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Guidelines Sewing Room Production Management
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS • • • • • • • • • • Process Flow Process Planning Factory Capacity Planning Concept of Industrial Engineering Department Product Analysis Balancing Production Follow Up Maintenance Guidelines Cost Control and Incentive Plan Quality Procedures in Sewing Area
PAGE NO. 03 09 10 13 18 21 25 29 37 52
The process flow starts once the order / fabric commitment is received and the product development department hands over the file to production merchandiser and ends when the goods reach the buyers. The entire cycle involves all activities directly or indirectly related to procuring of materials, planning and monitoring of the order. A brief outline of the procedure is as below:
RECEIPT OF ORDER
PREPARE DETAILED T&A
FABRIC PO, PI, LC
TRIM PO, PI
PILOT YARDAGE INHOUSE ALL DEPARTMENTS ADVISED OF THE T&A
INSPECTION SHRINKAGE TEST
SIZE SET & SEALER SAMPLE APPROVAL BULK IN-HOUSE
INSPECTION TEST REPORTS
INSPECTION TEST REPORTS
PRE-PRODUCTION MEETING PILOT RUN APPROVAL
BULK CUTTING SEWING FINISHING PACKING
AUDITS DONE AT VARIOUS STAGES OF PRODUCTION, TOP/PRS SAMPLES SENT TO BUYER AS PER REQUIREMENTS.
FINAL AUDIT SHIPMENT OF GOODS
• RECEIPT OF ORDER o Receipt of an order means final confirmation of the order from the buyer. o Since, this is the final confirmation it is done by means of a legal document called a PO (purchase order) or an FC (fabric commitment) PO (purchase order) – this is a legal document stating the quantity, delivery, price, style no, buyer, vendor details. On receipt of a PO it is very important that the merchandiser checks all details and confirms that they are correct like – quantity, delivery date, price, style no, style description, color no & reference if mentioned, shipment mode, shipment port, vendor address, buyer address. FC (fabric commitment) – fabric commitment is a legal document confirming that the buyer will be buying the said quantity of a particular fabric. A garment style no need not be mentioned on this document as it is a commitment only for buying fabric. This kind of a legal document is used by the buyer when there are very probable chances of change in the style or the same fabric is being used in a number of styles and the buyer has still not decided on the quantity to be purchased in each of the styles. Hence in such a situation the buyer gives a block booking for fabric. o Once the order is received four different activities are started off simultaneously. These activities are – preparing a detailed T&A, Fabric Ordering, Trim Ordering, fit cycle and sample approvals. • PREPARING A DETAILED T&A o Preparation of a detailed time and action (T&A) calendar is very essential in production merchandising. The reason being, large no of activities have to be followed up for each order and a merchandised may be handling large number of such orders and hence it is essential that all activities are listed. This minimizes the risk of missing out any of the activities. Hence while preparing a T&A one should list down as many activities as one can think of which are essential in smooth running of the order. A detailed discussion on T&A is done later in this module. o This T&A is prepared by the merchandiser in consultation with all the concerned departments such as – sourcing (fabrics & accessories), production, and quality assurance, logistics. o Once the T&A is finalized the same should be circulated to all concerned departments. Another important aspect of the T&A is fixing the responsibility. Along with finalizing the date by which a particular activity has to be completed, the merchandiser should also mention the name of person who is responsible to complete the activity by that time. • FABRIC ORDERING
The mills bank then approaches the factories bank and gets its payment from the same. 20% advance. On acceptance of the LC by the mills bank. The factories bank then gets the payment from the factory.o This activity involves ordering of fabric with the mill. This payment can be done by means of DD (demand draft). 80% at sight. packing list and Air way bill details) in its bank and get the payment for the goods. The LC once made. Apart from just ensuring that the quantity is correct the BOM also helps in checking that all materials required in completion of the order are ordered and nothing has been missed out. the balance at sight – example. The details to be looked at are: Gen-Prom (UNDP) 5 KSA-Technopak . The important points to be taken care of during this activity are: Accurate computation of the requirement. this becomes a legal contract between the two parties. o There can be various kinds of payment term agreements between the buying and the selling parties as below – Some %c of payment in advance. The buying party (factory in case of fabric) opens up a LC with its bank and the same is transferred to the mills bank. cheque or TT (telegraphic transfer) LC (letter of credit) – in this payment mode the banks of both parties are involved. Selecting the best vendor for materials in terms of quality. the balance 80% is pain once the goods are received by the buyer (factory). The mill also provides its bank details on the PI so that the factory can work out the payments. This is essential to ensure that during bulk production the materials do not fall short nor are they in access and there are leftovers after the order is shipped. The purchase order should list down the following very clearly – Name & Reference no of the article Quality description of the article Quantity Price Delivery date Quality parameters as required by the buyer Payment terms Pilot yardage requirements if any o The mill sends a PI (Performa invoice) confirming the details as mentioned in the PO. An accurate calculation of material requirement can be done if the BOM (bill of materials) as provided by the buyer in the specification sheet is studied thoroughly. price and delivery. Once the goods are dispatched the mill submits the dispatch details (Invoice. In case of any changes required in the PO the same are also mentioned in the PI. o The fabric order is places by the merchandiser by means of a purchase order. a copy of the same should be called in by the merchandiser and studied to make sure all details as mentioned are correct. This means that 20% of the total value of goods is paid in advance.
In this system every defect is given a point between 1 to 4 based on the nature of the defects. A maximum of 4 points per yards of fabric can be allocated. For example if the customer accepts +/. In general a maximum of 3 shade bands are acceptable by customer. Fabric shade band – the mill segregates the fabric on the basis of shade and makes a shade band. ITS for testing the physical and color parameters of the fabric as required by the customer. This helps the mill in taking corrective actions to eliminate any defects or problems. For example: a man made fiber should have lesser defects that a natural fiber and hence acceptable points level for polyester is kept lower that that of cotton. fabric inspection report and fabric test report. MTL etc. color parameters as laid down by the customer. At this stage if factory observes any problems in fabric behavior the same is immediately conveyed to the mill so that the mill can take corrective action. Fabric having more that 40 points per 100 square yards is considered to be reject. Fabric test report (FPT – fabric performance test) – yardage from bulk is sent to the nominated testing laboratory such as MTL. The most common and used method of inspection is the 4-point system. The determining the shrinkage the fabric is Gen-Prom (UNDP) 6 KSA-Technopak . On the other hand the factory also requires yardage to complete all the pre-production processes such as sample approvals.Name & Reference no of the article Quality description of the article Quantity Price Delivery date LC expiry date o Pilot Yardage – pilot yardage helps is ascertaining any problems that may come in the bulk yardage. prior to bulk fabric shipment the mill dispatches fabric shade bands. Fabric inspection report – this is generally a third part inspection done by buyer nominated inspection company like ITS. The testing laboratory also provides a wash care instruction for the fabric.3% shrinkage. size set etc. o Next. which essentially means the best washing conditions for the fabric. The mill processes the first 100 – 200 yardage to ensure that the same meets the quality. This pilot yardage helps the factory in making all the pre-production samples. The customer evaluates the different shades by means of a grey scale rating as acceptable. Also the factory does fabric inspection and fabric shrinkage test to have an idea of how the bulk fabric will behave. Fabric shrinkage report – the mill tests 10% of the fabric to confirm that the fabric adheres to the specifications as laid down by the customer. Different customers have different point levels depending upon how premium the brand is and also on the nature of the fabric. however this can again vary from customer to customer. fabric having 5% shrinkage is rejected.
The factory can call in trims for sampling and these are called as PROMO TRIMS. which are called as fit comments. measurement. green tag sample etc. Different customers have different no of fit cycles. Here models wear the samples and they are evaluated in terms of fit. In case another sample is requested the factory makes the same incorporating the comments and send again to buyer. This can be called by different names such as sealer sample. The fabric is washed based on the recommended wash care instructions in the FPT. In case of a washed garment. The factory again checks the fabric on 4-point system and also checks the shade bands and also does fabric shrinkage test to confirm that they adhere to the requirements of the buyer. • FIT / SAMPLE APPROVAL While fabric and trim ordering is happening. Factory then also checks the fabric for shade banding. In case of a non-wash garment testing 10% of the fabric is sufficient to determine the shrinkage that needs to be included in the pattern. • PP SAMPLE Once the fit sample is approved the factory makes a PP (Pre-production) sample. The moment a style is selected it goes to the tech department for fitting. in case there is a problem the factory goes on to inspect 100% of the fabric. 100% fabric should be tested for shrinkage. • TRIM ORDERING A similar process as done for the fabric is done for trims. This process is called fit cycle. construction.o o o o tested as per the best washing conditions advised by the testing laboratory on the fabric test report. simultaneously the sample approval procedure is also underway. compares the same with the once sent by the mill and if found acceptable sends one sent out to log the same with customer. the rolls are segregated as per the shrinkages and different patterns are made to incorporate the shrinkages. For fabric shrinkage test – different procedures have to be adopted for ascertaining the shrinkages for a washed and a non-washed style. This sample is sent out the buyer for final approval and once approved becomes the final sample on the basis of which entire production is Gen-Prom (UNDP) 7 KSA-Technopak . Once the buyer confirms that the shade bands are ok. The buyer then sends out comments. factory generally inspects 10% of the fabric. Once all rolls are tested. Once fabric passes through all the above tests and inspections it is shipped to factory. The test is done as per the wash recipe. With regard to fabric inspection. the fabric is ready to be cut.
the pre-final gives factory a chance to amend problems if any. In line and interim inspections are preformed during the production process to ensure that the final product quality meets the required quality level. • SIZE SET Once PP sample is approved the nest step is to make a SIZE SET. This helps in taking corrective action if required before the final audit. construction & visuals) are evaluated. Once 80 – 90 % of the goods are packed a pre-final audit is done. The basic purpose of size set is to ensure that grading between sizes is correct. production in-charge. The pilot run is done on the assembly line and is aimed at ensuring that the operators of the assemble line understand the required quality levels. This is the most important sample and one should take care that everything on this sample is correct as this then becomes the standard. PP & size set) are made in the sampling unit. Once the garments adhere to the required quality standards in all the parameters the shipment is passed and then the shipment is moved to the logistic team. Once PILOT RUN is approved the factory goes into bulk production. pattern master. packaging. The last is the FINAL AUDIT. now the medium size is graded into the different sizes as per the purchase order. This is the last checkpoint before shipment.PRODUCTION MEETING In this meeting everybody concerned with the style sits together to make sure that everybody is on the same page and understands the product. • PRE. takes the shipment schedule and sends the same to the customer. All tentative problems are discussed and solutions sought to execute the order smoothly. • PILOT RUN Once pre-production meeting is done the factory does PILOT RUN. Now the merchandiser interacts with the logistic department. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 8 KSA-Technopak . this meeting has the merchandiser. sample master etc.made and audited. All aspects (packing. This is very essential since all sample prior to the pilot run (fit samples. Hence. fabric in-charge. measurement. All the fit samples and the PP samples are in the medium size. cutting. finishing. Factory cuts 100 – 200 garments based on the order quantity. line supervisor. Generally since the final audit happens very close to the shipment date.
sales and customers are lost. Being able to meet delivery dates and quickly respond to market trends is critical. Every season. as well as to realistically predict the outcome of those decisions. These goals can only be achieved if a company recognizes the critical role played by planning and scheduling in the manufacturing and distribution processes. efficient communications and the ability to make fast and informed decisions.PROCESS PLANNING Introduction The ability to meet increasingly stringent delivery commitments while also maximizing profits is critical to any company's success in today's global business environment. increasing the need for more accurate forecasting. Effective planning relies on rapid. Material planning. (Time & Action Calendar. planning and scheduling. priority orders are overlooked. Sample room planning) Gen-Prom (UNDP) 9 KSA-Technopak . and the level of obsolescent inventory increases. fashion/apparel companies must continually design and develop new lines and collections to keep retailers interested and spur consumer sales. The planning process can be broadly divided into 2 heads: • Macro level planning – Factory capacity planning • Micro level planning – Detailed planning of each order / style. accurate and up-to-date information. Poor planning costs money orders are delayed.
does not have adequate work for 2 months of an year and has more that capacity bookings for another 2 months of the year. the merchandising division comes to know the exact production slot available before confirming an order. The following parameters have to be calculated to ascertain the factory production capacity. So the months when there are not enough orders. Hence production capacities for all styles have to be converted into a common unit of measurement. sewing. but also the fabric and trim suppliers in order to deliver the goods on time. • How to plan factory capacity? The most common question is how do we plan and calculate capacity when the company does multi style products? The answer is – a factory capacity should be planned in a manner that it is independent of styling. This coordinated planning should also be flexible to respond quickly to unforeseen changes and that is the most difficult challenge. When several organizations across countries have to work together to produce a single garment. the unit has to run on overtime to meet the delivery dates.FACTORY CAPACITY PLANNING This is a very important tool and helps in decision making while confirming an order. This is very important as it helps in bring down the costs. finishing. It is not only the garment manufacturing units that need to plan the factory capacities. In both cases the cost of operations increases. For example take this case – A manufacturing unit which employees salaried operators. Zippers and trims came from Hong Kong and the cutting. Thus Capacity planning helps in: • • Decision making – confirming the order delivery dates. The real challenge lies in planning production schedules in a manner that allows reasonable utilization of factory at all given point of times. which is TIME. Easy visualization of effects of delay OR preponement of one order on the subsequent orders. Optimum utilization of resources – ensuring that the factory is adequately utilized throughout the year. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 10 KSA-Technopak . inspection & packing happened in Pakistan. The label on a denim pant says “Made in Pakistan” but it is quite possible that the fabric came from China. co-ordination of production schedules becomes a necessity. the company has to still pay the wages of the operators & also the months when there are more than capacity orders. By planning the capacities of the production facility.
By combining the efficiencies of all lines in a factory. LINE 1 A 20 minutes 60 15 75x8x60 36000 minutes 1200 1200 x 20 24000 minutes LINE 2 B 30 minutes 40 10 50x8x60 24000 minutes 500 500 x 30 15000 minutes Style SAM No of Operators No of helpers Total available time Total garments produced Total SAM’s produced Hence. This can be illustrated by the below example: = 2 minutes = 8 hrs shift x 60 minutes = 480 minutes = no of operations done in 8 hrs x SAM of the operation = 150 x 2 = 300 minutes = (Total SAM’s produced / Hours Worked) x 100 = (300 / 480) x 100 = 62. The below example illustrates how the calculation is done.• • SAM for a garment – Standard Allowed Minutes for a garment Factory efficiency Levels SAM and Factory Efficiency Level calculation • • • SAM is the total time taken by a 100% efficient operator to perform a particular job / operation.5 % SAM of a operation Total available time Total no of SAM’s produced Efficiency • • Similarly line efficiencies can also be calculated. The Industrial Engineering department by means of Time & Motion study calculates SAM. Once SAM has been calculated the operator efficiency level is determined. In this case the total available hours are calculated and this include the hours worked by operators and helpers in the line. Total available time for the factory = 36000 + 24000 = 60000 minutes Total SAM’s produced by the factory = 24000 + 15000 = 39000 minutes Factory Efficiency = (SAM’s produced / Available minutes) x 100 =(39000/60000) x 100 = 65% Gen-Prom (UNDP) 11 KSA-Technopak . the Factory Efficiency is ascertained.
This Average efficiency is then utilized for calculation of factory production capacity. The factory on an average works for 26 days in a month. Explaining the same with the help of below example: A 500 machine factory employees a workforce of 600 people (operators & helpers).• • The Factory efficiency is calculated on a daily basis and over a period 3-6 months the Average Factory Efficiency is determined from the data collected. The average factory efficiency as calculated over a period of time is – 60% From the above details we can calculate – Total available time = 600 x 26 x 8 x 60 = 7488000 minutes = available time x efficiency = 7488000 x 60% = 4492800 minutes = 4492800 minutes = Capacity / SAM of the garment Productive time Hence FACTORY CAPACITY No of garments that the factory can produce Based on the above calculation Factory Capacity can be determined for any product. if the below information is available: • SAM of the garment • Average Factory Efficiency • Total workforce • Working hours / shift / day Gen-Prom (UNDP) 12 KSA-Technopak . 8 hours shift per day.
The industrial engineering department has to decide about a systematic production system to generate customer satisfaction. The industrial engineering department role and responsibilities are defined on the following notes along with a standard form set. Department Specification a) Overall Responsibility To maximise the overall efficiency of the manufacturing functions through the provision of an effective. Specify the equipment type and work aids to be used. incorporating line and individual (operation) productivity standards. "“the technique of foreseeing or picturing ahead. each step to be taken in the right place. every step in along series of separate operations. The objective of having an industrial engineering department is to replicating best practice methods on each operation.” Production planning provide a line for effective. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 13 KSA-Technopak . appropriate and timely work study and industrial engineering service and maintenance of an ideal production environment. of the right degree and at the right time. It involves management decisions on the resources that the firm will require for its manufacturing operations and selection of these resources to produce the desired goods at the appropriate time and at the least cost. Time standard developed for each operation will be the base for incentive payment and must be accurate to defined 5% tolerance level.CONCEPT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Production is an organised activity in a manufactured organisation. and each operation to be done at maximum efficiency. Production planning is defined as. Production Planning Production planning is an essential prerequisite to production control. Establish the operation sequence (Operation bulletin). b) Key Tasks • • • Product Analysis Determine the optimum method of construction to achieve required finished product efficiently. balanced flow of product.
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 14 KSA-Technopak . cost of excess inventory carrying. The forecast demands are adjusted as under while planning the actual production: a) b) c) On the basis of available production capacity. The plans are formulated in light of specified future period. Specification of production requirements: Though demand forecast provides the bases in production planning. Reasonable allowances are made for possible errors in forecast. While deciding the quantity of materials due consideration is given to seasonal advantage. it is not every thing in production planning. The important steps in production planning are: 1) Demand forecasts: The production planning function is geared to the estimated demand for the products.Planning Procedure The end product of production planning efforts is the formulation of production plans. If seasonal or other kind of symmetry can be predicted. production can be planned to take advantage of the predicted pattern of the demand. which have been developed for particular plan. 2) d) - Performance Development Apply industrial engineering techniques to develop the performance of teams and individuals by motivation and organisation. the forecast demand is put on the calendar schedule. The plans are to be implemented in the light of the estimated cost and agreed policies The policies are farmed in the light of planning techniques and strategies. cost of stock outs etc. The deficiency or surplus of the existing production capacity is ascertained in the term of the machine capacity and labour cost. The demand forecasting represents and anticipates level of demand and it also reflects pattern of the demand. The demand forecast must be converted in to a specification of production requirements. A schedule of materials requirements is prepared. This goal is achieved by working together with the production department to build the production capability.
and conditions. we need to know the value of the work they produce. Effective supervision is impossible without standardisation of methods. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 15 KSA-Technopak . One of the basic functions of engineering is to get facts. So main functions of engineering are: . from detailed manual moments to major decisions on technology. Since part of engineering function is to measure work. Do you think that there would be much of that someone could guess exactly right as to how much work to load in? Of course not! In order to schedule work accurately. Think of confusion that would result if each operator on a job performed his or her work differently from anyone else. Engineering helps to standardise. c) Fair Payment of Employees In order to pay employees fairly. and without fair payment to the employees is doomed to chaos and failure. d) Prevention of Chaos Any attempt to run a department without standardised conditions. someone needs to know how long it takes to go through each operation. These facts may be in form of a time study. a) Develop detailed production methods. the engineer has made or cost report the engineer has designed. Suppose quality specifications changed every day so that what passed yesterday rejected today. Suppose there was no way of knowing how more work your section could handle. you need a firm schedule of production. The industrial engineering is very useful in: a) Standardisation You can appreciate the need for standard convocations in managing your department.- Industrial Engineering Industrial engineering is a key part of a project. Engineering data helps to make this decision. b) Production Scheduling In order to run your department efficiently. without a production schedule. equipment. So we can say that the basic need for engineering is the need for management information.
however necessary. The two dimensions to maintenance are preventive maintenance before breakdown and maintenance after the breakdown happens. sample time etc. taking account of skill requirements Operator training Support the operator training and recruitment function with AAMT documentation. waiting time. to be to be successful the following must hold true: It easy for the operator to understand and to calculate his or her pay. c) Justify all changes based on analyses of the work content in the operation. including targets and controls. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 16 KSA-Technopak . To make the incentive plant effective. thinking it be a not so important job. So far industries has a tendency to neglect maintenance function. Though preventive maintenance reduces the number of breakdowns.b) Documents all the methods using manuals.) must not affect incentive earnings. It helps in maintaining and increasing the operational efficiency of plant facilities and thus contributes of the revenue by reducing the operating cost and increasing the quality of quality of the production. computer based system as appropriate. but as applied to standard of service expected of the machine. production methods. it has been taken just for granted. avoiding thus the investment in addition facilities. Off standard time (machine delay. work-studies and time standards are effectively and rigorously maintained. it should be up to date and properly maintained. production equipment and work places. Proper maintenance leads to better capacity utilisation of same asset. The plant must have an adequate incentive between the base rate and the minimum rate. Maintenance is a sort of quality control problem. Plant maintenance is important and inevitable service function of an efficient production system. Regardless of the type incentive plan used. We have to take consideration the cost of failing to prevent. AAMT involves the systematic training Maintenance Ensure that the incentive scheme.
machine and material. Better production methods is the prerequisite for reducing the work content and involved primarily the unnecessary movement on the part of materials or operatives by substituting good methods for poor one. work content. i. Standard time express the total time a job will take at standard performance.Work study is defined as a technique that embraces method study and work management which are employed to ensure the best possible use of human and material resources in carrying out the specified activity. and interference allowance. It will take very important part to motivate an operator. Continuous Improvement Continuous review production methods to identify and take cost save opportunities. unoccupied time. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 17 KSA-Technopak .e. So maintaining good methods in the department for continuous improvement in productivity is the important task for the engineering department. Constantly monitor operator performance against time standard and targets and take action to improve performance and eliminate causes of under performance. The main objective of work-study is to improve productivity of men. The standard time for each operation should be standardised according to conditions and maintained in the engineering department. contingency allowance for delay. Give some targets to operators tell them about the target clearly and check their performance against the target.. where applicable. Standard time has been defined as `the total time in which the job should be completed at standard performance’. give continuous feedback to the operator about his or her performance.
Documents used for the product analysis is Operation Bulletin Operation bulletin is a documented form of sequence of operations in a product. Of operations. • Establishing the operation sequence (Operation bulletin).g. • Specifying the equipment type and work aids to be used. Operation bulletin also contains some other parameters as follows: Output (pieces per day) Target efficiency Minutes per day Total standard time Total no of work places In simple way we can say that operation bulletin is a record of Equipment type Machine attachments Workplace engineering aids Standard time for each operation It can be extended to include Hourly/ period targets for each operation Manpower Requirements Equipment Requirements It should cover all operations that can be directly related to single unit of a product e. Operation bulletin contains the standard times for each operation. It contains all the information about the machine required and the total no. of operator required.PRODUCT ANALYSIS Product Analysis consists of • Determining the optimum method of construction to achieve required finished product efficiently. total no. Spread and cut Sew including manual operations Finish and pack Gen-Prom (UNDP) 18 KSA-Technopak .
Movements of two feet if any can be recorded by making two additional columns. specs specified by the buyer.The operation bulletin is a fundamental planning tool used for many functions such as Capacity planning Methods engineering Line planning Performance measurement Manpower planning Investment appraisal Incentive payment Factory loading The operation Bulletin should be developed at the earlier stage of product development. The intrinsic quality intended in the design that is the quality of design is the first aspect. with a view to improving them by subsequent critical analysis. Method Description In order that the operation selected for method study may be visualised in the entirety. method of production. There may be different way to method description such as charts & phonographic or electronics methods of recording etc. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 19 KSA-Technopak . it is essential to have means of placing on records all the necessary facts of the existing method. knowledge of the design and skill level of the person. Activities are interrelated by the spacing between the movements of each hand so that simultaneous movements by both hands appear opposite each other. A sample of two-handed process chart is given below: Quality Specification Quality is an asset. There are two aspects of quality. which contribute to the ultimate quality of the product. Hand charts are especially useful when work is confined to a single workplace and consist of the use of the hands and arm as in our case. A two-handed process chart is made of two columns in which are recorded the movements of the left hand and right hand respectively. which is acquired at the sampling stage and depends on the type of materials used. which may be offered to the potential customer of a product.
The degree to which this quality is achieved in production that is the quality of conformance is the second aspect. Important is that quality specs should be defined in such a way that each one could understand it better way. Here quality specs of the buyer and experienced gain at the sampling stage play a important role in maintaining the quality. Specifications should include all technical parameter. and performance specifications. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 20 KSA-Technopak .
Some of these reasons are: • • • • • Keeping inventory costs low results in higher net income Keeping normal inventory levels lets the operator work all day long giving him/her the opportunity to earn more money by increasing his/her efficiency Keeping the line balanced let’s the supervisors improve other areas because they can use their time better Balanced production keeps prices low which turns into repeat sales Balanced production means better production planning. A good range would be from 30 min to 120 min inventory level. It is a very important topic that we will cover in detail. How do you keep all operations producing at the same rate? Well this is very difficult since operator’s skills vary. We also try to keep operators at the expected level of production or higher if possible. We are able to balance using Utility operators that “fill holes” in production.BALANCING Balancing is a subject that relates to every decision taken on the production floor. After this we need to determine how much WIP we need to anticipate production problems. To be able to achieve this is extremely difficult. Any variation outside this range should be avoided. What is a balanced production system? It is a system where you meet the production expectations and you can find the same amount of work in process in every operation at any point in the day. We balance the production line for a number of reasons. A variation of this magnitude signifies an unbalanced line and should be looked into immediately. How do we start balancing the production line? Well we can start by determining how many operators for each operation are needed for a determined level of production. If we choose to have balanced inventories at the end of every day that will prove to be a reasonably difficult challenge. There are 3 rules for balancing: 1) Have at least ½ hour of WIP for each operation 2) Solve problems before they become any larger 3) Meet production goals by keeping every operator working at their maximum capacity Gen-Prom (UNDP) 21 KSA-Technopak . KSA recommends a 1-hour inventory level for each operation. It is very important that all supervisors put balancing the line in their daily plans every day.
The most basic ones are Production Sheets. the inventory levels by operation and the Production Boards. Items to take into account when making balancing decisions: 1) You should meet production goals a) Using Regular operators b) Using utility operators c) Using temporary transfers 2) Work flow must be constant through all operations 3) Avoid Overtime 4) Determine Human Resource needs a) b) c) d) e) f) Operators required at 100% Capacity of actual operators Actual operators equivalent to need in (A) New operators to train Utility operators Cross training 5) Balance the Human Resources 6) Know how much work is needed for each operation 7) Check absences daily 8) Assign Utility operators based on absences 9) Update Daily Production report every two hours 10) Make balancing decisions every two hours and check them to the production manager Gen-Prom (UNDP) 22 KSA-Technopak .Balancing Tools: There are a number of tools that can be used for balancing. the Daily production report. These are applied according to the plant’s needs.
The operation can regularly produce more Move some resources from the current than the goal and the inventory is currently operation to a previous one. normal level The operation has required production but (Something is causing the limited supply to at this point inventory is at a lower than this operation. The operation has low production but the (Something is causing the limited supply to WIP is lower than normal this operation. operator then have him reduce the inventory to a normal level and meet his/her quota then put him to work on another operation. The operation has low production and the (This is a bad but not unusual situation) inventory is high Transfer resources to this operation and make sure the operators are at full capacity doing a bundle by bundle follow-up. The operation has low production but the Transfer resources to this operation but inventory is at a normal level make sure the operators are at full capacity doing a bundle by bundle follow-up.) You should transfer normal level resources to the previous operation but examine it to find out what is causing the imbalance. below its normal level. by production and the inventory is at a Keep the operators working at full capacity and the inventory at a normal level.The Balancing Matrix When You need to The operation can produce more than the Keep the operators where they are but goal but right now you have accumulated remove some of them when the inventory level is back to normal. The operation can regularly produce more Remove resources and place them in other than the goal and the inventory is at a operations normal level now. The operation has the required capacity but Make sure that the operators are working at inventory is high at this point full capacity and transfer some resources to this operation temporarily The operation regularly meets the quota set Do nothing. This is your ideal situation.) Investigate the previous operation but transfer resources to this one so that the next operation is not affected Gen-Prom (UNDP) 23 KSA-Technopak . If there is only one inventory in front of the operation.
HIGH OUT PUT LOW The Balancing Matrix Transfer OUT after WIP is normal WIP Transfer IN temporarily Transfer IN + BBB Follow-up Transfer OUT now No Change Transfer IN + BBB Follow-up Transfer OUT to Transfer OUT to previous operation Transfer IN + Temporarily + previous Study previous Study previous operation operation operation LOW Gen-Prom (UNDP) 24 KSA-Technopak .
So for the purposes of this training. However. Many worthwhile plans and projects have failed because someone did not follow up. usually performed by an engineer or follow up technician.PRODUCTION FOLLOW UP "Follow up" means that someone "checks and Stays with" something until the desired results have been achieved. she had a capacity of 116 percent. the operator is timed to see how long each bundle takes to complete. Uses of operator follow up: There are a number of uses for operator follow up: 1. as this information can be used later. Bundle by bundle follow up: Bundle By bundle follow up. operators are not producing as much as they can. Her capacity dropped 20 percentage points from one week to another. During observations. The most widely used operator follow up is bundle by bundle follow up. or could last as long as a full day or even a week. follow up means to stay on top of something until the desired results are achieved. the supervisor's concern for follow up is related to operators performance. Anything the operator does especially well or especially poorly should be noted. one fact that was unknown at the time of the study was that during the prior week. During the follow up. Why? The answer to this question cannot be answered until follow up occurs. any problems or difficulties should be noted. this is not usually the case. which will be discussed In the following section. consists of watching an operator while she performs her operation on several bundles. However." In an apparel plant. the over lock operator showed a capacity of 96 percent. In order to move towards the desired state. follow up is required. Relating back to the capacity study sample. at which time someone will find out what is going on with the operator. Not only is each bundle's time compared to the engineered standard. as is watching several operators performing the same operation. but the total production time for all bundles watched during follow up is compared to the allowed time engineering has figured the operator should take. It could occur for three or four bundles. This time is then compared to the piece rate installed by the engineering staff. Improve Performance (Motivate) In many cases. The desired situation is to have all operators performing at or above the 100 percent level. Talking with the operator is a good way to find out how things are going. They have no particular Gen-Prom (UNDP) 25 KSA-Technopak .
Other forms of follow up: The bundle by bundle form of follow up is the best for operators who have the capacity to perform at 100 percent because it can yield quick results. Daily Production Report The DPR is a tool that let’s the supervisor: • Have an accurate perspective of the situation of his/her throughout the day. There are several other forms that are useful in bringing operators up to full capacity: 1. The person doing the follow up should not only show the operator that she can do well. Four Hour . 3.set hourly goals and check hourly 2. Most people who are capable will perform well under follow up. work flow. Very often operators have a psychological resistance to change.problems. but are just not giving it the effort to be a 100 percent operator. Follow up in this case can uncover problems that need to be solved such as machine delay. 2. Spot Troubles Occasionally.set eight hour goals and check It is extremely important to check back when the time period is up and reassign goals based on performance during the previous period. Follow up in this case is a matter of motivation.set two hour goals and check 3. Prove Job Quotas Perhaps the most common use of follow up (at least by engineers) is to prove a new quota. The DPR is a production summary that includes the following information: Gen-Prom (UNDP) 26 KSA-Technopak . Two Hour .set four hour goals and check 4. and that can be done through follow up and showing the operators that changes can be made satisfactorily. etc. the quota will be proved if the operator performs well when compared to the new quota. Eight Hour . small bundles. Hourly . • See if the section is ahead or behind set goals throughout the day. In other words. but should also make her want to continue to do well. • Make well-informed balancing decisions based on production goals. And once they have performed well for several days or a week (or maybe more) they get used to this type of performance (and earnings) and then tend to stay there. It is essential to get the operators to overcome this psychological barrier. there seems to be no logical explanation as to why an operator is not performing. too much personal time.
For example. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 27 KSA-Technopak . It also permits a quicker turnaround on which improves cash flow. There are two cost areas that can be reduced if WIP is controlled: • Investment in inventory Inventory is money invested in raw materials. Managing WIP: 1) Production planning This requires planning from marketing and sales to determine what will sell and what needs to be produced and when.5). • Ability to reduce the production cycle By having low inventory between operations. Low throughput time permits better co-ordination between sales and production. Large inventory levels between operations keeps goods waiting longer to be processed. garments usually have less waiting time and go through the production cycle in less time. if we know that an operation X takes 0. and since they want to invest as little as possible in inventory. For example a bundle of shirts that has everything attached but has no bottom hem. When we don’t move the goods through the plant quickly we are affecting cash flow directly.• • • • • • General data (date. section) Operations in section Operator names Production data Production goals Efficiency Work In Process (WIP) IP is made up of all garments and their parts that are not completely finished. Low cycle times give manufacturers the ability to handle multiple styles. Only factories that work with low WIP will be able to sell their services. This increases the overall throughput time. In some factories you can find some operations that have days of inventory waiting to be processed! This is unacceptable for many reasons. Clients are looking for manufacturers that can meet production schedules.5 minutes per unit to process and we have 5 bundles of 12 units each then we have 30 minutes of WIP for that operation (5 X 12 X 0. that can handle multiple styles. manufacturers that can handle low inventories. This provides the basis to determine how many operators and machines will be needed. We can measure WIP in Units or in units of time.
Holding the 12. A cut should enter the production line only when someone has verified that all the trims needed are available.000 units in inventory is not acceptable and could lead to other problems. labels. you might find the inventory accumulating due to an unbalanced production. To keep a line balanced you need information on the inventory levels. zippers. 4) Balancing Even if you load the line based on its capacity. If you feed into the line more product that can be processed you will overload the line with work that will just sit stagnant. For this reason strict control must be placed on the tracking of cuts as they flow through the production floor. and so on. 5) Cut Flow Control In order to keep control over WIP and to keep the cycle times low you need to have cuts go as close as FIFO as possible. elastics.2) Trims control Trims are buttons. An updated inventory of trims should be kept. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 28 KSA-Technopak . 3) Production Build-up Careful consideration should be given to loading the production lines. To help regain balance in an unbalanced situation you can use Utility operators. thread. operator transfers and overtime. Absenteeism and turnover can greatly affect the line’s balance. A change in style and bad cutting are two other factors that can put a line offbalance.000 unit cut. A missing label could halt a 12.
Preventive maintenance checklist Requirements • Library of Machine literature • Updated parts catalogue • Adjustment instructions (instructions. bobbins. the locations and the frequency to do it. reducing the cost related to it. Following an established procedure will reduce Machine Delay time. Needles or parts that have been changed • Major repairs • Borrowing parts from one machine to another is strictly prohibited Maintenance shop and equipment • Well kept and equipped shop • Appropriate tools and deposits • Adequate supply of sewing machine oil and grease • Labelled and marked containers for different types of oil • Labelled containers with machine grease • Chart on wall explaining what type of lubrication is needed for each machine. • Safety regulations posted on wall • • Gen-Prom (UNDP) 29 KSA-Technopak . • Labelled containers for used oil • Fire proof container for cleaning solvents • Adequate supply of dry compressed air for the repair shop as well as the sewing floor. and it will save the mechanic valuable time. throat plates and other necessary parts • Maintain an updated individual machine card • Off-Std time. presser foots. user manual.) • Plant notes for reference on past repairs and experience • Library material should be studied by maintenance personnel Spare Parts • Well kept parts cabinet • Up to date registry of used parts. etc.MAINTENANCE GUIDELINES When a mechanic is called for help with a machine a procedure should be followed. ordered and received parts • Maintain an adequate inventory of needles. feed dogs. It will help the operator earn more money.
Refill the needle stock box with the appropriate needles Place all broken needles in the appropriate container. DO NOT leave them in any other place. Make sure all machines are threaded correctly and that the threads are not too close to the machine’s pulley.Responsibilities Mechanic Daily: • • • • Weekly: • • • • • • • • • Operator Daily: • • • • • • Executive Daily: • • • • • • Check that operators are following their daily maintenance responsibilities Make sure that all safety measures are being followed. Check all oil level meters Oil when necessary Turn motor off when machine not in use Leave a piece of cloth under the needle when machine is not in use Lubricate all machines specially if the operator cannot do it Check appropriate supply of air. vapour. or off-standard time Keep all used equipment functioning properly Keep extra equipment in working conditions ready to replace used equipment Keep all necessary shop supplies to adequate level Gen-Prom (UNDP) 30 KSA-Technopak . Remove all threads around the work area with a brush or with tweezers Clean excess oil from machine specially the needle point. needles. Check how much thread is being consumed and make sure it is not being wasted. oil. and electricity Check regularly used shop tools Report to the Executive any negligent action on the operator’s part Check all machines and remove with brush/air/tweezers all foreign objects when necessary (when using air to clean take care not to stain WIP with oil) All oil deposits should be free of foreign objects All machines should have the adequate oil level Order all necessary parts for adequate inventory Order and stock necessary needles and bobbins Review machine cards and report to manager any excessive use of parts.
• Before starting on the machine • Check the type of thread being used and check for proper threading • Adequate thread and needle type for the operation • Thread cone is placed properly (even level) over holder • Thread guides don’t produce any unusual friction to thread • Guides threaded correctly • All tensioning plates threaded correctly • All needles/bobbins/loopers are threaded properly • Needle point is not broken Watch the machine and evaluate its operation • Silently softly and firmly at the maximum RPM’s • Noisy. 5. violently. Oil leak on machine or over fabric 9. 6. 4. 3. vibrating at slow or high speeds • Belts appropriately placed on machine pulley or motor pulley • Belt tension is too tight or too loose • Thread stuck on pulleys or belts • Belt is broken or worn-out • Belt is soaking in oil • Machine or motor pulley is loose or damaged • Pulley size is inappropriate (check RPM and check against recommended) careful not to keep machine at high RPM’s or injuries can be expected Gen-Prom (UNDP) 31 KSA-Technopak . 2. 7.Mechanics Checklist • Ask the operator or Executive what the problem is Possible answers: Needle thread breaking Bobbin or looper thread breaking All threads break Skipped stitches Stitch formation is unusual Needle breaks Irregular feeding of material • shirring • stretching • feeding to the side 8. Uncomfortable set-up for the operator • The pedal is not located properly • Presser foot lever is not located properly Observe the operator sew one or two parts to verify problem 1.
fabric rags around sewing area • Smoke Listen! Gen-Prom (UNDP) 32 KSA-Technopak .Check lubrication • Check oil gauges • Check for leaks Observe the operator’s position when sewing • Is the table’s height appropriate (at elbow level)? • Are the pedals in the right position? Check the motor adjustments • Clutch adjustments • Pedal movement doesn’t engage machine • Machine engages too easily and abruptly (too little movement of the pedal Before opening the machine: • Verify that the needle is: • Located properly • Not bent • Not broken (specially the tip) • Not too sharp around the tip and eyelet • Appropriate type for the thread and fabric being used Check the machine for appropriate threading • Thread guides • Thread pullers • Tensioners • Needles • Loopers • Spreaders Clean all thread and oil from the sewing area Check the appropriate movement of the needle Check the presser foot. throat plate and feeders to see if they are working correctly Check if the minor adjustments have improved the sewing problem • • • • • Danger signals (Use all your senses) Look! • Excessive oil concentrated on one area of the machine • Unusual machine or motor movements • Excessive threads.
bells.• • • • • • Strange sounds like: • Shaking/Vibrating • Crushing • Thumps • Screeching The sound of the motor • Excess speed • Dragging (too slow) • Low voltage • Inadequate electric phase What the operator/Executive reports Air or vapour leaks Machines that remain on when not being used Security alarms. whistles Touch! • To feel unusual vibrations in motors or engines • To make sure that the motor is turned off when not in use • To feel unusual heat from the machines • To check worn parts for shaking or looseness Smell! • To see if there is smoke due to • overheated metal • electrical insulation burned • Burnt oil • Burning thread • Electrical parts on fire • Solenoids • Cables • Transformers • Rectifiers • Unusual odours Gen-Prom (UNDP) 33 KSA-Technopak .
Machine Problems Checklist The Operator can often help himself/herself when the machine is not working properly. The following list shows solutions to common problems. Following the advice can many times save the time wasted waiting for the mechanic. Problem Upper thread keeps breaking Top thread tension is too tight Machine is improperly threaded Thread is not placed through tension rings Thread is twisted in guide posts Broken or bent tension spring Thread is not placed through guides Needle bent or burred Bad cone of thread Lower thread breaks Bobbin spring is too tight Bobbin is not threaded properly Bobbin is too tight or warped Lint or threads in Bobbin case Lint or threads in hook Warped bobbin case Skipped stitches Broken needle point Needle is not located properly Thread is not place through guides Thread is not place through tension rings Irregular stitch formation Knots on top Knots on bottom Bobbin not placed properly Bobbin thread slipped from under tension Lint or threads in top tension Tighten Bobbin tension or loosen upper (needle) tension Tighten upper tension Replace bobbin Check for proper bobbin case threading Clean tension rings Try another needle Check needle placing Check for proper threading Check for proper threading Loosen tension Check proper threading Try another bobbin Clean inside bobbin case Clean inside hook Check bobbin case/Try another one Loosen the tension by one turn Check for proper threading Check for proper threading Check for proper threading Inspect the action of spring Check for proper threading Try a new needle Try another cone Solution Gen-Prom (UNDP) 34 KSA-Technopak .
During this time the operator is not able to work normally due to machine failure. A machine’s SPI’s need to be checked often as they change depending on fabric and number of plies and it is also easy for the operator to change. RPM’s are not adjusted as often since they are a function of the pulley size and as long as the pulley is not changed the machine will remain within ±150 RPM.Machine Adjustments All the standard rates for operations are based on a machine that can do so many stitches per inch and can do them in a specified time. For this reason all machines for the same operation need to have the SPI’s and RPM’s adjusted to a specified value. (although this may vary a little more depending on the belt) Handling machine delays To be able to control the company’s costs it is necessary to identify them and identify the cause. To be able to manage this cost category more effectively we have a set procedure: • • • The operator informs the supervisor that he/she is having trouble with the machine The supervisor checks the machine • make any quick adjustments to the machine if possible Call the mechanic if necessary • Take the employee to a temporary location either to another workstation where he/she can continue with the work • If this is not possible then • to another area where he/she will wait for the machine and mark the production sheet with MD off-standard category The mechanic repairs the machine The operator returns to his/her workstation • The operator sews a specified number of garments in front of the mechanic If the machine is working properly then you mark the operator’s production sheet and put him/her back on standard time The supervisor moves the work back from the temporary workstation • • • • Other related considerations • • All workstations should be at (operator’s) elbow level All machines should always be ready to start work: • Threaded correctly • Connected • Covered 35 KSA-Technopak Gen-Prom (UNDP) . For this reason the company will make sure he or she is not penalised in efficiency points. This category is called Machine Delay (MD). For this reason the company keeps track of how much time the sewing machine delays the sewing time. Having machines adjusted differently will not be fair to the operators.
chairs and work-aids All work-aids should be as approved and in good condition (no exposed splinters. stackers and other mechanical workaids should be working properly. screws. All underbed trimmers. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 36 KSA-Technopak .• • • Clean • With Needle. nails). if they are not they will be a source of machine delay and the operator will be working off-standard costing the company money. bobbins. needle petitioners.
which is helpful to morale and good feeling. it means the supervisor does not control his workers. and excessive conversation. The wise Gen-Prom (UNDP) 37 KSA-Technopak . When it is unintentional. Element Fabric Trims & Accessories CMP Others Total Cost of Garment % of Total Cost 60-70% 5-10% 15-30% 5% 100% Total Cost of Garment + Quota Cost* + Mark up = FOB Main contributors to exceeding costs There are two main areas that contribute to more than the expected cost of manufacturing.COST CONTROL AND INCENTIVE PLAN Reduction in costs leads to improvement in margins. The supervisor must distinguish between a natural amount of conversation between workers. Excessive conversation is a double waste of time. it usually means the workers are not properly trained or supervised in methods. First. Operator performance • • • • • • Not using the best method Switching operators Equipment problems Excessive conversation Unnecessary absences from work Deliberate loafing When the waste of time is intentional. which keeps the manufacturer ahead in this competitive world. Let us take a look at the costing for a garment. which is destructive to good discipline and morale. Costs related to personnel and second Costs due to inefficient material utilisation. or the flow of production needs closer attention. Costs Related to Personnel 1.
transfer an operator so that the remaining operators will be balanced. It also measures the performance of the operators. When capacity is excessive. so that regular operators will not lose their efficiency on their regular operations. It measures the performance of the management & supervision in controlling these costs. Do not change operators from job to job anymore than is necessary to avoid running short of work. Train and use utility operators. • Producing SAHs during transfers to the above operations • Reducing (MD) Machine Break Down • Reducing OT (Overtime) 2.supervisor does not frown on all conversation between workers. The operator performance report shows the money spent on direct labour and the value received from direct labour. Excess costs can be reduced by: • Increasing SAHs (Standard Allowed Hours) produced without increasing clock hours worked • Reducing transfers (to operations where operators are paid an average earning rate).e. transfers. but does curb it if it becomes excessive. Efficiency = Output / Input = SAH produced / Clock hours worked = Hours on standard / Clock hours worked = anything paid above piece rate earnings . 2. Guaranteed Minimum Pay PKR Amount paid to the operator Make-up Value of operator's work Output Cost relationships 1. Excess cost MD. Production flow Gen-Prom (UNDP) 38 KSA-Technopak . Make-up. Utilisation 3. OT premium 4.g.
be especially watchful that folds. Ensure that there is always feeding for this operation. Ensure that a safe environment exists. in some place other than the right place. after having given special attention to the workers who are inclined to produce poor quality. so that "cuts" will be completed on schedule and "boxing" will not be delayed because of incomplete assortments. When the flow of work causes idle periods in the worker's time and she has time to think of things outside her work. feeds. It is not sufficiently thorough to accomplish the necessary results.• • • Inadequate supply of work leading to the operators slowing down Drops in production because of absenteeism or other reasons Necessary supplies. materials. stitches etc. Some supervisors depend entirely upon general watchfulness of the work and workers to secure good workmanship . thread etc. These practices are often because of disregard by the worker of what she thinks is an unimportant work-rule. in order to obtain first-hand information on the reason. 3.) Continued neglect quickly forms a bad work habit. The supervisor's attitude towards the job will make a big difference. the worker is not likely to be much concerned either. Identify the bottleneck operation. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 39 KSA-Technopak . the average quality of work is lower than when there is ample flow of work. Quality Producing bad quality costs money.putting finished work.but often good workmanship is not enough. (Example . Sometimes the condition of equipment is a cause of poor quality. It reduces the operator's performance. are proper with the new material. Anticipate "quits" as early as possible. Be especially watchful for poor quality when this condition exists. The supervisor should schedule time so that each operator's work gets checked. A minute lost on the bottleneck operation is a minute lost on the entire line. Guard against workers adopting practices that are harmful to good order. Constant vigilance will lead to the correction of such conditions. equipment and information is not ready on time Switch operators if and when required to maintain balance. Interview each operator who voluntarily quits. Absenteeism and labour turnover also affect the flow of work. All re-cuts and repairs should be made promptly. so that someone else can be trained for the job before the quit occurs. When changes are made in materials. If his manner indicates that he is not concerned with the quality of an operation.
It also measures the performance of management and supervision in controlling these costs. Standard hours 9. cost reports contain the same basic information.Overtime premium 4. Clock hours 8. Plant and section efficiency 11. etc. define some terms.Machine delay .. Utilisation (direct labour) = Hours on-standard Clock Hours Gen-Prom (UNDP) 40 KSA-Technopak . Cost Relationships 1. cost is a D. cost report.SAH produced = loss (positive or negative) 2. The basic document we work from in looking for D. Purpose of report is to show the money spent on direct labour and the value received from direct labour. B. Pieceworkers (Direct Labour) 2. Regardless of what you call it. a direct labour analysis. Efficiency = output: input SAH produced: clock hours worked Clock Hours .Transfers . Some companies refer to this as an effectiveness report. a plant performance report. we must be sure we all know what we are talking about. Director Labour-Pieceworkers Cost report measures the performance of pieceworkers.Make up . Piecework dollars 3 . Base rate 6. and establish some benchmarks. On-standard efficiency 10. Cost/unit produced C. all D.L. Percent excess 5. Terminology and Cost Areas 1. Direct Labour Cost Reports Before discussing how to control direct labour costs.L. Excess costs . your company refers to it as manufacturing cost analysis.L.COST REPORTS A. SAH-Time value of piecework earnings 7.
Methods have been standardised and these standard practices should not be changed without a corresponding change in the piecework standard. technician do not overlook anyone. etc. OT premium. operations and methods should be worked out and approved on one or two bundles before the remainder of the cut is put into production. When methods are changed. are used. d. If the change is extensive. stitches. 4. Decrease excess costs by reducing MD. Excess Costs . so that they will be more complete. a. Major Areas of Excess Costs (Direct Labour) Make-up. e. c. f.the following session will cover the specific techniques that can be used to insure a satisfactory cost performance. This season will point out the areas of cost control a supervisor can affect . transfer can be directly related to operator performance and intelligent handling of production flow by supervisor. make certain that all operators are instructed properly and follow-up to make certain that the instructions are followed. A. Decrease excess costs by reducing transfers. Increase efficiency by increasing standard without increasing clock hours b. Know the possibilities and limitations of the machines used. Transfers should produce standard $ if possible. See that the trainer and I. MD. Efficiency impact on profit Excess cost impact on profit 5. Decrease excess costs by reducing OT. and see that the workers use them. SUPERVISORY COST CONTROL The control or non-control of departmental costs is reflected in every action a supervisor takes. Relationships between efficiency and excess costs. Where changes in design of the product occur. • • • • Gen-Prom (UNDP) 41 KSA-Technopak . overtime.3.. Decrease excess costs by reducing M-U. This method will often save a Bottleneck in production later. transfers. E. get a trainer to give the instruction and follow-up. and see that proper speeds.anything paid above piecework earnings. Achieve high operator utilisation through Operator Performance Supervising Methods • Understand thoroughly the best methods to use on each operation. Insure the machine is set up properly prior to sewing/assigning operators. Make-up.
to keep operators from slowing down or waiting for work. and immediately take the necessary steps to bring it back to normal before the following operation is affected. All recuts and repairs should be made promptly so that "cuts" will be completed on schedule and swiping of finished garments will not be delayed because of incomplete assortments. You must decide if "switching" her to another job where you sacrifice efficiency and increase "make-up" .Waste of Time The greatest waste of all is the waste of time. "Switch" operators if and when required to maintain balance.. it means that the supervisor does not control her workers . Much of it however is unintentional-time. Excessive conversation is a double waste of time because it also wastes the time of the worker being “visited”.and when it is unintentional. The supervisor must distinguish between a natural amount of conversation between workers.. excessive conversation or unnecessary absences from work. The wise supervisor does not frown on all conversation between workers. When the waste of time is intentional. (This calls for compromises. but does curb it if it becomes excessive. Watch for "drops" in production on each operation because of absentees or other reasons.).or working overtime on the operation behind schedule . deliberate loafing. it usually means that the workers are not properly trained or supervised in methods or the flow of production needs closer attention. Anticipate "unbalance" and take countermeasures to assure maximum production without transferring operators. Production Flow Maintaining Production • See that there is an adequate supply of work between each two operations. Some of it may be intentional. equipment and information for jobs are on hand before they are needed. if possible. which is improperly used. which is destructive to good discipline. Keep informed as to the work schedule for your section and see that it is stored in the proper bins before it is needed. resulting in more time and energy being consumed than is necessary for the amount of work being produced. • • • • • Gen-Prom (UNDP) 42 KSA-Technopak . because it wastes machines and lowers the productive capacity of the department.or asking for permission to cross-train more "operators". which is helpful to morale and good feeling and excessive conversation. See that necessary supplies. as you usually cannot achieve both. and morale.
train and use relief or utility operators instead. trimmed or stretched by the operator. A supervisor has the responsibility for good workmanship. Keep in close touch with the trainers and technicians concerning the progress of learners. This rule applies to utility operators. stitches. Parts to be sewn should fit without having to be cut. When production is excessive. feeds. • Schedule your own time so that each operator's work gets checked. so that regular operators will not lose their efficiency on their regular operations. Make certain that all workers get full credit for any lost time that occurs. transfer the appropriate operator to other work so that the remaining operators are assigned so that there will be sufficient work and the opportunity to keep their earnings up to normal (with discretion towards moving trainees and the effect of transfers on performance).• All bundles must be complete. Any need for trimming or stretching should be reported to the quality manager. Just as the quality of a worker can be measured by the quality of her work. etc. be especially watchful that folders. When changes are made in materials. are working properly with the new material. General watchfulness is not sufficiently thorough to accomplish the necessary results. • Gen-Prom (UNDP) 43 KSA-Technopak . Other Areas of Cost Control Supervising Quality Top management of a plant can set up certain standards of quality. Watchfulness is the keynote of good quality. Some supervisors depend entirely upon general watchfulness of the work and workers to secure good workmanship .but often general watchfulness is not enough. shiftees and retrainees. Under usual conditions. B. but make sure that they go back to work as quickly as possible so that lost time will be held to a minimum. fitting the learner's increase in production into your plans. See that anyone transferred to other work or working on unmeasured work uses the best methods and extends a reasonable effort.. after you have given special watchfulness to the workers who are inclined to produce work of poor quality. the quality of a supervisor is measured by the quality of work produced in her section. but they must be applied to the work and maintained by the supervisors. Do not change operators from job to job any more than is necessary to avoid running short of work . the quality of workmanship should take-up most of a supervisor's time.
The supervisor's own attitude toward the job will be a big influence. If her manner indicates that she isn't much concerned with the quality of an operation. the average quality work is lower than when ample flow of work is coming through. When stitching must be ripped out. Be especially watchful for poor quality when this condition exists. Sometimes the poor condition of machines or equipment is the cause of poor quality. Waste of Materials • • • There should never be any waste of power. threads.• When the flow of work causes idle periods in the worker's time and she has time to think of things outside her work. the worker isn't likely to be much concerned either. • Interview each worker who voluntarily quits. Proper storage facilities for some of these items and watching to see that these facilities are used will help to conserve them. light. water. Review recut ordering procedure. • Labour turnover is an important element in maintaining an adequate working force. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 44 KSA-Technopak . Recuts should be used sparingly and should be kept locked up when not being used. • Anticipate the need for more workers due to changes in design or production requirements and take the necessary measures to provide them as far ahead of time as possible so that they will be properly trained when needed. elastic and straps should be returned to stock and not allowed to accumulate in bins or workboxes at the machines. pins. the supervisor should see that the method used will not tear or cut the part. hooks and eyes. in order to obtain First-hand information as to the reason. needles or any other supply. oil. Careful thought should be given to the subject and it's effect on the cost of operating. Surplus accessories such as bindings. Checking of machines should be done regularly and often enough to maintain them in good condition. • • • Work Force It is important that the supervisors continually look ahead and foresee the relation between the number of workers needed at present and those needed for future production. The supervisor should report possible “quits" to the production manager as soon as she learns of them so that measures may be taken to train someone for the job before the quit occurs. heat.
drinking fountains. She will begin to put finished work.• Be careful in exercising your authority to discipline or discharge workers. These practices are often due to thoughtfulness -. light. etc. Good housekeeping can't be accomplished “with a lick and a promise. Conditions • See that fans. Be able to detect the Square pegs" and do not waste time trying to fit them into round holes". • • Gen-Prom (UNDP) 45 KSA-Technopak . Restrooms. Aisles and spaces around the machines should be kept clear. remember that everyone is not suited for this type of work. You must secure the co-operation of the workers -. develop to about 75 percent and then stop. It will be easier to do so then. These workers are the ones. thread. materials. who in spite of everyone's efforts including their own. in some place other than the right place. Guard against workers adopting practices that are harmful to good order. and it will not put as severe a strain upon good working relations between the supervisor and her workers.or to disregard by the worker of what she thinks is an unimportant work rule." It requires constant attention to the little details. heat.set a good example for them to follow. nor can you have it by a Good cleaning once in a while. must be kept clean and sanitary. Continued neglect quickly forms a bad work habit. Discussing such problems with your assistance and supervisors will bring out the facts and help you arrive at the best decision. and equipment and bins should be cleaned regularly. Constant vigilance by the supervisor will lead to the correction of such conditions before habits are formed. etc.. etc. On the other hand.work through them -. are properly regulated at all times for the comfort of the workers.
Incentive pay is very much a part of life.INCENTIVE PLANS A. The alternative to an incentive plan is to pay everyone a straight hourly rate regardless of performance. What Incentive Systems to use 1. 2. For production workers the yardstick is often the quota for the job performed. The morale of those who were normally high performers would certainly be hurt if they see lower performers receiving their same rate of pay. In most cases we automatically think of incentive pay being based on the amount produced. There are different incentive plans for supervisors but the common factor in all plans is that pay is based on performance of some type. The incentive to work hard would be severely hurt if each person was paid the same thing each hour regardless of how well he did. In some cases quality is the basis of an incentive plan. Another way to say this that each person is paid according to his or her performance. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 46 KSA-Technopak . How many times have you heard stories about men born into poverty eventually becoming millionaires? There is little argument about the concept of incentive plans for determining pay. Most people agree that people who perform the best should be paid the most. Key Points • Where does it get out of makeup? • When does it pay base rate? • At what point does it break even with a regular straight incentive plan? (Split plans will always break even at double the guarantee if using 50 percent as base). but this does not always hold true. and it is in this area that disagreements often arise. B. An incentive plan is simply a means of paying a person based on his or her individual efforts and abilities. The Use of Incentives An Incentive plan is to recognise through pay. a fair days wage for fair day's work. In other cases it might be material utilisation. We can agree that incentive plans are a fair way to pay employees and they are far superior to straight time work as an influence on productivity. But every incentive plan has to have some yardstick to measure performance against. Easiest way to see the relationship of various plans is to graph them. and there are constant arguments as to whether or not job quotas are correct.
The increase in pay is usually a fixed amount (e. and Friday can't possibly make up the loss sufficiently to get into the jump bonus class."What's the use of working hard on Wednesday. let's look at some specific examples of how different types of incentive systems are used in our industry. to feel ." It also causes operators who ran 102 percent on Monday and have a streak of bad luck on Tuesday. say 87 percent. Straight Incentive 2. Rs. This is not inherent in the plan since the jump could take place at any point. an engineering installation will not succeed if the incentive system is not right." Most jump base plans use 100 percent as the jump point. Modified Incentive Systems 1. but below 100 to "get up there. knocking them to.g.00 100% Incentive Factor does not affect grading. Regardless of the job done in setting the standard. operators earning less than 100 percent have their earned hours multiplied by one base rate.5 or Rs10 per hour) Gen-Prom (UNDP) 47 KSA-Technopak . This creates an incentive for operators close to.. One reason for this is the low minimum to base spread. Thursday. Jump Base On a jump base system. and those above 100 percent receive a higher base rate. Types of Incentive Plans Now that we've talked some about the ideas behind incentive plans.C. We are simply using a lower production standard in lieu of a higher base rate.
but is paid straight incentive for a portion of her performance.33. Modified Split Incentive Operator is paid on split incentive. 2. For this reason. Many non-repetitive operations occur in cutting groom and warehousing installations. (Typical example is from 100% to 120% on straight). we usually recommend a form of split incentive. The split is only used to compensate for conditions which vary widely. Fifty/fifty refers to the manner in which the operator will be paid: 50 percent of base pay plus 50 percent of all coupon dollars earned.0 11.0 22. One word of caution: The standards must be developed accurately regardless of the incentive plan to be used.0 100 % Jump base plans are not used too often today. The Gen-Prom (UNDP) 48 KSA-Technopak . Use of a split incentive will dampen the swings in performance caused by changes in conditions on these operations.0 100 % 3. The usual practice today is to simply adjust the base rate both above and below 100 percent. These operations are normally covered by multivariable rates. 22. Fifty / Fifty Split Incentive Non-repetitive operations are subject to greater swings in conditions than are repetitive operations.
depending on whether she has been transferred for company convenience or for her convenience. and +5 percent to pay.05 40% (half of 80%) of Rs1. then 60/50. or base. Transfer Incentive Plans Whenever an operator has to be transferred from her regular operation. or at Base. because of many changes. 2. If this woman is transferred on Tl (60. Supplementary Plans 1. Install controls so that plan does not get out of control. the results will be: 60% of Rs1. average. We will discuss retraining bonus in greater detail when we are considering ways of motivating operators during follow-up. etc. Some form of the above may be useful during periods of change or retraining. E.use of a split incentive is never justification for sloppy rate setting. Example: Assume base rate is Rs1. Some jobs will have to be paid at minimum.84 per hour. her average rate of pay will be Rs1.75 = Rs1. return to straight incentive.70 D. 4. Diminishing Bonus Various forms of diminishing bonus are sometimes used for transfers or for retraining purposes. It is desirable to keep people on incentive as much as possible.75 = Rs0. Key Points in Incentive Systems Discussion 1. F. Remember that any incentive system will be only as good as the administration of the system.75/hour. If an operator averages 105 percent on her regular operation. she can be paid at Average.50 plan) and performs at 80 percent. In high style jobs. Examples are 65/50 for a fixed period of time. What is lacking in all three of these plans? Answer: Incentive pull. it may be necessary to use a supplemental plan all of the time. +10 percent. Others are +15 percent. After the change is past. 2. Minimum. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 49 KSA-Technopak .not overprotect. Our object is to protect earnings .
Some of the benefits to employees are: Increased earnings. Increased production per operator. Reduction in costs. Higher morale.) must not affect incentive earnings. to be successful the following must hold true: 1. Single Base Rates Versus Variance Base Rates 1. etc.80 III $1.70 II $1. Better job methods from job analysis. Examples of two systems: Variable Base Rates I $1. 2.90 IV $2.00 V $2. Off-standard time (machine delay.10 Single Base Rate: $1. apparel has been a one-base rate industry. Benefits to companies: Improvement in operations through job analysis. The plan must have an adequate incentive between the base rate and the minimum rate. The plan must be kept up to date. 4.G. It is easy for the operator to understand and to calculate his or her pay. The purpose of this topic is to try to stimulate discussion on the part of the trainees to determine their opinions on the subject. Characteristics of Good Incentive Plan Regardless of the type incentive plan used. Ours is an industry that is still very much people controlled as opposed to machine controlled and because of this it lends itself well to incentive plans. 3. 2. samples. One argument in favour of single base rate is that the Job IV woman has a more saleable skill if she moves to another plant. Greater interest in Job. Historically. The installation of incentive plans has produced benefits for both companies and employees. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 50 KSA-Technopak .90 What happens if two women of equal skill and ability come to work and job openings are available on Jobs I and IV? 3. Incentive Plans in Apparel Industry It is estimated that about 90 percent of the workers in the apparel industry are under some type of incentive plan. waiting time.
performance has generally proven to be about 65 percent of performance on incentive. The operator. the company benefits when this happens. Still. In this case: The operator earns 9 hours X Rs2. Using a production standard of 450 pieces. we decide to pay Rs2. makes the standard and is paid Rs2. The operator earns 9 hours X Rs2. Let's use a simple example to point this out. Let's assume in our example another worker beats the production standard of 450 pieces by 10 percent. who is a good steady worker.In most cases the switch from time work to incentive pay enables the operator to make more money and the company to reduce costs. it doesn't cost the company any more money per unit for the operator to make more money. The reason for this is that when the work is the basis for pay.00 per hour. the operator makes more and the company produces more at less cost.00 per day The company pays Rs18. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 51 KSA-Technopak . Install controls so that plan does not get out of control. Let's say we have an operator performing a job that we have determined has a fair production standard of 450 pieces per day.20 / 293 pieces = Rs.00 / 450 pieces = Rs. The operator earns 9 hours X Rs1.20 per hour (110 percent X Rs2. The objective is to protect earnings not overprotect.00).80 per day The company pays Rs19. Using the experienced 65 percent guideline let's say she does about 293 pieces per day (65 percent of 450). Key Pont in incentive system is to remember that any incentive system will be only as good as the administration of the system.80 = Rs16. This operator is paid Rs1. Another genuine value of an incentive system is that there is motivation for the employee to beat the production standard and make more money.0553 per piece Let's now assume we put this job on incentive.0400 per piece Therefore.20 = Rs19.80 / 495 = Rs0.00 = Rs18.00 per hour for standard performance.0400 per piece Therefore.20 per day The company pays Rs16. This means she produces 495 pieces (110 percent X 400) and she is paid Rs2.80 per hour on a straight timework basis.
Make sure that only the defined numbers of units are inspected. Continue to the next operator selected randomly from the list of operators and perform the inspection based on the approved sampling plan. Make sure that the element of surprise exists when doing an inspection. Decide with the supervisor whether it is actually a defective part and if defective the supervisor should return the part to the operator. The frequency at which the inspections are taken is vital. Inspections should always be performed at random and should never follow patterns. Go back to the operator and mark the bundle as rejected with a red card or cloth and fill in the appropriate paperwork for the inspection and mark the workstation with the quality banner to signal that follow-up bundles have not been cleared. A quality inspector moves from one operator to another at random inspecting a predetermined number of parts from a finished bundle. At this point the red quality banner will be removed. Inspect operators at random. If an operator has a bundle rejected then all bundles coming from that operator are going to be checked by the quality inspector until three consecutive bundles are free of defects. Section supervisor: The supervisor is responsible that the operators in his/her section perform adequately in their jobs. no less. No more. Following a predetermined path in the line can hint operators you are going to inspect their work next. Follow-up bundles are inspected in the same fashion (audit not 100% inspection) The quality banner helps the inspector remember to inspect the follow-up bundles from that operator and also helps the supervisor identify what operators are having quality problems.QUALITY PROCEDURES IN THE SEWING ROOM IN-LINE INSPECTION During the production of garments the operator’s finished work is audited in an in-line inspection. • If a quality inspector approaches the supervisor with a defective unit he or she should: 52 KSA-Technopak Gen-Prom (UNDP) . The units inspected should always be taken randomly from the bundle to ensure that the sample taken is representative from the bundle. Taking samples only from the top of the bundle is not correct and can give skewed results. In-process inspector: If the in-line inspector finds a defect in a part he is inspecting he should: • • • • • • • • • • • • Take defective part/parts out of the bundle Take part to the operator’s immediate supervisor Give the part to the supervisor to examine while inspector explains the defect found. Spend only the necessary time inspecting a bundle so you can have a larger number of inspections daily.
you could say the supervisor is not doing a good job of ensuring quality in that operation. This should be done immediately. The supervisor should return after some time to make sure all work has been inspected and the defects repaired.• • • • Greet the inspector do not ignore him/her inspect the part according to the quality specifications if it is defective let the inspector know you understand it is a defective part and you are going to address the part with the operator. The supervisor leaves the operator repairing the defects. All bundles coming from that operator are to be checked by the quality inspector until three consecutive bundles are free of defects. The inspections should be effective in identifying all defects in a garment. For these operators/operations the Gen-Prom (UNDP) 53 KSA-Technopak . As soon as possible take the part to the operator and approach the situation appropriately: • • • • • • • Approach operator with defective garment Ask operator kindly to stop her work and pay you attention Explain defect found and ask if she understands why garment is defective Make sure operator understands why it is defective Try to find out why the defect was created or why it was not detected at the workstation Restate the company’s commitment to quality Ask operator to inspect the current bundle for more defective parts and then repair all parts that are out of tolerance including the one found by the inspector. A good source of information to determine the quality performance of the section is the point of 100% inspection. To ensure all seams and quality characteristics are inspected in a short period of time a defined inspection method should be followed. Try to motivate the operator to continue working with good quality. Stay and observe sewing method Make sure method is being followed • • • • • If necessary review the operator’s card with the operator to see if this was an isolated occasion or if it is a recurring problem. The inspection operators should have their forms filled out correctly. If there are defects in the bundles following a rejection. 100% INSPECTION At the end of a section there will be an inspection made to all parts exiting the section. The section supervisor should check the quality level at the point of 100% inspection periodically. Before the bundles continue to the next operation the supervisor should be sure that there are no defects in them. From the 100% inspection forms the supervisor should analyze what are the 2 operators/operations with the highest defect frequency.
the supervisor returns 8. This way the operator has the chance to see if the work he is doing is of good quality and also make sure that the work he is receiving from the previous operation is not defective. To prevent repairs and to ensure good quality there is a useful tool called “Quality Drill”. 10. the bundle in which he is working on. If defective parts have been identified then the operator should explain why they are defective based on the points described in the quality specification. correct the possible causes and make plans to prevent them. Ask the operator to do it while standing up and when he or she is finished he should signal the supervisor that he is ready to have the results evaluated. The operator should be able to explain why based on the points described in the quality specification. the bundle he has already finished. It is very effective in making operators quality conscious. 9. QUALITY DRILLS The production supervisor is responsible of the operator’s work so it is of utmost importance that he or she has control over the quality level at which the operators produce. Ask the operator to inspect. If there are no defective parts found by the supervisor he turns to the operator and asks the operator to show him the defective parts he found. 7. The procedure is the following: 1. and the bundle he is going to work on next. The supervisor makes sure that the instructions have been understood and then leaves to continue with the regular activities. 4. Give the masking tape to mark defects 3.supervisor should identify the type of defects found most often. 2. Ask the operator to mark any part that is out of tolerance with the tape 5. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 54 KSA-Technopak . The supervisor then proceeds to inspect at random a number of parts of any bundle. If the operator has found no defects then the supervisor should select a part and ask the operator to explain why this part is of acceptable quality. The inspection form is totaled 4 times a day so a supervisor can actually see the results of what he or she has done to stop defects. Ask the operator to stop what he is doing and stand up. based on the Quality Specification. During this exercise you confirm to the operator the commitment to good quality that the company has made and motivate him/her to produce with quality. With this information the supervisor should address the problems. If he is to find a defective part he should separate it and ask the operator why the part was not identified. When the operator has signaled that he is finished. and the frequency at which the type of defects happen. the cause (machine/method). 6.
If the supervisor notices that the operator is not very clear of what the requirements for his operation are or how to find out if these requirements have been met or not. This exercise should be performed on standard time and at least once a day. At this time the operator should be encouraged to learn what the requirements for his operation are and he is complimented if he know them wholeheartedly and works to achieve them every time. The contact that a supervisor and the operator have during the Quality Drill is very valuable. 12. the operators will take the initiative to do the exercise themselves. but as soon as positive results from the exercise are seen.11. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 55 KSA-Technopak . It is necessary that the trainer and the supervisor explain the importance of the Quality Drill to the operators stressing that its sole purpose is to help them improve their quality. then the quality specification sheet should be reviewed point by point. During this time the commitment of everyone to guarantee a job well done is strengthened. If you are having quality problems with an operator you should increase the frequency of the exercise even to one exercise an hour. The initial resistance by the operators is normal. If the supervisor notices that the operator “overlooks” the defects then the supervisor should review with him the importance of doing a job properly every time.
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