ASSIGNMENT -1 OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOPIC- BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION

SUBMITTED TO
HARENDRA SINGH

SUBMITTED BY
FAROOQ QASMI ROLL.NO.B 36 SEC.S1804 REG.NO.10808711

the eastern part of Delhi. popularly known as Trans-Yamuna.Market Analysis The national capital territory of Delhi is bustling with construction activities. This road will connect Marginal Bund Pusta Road with Karkari Mode at Vikas Marg.e.3 km u/s of the ITO Bridge. The proposed alignment is 2.e. namely Western Zone and Eastern Zone. Raja Ram Marg to Shantivan [i. The proposed alignment is 1. major part of the territory lies on the western side of the river Yamuna. The Geeta Colony bridge over river Yamuna is the new link. During the feasibility study stage. an all elevated road of about 3 Km length with 30M right of way has also been constructed recently over the exiting disused canal for easing out the traffic load of Vikas Marg and effective traffic dispersal from the proposed bridge over river Yamuna at Geeta Colony. . Geeta Colony Bridge Alternative]. Though geographically.6 km from ITO Bridge and 1. which will work as a replacement for the Old Railway Bridge and the Pontoon Bridge and reduce drastically the distance to destinations like Noida and Ghaziabad for people living in North. has nearly 25% of the population of Delhi with very high population density. The ever-increasing population on the Trans-Yamuna puts increasing pressure on the Highway Authorities to build number of bridges across the river. to meet the growing demand. In addition to the bridge over Yamuna. two alternative alignments were studied for the bridge: y y Shastri Nagar to Rajghat (Delhi Master Plan 2001 Alignment) [i. West and North-West Delhi. Rajghat Bridge Alternative]. Feasibility All potential alternatives for bridge crossings between the ITO Bridge and the Rail--Road bridge are complicated because the Ring Road from the ITO bridge in the south to the Rail-Road bridge in the north passes through very sensitive areas and high security zones. The river Yamuna practically divides Delhi into two zones. Delhi is a fast growing city and exploding with population. The population of Delhi is presently estimated to be over 15 million and is expected to cross 23 million by 2021.3 km from Rail--Road bridge.

Moreover. Security and Operations was taken on 16-11-2002. With a length of 560 metres for the main bridge and a cost of about Rs. should there be any restriction in ts use in future.2003 for an amount of 129.07 crores. . which required great effort & persuasion at different levels of the government. At the time of writing this paper (i. Government of U. Details of land acquired for the bridge are: y y y y DDA for major part of bridge & western approach. Approval from Technical Committee of DDA was obtained on 11-03-2003. lot of land had to be acquired from different government agencies. the new link will greatly reduce the traffic congestion on ITO Bridge and Vikas Marg.765 rores. the Geeta Colony Bridge will link East Delhi areas with Shanti Van where the bridge approach is planned to end. The construction contract for this project was awarded to M/S Navayuga Engineering Co.2004 for an amount of 99.e. Economical Starting right in front of Taj Enclave in Geeta Colony along the upcoming new eight-lane East Delhi Ring Road. More than 100 trees coming enroute had to be uprooted for the project. on 29. the Geeta Colony Bridge alignment is found to serve the commuters better as it is more centrally located with respect to the population density of the area. Irrigation & Flood control department. Delhi Police and U. Approval from various agencies Besides main waterway flowing channel of river Yamuna. The construction period was allocated as 36 months.P for part of Eastern Approach.12. Intelligence. for which the requisite permission was obtained from the forest department. Clearance from Yamuna Committee of CWC was taken on 06-6-2003. The administrative approval for the project was obtained on 10. Comprehensive Security clearance from Delhi Police.While both the alignments were found feasible in engineering terms. 130 crores. Being closer to the Rail--Road Bridge. the construction is almost nearing completion and the bridge is scheduled to be opened to traffic by the end of this month. Irrigation & Flood control department. the Geeta Colony Bridge alignment is found to be better located to handle traffic diverted from the ROR Bridge.P PAC : Police tents were removed for part of western approach near Shantivan. July 2008). the Rajghat route would have had significant detrimental environmental impact on Rajghat and adjoining areas as it would require the upgrading of the tree-lined Rajghat road and will also lead to introduction of heavy traffic into this sensitive and calm area.07. Government of Delhi for part of Western Approach. Ltd.

The span arrangement for the bridge comprises 14 spans of 40. Shantivan and other samadhis and provide an alternative signal free route for traffic from East Delhi headed towards North. Signal free terminal junctions are therefore proposed at both ends of the bridge. It will also serve as a critical north-south link. The ring road bypass along with the Geeta Colony bridge is going to be crucial for the Commonwealth Games scheduled for 2010 as it will provide a link for players traveling from East Delhi to the Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium and for tourists and VIPs heading for Rajghat and other samadhis. a grade separator has been proposed connecting the bridge with the marginal bund road and ensuring completely signal free traffic. Eastern side On the Eestern side. On the Western side. Expansion joints are provided at every alternate pier and at abutments. Central and South Delhi. The two carriageways are structurally isolated and a longitudinal gap is . The overall width of the bridge is 27. Figure 3 shows the proposed plan for the grade separator. Technical Salient Features of the Bridge Length of the Main Bridge is 560m. The bypass starts from Hanuman Setu near Salimgarh Fort along Mughal Bund Road and provides an alternative to the often congested Rajghat intersection stretch and emerges via the east Delhi side passing through the Yamuna Velodrome Road to join the Ring Road at Firoz Shah Kotla. the Delhi government has the ambitious plan to build a Ring Road bypass to help ease traffic congestion on the stretch marked by Rajghat.1m.0m each. The bridge is having dual carriageways of 9m each (reduced 3 lanes each) with central median verge and footpath as well as cycle track on either side. Figure 2 shows the ring road bypass alignment on the western side of Geeta Colony Bridge.Traffic Dispersal Scheme On Eastern & Western Banks Western Side Construction of the Master Plan road over Disused Canal along with construction of the Geeta Colony Bridge shall alter the existing travel pattern considerably and thus necessitate improvement of intersections at the terminal ends of the Geeta Colony Bridge.

The cross section of the approach road is to provide dual carriageways of 9m each with central median verge and footpath as well as cycle track on either side. guide bunds. Superimposed Dead Load + Live Load. Five numbers of PSC T girders have been provided in each span for each carriageway. Each 3 lane carriageway of Superstructure is supported on Plate type pier of thickness 1. The deck slab is made continuous over intermediate pier. 2. Under existing condition.5m at the top of pier. Figure 5 shows a typical cross section of Superstructure. The bridge is connected on the western side (i.45m.0m and steining thickness of 1. These wells have been sunk to a depth of 36.30m. The Abutment on either side is provided as an RCC multicell box structure with intermediate stiffeners. . The Superstructure is a composite section comprising reinforced concrete deck slab over Precast PSC T girders.5m x 3. The circular Pier wells for supporting each 3 lane carriageway is having an outer diameter of 8. As is usual for composite construction with deck continuity. Figure 6 shows Dimensions of a typical Pier and Pier cap. Model studies were carried out under the following hydraulic conditions: 1. Shantivan side) by approach embankments approximately 1800 mtrs long. Studies were undertaken by CWPRS on the existing river model constructed to a horizontal scale of 1:300 and a vertical scale of 1:60 covering a river reach of 29 km upstream and 21 km downstream of ISBT bridge. Studies were carried out under existing conditions and with the bridge in position. 2 alternative alignments were considered for Model Studies. The model bed between Wazirabad Barrage and Indraprastha Barrage was moulded as per 1998 post-flood survey. In the transverse direction. On the Eastern side (i.3m is provided over the plate type of pier. the original proposal was to connect the bridge to the existing bund road by approximately 540 mtrs long approach road. The well caps for the Pier well as well as abutment well is 2.6m. Figure 10 shows a Typical Cross Section of the Embankment Approach road. The pier is provided with semi circular cut waters at u/s and d/s sides to reduce the impact of water current forces.e. the loads will be carried in two stages ±PSC girder alone will support its self weight plus the load from the deck slab and diaphragms while the composite section will carry the balance load viz.. etc. a reverse taper has been provided with the overall width of 7. thus avoiding expansion joints at alternate piers.50m.5m at the base and 9.6m in the longitudinal direction. Self-weight of each Girder has been restricted to 85 tons from consideration of ease of erection and handling. Pune. Figure 4 shows the General Arrangement of the Bridge.e. The wells under abutments on either side are circular in shape and having an outer diameter of 9. The rectangular pier cap of dimension 12.L. The depth of PSC T Girder has been kept as 2. Figure 9 shows Dimensions of RCC Cellular Abutment.0m with steining thickness of 1.210.provided at the centerline of the median along the entire length of the bridge. with double well piers. Hydraulic Studies Hydraulic Model studies were carried out for the bridge at Central Water & Power Research Station.5m below the low water level of R. Geeta Colony Side). With proposed bridge in position with waterway of 560m.0m thick Figures 7 & Figure 8 show Dimensions of a typical Pier Well and Abutment Well respectively.

75m in two layers were recommended. The area could be filled up and brought to a level above HFL.750/s would be at RL 208. On the right downstream side a guide bund making an angle of 90° with the bridge axis having a length of 140m long followed curved tail of 120m radius.48 lakh cusecs) (maximum discharges observed in 1988 at Wazirabad barrage) 9. stones in crates of size 0. The likely deepest scour level around the proposed bridge piers could be around RL 178. For all the above cases.25 lakh cusecs) (discharge considered for Delhi ± Noida road bridge). No gap behind the left guide bund is advisable.21m observed at the proposed bridge site. Protection materials are to be laid over geofabric filter. For the guide bund on river side along the right upstream guide bund beyond 150m from bridge axis and along the left guide bund 100m upstream and 90m downstream from bridge axis. the top level of guide bund and approach embankment could be 209. On the left downstream side a guide bund of 100m long making 100° with the bridge axis with curved tail of 120m radius.5m X 0.71m. That means the effect of afflux will not be going beyond old rail-cum-road bridge. foundation and protection works suggested by Central Water Commission. .5m in one layer and for launching apron.5 lakh cusecs) (Check flood for substructure. At the old rail--road bridge the afflux was reduced to 10-15 cm.5m above water level of RL 208.4km and 2.52m at old rail--road bridge. The waterway of 560m (14 spans of 40m centre to centre) and the location of the left abutment 145m inside the river from left marginal bund are recommended.866 cum/sec (5.5 lakh cusecs) (design discharge considered for ISBT Bridge) 12750 cum/sec (4. a side slope of 1:2 and apron width of 45m should be provided. The water levels for discharge of 12.910 cum/sec (3. For the sloping portion of the river side. following discharges were taken for studies : y y y y 7. with double well piers and with left and right guide bunds modified by CWPRS.5m X 0. a 15cm thick layer of coarse sand should be provided before placing of stone crates to avoid rupture of geofabric material.0m X 0.3. Over the geofabric filter.022 cum/sec (2. Following are the recommendations given by CWPRS for the bridge: y y y The alignment of the bridge axis with its orientation making 1. With proposed bridge in position with waterway of 560m. 14.0km on the right and left sides respectively downstream of the old rail-cum-road bridge is hydraulically satisfactory. Figure 11 shows the details of Guide Bund.21m at the proposed bridge site and at RL 208. Hence considering a free board of 1.47m and may be considered for deciding the foundation level. On the right upstream side a guide bund of 218m long with curved head of multi radii (220m and 90m) making an angle of 130° with the bridge axis.0m X 1. A water way of 560 m would cause an afflux of 15-20 cm at the proposed bridge axis. stones in crates of size 1. On the left upstream side a guide bund making an angle of 90° with the bridge axis having a length of 162m followed by a curved head of 96m radius upto the marginal bund.

sandy silt with gravel strata has been observed.22m (For abutments±seismic case) Maximum Founding Level : 168. The land boreholes were 20m deep and were drilled for the proposed embankment.) : 14.33m (For abutments±normal case) : 191. Maximum Scour depth below HFL : 178.44m (For piers±seismic case) : 189. it has been observed that the strata predominantly consist of nonplastic poorly graded sand and silty sand/ Sandy silt with traces of gravel upto the depth explored/refusal strata. layers of silty clay of low to medium plasticity of varying thickness were observed in some of the bore holes.750 ecs (Based on Model Study Report) (check flood discharge for design of protection works. one layer of crates of 0. Where. 4 bore holes were drilled under water. However. Silt Factor Silt factor was calculated using the following formula: Ksf = 1. From the classification of the samples.1m (For abutments) . in 2 of the bore holes.76 ³m.5m X 0. However.47m (For piers ±normal case) : 181.866 ecs (For design of Foundation only) Effective linear waterway : 482.77m Highest Flood level (affluxed) : 208. The calculation revealed that silt factor within the anticipated scour depth is 1.y Protection work for right approach embankment with a side slope 1:2 (on both sides) with top width of 40m having two layers of stones weighing 40-50 kg for the first 300m from right abutment. substructure etc. River boreholes were 50m deep and were drilled at the proposed abutment and proposed pier locations.5m X 0. Scour Depth Design Discharge : 12. it has been revealed that the strata beyond refusal predominantly consist of silty clay of medium plasticity. Geotechnical Investigations At the proposed site 15 River bore holes and 8 land boreholes were drilled.6m (For piers ) : 183.21 (Corresponding to discharge of 12750 ecs). Beyond refusal the boreholes were advanced by hydraulic drilling machine upto 50m depth and representative samples have been collected. This value has been considered for evaluating the scour depth. River Bore Holes From the soil classification.5m for next 400m (middle portion) and for remaining portion upto the marginal bund two layers of stones weighing 40-50 kg are recommended.309. m = mean size particle in mm m = 0. Refusal strata (N>100) was observed in 6 bore holes with varying depths of 18m to 36m below the ground level.02.

The recommendations of M/s CWPRS on scour depth. seismic bearing restraint. considering the large diameter pile and scour depth of 20m.5-m depth and representative samples were collected and analyzed for soil classification. Land Bore Holes While advancing the boreholes. The technology for construction of large diameter deep bored pile foundation reliably in difficult site condition (such as deep water. has been followed in the stage design /drawings. the earthquake forces are most critical. This is due to the following technical reasons: y y y y y y The design of foundation is governed by the horizontal forces caused by braking. wind etc. Design Aspects Foundation Conventional Well foundation has been chosen for this bridge as against the modern trend to go for Pile Foundation. founding level. This is due to the fact that the scour condition can never be simulated during the load testing of piles. for which piles of diameter 1.0m below the ground surface for an allowable settlements of 218mm and 204mm at centre and edge of embankment respectively. a permanent liner of 6mm/8mm would have been required at least upto the scour level. The cost of piling with liner and with the high technology piling equipment would not have been lesser than the well foundations.5m or more is only considered suitable. the technology of constructing will foundation is well established. which is seismically an active zone. In case of pile foundation. From the soil classification. In contrast. It is difficult to reliably establish the load carrying capacity of piles in scour able rivers. Any change in the type of foundation after carrying out model study would not be desirable. In case of pile foundation. fast following river) is limited in India. layers of silty clay of low to medium plasticity of two meter thickness were observed in 2 bore holes. . However. SPT tests were conducted at regular interval of 1. guide bund geometry.0m diameter was analyzed at different founding levels the net Safe bearing pressure is given in the following table. launching apron details and river protection works. The hydraulic model study carried out by M/s CWPRS for this bridge considers well foundation for model study. For the proposed 10m height embankment with base width of 50m and top width of 30m a safe bearing pressure of 18t/m2 is recommended at cutoff level of abut 2.Recommendations for Bearing Capacity For the proposed Bridge Well Foundation of 8. Floating debris during floods is high and vibration phenomenon of pile clusters. Since this bridge is located in Delhi. This aspect has not been studied adequately in India so far. There are only few contractors in India having experience of constructing large diameter piles in river. it has been observed that the strata predominantly consist of non-plastic poorly graded sand and silty sand/Sandy silt with traces of gravel upto the depth explored. the free standing length of the piles during scour is likely to be about 20m.

the scour level for the purpose of design of abutment well is considered as the bottom of well cap. indicating possibility of large settlement(i. Full continuity would have meant lager forces to be attracted by the Superstructure due to differential settlement between adjacent foundations. The sequence of construction for a typical continuous unit is as follows. Since the abutment well is protected from scour by guide bund.y y All existing bridge across river Yamuna in Delhi. Superstructure The superstructure of the bridge is conceived as a 2 span continues structure with the continuity established through deck slab only.e. casting of 140 precast girders for the main bridge has been done simultaniously when well sinking was going on at the river bed. Photo 1: Sinking of Well Foundation in progress Photo 2: Bottom Plugging of Well Foundation in progress The well foundation is designed as per conventional methods. The practice and precedence in this case is therefore in favor of well foundation rather than pile. .´ Though this special publication has been partially withdrawn by IRC later for different reasons. it was ruled out for this bridge since the subsoils strata showed presednce of clay layer. Clause 4. though considered a better structure system as compared to only deck continuity. The design of pier well foundation as well as abutment well foundation is carried out as per the provisions of IRC:782000. except the Delhi ±Noida Tollway Bridge. Precast post tensioned girders chosen in order to speeed up the construction work at site. Detailing and Durability of Important Bridge Structures´) clearly states that ³Pile foundation shall not be accepted within the flood zone of the river with deep scour. upto 75mm) that can be expected in foundations. Photo 1 & Photo 2 show the sinking of well foundation in progress. Full continuity (i. are resting on well foundation. the emphasis is clearly against use of pile foundation in major rivers with deep scour. A tilt of 1 in 80 and a shift of 150mm for the well in the resultant direction of force has been considered in the design as per the code. continuity through deck slab as well as diaphragm).1 of the IRC:SP33-1989 (Special publication titled ³Guidelines on Supplemental Measures for Design. Expansion joints are provided at a spacing of 80m.e.

Design Live Load For the 9. To cast the railing. Analysis of the whole structure and transfer of forces in the substructure and foundation largely depends upon the bearings arrangement.y y y y y y y y To cast precast prestressed girder on casting yard. One lane of Class 70R with one lane of class A or one/ two/three lanes of Class A whichever produces greater results has been considered in this case. 1stt stage prestressing was carried out in the casting yard. crash barrier & wearing coat over the girder. Girders were of length 38. Prestressing was carried out in 2 stages. Concrete of grade M40 has been used for girders as well as deck slab. The Guided Bearing is designed to take horizontal loads due to seismic in the transverse direction. 4 Free POT PTFE bearings and one Guided Bearings has been provided. 5 cables were stressed in the outer & intermediate girders in the 1stt stage while for the central girders. 5 girders were used for each carriageway. crash barrier & wearing coat over the deck continuity portion. At each line of support. To cast deck slab over the precast girder by taking support from the launched girder. In such situation. To prestress 1st stage cables in the casting bed and shift the girder to stacking yard. To prestress 2nd stage cables. excluding the deck continuity portion. while 6 number of cables were used for central girders. Bearings Selection of the bearing type and finalization of bearing layout in a continuous structure is one of the most important task. 2nd stage prestressing was carried out in-situ. The bridge has also been checked for carriageway width of 12. The precast girders were 2. the number of lanes for the design purpose shall be taken as 3 as per IRC:62000. The horizontal loads in the longitudinal direction are transferred to the fixed pier through seismic thrust block and vertical . Figure 12: Typical Bearing Arrangements The arrangement comprises of a series of Metallic Free POT PTFE bearings and Guided Bearings. Cables type 12K13 have been used for prestressing. 10 days after the casting of girder. To cast the continuity slab between the girders. To cast the railing.0m carriageway.45m assuming that the crash barrier may be removed in future and the entire deck will become a wide carriageway. one under each girder. 2 cables were stressed in the 2nd stage. Total 7 numbers of cables have been used for outer and intermediate girders. 21 days after casting of deck slab. which is required to be established during the initial conceptual design process itself since the layout of bearing has significant influence on the structural system. placed behind shantivan side abutment.7m and 85 tonnes weight. the number of lanes for the design purpose shall be taken as 2 as per IRC:6-2000. One lane of Class 70R or one/two lanes of Class A whichever produces greater results shall be considered in such case. To launch the precast girder inposition. 4 cables were stressed.3m deep.

Instead of the conventional launching truss/ launching girder. Bearings are designed for a maximum design vertical load of 160 tonnes. Expansion Joints Modular Expansion joints (with 2 modules) have been used for all the intermediate pier locations. and placed in its position. Figure 13 shows the plan of precasting yard and lowering station. which is located just behind the shantivan side abutment. in the first span and then moved along the river bed to the location. the design vertical load was taken as 400 tonnes as against 160 tonnes.elastomeric bearings. The level of the casting yard has been kept above HFL so as to ensure that the precasting works are unaffected during the monsoon season. the proposed scheme involves moving the girder on the river bed itself. The girders are lowered to the river bed level first at the designated lowering station. The pre-cast girder will be handled by means of hoisting frame with mechanical/hydraulic devices. Steel trolley on rail will carry the pre-cast girder to its location where the girder is to be lifted. in order to satisfy the codal requirements of IRC:83 (Part III). . Guided bearings are designed for lateral load of 100 tonnes and associated vertical load of 160 tonnes. single strip seal type expansion joints have been used. Since In this particular case. the guided bearings are subjected to lateral loads more than 25% of the vertical load. Launching & Erection Scheme for Precast Girder A unique scheme of launching and erection of the precast post tensioned girders has been adopted for this bridge. which moves over the constructed piers/abutments. Figure: Layout of Precasting Yard & Lowering Station for Launching of precast Girder Figure : Erection of Precast Girder with Lifting Beam From the pre-casting yard. The girders are cast in the casting yard. a trolley track (rail track) will be laid parallel to centre line of the bridge axis at the casting level as well as at the river bed level. At the abutments. The hoisting frame will take support from the pier cap at one end. Figure 14 shows the erection of precast girder with lifting beam.

Photo 3: Precast Girder lowered to Transport trolly at the casting Yard Photo 4: Precast Girder moved from casting yard to lowering station Photo 5: Precast Girder lowered to river bed at lowering station Photo 6: Precast Girder moved to the locatio n on rails over river bed Photo 7: Girder lifted up from the trolly Photo 8: Girder Erection in progress with lifting beam & Hoisting Frame Photo 9: All Girders in a span erected in position .

Contractor and the Consultant. The project has been completed successfully with exemplary quality of workmanship. Credit for successful completion of this project goes to the excellent team work and understanding between the Client (PWD).Photo 3 to Photo 9 show the launching and erection scheme used for the precast post tensioned girders in this project. . Conclusion The paper describes the planning. design and construction conditions elating to bridge over river yamuna near geeta colony.

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