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Reported by ACICommittee 311


American Concrete Institute·

Tenth Edition

Copyright 2007, American Concrete Institute

First printing. March 2008

Secolld printing, March 2009

ISB : 978-0-87031 -275-5

Thi.s manual is based on information from many sources, o.rganizalions, and individuals hose.
contributions are gratefully acknoledge<l Pub]i ~hed references are Ii sted at the end of the text.
References to standard specifications and method of testing are listed separately.
The orlgit!al ffiaIlUf>Cnpt as prepared by Joe W. Kelly. Chak of ACI Committee 311. and
re vised over a pcri.od of years to achieve a first edition in 194 1. The second edition, also in 194 1,
included a number of correction ' and minor revision. The third ed 'lion. in 1955. incorporated many
cons tructi ve sugges !lon.~ from u ers. The fourth edi tion, in 1957, brought sevcral sections up to date
and contained editorial corrections,
The fil th tldition providtld ne information un settlement o.f o:mcreLe, shoring and fo rming.
trength requirements. cold-eather concreting, and shotcrete. The ixth edition primaril}' provided
updated informatio.n in all chapters, and included edito.rial and substantive changes throughout.
Th.e se enth edition presented a complete re· ision of th.e manual b}' eliminating sections of the.
previo us edition coveri ng concrete metllods no longer in use. ClIapters 2, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 (partial),
16, 17. and 18 covered material that. as included m the manllru for the fJtst t.ime , The eighth and
ninth editions ererevi!;ed to reflect changes in tecilnolc)gy and conSimlcti c.m practice.s.
This tenth edition presents an extensive revision and update to the text along itll ne photos
charts, and forms,
The committcc ishes to thank An ne Balogh for her extensive ork in redrafting and unifying the
previous te t in preparation for this edition. dditionally. the commiuee ishes to e pres its thanks to
Portland Cement Association (PCA) fbr generously pm viding many of the ne photos contained in the
manual and to commlttee member Michelle L. Wilson ho organized and coordinated the ~dection of
photos and graphics fhroughou.t lh.e document
Finally, the oommittee ishes to thank Chair George R. Wargo for bis efforts in coordinating [be
ork of all contributors .
ACI Manual 01 Concrete Iin spection
Beported by AC I Committee 31 1

Goo,!!" R. W 'EO M i,h. T . Ru.,.,l1

o, i'Jir SCl:n:tu")·

Q] nb:m A. AtI~oo l ui,. Y. G rubol- V iJllk i!h.':l,...; S. 1.) 'l.!r ' V" L. vtJgI
JiJ ~l! p"h ro. J\ lI't llJiB l immr.: Do HnnJ'li'ltT'i.i!.l l, I r. Clm:de It. J:l~\OO:t Rortnll<ll!. ""-'!
arlo R. DJ.. Roben L. J:lOIII)' RoOM S. knkl :\1I011cU. L. " 'iL
Dur. a:h.I E. Di:uJIJ C iirh::s L Hoo klnuIl &ogw D. T~I " RtJ.~i:r E. Wi ~oo

PiREFACiE. ,,,!pi.a1.l 0/ III.. ,"«no • "", ..."Ar.J J' <l.IPOO Q{ • ~",I<J~ .od
l hii r....:unrul rj in/m:kd fu J;1fi4t, cmL-t, anrlliniina:r (;(lRi:re~ ifUJ.~run (.YJ '1J.rtlfffit-n. For "" ,rher' ilquf'mllriOf~ ~ butd t'Vm~rrl4.~JjOJi prtlt'Jr(.~ f~r'~
an~ C?(Mn .f'/.tgn·· d t aNJI..'ll!W c.(;ft5J'rr~:b[M r.w k..!.rt~, i'1dr«1ir. · /U!JJi u dt~
a re ofIiCOOrogf'.a lrJ rt{.r t_ ACJ Mar.:aal ofCoficrCIe l'faclJC(:.
cng"~s,. crmsfra.r:lICNl .s.upai.-"1lerrdcr:u. :srqxn.·~. friboro.kl7)' rurd fldd Jj~mwc the CfNJlml of t.i1ir rnul'UY:rJ r.1 .p-1l-t"mI and brorrd illl m:.ll'ttre" I'W
t&'lvllawU', .and orws... lNJig~rl fr.Uy.::roo fir;:d rhr mt':f.U(:tI' to bre' t.I wl'rtab:{e- pan .o{ the "l:::m.lIru .l.-i1 ()J4id be by rqUt!1iU in amfflJct dfJGU1'I':E&ts..
rr:fo.rt!JlC,r. by 1!".rilIS' m~ mtomJtJtWn w Dct'oLr adapt .!hI!I, dc.n'8'1f to t~',S ,.1.ppl'iclJbIt! j ....~rNJ nq.:.lin'JlICl'ltt fo ~ cGCh project Inmi{t! ,~ ~ ~crmir&
tJj ftdd ro.rJ.UIlfi"..rTmL 11«.mw! IJf .!fit: .m.'t!7~ pDSAilU 4t"il':." of t~ ....~rttll arrti rll f;.r.dt!d iN ~ spccijif;l.1tirmor.
dlld ~ Iii w l rftf:d lJn.(OkK~-f of ~ T~J7'i, 'J i~('s rIY- ;r.ra~""i':.illg btIIind
J~ J't(:/tl.!i'.;aI " I;f"~('ri(tru ,
Chapter 1---<1nspection and the inspector, p. 6
The J tid 0/ . " <tN. ' .....·1/0.1 "us·
expor.dtd d'M".r~11y 0."" ,~. I. l - IIlSpcctiQII P ~QCC SSiCS
'earJ. ru reflt:tr rhe 1'1.:31, ~fNC.f'l fnr.'l hu 'i~ tdj},rll ptdl~e i,.. rht: CW1tn'~1I
irrdlrslr>'. AUOOII 'n' m.!1R)' Q/II;~ l(ndW1lt!_Fl l~l/:s prneIJrcd
ilil P'fln'irlUS ~iJimu
lo l.I- Why inspection j needed
tJ/lkis IJI:tt.UfW TClJmi rr I?f~. and r«hniL"aIJy cUTred, rhi'1 !ertlir cditjUfJ 1.1.2-PutpQres of inspecLluo
irrctJrrJl.lrar~.1 ru! mutll!!"i::rJ W tJlidras tha~ .m:!...aIt'l.?.1 til t«hfWloSY. •4 ii~J 1. 1 .3--0 nc-T ami contractor ilL<pccti on~
of oof)' ti fo q iu 7«m.t d~Y!itJP'"'...ell t~ in ff:itJ t~n·(1I.s. ftj lriprr:cn.f, £Irrti l . 2.-JnSpec\Qf
io rm:L"fu.f iJl(;tu:hs.:
1.2. 1- Dutie;;
17JJtJ:o.~ t·('..Offlllf-tt.Wi! r .1l ('t'i'nt~Jr •
t IMftW"td ,N ~ ()/ ~lIppJtJT1tr.J'('J." CfJT1't r.JiJiGi U ITItMtOOH ( ~ );
1.2.2-f'.du 'llti" "llmi ccrt'ficati""
;. pot}mi:r.muJifred n'iLtrLllrtf; lo2.3- Autbo ·cy
• Sd/·ccruwi(/ufUIg (.YJJI Cf~}.ts; 12 .4--Rel:aOOl:IS jdI CootmctOrs., sUf"'rYiror.; illId OJkm
• 1t.'~ und r¢nm a.!iMiThu:t!.f; 1.2. Safety
• Fi~T-n:irifGn;m t;ffl1i;l"f:: t.c'; l.J- Jmportauce of clear specillcatiOtlS
• EpOX)' ~tf, I '!S,'
Hili-~· {JIfCiJ}' and .'''''''J/lud <tN, ''*
I'roriMrrklw, <lp/l.\'"'' Chapter 2--sta1i stical conce;pts for quality
H rifr-~ifol'WolaJ'il.·~ loIrrd irigh·stnrr ·rk r:mx:n..t~; .:md
EptJ.l:,v. -£O:T~iYi w id .JtaiJ1ic.IS st«lreIGd rmfcm:~m.:nt.
assurance,p.1 1l
Th ~ "" l~ cmY!7 nI! r.'C't!.Il'!.J" .trjJcdi n ' uupll!!ditm is ~ "'~JJ1 ,·t e l
2. 1 ualiry·control and qualicy-acceptallce ~tlSpec ~io.D
CtltTIR!itJr.c .111 coowlfa'j tn n:Io--UCJ~ ACI M.M11!:ll 01 Cam.:r:l:'lc In.spel:bon. 2, 2-Tn!lililioilill quality assurance
JIl p 7~"'ns mi-r ¢djr~ "1 thr l'lJ.:]r:JoI J,. al' irk p~Io-in lf" rmiti ml.f, tllil 2. 3-SLat' stical concept< and procedures
fIlH1mJ~rICt': '.f • rl:[ JO In'!{lrpl1'!r Jlrl' pm,r't;. fj TI'i! jt).rJI hy mJJ ,. ~ ~rlJ(t,i'lf{1
2.<l-Ba ic l.alisticai roncep
00JI't'; mrk.t r}J.:lJt J'Q mQke poiuy ,oft ('r)JI,JJTlI c rJ(.'o'J "mcrius, 11le ~
2A . l- Defini!io[js
2 4 .2- ' onnal distrihu ti on curve'
ACl Comrniuee Roports, G~id M,muul" S't<mdurd 2.4. Applying D.ormal di [l'i blltion cu 10 concrele
P= Ii:t;cs, iUld CoIJlilJlOBtan"" "'" iot"".dl.'d for gU,dillll<::e in
plwmi"g. d ' ignillg . .. o<uliog. and in>jX'wng wru;tru ctioo. ,oompres i "e stre ngth
Thi" dOC<Jment LS intended for Ll>c u'"' or iodivi d.a.I. bo are 2S- Statbtical too ls
compet"'" to evaluiltc the ,igIriJlcillll<::e illlld IimjtilHu ", of it 2. 5 . 1 -freq~teuc disttibu ~jo!lS
cooloot WId ","omm,md' lioos <m<I bo ill <WGept
I poo. ib.ility fur Ll>c awl' ·aUo" of UJ milt ' . il '".,1';0• . 2 5.2-CortCrol charts
Tho Amen"",, CoJI<:= 1o, liM d' sdaims
, poo,ib.illt~· for lbo s1a lod priodpl l b . slit"to ,bal l oot
,md , L lUl,
1>0 liable fur · y Iu or damil~" .m ;rng Uwrefrum.
Rd""m ... to Lhi.o do... 0.""\ ,;bull no4 b" mild. in coolr""t
<l<" ",ruoot· . jf ilom . found io Ita> dOCU1lJlODt lll' d" irro by lb •
• llu:clfffngim,er Co tI. a part or lh. <oorr"",t d ocum ' IS, !hoy
shaU 1>0 re 'l<IlO<l in = dillory l<lt1g""go rOf in<;orp<J<<llion by
!he , ·bilo.vJiogl"" ...


Appendix 1--Samplirng by random numbers, p. 17 4.2.2--SlOrage oil bios

A I . I-Example I : Sampli ng by tim" """uem;e 4 .2.3-Finish $c~"ing
A 1.2-Ex""'ple 2: g by "'~lerial eight 4.2.4- Transpo.niflg
A 1.3--Ex.ample . : Sampling b), depth of concn.t p~~'=cn! 4.3 uppLementru:y cementitioos rna . ' al
4.4--Admi' lu",s
Appendix 2~No ~m aj distr ibution curves, p. 20
Appendix 3--Computlng S1al'ldard devi ati on and Chapter 5-Fun damentals of concrete, p . 3B
required average concrete strength, p. 21 5. I--NatllTC of ooncrete.
AJ . 1-0.ucuLaling s l9ndard d.e viation s 5.1. I-Compotlellts
3.2- 0Ilclliating required ~vernge IDlIIgdi k~ 5. L.:2-Wa1er-ccmen t,tinu, mate rial rstiC)
S.2-Fresll coo.c rete
Appendix 4-Control charts on concrete matenals,
p. 22 5,.2. I-Workability
A4. I-Examp le. I: Cakul.ations tQ de ermine mov;lIg S.2.2- 0msolidatioo
average for and·equivalent qe t .2,3- Hydration, setting, and h:;rde niTlg
A4. 2-E~il"'pl " 2: Cnk ub llons 10 d.e~nn.ine mm'ing S.2.4- Heal of hydralion
s" crsgf;:S for L- 112 , 314 In. ooncr('t<; sggrcga1(l 5.3- HardcMd
(maximum "ariation of pn-.JCe n~e of material 5.3. I-Curiull
pilssing Lill. sieve) 5.3.2 . trcngtb
Chapter ~nspec1il on and testlng o,t materials, 5.3.4--{;hcmical aAtack
p. 23 5.3 ..5-Freel in,g-ant1-dli'ing e[f""ls
3.. I-Cemenl 5.3 ,6--Alk~li-agg.rc g., rcacti viI}'
3.1.1 tandard IYpe 5.3.7-VoLume cban,ges
3. L2-IHe ndoo ceme~l ls and mit",. hycl:rnn~k
3·. I.3--Opti(lnal rcquiJCm1£ Dt5 Chapter 'S -Proportioning and contra,1 ot con crete
J. l .4--Sam pli.Jlg and testing procedures mixtu,re s, p. 43
3.2- Aggregate 6.1- Facto to con ,der
3,. 2 . 1 ~<;poci fkadmL'" 6.2-c\{..,th",is of pecifying concre te proportions
3 .2.2 ampUng p.rocedures 6.2. I-5trength pecificatloD
3. . 3--~ ate.- 6.2.2-Prescripti'e srt"<-~fica!i on.
3. Admixtur,es 6.3-PI'op.ortionillg fot specified sltel'Il.l110 i<'m
3. .S-Steel rcinforot.'mefll Q. .I--C.emcnt I)'pes
3 .6- Curillg cOl:llJlounds 6.4--Con.c-..ele lib sUPI' e[llent2ry ce~nend tio"" mate rials
3.7-Joint malt,rial 6.~, . I-Mixture proponioning ~n.d control
6.4.2-WateT-cemelll' tiou s matetial Ialio
Appendix 5--Aggregate sampling and leslillg. 6.~, .3-A ggregale. selcctiC)n
p. 33
AS. I--Sieo.-e Or SCleeIl "nal . of fioe il:tId corure aggregate : 6.4. Air eOIrJirunem
A5.~ rM
CI 6 6.~, .5-Qllami ly of p~stt
A5 . 2-Samplin~ aggregates : ASTM DiS 6.4.6-PropotUorl of fine-La·coarse aggregal.e
A5 .3--M a1leTial. Ii ner than o. 200 {75 fl m) sieve.: ASTM 6 . 5-PtopOftiorun~ for resi la nce La se ere exposure

C 1I 7 conditi "n~

AS.4--Clay lumps and friable particles tn illilgre.g ales: 6.5, I- Paste quality
ASTM CI 42 6.5.2_Requlred air enlJaiOllTIeu t
AS S - Org uic impuri lies 00 fioe aggregate: ASTM oro 6.S,3- Aggregale proportions
A5.6--Spccific gra\'i~y and sbsorplion of conr . aggregate: 6.5.4- Pruportionin!l by ab,61ute ,'olume
ASTMC l2i 6.5.S- Computing ab olme \'olume and percelltage of
AS.7-Sp<,d !c. gm vily and absorption of Ii ne aggrnga1e: '"lids
ASTMC128 6.5.6- xample of proportioning DYab olute volume
AS .S--ToLal moisUlT<: conle nt of agl$fe~ by dryins;: 6 . 6-Co n!ru ~ of concrule pro rntion.

AST M C566 6.6, l -- aboratory batcll quaoliti

6.6.2- . iclt! haK'h 'lUillltilies
Ch apl eir 4--Han d Ii rng an d storage o f m ateria'ls, 6.6,3- Field control (If elected proponion
p. 36 6.7-ComputatiOR< r ylcrct
4.L- Ccmenl 6.7. I-Dellsity melhod
4 . L.1--Storage a od n;lul iJlg of bulk = .e ut
4,1.,2 ' tomgc of b~ggcd cement Chapter 7- Batchl rng and mixirng, p. 53
4 .2-Aggregates 7.I-B<ilChing operd.lio[ls
4.2.1 torage 10 tockpile 7. .1-McasllrcmCDt 40 cr~llOCS

7 .1.2-Weit>hin~ e.q uipme-nL Chapter 10- Form removal, reshoring, cu ring, and
7 .1 . 3-B~ldd.n !: equipmen! IProtection, IP . 81
10 . - Rem",·. 1 of fo rm. IIJld SouppnTt!
7 . L 4--Measurin~ afer
7. L 5>-M~~uring aom,xtllrcs lO.I . l - TIme of removal
7.2-Mi" illg 'operdtiO[lS 10. !.2-Multistory ork
7.2.I-Cc-ntml or site mixing lO.2- Proteetion from d~IIk'\ge
7.:U-Re~dy mixed concrete 1O.21- BiJ:d :f,lIii\j;
7 .2.l-Volumetric bale"'ng and mixin. ' 10 . ----Curing
7.J- Plan! in pection lO.3.l - Mol L curillg
7.3. l-Conlrnl of rue..- runLen! 1O.J .2-Me.mbrnn.e curing
7.• .2 o!1ij[ol of;jir oonteJ]( 1O.3.3-hnpt;;rmeabtc heets
7.3.3-Co.oAtol of L.emperaLUte 103 . Acceleraled c utiilJl,
10 .4-(.uring and PrQtcction during ealh"r extreme,
7 PI ~ciDg in pection
7.4.1-Conlrnl of !<i UIII!, loss 1O.4.l -Cold
1O.4.2- Hot ~"'Lh er
7.4 .2 O!1ij[ol of cO!JS i stc n ~y
7.4 .l - 1easuring 00 ilCrete quaiLtiL)'
Chapter 11- Postoonstruction inspection of
concrete, p. 86
ella,p ler a---.
Inspection before COncreti ng, 11. - Accepmnoc in' pectinn
S. I- Pre lim;.t:r,), SWdy 1l.2- Vi \lal inspeCLion (ooMi!ion uI\'ey)
113 -Onher roles and respons iDi.I.ilie s of prep:;r-dtor)' ori
I I .3. I- NondCSlrllc. i YC c~'aluali()11 (!'IDE)
8.3-Fi...xQ<\'.tlon. and fQlrnda:tions
11.3.2-~truClive Ie tiJJg
8.J .l- Buildjllg lab on-ground
8.3.2-Building fOUDll"tlons
11. O · er'o'3LioD leadiiDg to rep :ili/reh~bilitatio n
8.3. Uodenuer placemem
11.4. 1-Minor defeclS
B.3.4--Pile fO ulld<ltions
11. .4.2 tllJctural dofcas
8 F~= for buildings
8A . I- FDm' tig" Ln ",., I1ml alignment
Chapter 12.....Slabs for build ings, p. 92
M .2- Snoring 12. D- I'ositio nin g of n;:infoTCCment
B.4 .l-Pre'ye[lling bulgi'\j; and seLllemellt 12. lvii lUre requifemeJll
8.4 .4--<:oating for rcl ~a,c 1 2 .3~<; labs-on- ·rmmd
8 .5- F01IIl reuse and maintenance 12.3.1 Ilbgm de and ubbase
8.5 Reiruorcemem I 23.2-PLacing alld ccmsolidatio" of CODCr·e le
8.5. I-Cutt,ng und bending 12. .3- Fini. h illS
8.5 .2- Storage and tlandling 12.3 Hardened utfaces
8.6--lns!all. !ion 12..3.5- o·cou",,,· ennstrueti.", and special toppinSl'
8.6.1 over deptb 12.3.6-Cl1ring and pr·~ecfjo n
8.6.2-Splicillg. elding. and andiori'\j; 12.4-Stru.t 'Loral '
8 . 6.3-Conge.~ion 12.j - Joint constn.tct·(m
8.6. Suppon
S.7- Embedded fi [\lIe Chapter 13-Pavement s labs and b:ri dge decks,
8.S_ Join!s 1P· 96
8,9- fiD ~1 in ~.j O[l before pta ing 13. U-FoulldlltiOOJ (su bg!'ll.dc and ~ubba:;t; COll f c)
8. 1O- 0leckfua 13. U-Fine grading
I . 1.2~~1Jib i1i l£<I base
Cllapter e---.Co ncre1lng ope~a1llo ns , p. 71 13.2 Form;
9. ] - PL• .ing c<l nrliuon. 1 ..2. 1 -Ke}'~)' fom hS
9.2-Handliug of concrete 13.3 .' tec] rc Lni OTCC!l!.t1lli
9.2.1--Conve)·jng 13.3. 1 l()age
9.2.2- !'lacung I .3.2- inst. lI. tion methods
9.3--Cnn s() ~ldation 13. Concrete
9.3.l- VibrnliOll I .4. I-Maten als
9A-Floi:iliing 13.4.2- Mixture propo orring
9.4.j-UnfoJ1DCd sttrfaccs 13.4.3- Bald llJlg and mi.>.i'\j;
9.4.2-Fotmed s\lt[aces I. .5-~ving op",raIlon.
9.5 COll «\Jetton joints 13.5.l - Concrete p1~ oent
9 . 5 . 1 -PI~[med 13..5.2.- Vibrutioll
9.S.2-Unpl. "nncd 13.5.3 'UpfoJ1D pavin g

13.5A-Fi.ed-fonn pavins; 15-2.1-Forms

1 3.5.5-Finishin~ 15-2.2 ··o n~ 1 of concrete pl~ccmcnt
13.5.6-Texluri,,!: 15.3- THH IP COJlstruction
13.5.7--Cwing and prute<:tion IS.3. l-Casting I' . tform
13.6-Final '''''''ptaru::e 15.3.2 FIJ!1D
13.'- JoinL' 15.3 .J.-80ml pre ,'clltiOIl
13.' .1 - Trdl\;S\'e.r.;e oolltraction joilll>i 15.3.4,---{;oncrete placement
13.' .2-Tml\;S\'e.r.;e OOllslru.cUon joint:s 15.3 5 - Panel
13.' .3-Lon ,jludill.1 COnlT'dctjon j oint' 15A-Lifl-slab constructioo
13.'.4-Lons; jtudill.1 Con · tmclion joints 15.4.l- I<IJ!1D
13.' .5-fupamion joinlS I S. .2-800<1 pre,'clltiOIl
13.'.6-Juin t sei!lill.~ 15-4 .3--Slab c~QCti.l}n
13.8- Bodse doch 1S.S- Preptooe.:l-aggregate ro flCtele
13.8-1 --Concrete pl.reme.fll 1$.5. l- As!>re.g.t" placomcnt
1 3.8. 2-Finishill~ 15.5 .2-Grout m31erials and mixlng
15.5 .J.-GruutinS opeT'dti on~
Chap,l er 14-ArcihitectLi ral concrete, p. 107 1 5 .6--Un~ter COD.crete conStli1.lction
1 4 . I -DeJerminin.~ req uiremeDts fOT ;oooeplability 15.6. l- Equipmea.1 and methods
14.1 .1 -Preconstruction samples I SJ>.2-Mixurre mqwiremcnts tor lremie conc,,",te
14. 2_llIlportance of wui fornlity 15.7- Vacuum deaqering of concrete
14 .3~Forrns 15.7. I- EQuipmenI 311d methods
14.3.1 -f'Oflo sheatltin s; or lin,,'8 15.7.2-RCdllction in 81ab th
14.3.2-Textures alld peUem~ 1 -. Pumped ro tlCfele
14.3.3-f'Ornl joinl>i 15.8. I-Type!' of t'quipm'-'nl
14.3.4-f'Ornl realers and release ~enlS 15.8.2- furure requirements
14.3.5-f'<lffilues 15.8.J.-Conlrol of pLavemellt
14.3.6-f'<lffil removal 15.8.4- T ..kingC(lncnc~c ss mpl<l'S
14.4-Re inforcement 15.9 bOlcrete
14.5--Concrete malerials ant! mh lll..., pro portions 15.II.l-Shotcreting procesS<.,-,
14.5.l --Cemenl 15.9.2- furore proportions
14.5.2-AJ.l!7C-S;. t",-" 15.9.J.-Safety
14.5.3-AdlllixlU!= 15.!}.4- FoTms and grou nd inc·s
14.6-Batchi,,!:. mixi,,!:, iUld Irdnsportins 15.9.5- Sutface finiSb.i.llg
1 4 . '-Pladn~ and ounsolldaliml 1S.II.6-Cuo ng and I'TOleC.t ioll
1 4.8~~urrlli:e trealmelll>i 15.9.7-ComIOl le$ting
14.8.. l - S andblastins; h"mlll"rin~ Ch~pter 16--Special types of concrete, p. 123
14 .8..3-Grindin~ 1 6. 1 -stnlctu~1 lighte igh t-l!;ggncg~tc co n~rcte

14.8.4-Manual tre. tmc:Jlt 16. U - Aggregates

14.S.5-fuposed·aggreg:ate finishes 16. 1.2-MixruTe propmtionin ' a nd control
14.9-Curinll ond protection 16. 1.3-T tiug
14. IO-Repain 16-1 .4-Batdti n1l illld lIIi~n~
14. I 1-Preca!t me'lIlilers 16. J .5- Plac' mg, com. I}lidatilJn, and f' n ishing
14.1 1. !-Slor<lJ;le iUld Irdl\;SporUttion 16.1.6- 0ll'ing <If":! protection
14.1 1.2-Erect iml 16.2-Ughteight fill concrete
14.1 2-Fillal llccepUtnce 16.2.1- !\ggregates
1 4.1 2 .! -Bu ~ holes 1 6.2. ~Mixl\l!re proponionlns; iUld Ie ting

14.1 2.2-Color variations 16.3- Lo-dcnsity concrete

16.3.l- Aggregates
Chap,l er l S-Spec.ial concreting met hods, 16.3.2- FOILms fOl" cellu1ar conore te
p. 11 3 16.3.3- furure proportioning and conu:ol
15. 1~~ l.ipformins; _enical ;;;[ruct ure~ 16.3.4- "'-"[tog
15.I . l-f'Oflllmlt 16.3. Batclli ng ~lld mi.xjllg
15. 1. - Reinforcillg t~ I 16.3.6-Plaeiu,!l and rousolidatlon
IS. L3~o~U'ol of concrete p!aoernem 16.3 .7-Curing and l':roroc'tiOIl
1$. 1.4-Fini, hing and During 16 Heavyeight concrete
15. requiremenlS 16.4 . I- Aggregates
15.2-Slipfonni.llg cast·in-place p'ipe 16.4 .2- M i X ~1l nc prop<JttiQnS ",-nd control

1 6.4.3-Il<lLcl:Ji ~ and mixinl,'; 1 9.2~. I -ConsiS1.ency

1 6.4.4-P1iLCin~, runsolidaJion, and finishinl,'; 19.2.2-Air COlIWut
16.4 ..5-Curinl,'; a nd protection 19.2.3- DensiL)' of fresh]. ItIi~.e d COJICfeLe:: ASTM C 1381
165--Mas, concrete for danl' CI38,'v1
16.5.!-MixLure propOrtioning 19.2 Temperature
I 6.5.2-Tes lin~ 19 3~"trcngth les ts
16.5.3-TemperaLure c.on Lrol 19.3.1-Compre 1ve !length: ASTM C3 1JC3 1 1,
16.5.4-Special equipment and proced ures C I92IC I92 .1, and C391C39M
16.6--Sullctll1ral ma.~ concre Le 19 . .2--(:~pp ing <ryli "dric~1 cOllcret.c specime n. for
16.7-S!uink"¥e-compe,,,,aliol,'; concrete i 'e trenglll tesL·: ASr 1 C611
W lll pte '
16.7. I-Materials 193.3-U ~ 0 un bondcd 0..,1'" for compm, ,,i \'c strengLh
16.7.2-M' xLure proportioning and Oimlru~ te IS: AST I C123 11C I23] ·1
1 6. 7.3-Prtxl u~"tion. p l~cinl,';. and finitihin*. 193.4- Te.ting COncmLo <--ylill1lers: AST 1 C39lC39M
16.7.4-Curiol,'; a nd protection 19. .5- fleJO: ural l>trcngth of COllCfC tC: AST 1 C311
16.8--l-Ii!7J-performaooe concreLe C3 IM . C 192JC 192M, C78, and C293
19 ..3.6--Mold.iu![ exural specim"ns
Chapter 17- Prec-asl and prestressed co'n crete,. 19.3.7--Culillg fleJO:ural pc>eimeo
p. 132 19.3.8- Tesliag beart.s fOr fie.:<ur-.i.l su-e'l,gtli
n I-PrecasLconcrete 19.3.9 pliUing tens~l e trengdl of cyl.iJld . cal CmtCfele
17. l. I--:.Scope of iru;peclioo spocinl.ens: ASTM C4961C496M
Ii .l.2-Inspecting for quality oun[ru) iUld qu.alily a.",ur"""" 19.3,I()---C()rnprcssivc sm:ngth of Iigh cight inrolM.i1Ig
17. l.3-Re.:md keeping ilDd Ie$l reporLs co~creLe : ASTM C495
17. l.4-Formork 1 9 . 4-Accel"rat~-d Cllring of k"t ' p'-"<:imc,,-,
17.1.5- :mbedded item, 19.5- Unifor.llIil)l Ie I of millers
17.1.6- Bar and ire reiDiorcernem 19 ..5. 1- Trul,k mixers
17. l.i --Curio ' 19.5.2-5tMiooa.ry miXiC.1'S
17.I.S- Handling, lOl'age, and lI'aD i/lortation 19.5.3- WastlOltLLlesLfor coarse-aggregale ·OOlllenl
17 . I.'l-E~c."tion 19.$.4-Air- e deftsity o f concrete test
1 7 . 1 . 1~lle~ 19.5.5- . free densit of rno ar t I
17.2--PrCc.l st prcSlr'Css.cQ ClJn~.,;~e 19.6-Dcpsity or strttCtuml lightcight CIJnc:re c
17.2. I-Coilerete ,lLa Lerial 19.7-TeslS of compte Led structures
17.2:2- Tendons for jJf'Ctcn r
19. . l ---COfCS fm m harde ned w nc-rcte
17.2.3- Tendon i:ttmdlillg aJld swrage 19.7.2-Loarl lest
17.2.4- AlWehn1.Cnts for wndon 19.7 .3-Nondestruc.ti ve Lests
17.2.S- DefleeLiOll d.e i.::es 19.B- Shipping aDd handling samples
17.2.6- Tensioning of tl; noons
17.2.7- Wire [;>ilure io [e,tdons Chapi er 20-Recordsand repo rts, p. 154
17. 2 . 8-1)e~cnsi(m;1l!8 2OJ - Gene:ral informatica
17 .3-C"-~t· in -p l aee pm'Rcsscd "",,,,rete 20 .2~.,p""i!k in form8l.ion
17.3.1 -Col1erete material 20.3 • ain!.'liJling 1'000rd
17.3.2-Post-te""ioning tendons 20.4--Q01alil),-collLrol charts
17.3.3- Anchot'<Lges and Len iotl.iJlg 2OA. I-Con c.reta deliver)' lie at
17.3.4-(Jf'Q1l!ing s
1 7 . 3.5 -Postco~tnICLiOll ,~--pec tioa Chapter 21- lnspec1ion checklist, p.1 68
2 U _ 'I1aleriill (Chapter:; 3llild 4)
Ct'lapter 18-----Grol,lt, mortar,and stucco. IP· 140 2.1.2-Pruporlioning Of COncFeLe m ix Lures (ChapLer 6)
I . I-Prc"ure grouting 2 1.3 --'flatching ~ nQ m ixing (C hapter 7)
18.2 GroUL'n,g und er base plat :illd macJilile base 21. Before cOllcret.iJl .. (CJlaprer 8)
1 .2.I -Drunp-pilC<k mortar 2 1._'i-Conc.reting operations (Ch"l'tcr 9)
18.2.2-Gas· formiDg groUt.s 21.6-After concreting {Chapter IO}
1 .2.3---Catalyzecl metalHc YOllls 2 1.7-'Spe<;i:U ork
18.2. Cen.lemiLious s)lsqems 21.7. 1-Cold eatller cotlcreLing
1 .2.5- on. hrirn.k YOllls r
2 1. .2-Hot eaLh e~ ~"mc"re ting
18..3--<Mort3J' and :uuceo 21.7.3- Air nttained oonCfele
2 1.7A- To·(;ourse floorS (Chapter 12)
Chapler 19-Tes1ing ,of concrete, p. 144 21 .7 .5- A rch it<;<;-l:I.l raJ comcrctc (C hapter 14 )
1 9 . 1~"mnp]jng 21.7.6--Tilt-up collSUIl.ctiO(L (Cbaptet 15)
19.2'-:Te q of fresbly mi 00 concrete 2 1.7.1-Prer l."oo,aggreg.1Il m nemtc (Chapter l$)

21.i.S-Underatercon U'UCtiOD (Clw.pler 15) construction scb.edules ~nd sta ithin 'COSI ltmils often
2 U .9-Vao.lum dc1I.crinll (Ch!!ptcr 15) places too muon emp~is on pmductiun rdle·. . If speed
21.7 .1O-Pu<nped COnCrele (Chapter 15) ~mes a top priQlity, c01lSttu~tiOIi quality 100)' not reccive
;H .7.1I bot~me (ChllJ)ter 15) adequate attention jf /lot propetl. e. ecIIted. Ironically, co t
2].7 .12 tmctural lightcigllt·aggregate cODcre1e m~)' also uJTe,T. ecnni'lues ilial peed cuncrele placement
(Chapler 16) can actually add tQ mat<;:ria.1 cost~ or n:;cu l~ in the nr.x>d or
2 U . 1 3-'l.o·dcn :;jtyconc~t: (CMptcr ~ 6) expcMive repair
21.7 . 14-Hl~-den,ily COR<'J"ete (Chapler 16) Jaoob Fcl d., • n (lloQ j" VI;lStigalor of stn tcbLrnl fuillln:;S. listed
2].7 .15- Mas ~orrcrete {Cbapter 16) e.xrunpl in hi book, LeS.wnS from FaifrmJ:S Of Concre/iJ
21.7.1 brinkage.compensati:ogcoacrete (Chapter 16) Stille/UTes. sbo i.og a hi~h ]y.mlC!(fJIlllge or fail ures of
2 Li .17-Pre, ues=l ooncrde (Chap!e r 17) Cl;)l1l!!rctc. stnlt'llrres that h e had invc.sligatcd en: C8l!L<;cd in

}.] .7 .18 routing under base plates (Cbapter 18) significant pan by poor con tM:Iion-in omer ords, poor
2 U. 1 9-'Prc5~ur" gront i. ng (Chapter I S) orlananship. He laled: "The one tl"UIlJl hid; these failures
21.7 .20-Mortarand lUCCO (Char>te.r I ) COItClusi"dy poinl to is tha t aU good ro nc",te construction
2] .7 .2 1- I 'e ts or concrete (Cbapte:r 19) sbould 00 subjoctcd to rigid illipecCioo .•. U is beliC\'oo mat only
21.i . 22-R~-.:.o rd~ and R'POrts (CbafMe·r 20) by tltis kitld of inspection is it possible [0 guard llgruillSl the
failure of C<>llClrelC strm:wres" (I'cld 1964).
ChapleT 22-References, p. 171 For every lIIonumemal "lruCHll'3l coUapse, illrLuttlernble
22.1-Refe.reliced 'liilidilin:!S arId reports instances of sm all fail ures occur. ThOs is partlCltll....rly lru"
22.2- CltGd lefererrce . ncn impommt concrete propc:nic. , ~llch as dl!ll1b'li~y a nd
at ert~gh tn • do lIot confoml to design requiremelll.s.
Appen dix A ~Gul de tor 'Concrete Inspection SupcnM ccmcrelc. slm::illres can be w i It at " ",asOOilbie. rust
(ACI 311.4R=OS), p. 177 if concrete producers am! ~ontr.lctor> are Yigi1!3111. As the
lale F. R Jo.fcMilJan said in Ibe fQreorcI to his famoos
AP{lendix B-~ ui de lor Gonc.rete Plant Inspection CQJJI:rete P,imer (McMillan and Tunhill .1 987): "Many 1m
and iesting ol IReady-Mixed Concrete (ACI 3U .S-04), nave been interestGd in the cau e of be~er oon~me h~ve
p.1 91 nO'ted th.e difficulty of miling allY reaJ prog:res ' until
som"""" in authority h.a:s b","n crmvinocd ilial good concm1.e
Index, p. 197
can t>c had, ~~t it sho\lld . c had. ~nd, h~Y in!! been so
CHAPTER 1-1NSPECIION AiND THE INSP,E CTOR COll iD.c ed, Ms ent OUI ~Ile ord that it must be had,"
1.1---'lnspectlon p'r,ocesses 1.L2 p",,!>,,",,,", a!illSpe"titm-T bc dClsim fDr 'lllilliry has
1.1.1 Why j""pt\('licm j",,,,eded- l1le pUi'JlOlSe of irlSpOCtioll led to' 1be use of inspecUoo pilI'SOlUlel [0 monilor and document
is t.Q verify that th.:; n:;qnircmcn(s ~nd in~cn~ Qf ~t; contract q;~~lily of Goo<.-rele ClIlm1ructiIJ[L Tim ru.'p()nsi bililie~ and
de'ign documen1s are frudlfully aocomplisbed. In COllcrete dutie<; of lnsp!'ctQ!s h~ve broacl<mcd Q \'~r !he. yt;.m;:. Today,
oo[lslruetion, lllspec:uon includes Dot <lruy visual ob,sen'ali<lr seve.rnl inspe<:riou lean mal' be u cd on one projea to
and field m = ",ment!;, but also .eld an d lal;Jorntm)' lestin g represent ttre inlerestS of !lie "ruiOIlS p;lrti invo~ved.
and me oon~ ' on jl![d evalUllliOli of t daia. In lJ1..1Jly ! nspect",.,. may be employed:
instatl.ce.s, inspectoo also ael as O;t are assisted b)' (be field • By projecl. olietS to provide q u~li lY assllrance fot lhe
lechnicians signed w perform the testing . ()rk;
O n~ i mporl~nl re' pon.sibillty of lh" concrete ' nspector • By gowrnment agencies and latg,e ittdu tries to assllIe
is t<J as. e s~ the '1u.aUt>, (If the m~tcri.l s used in the lit" quality;
corrCIete. lt i difficult , and II llally impo ible, [0 produce • By architects and ell&iaeers 10 verify and dOC11ment
specifi.e d conere.te nonconforming ma lerials. Thus. compliance hh p rojl!\cl 'p"d.fic~!ions anti drnin~ ;
the nna l mated als e.nlC.n ng lhe concre[C. mix ture . ha llie! be • By contrwlor; to provide qU3.Ji~y;;ontrOl inspoction fOJ
of pecified Qual it)'. projects uOOe:r c~clion. This helps provi.c!e assurance
An imporuutl factor in quality oonSUUctlon h gpo:><l OIfk- to the cIJntmctnr thal th" finj,;b"u c.on'tru~1l{lJl ill
llul.!ll>hip in all 0~ra.ti0llS aud proce (Fig. 1.1). ITICCl ail requirement' of thc conlrl'.<:t docu ments and
ObserviJlg this aspect becomes an imp ·taI11 respclfIsibilil. Illu ill be accepted DY the O"ller;
of lbe [nspect"'. \'cn lien tXlncrc:te is mack: lLISing lti~­
qU'iJ i ~y materials, p roportroncd oor:!Wlly, am.! batched
- By p ro ducers of conC'llt", material, and produ cts h o
need as manee that finished products in n1Ut the
oorrec(Jy, the re ulilllg caocrele structure can be wlsa~factoty requirenlerllS of the contracl di:lcumellls. Examples
if wnstruCtlcmurkmilru;hip is of poor qu~~ily. in ,i ud'e prod ucers of remcn t, aggregate. ",aciy mi xed
1anuru skiUs. technical knoledge, motiY3tioJl, and pride cOllcrete, and preCiJ;S1 prod~ts;
all ,contribu te to good rlTkm anship. Mo~t indh 'iduah • By [icen .-ing WId . uilding-permh j urisdictions c.harged
im'ol"cd ith OOJ1q"CIC 'desisn !1lld C(II15trwtion Illke prioc i.n im cnf=illg b\liJding coocs and othcr rcg\ l~tiolls" In
their effort and strive to 3llain uperior quality (Fig. 1.2). mi case, me illSpector ill be respollsible only for
NOl a1.l personnel.. hoover. ill r,e>reive !fl<' ne>ressill")' a, urin!; !hal lhe finis!tM trucluru. G{mfurrru; to
tm ining to dD th~i r 100s properl)'. The nccd 10 moot a,5HraD k rcqllil"emcnt.5 Qf the <;<)dcs (>r rcs" la!iQns ; or

Fig. I. ]- IItCreQ-S'''81 oph ' (iC(1feQ bIJiUli"/l d 'iglls C(11l

for higher suwlar(js of mar.eria/s a/lJ orkt:rn:'lllShip" -
• By cammerdill l abur~lurie~ desig)lnl.."J [0 provid~ Fig. 1.2-Cancrete 's ability to be/armed into airY shape leIS
'l<!Sli".!;l iilld ins"""tiun seryices. arti.>try (llJdfrmcrian a hl111d ill 1",,,rI.
Re.~ardless uf the function. inspectiun, iOK.i uding. LahurdlOl)'
and field lestin~ mill}' be perfonned by ~ learn or. ftK Vt:f)'
smal l projecls. by j ust one per>;on (PiS. 1.:3).
1.1.3 On~r a!ll;i C(J"J~(;for ill~(;fio"s O"erimplicrim.- Oder il 'pectioll pro,oides
a5Hl.l'lIllOO In 01WTh Ibc rcqllirO;:!]lCllts of the cOlltrnc~
documetlls (draillg ant! pee ifLcati ~ns ) are fulfiUe.:L ACI
311AR. Section 2.3 . "-" prepared to g.uide architects.
~ngi nccrs, llnd oners in the developmcnt of cffi;<;:ti\'C
illS'peCliOll pr.ogrruns. It [,ues:
I'm the prot~"<:ti on or the public and the oner, the
rcspo -;:ibility for pl~.nning and detailing .oncr
in pection should be vested io the ME · a continuing,
runction oflh" t1""i~ respon,ibility. Th" AlE &bOil d
ImSUrc th~t the program for oner i nspec~on mcc~~ Fig. l.3-ACl·ccrlifr04 field I<,ehn;d{l" performing" slump
all requiremems of design specification ;J.lld the loc:al resl.
building colle. The irLSPfll-1.iorLre.sponsihi.lily may be
discharged directly, may be conducted tIy "ner
persolllleb,. or may be delegated t~ an independenl AIEl shoutd ~"(, i.d the. llndc~irab le practice o ·
inspection o:ganizaLioll repotl.ill,ll to the AlE. Mr.lnging payment llirough the c~mractor for
If th<: AJE is also rcsponslblc fu r oonS1J\lction. an iClSjlection services i.ntended for use b. the oILer ' S
independellt in pectio/l O(~1l.lizatiO/l should be a basis of acccpULncc. Such a practice is nol in th.e
reurl",.:d dlrectly by the tIllCT. When the m er ODer's itnteresl , ruJd may III lilt in 11 conllio;:t of
provide.s the AlE =viae, the. o ncr shguld also irltereslS. Impartial service is difficult such
provide inspection or retain an independent inspection circu mstance", and th · f~~,~ for inspectiun are
orgruli~ioll. InSpeCtiOIl requirements on projects evcntually paid by the (fnet ill ~ n y casc,
sU£,<,£visoo by a construclinn manab'CT shouW .. bei", Under a lypicaJ COl1slructiOIl coml'll.ct, iIDspectOfS repre-
detil.lled by the NE iIDd !:tollld be c~.rriedotLt by emiug ute octer ha no resj)0< "bility or autllority w
inspection persolUlel represe.mirlg tlle otler. mllrLa¥" the oOOIrHcl<lt'S r>Jkfurce. 'The oneJ" s lnsl""'toon
The fec for oner inSp!;<;;tiQn and tcs ~i ng shQ,!.1d bc ~m is rcsp<)TIs.tlle for dctcrm ining th!lt m!!\crial$, proccd",,,,s,.
a epal111e and distinct jqem aoo should be paid by the ;J.Jld e:od product ooJJfonn w the requirements of IIIe cOll1:rnct
oILer. Or by liL" AtE acti.nS On beh~lf of tbe On"r. docw:me:n[, . !k<;ause lnspe<;to.." are only respOo."I!Sible fOr
di .oot~y to !be insp""tiQn org.ni7.:s.tiQn. ' r hc oner nr evaillating the rnntracl(! r' s o rk fo r conformance, they may

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