before. Party to organize nationwide demonstrations pro-
Feb. 28: Twelve rioters were wounded when police testing proposed U.S. military aid to Pakistan,
opened fire to deter unruly pro-Nagib university presumably to prevent the Communists from seiz-
students from marching through Cairo's Garden ing the initiative in exploiting the issue in the
City district. forthcoming election campaigns in Travancore-
Gen. Nagib appeared on the balcony of the Cochin and PEPSU (Patiala and the East Pun-
Presidential office smiling and waving. He ap- jab States Union).
pealed to crowds of demonstrators for "modera- Dec. 17: It was learned that Pakistan had agreed
tion and forgiveness." In an impromptu speech to India's request to reopen through rail traffic
he announced that a "constituent assembly [would between Amritsar, India, and Lahore, Pakistan.
be called] and parliamentary life . . . restored About 3,000 workers at the Government ord-
to the country very soon." nance plant at Cawnpore passed a resolution
Council spokesman Maj. Amin Shakir said im- demanding withdrawal of all U.S. technical per-
mediately after Gen. Nagib's speech that calling sonnel from India in protest against the proposed
a constituent assembly and general elections were military pact between the U.S. and Pakistan.
"matters that concern the ruling Government and Dec. 22: Prime Minister Nehru announced that a
Revolution Council." He also said that 15 cavalry committee would be set up to inquire into the
officers were being detained in their mess build- reorganization of states on a linguistic basis and
ing pending an investigation of charges that they related problems. The committee was to report
had acted against the regime and that they had not later than June 30, 1955.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I9I

Dec. 23_: Prime Minister Nehru accepted the sug- Jan. 5: Indian and U.S. representatives signed an
gestion of Ceylonese Prime Minister Kotelawala economic aid agreement under which India would
for periodic meetings of Asian Prime Ministers. receive 200,000 tons of steel for development
He intimated that proposed U.S. aid to Pakistan projects. India was to allot the equivalent of
would be a high priority topic for such discus- $3 million for handling steel shipments from local
sions. He also said that the "whole context" of ports.
the Kashmir agreement reached with Pakistan in Jan. i8: An agreement was signed with Sir John
August would "change if military aid comes." Kotelawala, Prime Minister of Ceylon, by which
U.S. Ambassador George V. Allen, acting on Indian residents of Ceylon who become citizens
instructions from Washington, assured the For- of the island dominion would be able to elect
eign Office in writing that no bases and no "mili- their own representatives to Parliament for io
tary alliance" were involved in conversations years. The agreement must be ratified by both
with Pakistan. countries before becoming effective.
Dec. 24: An aid agreement was signed with the Jan. 23: In a keynote address to the Indian Na-
U.S. by which India was to receive $20 million tional Congress party convention at Kalyani,
to buy locomotives and other rolling stock. This near Calcutta, Prime Minister Nehru severely
was part of the $89-million technical agreement criticized the UN Command's liberation of non-
program for the fiscal year I953/54. Communist prisoners in Korea.
Continuing the foreign affairs debate in Parlia- The Prime Minister proposed a series of non-
ment, Prime Minister Nehru again assailed any aggression pacts among Asia's neutral nations to
proposed U.S.-Pakistan military agreement. Re- keep at least part of the world "free of some of
plying to questions on Chinese-occupied Tibet, the terrible trouble overtaking the world." He
he said he understood that air bases were being said India stood by its offer of a "no-war pact
constructed in various parts of that "inhospi- with Pakistan."
table" country. Jan. 24: Mme. Pandit and Kashmir's Prime Minis-
Dec. 27: The third annual convention of the Com- ter Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad addressed the
munist Party of India opened at Madura in concluding session of the Congress Party conven-
South India. B. T. Ranadive, general secretary tion at Kalyani.
of the party in 1948 and strong advocate of Feb. IO: Prime Minister Nehru returned to New
armed insurrection, was rejected as a delegate. Delhi after completing a 6-day campaign tour in
Sikh demonstrators demanding a Punjabi- Travancore-Cochin, where elections were sched-
speaking state broke up a meeting of an esti- uled to begin Feb. I 5.
mated 500,000 persons in a Sikh shrine near Feb. 12: The Prime Minister began an election
Patiala at which Prime Minister Nehru was tour of PEPSU where elections were scheduled
speaking. The Prime Minister cut short his speech to begin Feb. i8.
and left under armed guard, while police dis- Feb. 22: In a policy speech to Parliament, Prime
persed the crowd. Minister Nehru made a strong appeal for an
1954 immediate cease-fire in Indo-China, condemned
Jan. 3: The Communist Party of India convention proposed U.S. military aid to Pakistan, and as-
at Madura, in a new program of "moderation serted that India would not accept military as-
and nonviolence," supported Prime Minister sistance from either the U.S. or the Soviet Union.
Nehru's foreign policy as regards Korea, recog- Feb. 25: In announcing his decision to give mili-
nition of Communist China, and barring of tary aid to Pakistan, U.S. Pres. Eisenhower said
atomic weapons; accepted the principle of U.S. requests for similar aid on the part of India
aid provided its character should be of India's would be given "most sympathetic consideration."
choosing; called for divorce from the British Feb. 27: Finance Minister Chintaman Desmukh in
Commonwealth and confiscation of British prop- his budget message to the House of the People
erty; backed the principle of community projects, disclosed that he proposed to meet the I954/55
but thought their execution had been entrusted to budget deficit of Rs.2.5 billion by deficit financ-
a "corrupt bureaucracy." Ajoy Kumar Ghosh of ing, including the issue of more paper currency.
Bengal was reelected general secretary of the Since about half of the deficit was due to na-
party, and Mme. Aruna Asaf Ali was elected tional development projects, he believed deficit
to the Central Committee as its only woman financing would be justified.
member. Feb. 28: Prime Minister Nehru rejected President
Jan. 4: The Government announced that 3o Soviet Eisenhower's offer of military aid.
ballet dancers, singers, musicians, painters, and
circus performers would make a 6-week tour of
principal Indian cities, beginning about Jan. IS, Iran
as guests of the Indian Government. '953
Speaking at Nagput, Prime Minister Nehru Dec. 4: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Byroade
cautioned the populace against letting the offi- left for Bermuda to consult with the British dele-
cially-sponsored agitation against the prospective gates to the Big Three conference regarding the
arms deal develop into enmity toward the U.S. possible role of U.S. oil companies in a solution
and Pakistan. of the Iranian oil problem.

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192 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

Dec. 5: Diplomatic relations with Great Britain the elections, and that the Zahedi regime would
were resumed despite denunciation by extreme present a list of candidates in each constituency
nationalists, including Ayatollah Kashani, Ho- although Gen. Zahedi and his followers had not
sayn Makki, and Dr. Mozaffar Baghai. yet formed a recognized party.
Dec. 6: Police arrested three men for instigating a Dec. 20: Ten leaders of the Bakhtiari tribe were
demonstration against resumption of diplomatic acquitted by a court-martial after being charged
relations with Britain. All were exiled to the with an insurrectionary movement in May 1953.
island of Kharg in the Persian Gulf. Tribal chieftain Abolghassem Bakhtiari was
Dec. 7: Two Tehran University students were shot found guilty of having failed to report to security
and killed and another wounded by Iranian sol- officials in his area, but was released because he
diers who fired into an anti-British demonstration had already served a 4-month prison sentence.
on the university campus. Five youths at a second- Dec. 21: Dr. Mosaddeq was sentenced to three
ary school near the Tehran bazaar were arrested years solitary confinement for attempted rebel-
in connection with a similar demonstration. lion. His former Army Chief of Staff, Brig. Gen.
Denis Arthur Wright was named British Taghi Riahi, was sentenced to two years' dis-
Charge d'Affaires at Tehran. ciplinary imprisonment for complicity in Dr.
Dec. 9: U.S. Vice President Nixon arrived in Teh- Mosaddeq's intrigues and was ordered expelled
ran and was greeted at the airport by ioo offi- from the army.
cials and diplomats, including Prime Minister A British diplomatic mission consisting of
Zahedi. Mr. Nixon and his wife lunched with Charge d'Affaires Wright and 15 assistants ar-
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlevi. rived in Tehran.
Dec. 12: Vice Pres. Nixon left for Tripoli, Libya, Dec. 22: Dr. Mosaddeq appealed to the Military
after letting the Iranian Government know that Court of Appeals which was to review his sen-
the U.S. was convinced that the dispute with tence and also consider a motion for a heavier
Britain over oil must be resolved before Iran sentence presented by the military prosecutor.
could expect long-term financial aid from Wash- Maj. Gen. Farhat Dadsetan, Military Gover-
ington. nor of Tehran, was relieved of his duties and
Dec. I3: The Government announced that it had replaced by Brig. Gen. Timur Bahtiyar. It was
moved Dr. Mosaddeq from Sultanabad palace to reported that General Dadsetan would be ap-
more comfortable quarters in the Army Officers pointed Military Governor of Khuzistan.
Club, seven miles north of Tehran, where the Dec. 24: The Government announced that elections
2gth session of his court-martial opened in the for the Majlis and the Senate would begin on
afternoon. Dec. 3I, and would continue for several months.
Dec. IS: Mr. Khosrow Afshar Ghasemlu was ap- It was announced that the Government had
pointed Charge d'Affaires at London. drafted a io-year land distribution program to
Shahed, the organ of Dr. Mozaffar Baghai, benefit ioo,ooo elderly government employees. It
was closed by police after Dr. Baghai had de- was estimated that this bill would relieve the
manded the arrest of Government leaders for the Government of some 200 million rials monthly in
"horrible massacre" of Dec. 7. Dr. Baghai and pensions. It was further announced that the
Hosayn Makki were placed under police sur- Government had embarked on a 7-year school
veill ance. construction program under which 400 primary
Eleven more persons were arrested for dem- and secondary schools would be erected.
onstrations against resumption of diplomatic Dec. 27: Non-Communist opponents of the Zahedi
relations with Great Britain. regime charged that the Government had acted
Dec. '6: Hosayn Makki disappeared from Tehran illegally by ordering a start in the voting less
and was believed to be in hiding from govern- than a month after the dissolution of the old Par-
ment authorities. Orders had been issued for his liament, and said they would boycott the elections
arrest if he attempted to carry out demonstra- unless the Government appointed "men of in-
tions planned for Dec. i8. Similar orders were tegrity" to the election councils in each district.
issued for Dr. Baghai. Dee. 29: British Charg6 Wright conferred with
The Military Governor of Tehran announced Foreign Minister Entezam regarding the oil dis-
that Dr. Salamollah Javid, Governor of Tabriz pute. Entezam emphasized the Government's de-
under the Communist puppet regime in Azer- sire for early resumption of direct negotiations
baijan in I946, and Ismail Khowie, editor of the and admitted that foreign managers and techni-
clandestine Tudeh daily Democratic Youth, had cians would be necessary in enabling Iran to re-
been arrested. enter the world market.
Dec. 17: Hosayn Makki, returning to his home Dec. 3o: Reports published in London said that 5
after two days in hiding, charged that govern- American, I French, and 2 British oil companies
ment officials had plotted to kill him. meeting in London had agreed "tentatively" to
Dec. 19: The Shah signed a decree dissolving Par- set up a new marketing company among them-
liament and authorizing immediate elections. A selves to ship and sell oil produced and refined
government spokesman said candidates of all po- by Iran's nationalized oil industry. The Anglo-
litical parties, except the outlawed Tudeh and its Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) office in London
front organizations, would be allowed to run in denied these reports.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 193

Dec. -I: The Government announced that elec- not be liable for anti-trust action if they joined
tions, originally scheduled to begin that day, a consortium to sell Iranian oil.
would not begin until Jan. iS since weather con- Feb. 2: The second day of the Senate elections was
ditions had slowed the preparations. brought to a climax by widespread fighting in the
General Zahedi went to Ramsar to discuss the bazaar area of Tehran. Two policemen and an
electoral situation with the Shah. undetermined number of civilians were seriously
'951 wounded. At least Io persons were arrested.
Jan. 2: The Government announced the arrest of Feb. 3: The Shah distributed deeds 'of sale on
Darius Foruhar, leader of the strongly pro- crown lands in the village of Khanlogh to 120
Mosaddeq pan-Iran party, on charges of com- peasants. They received 8 hectares (about 20
plicity in the murder in July 1953 of Hadad acres) apiece. This brought the total of land
Zadeh in the house of Ayatollah Kashani. Karim- distributed by the Shah to 9,757 hectares.
Pur Shirazi, editor of the closed pro-Mosaddeq Feb. 4: The 6-man oil policy board appointed by
weekly Shuresh, was recaptured after a dra- Prime Minister Zahedi in January held its first
matic attempt to escape by leaping from the meeting with the Prime Minister. The concen-
second-story room where he was being interro- sus of board members was that it was technically
gated by army authorities. unnecessary to submit any draft agreement that
Jan. 3: The Supreme Court refused to hear Dr. might be reached to the Majlis for ratification if
Mosaddeq's appeal. The Government announced the agreement was in accordance with the oil na-
that the Military Court of Appeals would begin tionalization law.
hearings in about a week. Feb. 7: The Interior Ministry announced that 77
Jan. 5: Foreign Minister Entezam in an interview deputies to the Majlis had already been elected;
said Iran was prepared to compensate the AIOC this was 8 more than the 69 necessary for a
for the nationalization of its properties by pay- quorum so that technically the Majlis could be
ment of a lump sum, but would prefer that a set- sworn in.
tlement on compensation be deferred until the Feb. 9: Twenty technical experts representing the
marketing of its oil by an international con- 8 oil companies discussing the marketing of
sortium of oil companies had been agreed upon. Iranian oil at London left for Tehran to make
Jan. 6: Military police reported they had seized a cursory inspection of the AIOC's former prop-
I,ooO sticks of dynamite in a small Tehran shop erties and form some idea of the size of the in-
together with a cache of documents linking the vestment that would be required to get the oil
Tudeh Party with the French Communist party. flowing again.
At least 5 persons were arrested in connection Torkild Rieber, oil consultant to the Govern-
with the discovery. ment and former president of the Texas Oil
Jan. II: Talks were resumed with Soviet delegates Company, flew to Abadan to assess the cost of
regarding outstanding financial and frontier reactivating the former AIOC refinery.
questions. Feb. ,8: Sir Roger Brentham Stevens arrived in
Jan. Is3: A majority of the 7,000 students at Tehran Tehran as British Ambassador.
University voted to defy a Government order The 20 representatives of the 8 major oil com-
limiting attendance at a ceremony in memory of panies who had been inspecting the refinery at
the students killed on Dec. 7. Abadan returned to London. Torkild Rieber left
Jan. 14: Amir Khusraw Afshar Ghasamlu ar- for the U.S.
rived in London as Iran's Charge d'Affaires. At a press conference, Ayatollah Kashani made
public a letter he had sent to the Secretary Gen-
Jan. 15: Elections began in the provinces, but low
eral of the UN referring to the "desperate and
numbers of voters reported at the polls.
gloomy" situation in Iran under the Zahedi re-
Jan. i8: The Government announced that two of gime.
its candidates had been elected to the i8th Majlis.
Feb. 20: The Elections Committee published final
Jan. 3o: The Government announced that Senate returns on the Tehran Senate elections. The 75
elections in Tehran would be held Feb. 1-3 to winning candidates were all staunch supporters
elect 75 men who would choose from among of the Government. Dr. Sayred Hasan Imami,
themselves I5 senators for the Tehran con- Majlis president under Ahmad Qavam in July
stituency. 1952, and Ibrahim Hakimi, headed the list. Dr.
Jan. 3.I: Abolmali Kashani, son of Ayatollah Ka- Mosaddeq placed 142nd in the list of 250 candi-
shani, was arrested while printing anti-Govern- dates. Ahmad Qavam placed 22nd.
ment pamphlets. Haji Sayed Mostafa Kashani, one of the eight
Feb. i: AIOC announced in London that repre- sons of Ayatollah Kashani, won the Majlis elec-
sentatives of 7 other large oil companies in the tion by a large majority in the Talesh constitu-
Middle East had come to London to resume dis- ency of the Caspian Sea province of Gilan. He
cussions of "the internal difficulties in the way of favored settlement of the oil dispute and said
getting Persian oil back into world markets." elections in his area had been free. His election
U.S. Attorney General Herbert Brownell an- brought to SS the number of deputies elected thus
nounced in Washington that the 5 American oil far.
companies participating in talks in London would Feb. 21: The Government publicly rebuked Aya-

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I94 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

tollah Kashani for his attacks on the Govern- would welcome a Jordanian offer of unity should
ment and warned that if they were repeated the it be formally made.
Government's leniency with him might be at Feb. 2: The Deputy from Basra urged in the Cham-
an end. ber that Iraq should be the "dove of peace" be-
Feb. 28: It was reported from London that AIOC tween the Syrian nationalist politicians and
was asking 44% of the new consortium being Syrian Pres. al-Shishakli. The Deputy from
formed to handle marketing of Iranian oil, the Baghdad said Iraq should return to its individual
7 other companies each receiving 8%. national policy without binding itself to the Arab
League. Replying to questions about secret Arab
League decisions, Prime Minister al-Jamali said
Iraq Iraq was annually losing IDI2 million as a result
(See also Arab League, Palestine Problem.) of preventing the flow of oil to Haifa, but that
full cooperation among the Arab countries was
'953 indispensable. He also declared that Iraq aimed
Dec. 6: Basrah Petroleum Company workers went
at the union of the Arab countries and would ex-
on strike for higher pay and better working con-
tend its hand to any Arab country which wished
ditions.
cooperation and union.
Dec. 9: Minister of Social Affairs Hasan 'Abd al-
A draft trade agreement with Jordan was ap-
Rahman returned to Baghdad from Basra after
proved by the Chamber.
intervening in the dispute among the oil workers
of the Basrah Petroleum Company. It was re- Feb. 5: See Syria.
ported that the Company had agreed to most of Feb. ii: Prime Minister al-Jamali flew to Jordan
the workers' demands, including an increase in with a private message from King Faysal to
King Husayn and for conversations with Jor-
wages and a stricter application of the Iraqi
labor law. danian leaders concerning Iraq-Jordan relations.
Dec. so: A number of Basra students and about Feb. i3: Dr. al-Jamali stressed in conversations
700 tobacco workers went on strike in sympathy with Jordan's King and Prime Minister that the
with the oil workers. Iraqi plan for federation depended entirely on
the will of Jordan and that Iraq was prepared
Dec. is: An official communique announced that
to cooperate in economic, military, or political
members of the Executive Council of the Iraqi
spheres to the extent that Jordan desired.
Cigarette Workers' Union had been arrested be-
Dr. al-Jamali flew to Beirut for conversations
cause the Executive had "exceeded its rights and
with Pres. Chamoun at the latter's request. It
interfered in matters not allowed by the law and
was reported that Dr. al-Jamali agreed that
which disturb public security."
Pres. Chamoun should use his good offices to
Dec. s5: One striker was killed and several severely
remove friction between Iraq and Syria.
injured in clashes between strikers and the police.
Feb. s5: Lt. Col. Gamal Hammad, Egyptian Mili-
The Cabinet announced the imposition of martial
tary Attache to the Arab states, arrived in Bagh-
law in Basra.
dad to discuss the tension between Iraq and Syria.
Dec. s6: Minister of Interior al-Qazzaz announced
He carried a personal message from Pres. Nagib
that the Cabinet had imposed martial law in
to Dr. al-Jamali.
Basra because of Communist intrigues to disturb
Feb. 17: Foreign Minister 'Abdallah Bakr pre-
the peace.
sented to the Chamber of Deputies the Govern-
The Cabinet suspended 9 daily newspapers for
ment's position on the federation plan sponsored
I year.
by Prime Minister al-Jamali in the Arab League
Dec. 17: Drilling and production operations were Council. He denied that the Government had said
resumed by the Basrah Petroleum Company. A the project would be carried out as soon as it
Company spokesman said most of the strikers was approved, but did assert that the Govern-
had returned to work.
ment would continue to advocate the idea as
Dec. 22: The President of the Iraqi Lawyers' Syn-
such, until the Arabs were finally united.
dicate sent a note to Prime Minister al-Jamali Feb. 20: King Faysal signed the economic agree-
asking for the abolition of martial law, declar- ment with Jordan.
ing that the Government's action was unconstitu- Feb. 22: It was reported that police had discovered
tional.
the headquarters of the secret Iraqi Communist
1954 Party at the house of Salim al-Jalabi, who fled
Jan. 8: Prime Minister al-Jamali stated at Beirut, when the police made the raid.
where he was interviewed on his way to the Feb. 241: Prime Minister al-Jamali announced to a
Arab League Council in Cairo, that Iraq and
press conference that Iraq would seek arms from
Lebanon had agreed on a common policy for the
the West.
Council meeting.
Jan. 15: A draft law was submitted to the Council
of Ministers providing for the establishment of a
Israel
Ministry of Information to be in charge of propa- (See also Palestine Problem.)
ganda, broadcasting, and tourism. '953
Jan. 19: Prime Minister al-Jamali stated during a Dec. 17: Israel's first paper mill was opened at
debate in the Chamber that the Government Hadera.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 195

Dec. 20: It was announced that the Association of


Manufacturers and the General Federation of
Jordan
Labor had signed an agreement by which com- (See also Arab League, Iraq, Palestine
pensation to laborers to account for rises in the Problem, Saudi Arabia.)
consumer-price index would be raised and would
1953
be extended to 350,000 more laborers than for- Dec. 5: Five aircraft carrying the Ministers of In-
merly. terior and Communications, other Government
Dec. 26: U.S. Ambassador Monnet Bain Davis died officials, and representatives of the American Em-
at Ramatgan, near Tel Aviv. bassy and Point Four staff flew from Amman to
Aqaba for the ceremonial acceptance of 9,600
'954
tons of wheat donated by the U.S. for the relief
Jan. _': The Cabinet discussed the strike of Jerusa- of drought sufferers.
lem's municipal workers and the city's serious Dec. 7: An Egyptian trade mission arrived in Am-
financial difficulties. A committee was appointed man to study schemes which included the exploita-
to report on the situation in a month. tion of phosphates, manganese and potash, marble
Jan. 6: It was announced that Israel had signed an quarrying, and oil refining. They also recom-
agreement with the Soviet Union to buy ioo,ooo mended the relaxation of restrictions on the ex-
tons of fuel oil, with an option on another ioo,ooo change of agricultural products, the appointment
tons. of commercial attaches in the two capitals, the
encouragement of tourist activities, easier com-
Jan. 9: It was announced that the Israeli bond cam-
munications, increased use of the port of Aqaba,
paign in the United States had realized $4I,-
the establishment of a free zone for Jordan in
237,I00 in i953.
Suez, etc.
Jan. Io: The Government announced that it would Dec. 21: It was announced that King Husayn had
buy all available shares in the Palestine Elec- conferred the Star of Jordan, First Class, on Dr.
tric Corporation. Charles Malik, Lebanese Ambassador in Wash-
A 3-week lockout at the Hebrew Institute of ington, and on Mohammad Zafrullah Khan, For-
Technology in Haifa ended when i,zoo engineer- eign Minister of Pakistan, in recognition of their
ing candidates resumed their studies. services to the Arab cause in Palestine before the
Security Council. The Order of Merit was con-
Jan. 26: The Knesset confirmed a new coalition ferred on Dr. Yusuf Haykal, Jordanian Minister
cabinet of 9 Mapai, 4 General Zionist, and 2 in Washington.
Hapoel Hamizra members as follows (see also '954
Feb. ii): Jan. 27: After prolonged discussion, the Chamber
Moshe Sharett - Prime Minister, Foreign Af- rejected a proposal to amend the Constitution to
f airs give the King the right to dissolve both the Cham-
Levi Eshkol -Finance ber and the Senate.
Pinhas Lavon - Defense The Chamber approved a proposal that a vote
Israel Rokach - Interior of confidence in Government policy must be
Golda Myerson - Labor sought from the Chamber within 30 days of the
Government's taking office if the House is sitting,
Peretz Bernstein - Commerce & Industry
or 6o days if it is in recess.
Peretz Naphtali - Agriculture
& Culture Feb. 9: A Royal Decree was issued approving the
Benzion Dinur -Education
agreement concluded between Jordan and the
Joseph Serlin - Health U.S. Point Four Program for the year ending
Moshe Shapiro-Welfare & Religious Affairs
June 30, 1954.
Dov Joseph -Development Feb. i5: Prime Minister al-Jamali of Iraq arrived
Behor Shitreet - Police in Amman to discuss the misunderstanding aris-
Joseph Saphir - Communications ing from his proposal for Jordanian-Iraqi union.
Joseph Burg - Posts Feb. I6: A trade agreement with Yugoslavia was
Zalmane Aranne -Without Portfolio signed at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Feb. 1: Pinhas Rosen, member of the Liberal Pro- Feb. 2o: Jordan's first cement factory began opera-
gressive Party, was sworn in as Minister of Jus- tion. It was the largest industrial project in the
tice in the new Cabinet. country.
Feb. 21: The U.S. Government announced through
Feb. 7: Defense Minister Lavon issued an order
Point Four that it would offer Jordan $io million
by which free movement would be permitted be- from the fund for special economic aid for Mid-
tween villages in Galilee bounded by Tarshiha dle East countries.
on the northwest, Shfaram on the southwest, Mrar
on the northeast, and Deburia on the southeast.
Feb. i6: The Knesset abolished the death penalty
Kashmir
for murder by a vote of 6I-33. Treason against (See also India.)
the state, betrayal to enemies, and similar offenses '953
under the army code still are punishable by death. Dec. 3: It was announced in Jammu that the period

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I96 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

of detention for Shaykh Abdullah and Mirza Feb. 15: The Constituent Assembly adjourned after
Afzal Beg had been extended for another two adopting the drafting committee report, which
months. based its recommendations on directives issued to
Dec. 21: Indian and Pakistani official committees it by the Basic Principles Committee and the
on Kashmir met in New Delhi to prepare the way Committee on Fundamental Rights and Citizen-
for the installation of a plebiscite administrator ship. The Prime Minister said they had now
by April 30 and to reopen discussions on the de- finalized the State's accession to India and thus
militarization of the state. had put an end to the uncertainty over the
Dec. 28: The India-Pakistan committees ended plebiscite.
their talks in New Delhi. Feb. 22: Indian Prime Minister Nehru told the
1954 Indian House of the People that while U.S. mili-
Jan. 24: Prime Minister Bakshi Ghulam Moham- tary aid to Pakistan would change the "context"
mad, addressing the 59th plenary session of the of the dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, India
Indian National Congress Party at Kalyani, would stand by its commitment on a plebiscite
India, said the people of Jammu and Kashmir and had no intention of withdrawing the ques-
had made an inrrevocable decision that they tion from the UN. He added that Mr. Ali's as-
should join India. sertion that a Washington-Karachi entente might
Jan. 26: The Prime Minister and his colleagues advance a Kashmir solution was "quite absurd."
arrived in New Delhi for talks with Indian Feb. 28: In a campaign speech at Jessore in East
officials. Bengal, Pakistani Prime Minister Mohammed
Ali assured Mr. Nehru of India that Pakistan
Feb. j: The Constituent Assembly met in Jammu
did not "want to take Kashmir by force, but by
and received the reports of the Basic Principles
plebiscite."
Committee and the Advisory Committee on
Fundamental Rights and Citizenship. The first
report favored accession to India but provided
for internal autonomy. However, the Supreme
Lebanon
Court of India would have jurisdiction over civil (See also Palestine Problem.)
and criminal matters and would enforce the fun- '953
damental rights to be embodied in the state's Dec. 4: President Chamoun accepted an invitation
constitution. to visit Buenos Aires presented by the Argentine
Feb. 6: The Constituent Assembly unanimously Minister. No date was set for the visit.
adopted the reports of the two committees sub- Dec. Io: About 400 teachers went on strike protest-
mitted on Feb. 3. The report of the Advisory ing the Government's refusal to raise their sala-
Committee on Fundamental Rights and Citizen- ries. It was reported that about 30 teachers had
ship said: "The State having acceded to the been arrested.
Union of India, every State subject and every Col. Aziz Ghazi and two other high-ranking
person having his domicile in the State is a citi- army officers were arrested. It was feared they
zen of India under the provisions of the Consti- were preparing a coup to seize power.
tution of India." Prime Minister Ghulam Mo- Dec. s_: An explosion shook the building of the
hammad regretted the absence of representatives Higher Palestine Arab Committee, damaging
from "Azad Kashmir" but said: "Obviously we doors and windows.
cannot postpone this important decision, for the Dec. I4: The teachers' strike ended with a promise
majority can always exercise its right. I am con- by the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies that
fident the decision taken by the majority will be their claims would be discussed in the Chamber
acceptable to the minority." and that he would try to secure the release of
Feb. 7: The Prime Minister Bakshi Ghulam Mo- those arrested.
hammad announced at a public meeting that the A trade agreement with Eastern Germany was
State had decided to abolish customs duty on initialled at the Foreign Ministry.
Indian goods, to go into effect in April. India Dec. I9: The Government forbade a meeting of
would compensate the state for the loss of such the Arab and Oriental Peoples' Communist Con-
revenue, estimated at about $4 million equivalent. ference organized by "Peace Partisans." The
Feb. 9: Pakistani Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Criminal Court in Tripoli sentenced Ahmad Zaki
condemned as "an insult to the United Nations" al-Afyuni, owner of the Communist organ al-
the Kashmir Assembly's ratification of the State's Sarkha, to one year's imprisonment for publish-
accession to India, and called on Indian Prime ing an article considered harmful to political re-
Minister Nehru to repudiate the action. He also lations between Lebanon and Syria.
asked Nehru for an early meeting to discuss the 1954
situ ation. Feb. 3: Lebanese security forces arrested 14 mem-
Feb. 12: The Jammu and Kashmir National Con- bers of a gang believed to have been responsible
ference met in Srinagar and passed a resolution for the attack on the Arab Higher Committee
supporting India's stand on U.S. military aid to building on Dec. I3.
Pakistan. The Conference also congratulated the Feb. 5: See Syria.
Constituent Assembly for ratifying the State's ac- The Council of Ministers decided to buy the
cession to India. Franco-Belgian Beirut Electricity Company for

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I97

LL23,5oo,ooo. The Government had previously Khalil al-Jalal -Defense


seized the Company's properties on the ground Al-Tahir al-'Alim -Public Health
that it had failed to carry out its contract. 'Ali al-Jarbi -Without Portfolio
Feb. 12: Instruments of ratification of the trade Isma'il Billamin-Without Portfolio
agreement signed with Eastern Germany on Dec. Feb. 21: Sayyid Mansur Qidara was appointed
I4 were exchanged at the Foreign Ministry. Chief of the Royal Cabinet to succeed Sayyid
Feb. Is3: See Iraq. Muhammad al-Saghisli, the new Prime Minister.
Feb. 14: A law was issued providing for the Gov- Senator Khalil Nasuf of Tripolitania was ap-
ernment to hold 55% of the shares in a national pointed Minister of State in the new Cabinet.
hydroelectric company, to be established with a
capital of LLioo million.
Feb. 16: Prime Minister 'Abdallah al-Yafi sub- Morocco
mitted the resignation of his Cabinet to President '953
Chamoun after a stormy debate in the Chamber Dec. 24: Sixteen persons were killed and 24 injured
at which al-Yafi had received a vote of confi- when a homemade bomb exploded in the central
dence by a vote of i8 to i6. market at Casablanca.
Feb. 17: After a 3-hour meeting between the Presi- '954
dent and the Cabinet, the Prime Minister an- Jan. i8: French Foreign Minister Georges Bidault
nounced that the President had refused to accept called on the Spanish Ambassador in Paris to
their resignation. ask for explanation of reports that religious and
tribal leaders of Morocco were going to meet in
Tetuan to proclaim the Imperial Khalifa, Moulay
Libya el-Hassan el-Mehdi, as "Regent and guardian of
the Sherifian throne" in the absence of the de-
-I953
posed Sultan Sidi Mohammed ben Youssef. Bi-
Dec. 7: Instruments of ratification of the Anglo-
dault warned the Spanish Ambassador that if the
Libyan Treaty of Alliance and Friendship and
meeting any way threatened the unity of the
the military and financial agreements were ex-
Moroccan empire, "France would defend this
changed at Benghazi.
Dec. io: King Idris opened the 3rd session of Parli- unity by every means at her disposal."
A French cruiser, aircraft carrier, escort ship,
ament in Benghazi. The Speech from the Throne
and flotilla of destroyers left Toulon for Mers
was read by Minister of Justice Fathi al-Kikhya
el-Kebir off the coast of Algeria near the Span-
in the absence of Prime Minister Muntasir, who
ish zone of Morocco, ostensibly for maneuvers.
had gone to Tripoli because of ill health. The
Jan. 20: France was reported to have asked Wash-
speech surveyed Libya's progress in the previous
ington to intercede with Spain to end a pur-
year and referred to the Government's policy to
ported plan to reject the Sultan's authority in
improve the friendly relations with the Arab
Spanish Morocco. The French authorities posted
states and other countries. It also said the Gov-
troops in all places in its zone where disorders
ernment planned to develop internal communica-
might occur, particularly at the frontier of the
tions and improve social and health conditions.
Spanish zone.
Dec. I_?: U.S. Vice President Nixon was received
Jan. 21: Following a meeting of 30,000 Moroccans
in audience by King Idris.
and i,500 of their leaders at Tetuan, a petition
1954 signed with 430 names was presented to the
Jan. 14: An Iraqi Army mission of 4 officers ar- Spanish High Commissioner, Gen. Rafael Garcia
rived in Tripoli to undertake the training of Valino. The petition was reported to protest the
Libyan Army officers. manner in which the former Sultan was deposed,
Jan. 20: The Wali of Tripolitania announced that refuse to recognize the authority of the new Sul-
the Tripolitanian Legislative Council had been tan, ask for the "temporary separation of the
dissolved by Royal Decree and that a new coun- Spanish zone," and propose that the Khalifa be
cil would meet within 2 months. given full and independent sovereign preroga-
Jan. 26: U.S. Minister Henry S. Villard handed tives. The Moroccan notables made clear that
over a gift of 2,200 tons of wheat from the U.S. their demands were due to unsatisfactory "politi-
for relief of drought victims. cal conditions" in the French zone and that if a
Feb. 15: King Idris accepted the resignation of the change in those conditions were brought about,
Muntasir Cabinet. The task of forming a new the demands would be dropped. High Commis-
government was entrusted to Sayyid al-Saghisli, sioner Valino announced that the demands would
Acting Chief of the Royal Cabinet. be referred to Generalissimo Francisco Franco.
Feb. i8: Sayyid al-Saghisli announced the mem- Sultan Sidi Mohammed ben Moulay Arafa's
bers of his Cabinet as follows (see also Feb. 2I): council of viziers addressed a note of protest to
Muhammad al-Saqqizli -Prime Minister, Act- Paris on the Tetuan meeting. The note said that
ing Foreign Minister "the present agitation . . . [probably resulted]
Ibrahim Ben Sha'ban -Education from the pressure of local Spanish authorities,"
Dr. 'Ali Nur al-Din al-'Unayzi -Finance and asked the French Government to call the at-
'Abd al-Rahman al-Galhud- Justice tention of the Madrid Government to "this situa-
Mustafa Ben Halim-Communications tion and to its present and future consequences."

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I98 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

Jan. 22: General Valino endorsed and passed to vised elections" to replace the system of long-
Madrid the Jan. 2I petition of the Moroccan entrenched political bosses who decided the fate
notables. He also announced an amnesty for all of the party and the provinces. Under the new
prisoners in Spanish Morocco serving sentences plan women would go to the polls, become can-
of less than two years to mark the occasion. didates for high provincial offices, and be eligi-
Prisoners serving sentences of from 3 to 6 years ble for membership in provincial assemblies. Dis-
would have them halved; longer sentences up to trict party men would be reshuffled and increased
25 years would be cut by one-fourth. in number to give greater representation among
The French Government protested to the Span- potential voters in the villages and small towns
ish Foreign Ministry against the action of Moroc- as well as in urban centers.
can leaders in the Spanish zone. The note asked Dec. 26: In a letter to Indian Prime Minister Nehru
Spain to cooperate to preserve unity throughout protesting the Indian demonstrations against the
Morocco and to avert dangers that could arise proposed U.S.-Pakistan arms pact, Prime Minister
from the position taken by the Arab leaders. Mohammed Ali said he could not understand
French Resident General Augustin Guillaume in why India was disturbed over the possibility of
Rabat was asked to inform the Sultan of the such a pact, which would also be a protection for
French Government's action and to assure him India. There was no reason why it should dimin-
that it would take all necessary steps to protect ish the chances of a settlement of Indian-Paki-
the unity and sovereignty of Morocco. stani disputes.
Jan. 24: Sultan Sidi Mohammed ben Moulay Arafa, Dec. 28: A fourth technical aid agreement was
in a proclamation addressed to all Moroccans, signed with the United States, bringing the total
warned that disloyalty to him would mean ex- of U.S. assistance since 1951 to $1I4 million.
pulsion from the Muslim community. The Sultan Dec. 30: In a note replying to a Soviet Union re-
added that the Makhzen in the French zone had quest for "clarification" of reports regarding a
gone on record as condemning the movement in proposed U.S.-Pakistan arms agreement, the
the Spanish zone. Government said that it was its duty to safe-
Nationalists shouting anti-French slogans guard its security but that it did not contemplate
hurled bombs and grenades at filling stations "taking any step in hostility or unfriendliness to
and a gasoline depot at Casablanca.
any government or state with which, like the
See also Arab League.
USSR, it has friendly relations."
Jan. 25: Ex-Sultan Sidi Mohammed Ben Youssef
was flown from Corsica to Central Africa. It '954
was reported that he would be taken to an island, Jan. I: Prime Minister Mohammed Ali began a
probably in the Pacific, for exile. io-day tour of East Bengal to launch the Muslim
Feb. 9: Generalissimo Francisco Franco, speaking League's campaign for the February elections.
to a delegation of Spanish Moroccan notables at Jan. 4: The Jinnah Awami Muslim League, the
Madrid, declared that the Spanish zone would largest opposition party in East Bengal, opened
continue under the sovereignty of the Khalifa its election campaign with a rally in Dacca.
appointed by the former Sultan, assisted by the Jan. 5: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, Pathan leader
Spanish High Commissioner. The Grand Vizier, imprisoned in June 1948, and 44 other political
who headed the group, presented General Franco prisoners in the North West Frontier Province
with a gold medal. were released and their properties restored.
Feb. .I: The Spanish Government, in reply to a Jan. 9: Mohammed Ali called on India to end its
French inquiry, called the Arab meeting at campaign against proposed U.S. military aid to
Tetuan on Jan. 2I an "act of internal policy" and Pakistan.
a "public expression of a state of mind of its The Muslim League won zo of the 25 contested
[the Spanish zone's] inhabitants." seats in the Karachi municipal corporation elec-
At a meeting of the French National Assem- tions.
bly's Foreign Affairs Committee, Under Secretary Jan. II: The Prime Minister and other Muslim
for Foreign Affairs Maurice Schumann called League leaders returned to Karachi after a I0-
the Spanish reply "inadmissible." day election campaign in East Pakistan.
Feb. 18: The first of 45 U.S. stratojet bombers ar- Jan. 14: The Prime Minister accepted the invita-
rived at Sidi Slimane airfield near Rabat. tion of Ceylonese Prime Minister Kotelawala to
attend a conference of Asian Prime Ministers in
late April or early May.
Pakistan Jan. 17: Muslim League leaders, including Prime
(See also India, Kashmir.) Minister Mohammed Ali, met to choose nominees
1953 among 3,000 communities in 17 election districts
Dec. 6: U.S. Vice President Nixon arrived in in East Bengal.
Karachi for a 3-day visit. Jan. I8: Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, leader of
Dec. 23: In an effort to strengthen the Muslim Pakistan's 4-party United Front opposition, ac-
League in the face of strides made by opposition cused the Muslim League of weighting the elec-
parties, the League high command began draft- tion against his organization by failing to dis-
ing a program to provide "fair and strictly super- solve the present legislature and Cabinet. The

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I99

Muslim League redistricting had increased their Bengal, the Prime Minister asserted that U.S.
representation from 119 to 237 in East Bengal. aid was a boon to economic development.
Jan. 19: One policeman was killed and 34 injured Feb. 28: In a campaign speech at Jessore, East
in an anti-Muslim League demonstration in Bengal, the Prime Minister stressed the fact that
Barisol, home district of Fazlul Huq, leader of Pakistan's development expenditures now could
the East Bengal United Front. be expanded because of the savings to be effected
Jan. 24: Prime Minister Mohammed Ali, speaking in the defense budget through U.S. military aid.
at Pabna in East Bengal, said the question of
Pakistan's national language should be settled by
referendum. He said Bengalis would "be left be-
PalestineProblem
hind economically as well as educationally" if (See also Arab League.)
they had to learn Urdu. 1953
Jan. 25: Campaigning at Dinajpur in East Paki- Dec. 2: Egypt announced that foodstuffs would be
stan, the Prime Minister made a direct reference added to the list of contraband articles that
to the problem of poverty and promised direct would not be allowed to pass through the Suez
aid from the Central Government. Canal destined for Israel.
Feb. 2: The Prime Minister in a broadcast attacked Dec. 3: Egyptian guns fired on a U.S. vessel, the
"extraordinary attempts" in India to mobilize S.S. .4lbion, carrying wheat to the Jordanian port
public opinion against the proposed U.S. mili- of Aqaba, in the erroneous belief that it was
tary aid to Pakistan. bound for the Israeli port of Elath. After expla-
Feb. 19: It was announced that talks with Turkey nations the vessel was allowed to proceed.
had been proceeding in Karachi for about two The World Islamic Conference began a 7-day
weeks regarding recent matters of mutual se- meeting at Jerusalem with representatives from
curity interest. I6 states.
Feb. 21: Addressing a "martyrs' day" demonstra- Dec. 9: The World Islamic Conference at Jeru-
tion, held by I5,000 students in Dacca to com- salem concluded its sittings after passing a reso-
memorate the deaths of 36 students in I1952 in lution, among others, that the defense of Pales-
a riot protesting the rejection of Bengali as one tine was the concern of every Muslim and that
of Pakistan's national languages, Abdul Hamid the conclusion of peace or dealing in any way
Khan Hashani, president of the Jinnah Awami with Israel must be considered as high treason.
Muslim League in East Bengal, condemned the Dec. IO: The Syrian Chamber of Deputies ap-
projected "unholy alliance" with the U.S., saying proved a draft law allocating LS65o,ooo to aid
that if the United Front were elected it would Jordanian defense of its border with Israel.
crush the alliance. Dec. 15: After conferring with Syrian President
Pakistan submitted a formal request to the Adib al-Shishakli, Jordanian Prime Minister al-
U.S. for military assistance. Mulki cabled the Arab League Secretariat re-
Feb. 24: United Front leaders disclosed that more questing a meeting of the Arab League Political
than 500 supporters, including 4 candidates of Committee to discuss Israel's request at the UN
parties opposing the Muslim League, had been of Nov. 23 for direct talks on border tension.
arrested in East Pakistan since Feb. I9. Members of the Financial Committee of the
Feb. 25: Pres. Eisenhower announced the U.S. World Islamic Conference left Jerusalem for
decision to give military assistance to Pakistan Damascus to begin collection of contributions for
under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program. a special fund to "save" the Holy Places in
Simultaneously, a letter was despatched to Indian Palestine.
Prime Minister Nehru assuring him that the U.S. Dec. I6: France, the U.S., and the U.K. submitted
would impose the most scrupulous observance by a compromise resolution to the Security Council
Pakistan of the terms of the program, which of the UN which, inter alia, called upon the Chief
barred the use of U.S. assistance for all but de- of Staff of the Truce Supervision organization
fensive purposes. If the aid were used for ag- to report back to the Security Council within go
gressive purposes, the U.S. would take appro- days after investigating the existing rights of
priate action both within and without the UN. Israel and Syria in the demilitarized zone.
In accepting military aid from the U.S., Prime Dec. 17: Dr. Farid Zayn al-Din of Syria told the
Minister Mohammed Ali said it would not be Security Council that the 3-power compromise
used for aggressive purposes and that the U.S. resolution introduced on Dec. i6 merely repre-
sented the Israeli position.
had not asked for bases "or any other undertak-
Dec. IS: Following objections to the 3-power reso-
ings or concessions."
lution of Dec. i6 by delegates of China, Paki-
Feb. 26: Prime Minister Mohammed Ali met Prime stan, and Lebanon, Dr. Charles Malik of Lebanon
Minister Nehru at New Delhi airport. introduced a substitute resolution which would
More than 3,000 Muslim League supporters call specifically for compliance with General
marched through Dacca streets, demanding that Bennike's order halting the Israeli Bani Yaqub
India reopen negotiations preliminary to a Kash- canal project, and would state that if Israel did
mir plebiscite. not comply with the order it would be "likely to
Feb. 27: In a campaign speech at Khulna. East lead to a breach of the peace."

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200 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

Dec. 20: Israel and Jordan agreed to allow 3,000 in the Security Council by a Soviet veto. The Se-
Christians to cross from Israel into Jordan for curity Council adjourned without setting a date
their yearly pilgrimage to Bethlehem. to consider the two Lebanese proposals still be-
Dec. 21: Soviet delegate Andrei Y. Vinshinsky de- fore the Council.
manded that the Security Council, instead of Jan. 24: Syria's delegate to the Cairo Conference
adopting the 3-power compromise resolution, call of the Arab Regional Bureaux for the League
upon Israel and Syria to reach an agreement by Boycott of Israel stated that Arab states would
direct negotiation. be urged to conclude trade agreements with Tur-
U.S. Delegate Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., sub- key to minimize Israel's chances of trade with
mitted an additional paragraph for inclusion in that country, and that the British firm of Imperial
the 3-power proposal which stated that "nothing Chemical Industries would be given until March
in this resolution shall be deemed to supersede to close its establishments in Israel.
the armistice agreement or to change the legal Jan. 28: The Mixed Armistice Commission con-
statutes of the demilitarized zone thereunder." demned Jordan for the death of an Israeli guard
The Mixed Armistice Commission fixed the on Jan. 27, and called on the Jordanian Govern-
blame for the killing of two Israeli soldiers on ment to prevent such occurrences.
Dec. i6 on "Jordanian nonregulars." Blame for Jan. 29: Israel asked the Security Council for an
the death of an Arab Legion medical officer on investigation of the Egyptian blockade of Suez
Dec. ig was fixed on "Israeli nonregulars." Canal shipping to and from Israeli ports.
Dec. 22: After futile attempts to amend the 3-power Feb. 2: The Jordanian Cabinet approved a deci-
compromise resolution, the Security Council ad- sion of the Jordan Defense Council to instruct
journed further discussions until Dec. 29. anti-aircraft batteries to open fire on any aircraft
Dec. 23: The Israel-Jordan Mixed Armistice Com- flying over Jordanian territory without permis-
mission censured Israel for a raid on a Bedouin sion.
encampment 4 miles inside Jordanian territory Feb. 3: Egypt asked the Security Council to con-
on Dec. 21 in which i refugee was seriously sider the al-Awja incident of Sept. 28 in which
wounded, and said the attack had been carried Egypt charged that Israel had set up fortifica-
out by Israeli "nonregulars." tions in the demilitarized zone.
Dec. 24: Maj. Gen. Vagn Bennike left New York General Bennike called on President al-
for Jerusalem. Israel asked Gen. Bennike to ad- Shishakli in Damascus to discuss the Syrian com-
judicate a dispute with Jordan over whether il- plaint before the Security Council regarding
legal crossing of the armistice lines by unarmed Israel's attempt to divert Jordan waters.
civilians is a breach of the armistice agreement. Feb. 5: Israeli Ambassador Eban asked the Security
The Mixed Armistice Commission condemned Council to impose sanctions against Egypt unless
Israel for a raid on Hebron on Dec. 2I in which the restrictions regarding goods for Israel pass-
a woman and two men were killed. The blame ing through the Suez Canal were withdrawn.
was placed on Israeli "nonregulars." Feb. 8: Egypt announced that merchant ships would
Dec. 29: Soviet delegate Vishinsky charged at the not be blacklisted for calling at Israeli ports if
Security Council that the U.S. was trying to use they did not touch Arab ports during the same
the Syrian-Israeli dispute as a lever to gain con- voyage.
trol of the Middle East's economy. The council Feb. 9: A Lebanese court sentenced 9 Arab refugees
adjourned discussion of the dispute until January. on a charge of spying for Israel.
'954 Feb. 15: Egypt's delegate to the UN warned that
Jan. 2: President Nagib of Egypt issued a new if the Security Council reaffirmed its I95i reso-
basic law for the Gaza Strip giving its perma- lution calling on Egypt to stop interference with
nent residents and Arab refugees increased self- Israeli-bound shipping passing through the Suez
government under Egyptian military rule. Canal, the signatories of the Constantinople con-
Jan. 4: Jordan rejected Israel's proposal for high- vention of i888 -which guaranteed free transit
level talks on the application of the Israeli- through the Canal -might be called to meet in
Jordanian armistice agreement, and informed the Cairo to discuss the situation. He insisted that
UN Secretary General that such talks should take Egypt's practice of stoppage and search -which
place in the Mixed Armistice Commission. he said was not a blockade -was permitted
Jan. 9: King Su'ud told a visiting press delegation under the Constantinople convention, and that
from Jordan that the Arab nations should sacri- since Egypt and Israel had not signed a peace
fice up to io million men if necessary to wipe out treaty after the war in 1949, Egypt was entitled
Israel. to prevent the passage of goods intended for
Jan. I2: It was announced that Jordan's Ministry Israeli armed forces.
of Justice had drafted a law providing the death Engineers from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Leba-
penalty for pro-Israeli spies. non, preparing a new Arab League plan for ex-
Jan. 20: France, Britain, and the U.S. submitted ploitation of the Jordan River waters, conferred
a revision of their resolution presented on Dec. in Amman and then left to inspect the terrain
i6, omitting all references to the goal of develop- which would be affected by the scheme. This plan
ing the natural resources of the area. was being devised as an alternative to the TVA
Jan. 22: The 3-power revised resolution was killed plan presented by Eric Johnston in October.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 20I

Feb. 19: UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold He donated JD5o,ooo to the Jordan National
for the third time called on Israel and Jordan to Guard to mark the meeting and accepted an invi-
meet in Jerusalem to try to solve problems of tation to visit Jordan whenever circumstances
keeping the truce between the two countries. Mr. permit.
Hammarskjold offered to act as chairman of the Feb. 3: The Riyad agreement on the repair of the
conference. Hijaz Railroad was published at Amman. It pro-
Feb. 24: UN Secretary General Hammarskjold an- vided that Jordan, Syria, and Saudi Arabia
nounced that Dr. Ralph Bunche would head a should make available all possible assistance and
new committee to appraise both the TVA Jordan exempt the railway administration from dues.
Valley project and the Yarmuk plan (devised by The railroad would be considered an Islamic
Jordan and Syria). waqf. The Board of Directors would consist of
Mr. Hammarskjold stated that he planned to representatives of the three Governments in-
fix a date for an Israeli-Jordanian conference in volved and have jurisdiction over the financial
Jerusalem unless the Jordanian Government came and administrative aspects of the project.
forward and agreed to a specific date. Feb. I4: The Government announced that SRz mil-
The Jordanian Cabinet referred the third cable lion had been allocated for the construction of a
from the UN Secretary General to the several modern quarantine station in Jiddah.
Arab governments.
Feb. 25: The Arab League Technical Committee
meeting in Beirut sent to Arab League member Sudan
states its report on the TVA Jordan plan sub- '953
mitted to the Arab Governments by Eric John- Dec. iI: Results of voting by the Graduates' Con-
ston. Among other objections to the plan, the stituencies were announced as follows: National
report stated that it overlooked the possibility Unionist Party (N.U.P.) - 3; Anti-Imperialism
that Israel might be able to use wells for irrigat- Front-i; Independent -I.
ing the north Galilee area. The report also op- Dec. 12: The first official meeting of the Governor
posed use of the Sea of Galilee for storage of General's Commission was held under the presi-
Yarmuk flood waters. dency of Mian Zia-ud-Din of Pakistan. Among
other things, the question of the appointment of
Senators by the Governor General was con-
Saudi Arabia sidered.
Dec. 20: Final results of the Senate elections and
(See also Palestine Problem.)
appointments were announced as follows:
'95.3
Dec. 2: Governor General Ghulam Mohammad of Elected Appointed
Pakistan arrived in Jiddah on a special visit. National Unionist Party . 22 9
Dec. 6: It was reported from Damascus that talks Umma ................. 3 4
would be started to form a joint Saudi, Syrian, Southern Party .......... 3 3
and Jordanian committee to discuss the question Independents ........... 2 3
of reopening the Hijaz Railway to Medina. Socialist Republicans .... o I
Dec. 7: The thrice-weekly newspaper al-Bilad al-
Su'udiyah became a daily, the country's first. 30 20
Dec. 22: King Su'ud ordered the Minister of Com-
munications to draw up plans for the repair of '954
the Hijaz Railway line. Jan. r: The first Congress of the Sudan met at
DeC. 24: Amir Sultan was appointed Minister of Khartoum. Sir Robert Howe, the British Gover-
Agriculture and Amir Fahd Minister of Educa- nor General, addressed a joint session of the
tion by Royal Decrees establishing these minis- Senate and the House of Representatives and
tries. turned over to this body the future of the 9 mil-
Shaykh 'Abdallah ibn Salim al-Mubarak Al lion people of the country. The House of Repre-
Sabah, ruler of Kuwait, visited Riyad to con- sentatives elected Ibrahim al-Mufti, a member
gratulate King Su'ud on his accession to the of the N.U.P. executive committee, as Speaker.
throne. The Senate elected Ahmad Muhammad Yasin,
I954 strong N.U.P. supporter, as Speaker. Both elec-
Jan. 4: King Su'ud left Riyad for a tour of Hasa tions were subject to the Governor General's
Province. approval.
Jan. 9: U.S. Ambassador George Wadsworth pre- Jan. 3: The Governor General refused to approve
sented his credentials to King Su'ud at Dhahran. the election of Ibrahim al-Mufti on the ground
Jan. 12: Amir Salman ibn Hamad Al Khalifah, that he was "partisan," but confirmed the elec-
ruler of Bahrein, visited King Su'ud in Dhahran. tion of Ahmad Yasin.
Jan. 14: King Su'ud left Dhahran for a hunting Jan. 5: Prime Minister al-Azhari nominated Dis-
trip in northern Arabia along the route of the trict Judge Babikr Awadallah as Speaker of the
Trans-Arabian pipe line. House of Representatives. He was unanimously
Jan. 23: King Su'ud conferred with King Husayn elected.
of Jordan at Badnah in northern Saudi Arabia. Jan. 6: Isma'il al-Azhari, parliamentary leader of

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202 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

the N.U.P., was elected Sudan's first Prime Min- Feb. 17: Egypt's President Nagib in a broadcast
ister. He pledged himself and his Government to outlined certain details of the proposed Egyptian
follow national, not party, politics. military assistance to the Sudan, including 5
The Governor General approved the election trainer aircraft.
of Mr. Awadallah as Speaker of the House. Feb. 20: Pakistani Chairman Mian Zia-ud-Din of
Jan. 9: Prime Minister Isma'il al-Azhari announced the Governor General's Commission, in a de-
his Cabinet as follows: tailed reply to the Egyptian member's charges
of Feb. 5, called them "slanderous and mis-
Isma'il al-Azhari -Prime Minister, Interior chievous" and said the work of the Commission
Mirghani Hamza al-Balla - Education, Agri- was proceeding harmoniously. The statement was
culture, Irrigation issued with the approval of the British and
Hamad Tawfik - Finance
Sudanese members of the Commission.
Ibrahim al-Mufti -Economic Affairs, Com-
Feb. 21: The Governor General announced his
merce
approval of the members of the Sudanization
Khalafallah Khalid- Defense
Committee, consisting of 4 voting and 3 nonvot-
Ali 'Abd al-Rahman al-Amin- Justice
ing members.
Muhammad Nur al-Din -Public Works
Mubarak Zarrug -Communications
Dr. Muhammad Amin al-Sayyid -Health
Dak Dei-Without Portfolio
Syria
Santino Deng Teng -Without Portfolio (See also Egypt, Iraq, Palestine Problem,
Bullen Alier deBior- Without Portfolio Saudi Arabia.)
Jan. 1_: Egyptian Minister for Sudan Affairs Maj. '95.
Salah Salim and Commander in Chief of the Dec. so: University and secondary school students
Egyptian Armed Forces Maj. Gen. 'Abd al- in Aleppo and Damascus, including two sons of
Hakim Amir arrived in Khartoum for an exten- the Druze leader Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, went on
sive tour of the country. They were accompanied strike protesting a play performed by students
by Col. Muhammad Safwat, new Commander of at the American Aleppo College which they
Egyptian forces in the Sudan, relieving Col. 'Abd claimed to be "injurious to Arab sentiments."
al-Fattah Hasan. The latter became Egypt's new Dec. 13: Minister of Education Dr. Anwar Ibrahim
Deputy Minister for Sudan Affairs. Pasha in a broadcast advised the students to go
Jan. 21: It was reported from London that a group back to classes, saying the Government was de-
of opposition (Umma Party) members of the termined to take the most serious measures
Sudan Parliament protested to the British Gov- against those inciting the unrest. Director of Pub-
ernor General regarding the visit of Egyptian lic Security Brig. Ibrahim al-Husayni warned
officials to the Sudan. students not to be the instruments of mischief
makers.
Jan. 26: It was announced that the Government
Dec. 14: Extra police on duty in Damascus and
was taking steps to train about 30 Southern Su-
Aleppo were withdrawn when the student strike
danese for administrative work by appointing
collapsed.
them to administrative posts in the South.
Dec. 18: Mme. Pandit, President of the UN Gen-
Jan. 3o: British Ambassador to Egypt Sir Ralph eral Assembly, was entertained in Damascus at
Stevenson presented a protest to the Egyptian a banquet given by the Foreign Ministry.
Government regarding the visit of Egyptian offi- Dec. Ig: Pakistani Foreign Minister Mohammed
cials to the Sudan, saying that Britain was "quite Zafrullah Khan arrived in Damascus to discuss
unable" to agree that the visit was "private and with President Adib al-Shishakli UN matters of
unofficial." interest to the Asian-African bloc of nations.
The English daily Sudan Star, which had been Dec. 20: Muhammad Hamdi al-Salih, Governor
published at Khartoum since I943, ceased publica- of Latakia Province, was appointed Minister for
tion. Public Security and Police to succeed Brig.
Feb. 2: The Umma Party decided to increase its Ibrahim al-Husayni. The latter was appointed
General Assembly from 120 to 250 members and Military Attache at Washington.
its party Executive from I5 to 26. Dec. 22: A legal agreement with Jordan was rati-
Feb. 5: Egyptian Group Capt. Zulfiqar Sabri, mem- fied. It provided for cooperation in carrying out
ber of the Sudan Governor General's Commis- criminal investigation but prevented extradition
sion, charged that the process of Sudanization of political criminals unless the crime was an
was being held up by tours of the country by some attack on the Heads of State or detrimental to
members of the commission, that their absence military interests.
from Khartoum gave opportunity to the Gover- 1954
nor General to put pressure on the Prime Minis- Jan. I6: Zafir al-Rifa'i, a former Minister of Social
ter, and that the commission had violated the Affairs, was expelled from the Arab Liberation
Self-Government Ordinance in the appointment Party.
of a Judge of the Shari'ah Court. Jan. 25: It was announced that the minimum daily
Feb. 6: Maj. Salah Salim concluded his visit in the wage of manual laborers had been fixed at
Sudan and returned to Cairo. LS3.50.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 203

Jan. 26: 'Abd al-Rahman al-Hunaydi, Minister of Iraqi Government had harbored common crimi-
Agriculture, was appointed Minister of Interior, nals and allowed them to act subversively against
and Makram al-Atasi was appointed Minister the interests of Syria and the Arabs. He hoped
of Agriculture. that relations with Iraq would soon return to
Jan. 27: Security forces arrested a number of lead- normal.
ing politicians, including Rushdi al-Kikhya, Ihsan Feb. I4: Minister of Interior al-Hunaydi announced
al-Jabri, Sabri al-Assali, Akram al-Hawrani, that the Suweida Governorate in Jabal Druze
Michel Aflak, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, 'Abd al- was "back to normal."
Rahman al-Kayyali, Hasan al-Atrash, Leon Feb. 19: It was stated that the Chamber of Deputies
Zamriya, Ali Buzo, Shaqir al-'Asi, Faydi al- was considering a draft law banning members of
Atasi, and Adnan al-Atasi. It was said that they syndicates or unions of the liberal professions
had carried out political activity to encourage from taking part in politics or activity of a quasi-
disorders among the students and incite them to political nature.
strike. Feb. 21: The Druze leader, Sultan Pasha al-Atrash,
Three military policemen were killed in fight- and 35 followers fled to Jordan for political
ing at Kraya, home of the Druze chief, Sultan asylum.
Pasha al-Atrash. Feb. 25: A "Free Syrian Radio," apparently in
Jan. 28: Sayyid Hashim al-Atasi, former President Aleppo, announced that the country had risen
of the Republic, and Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, in arms against President al-Shishakli and called
Druze leader, were placed under house arrest. on him to resign.
Martial law was imposed around Damascus, Capt. 'Umar al-Kabbani telephoned the Arab
Aleppo, Homs, Hama, and the Jabal Druze. In News Agency in Amman, Jordan, saying that the
making the announcement President al-Shishakli Army movement aimed at putting an end to the
said subversive elements had exploited the return tyrannical rule of Pres. al-Shishakli and restor-
of constitutional life and liberties in order to ing constitutional life with politicians taking over
work against the present regime, and that there the administration. He said that former Presi-
had been attacks on the troops in parts of the dent Sayyid Hashim al-Atasi had been chosen
country. by the leaders of the movement as legal President
Feb. I: It was reported from Damascus that army of the Republic. Damascus alone remained under
artillery had leveled 3 of I8 villages of the Jabal Shishakli's control and he hoped it would shortly
Druze said to be in revolt. declare in favor of the national movement.
Feb. 2: It was reported that President al-Shishakli President al-Shishakli resigned as President of
visited opposition leaders in prison in an effort the Republic "to avoid bloodshed," and left Da-
to soften their attitude toward the regime, and mascus with his wife. He reportedly took refuge
that he had discussed with them a compromise in the Saudi Arabian Embassy in Beirut. Army
under which opposition elements would be in- Chief of Staff Col. Shawkat Shukayr called on
cluded in the Cabinet. The talks had been initi- the public to remain calm and to carry out the
ated by Faris al-Khuri, former chief UN dele- instructions of the Army.
gate for Syria. The political leaders arrested on Jan. 27 were
Feb. 5: It was announced that the Iraqi Military released.
Attache in Damascus, Brig. 'Abd al-Muttalib al- Feb. 26: Army units, including the air force and
Amin, had been declared persona non grata and heavy mechanized units, which backed al-Shi-
his recall asked for. Cairo radio reported that shakli continued in control of Damascus. These
Iraq had reciprocated by asking the recall of forces were estimated at about 4,000.
Syria's Military Attache at Baghdad. Politicians released on Feb. 25 met at the
The frontier with Lebanon was closed for z24 home of former president Hashim al-Atasi in
hours by the Syrian authorities as a protest Homs.
against the campaign which a number of Leba- Members of Parliament met in Damascus and
nese newspapers had launched against the Syrian proclaimed their Speaker, Mahmud al-Kuzbari,
regime, and against the conference of Druze as temporary president. Al-Kuzbari promised the
leaders being held in Beirut. election of a new president within two months
Feb. 7: An International Bank mission arrived in and pledged to uphold the constitution.
Damascus. The Aleppo radio launched an attack on the
Feb. 9: Parliament gave President al-Shishakli a Damascus regime, declaring the aim of the rebel-
vote of confidence in his declaration of martial lion was not only the removal of al-Shishakli but
law. the changing of the entire government and con-
Feb. lo: Censorship on newspapers, periodicals, and stitution. It declared that the Aleppo group would
foreign cables, which had gone into effect with continue the struggle until completely successful.
the declaration of martial law, was abolished. Feb. 27: It was reported that opposition Army
The Secretary General of the Foreign Ministry units were marching on Damascus from the north.
stated in the Chamber that Egypt, Afghanistan, The Aleppo radio announced that io jet planes
Yemen, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia had mani- of the Air Force had left Damascus and joined
fested friendly feelings and mutual confidence the forces at Aleppo.
during the "recent events" in Syria, but that the Two aircraft from the north circled Damascus,

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204 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

dropping leaflets calling on the populace to rise of the U.S. Congress, indicating among other
against the pro-Shishakli officers in control of things Turkey's willingness to join with other
the city. free nations in meeting aggression with force if
The Damascus populace demonstrated against necessary.
the remnants of the al-Shishakli regime, who took Feb. IO: A new political party, calling itself the
refuge in the government radio building. Sixteen Republican National Party, issued an election
persons were killed or seriously wounded when manifesto demanding constitutional guarantees
fire was set to government buildings and the of religious and civil rights and the creation of
demonstrators driven off. a court empowered to rule on the validity of
Pres. al-Shishakli left Beirut for Riyad. laws adopted by the Grand National Assembly.
Feb. 28: After a meeting at Homs attended by Brig. Two of the 14 founders were deputies belonging
Gen. Shawkat Shukayr as representative of the to the former Nation Party.
Damascus pro-Shishakli faction, it was an- Feb. 12: Prime Minister Adnan Menderes an-
nounced that Hashim al-Atasi would be Presi- nounced that the Democratic Party group in the
dent and that he was continuing discussions at Assembly had "unanimously" approved two im-
Homs regarding the formation of a new govern- portant electoral reforms and assured the voters
ment. Brig. Shukayr announced the dissolution of that the Government would conduct the May
the Chamber. elections with the same strict impartiality that
Troops from the northern army command ar- characterized those of 1950.
rived in Damascus in the evening, and a cordon Feb. 14: Max W. Ball, U.S. oil consultant who
of troops surrounded the government radio build- helped prepare a new Turkish petroleum law,
ing where two pro-Shishakli leaders, Capt. 'Ab- arrived in Ankara at the urgent request of the
dallah Shihadah and Capt. Husayn Hiddah, asked Government to help break a legislative deadlock
for protection. over the bill.
Feb. 15: U.S. Gen. J. Lawton Collins visited the
Turkey new Adana air base which was to become the
southeastern anchor for NATO air forces.
1953 Feb. 19: A communique was issued at Ankara,
Dec. 27: *ukru Saracoglu, Prime Minister during jointly with one issued at Karachi, announcing
World War II, died at his home in Istanbul. that Pakistan and Turkey were studying "methods
'954 to achieve closer friendly collaboration" in politi-
Jan. 5: Ambassador Hulusi Fuat Tugay at Cairo cal, military, economic, and cultural fields. It was
was ordered to leave Egypt after having de- learned that negotiations regarding conclusion
nounced the Nagib regime following the confisca- of such a pact had been in progress in Karachi
tion of property belonging to his wife. for two weeks, and that Iraq, Iran, India, and
Jan. 6: Foreign Minister Fuad Kopruilu told the Afghanistan had been officially informed of these
Grand National Assembly that he had delivered conversations.
a note to the Egyptian Ambassador regarding the Foreign Ministry sources disclosed that a note
expulsion of the Turkish Ambassador at Cairo. had been received from Egypt explaining its ex-
Jan. 12: Ambassador Selim Sarper signed the con- pulsion of the Turkish Ambassador. It was under-
vention on the political rights of women at UN stood that the note was "extremely conciliatory"
headquarters in New York. although it did not contain the formal apology
Jan. i8: President Celal Bayar left Istanbul for an sought by Turkey.
official visit to the U.S. Feb. 24: Foreign Minister Fuad Koprilu told the
Jan. i9: A commercial accord was signed with Grand National Assembly that 5 naval bases and
France providing for the exchange of the equiva- ii airfields would be constructed in Turkey in
lent of over $77 million worth of goods in the the "next few years" under NATO's support and
following year. communications program.
Jan. 26: President Bayar received an enthusiastic Feb. 26: The International Bank granted Turkey
reception on his arrival in New York. a loan of $3.8 million for development of port
Jan. 27: The Nation Party, third largest in Turkey, facilities, repayable over 211 years.
was formally dissolved by court order on the Feb. 27: On the eve of the Ist anniversary of the
grounds that it had sought to make political capi- entente between Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey,
tal out of the Islamic faith. Nine party leaders, authoritative Yugoslav sources stated that Yugo-
including the party's president, got nominal i-day slavia was ready to enter into a formal military
sentences; 4 were acquitted. The court granted alliance with its two neighbors. The suggestion
the party the right to appeal to the Court of was reported to have been warmly hailed at
Cassation, but the case would not come up before Athens and Ankara.
general elections scheduled for May.
President Bayar was greeted by a military
guard of honor and Vice President Nixon on his Yemen
arrival at Washington.
Jan. 29: President Bayar addressed a joint session (See Aden and Aden Protector.-tes.)

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