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Electricity and Magnetism are two different phenomena that are present in nature.

Electricity
is the flow of charged particles, and magnetism is the force of attraction or repulsion between
objects. Until the 19th century scientist realized there was a close relationship between these
two things. They also discovered it was possible to create a magnetic field using an electrical
current. The interaction of these forces is called electromagnetism.

ELECTRICITY
It is the flow of charged particles.

- PROTONS (+) they are


inside the nucleus

- NEUTRONS ( ) They are


inside the nucleus

- ELECTRONS (-) They are


moving around outside
the nucleus.

ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL: when an object has the same number of protons and electrons.

ELECTRICALLY CHARGED: When an object has different number of protons and electrons
because electrons move easily from one object to another.

FORCES BETWEEN ELECTRICAL CHARGES


First example

1º balloon and hair are electrically neutral

2º We rub the balloon with the hair.

3º Balloon (-) Hair (+) ATTRACT

Second example

1º Two balloons are electrically neutral

2º we rub them with cloth.

- Two balloon are charged negatively

3º Balloon (-) and Balloon (-) REPEL


STATIC ELECTRICITY

It is a form of electricity that doesn’t flow. Electrical storms are an example of this static
electricity. Ice particles in the clouds move very fast and rub together. This makes the cloud
negatively charged at the bottom .The ground below is positively charged. If the electrical
charge in the cloud is great enough, it will meet the positive charges from the ground. This
causes a huge amount of energy to convert into light, heat and sound.

CURRENT ELECTRICITY:

The movement of electrons from one object to another creates electrical current. It can be
produced and transported in closed electrical circuit. An electrical circuit has the followings
parts:
- A power source: it provides
energy: battery

- Wires: they conduct electricity

- A switch: it opens and closes the


circuit.

- A resistor: light bulb, computer,


mobile phone…

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM: it is the ability to attract magnetic materials.

MAGNET: it is an object which can attract certain types of metal, such as iron. Magnets can be
natural (magnetite) or man- made (most of them). Types of magnets:

- Permanents magnets never lose their magnetism.

- Induced magnets (temporary magnet) have a temporary magnetic force. For


example, if you pick up a paper clip with a magnet, the paper clip will become
temporarily magnetized.

All magnets have two poles, north and south. If you break a magnet in half, both parts will have
a north and south poles.

If you place two magnets with the opposite poles together, they will attract each other.

If you place two magnets with the same poles together, they will repel each other.
MAGNETIC FIELD: it is the area around a magnet where it exerts its force. We can’t see this
field, but we can see its shape using iron filings (small pieces of iron that look like dust) The
magnetic field is strongest at the poles.

THE EARTH IS A MAGNET

The Earth acts like a huge magnet. The magnetic North Pole is at a slight angle away from the
geographical North Pole, and it is here that magnets in compasses point. The magnetic field
around the Earth deflects cosmic rays and protects our atmosphere. However some of them
enter the Earth´s atmosphere at the magnetic poles and produce incredible light effects called
the Aurora Borealis in the Northern Hemisphere and the Aurora Australis in the Southern
Hemisphere.
COMPASS

It is a navigational instrument. The needle in the compass is magnetised and points to the
magnetic North Pole. The circle around the needle is called rose (it is marked with the cardinal
points: north, south, east and west). Using a map and the compass, you can find your way in
unknown terrain, even if visibility is poor.

How to make a homemade compass?

- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIKkZcTkhuw

- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QiSp6pGe0w0
MAGNETS AND ELECTROMAGNETS

Magnetic materials are always metallic, but not all metals are attracted to magnets.

ELECTROMAGNETS are objects that act like magnets when an electrical current passes through
them. It means the magnets are activated by electricity (they aren`t permanent magnets) If you
switch off the electrical current, the magnet stops working.

How can we make an electromagnet?

1. Wrap the wire around the nail.

2. Attach the ends of the wire to the battery (a power source)

3. Place the paper clips near the end of the nail Observe what happens to the paper clips
when the circuit is connected and disconnected.

Magnets all around us:

Motors, generators, electric bells, loudspeakers, in the hard disks of a computer…

Homes: hairdryers, blenders, washing machines, refrigerator door, headphones, credit card…

Hospitals: magnetic resonance

Transport: Maglev trains