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You are on page 1of 14

perform instant subtractions.

We simply take each figure in 357 from 9 and the last figure from 10.

1000 - 3 5 7

� � �

From 9 From 9 From 10

= 6 4 3

of a 1 followed by noughts: 100; 1000; 10,000 etc.

10,000 - 1 0 4 9

From 9 From 9 From 9 From 10

� � � �

= 8 9 5 1

For 1000 - 83, in which we have more zeros than figures in the

numbers being subtracted, we simply suppose 83 is 083.

Exercise 1 Sample 1

Try some yourself:

1) 1000 - 777

2) 1000 - 283

3) 1000 - 505

4) 10,000 - 2345

5) 10000 - 9876

6) 10,000 - 1101

7) 100 - 57

8) 1000 - 57

9) 10,000 - 321

10) 10,000 - 38

Sample 2

Using VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you do not need to

know the multiplication tables beyond 5 X 5.

Think of it like this:

8 2

7 3

_______

5 6 Answer

The diagram below shows how you get it.

8 2

x 1

7 3

_______

5 6 Answer

the first figure of the answer.

And you multiply vertically: 2 x 3 to get 6,

the last figure of the answer.

See how far the numbers are below 10, subtract one

number's deficiency from the other number, and

multiply the deficiencies together.

7 x 6 = 42

7 3

x 1

6 4

_______

3 1 2 = 42

Here there is a carry: the 1 in the 12 goes over to make 3 into 4.

Exercise 1 Sample 2

Multiply these

1) 8 2) 9 3) 8 4) 7 5) 9 6) 6

x 8 7 9 7 9 6

__ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __

or multiplying numbers close to 100.

VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you can give

the answer immediately, using the same method

as on the page.

88 is 12 below 100 and 98 is 2 below 100.

88 - 12

x1

98 - 2

_____

86 - 24

subtracting crosswise: 88 - 2 = 86

(or 98 - 12 = 86: you can subtract

either way, you will always get

the same answer).

And the 24 in the answer is

just 12 x 2: you multiply vertically.

So 88 x 98 = 8624

Exercise 2 Sample 2

This is so easy it is just mental arithmetic.

Try some:

1) 87 2) 88 3) 77 4) 93 5) 94 6) 64 7) 98

x 98 97 98 96 92 99 97

__ __ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __ __

107 is just 103 + 4 (or 104 + 3),

and 12 is just 3 x 4.

Exercise 3 Sample 2

Try a few

1) 102 x 107

2) 106 x 103

3) 104 x 104

4) 109 x 108

5) 101 x123

6) 103 x102

Sample 3

Use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE to write the answer

straight down!

2 + 1 = 10 + 3 = 13

3 5 15 15

2 x 5 = 10 and 1 x 3 = 3. Then 10 + 3 = 13.

The bottom of the fraction is just 3 x 5 = 15.

You multiply the bottom number together.

So:

5 + 3 = 20+21 = 41

7 4 28 28

and subtract:

6 - 2 = 18 - 14 = 4

7 3 21 21

Exercise 1 Sample 3

Try a few

1) 4 + 1 = 2) 1 + 1 = 3) 2 + 2 =

5 6 3 4 7 3

4) 4 - 1 = 5) 1 - 1 = 6) 8 - 9 =

5 6 4 5 3 5

Sample 4

A quick way to square numbers that end in 5 using the formula

BY ONE MORE THAN THE ONE BEFORE.

752 = 5625

The answer is in two parts: 56 and 25.

The last part is always 25.

The first part is the first number, 7, multiplied by the number

"one more", which is 8:

so 7 x 8 = 56

7 5 = 56 25

7 x 8 = 56

Exercise 1 Sample 4

Try these

Method for multiplying numbers where the first figures are the

same and the last figures add up to 10.

32 x 38 = 1216

figures (2 and 8) add up to 10.

to get 12 for the first part of the answer.

get the last part of the answer.

2 x 8 = 16

3 2 x 3 8 = 12 16

3 x 4 = 12

And 81 x 89 = 7209

Exercise 2 Sample 4

Practise some:

1) 43 x 47

2) 24 x 26

3) 62 x 68

4) 17 x 13

5) 59 x 51

6) 77 x 73

Sample 5

An elegant way of multiplying numbers using a simple pattern.

21 x 23 = 483

actually the answer can be written straight down

using the VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE

formula.

2 1

|x |

2 3 x

_______

4 8 3

_______

This gives the first figure of the answer.

b) Multiply crosswise and add: 2 x 3 + 1 x 2 = 8

This gives the middle figure.

c) Multiply vertically on the right: 1 x 3 = 3

This gives the last figure of the answer.

Similarly 61 x 31 = 1891

6 1

|x|

3 1 x

_______

18 9 1

_______

6 x 3 = 18; 6 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 9; 1 x 1 = 1

Exercise 1 Sample 5

Try these, just write down the answer:

1) 14 2) 22 3) 21 4) 21 5) 32

x 21 31 31 22 21

__ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __

exercise 2a Sample 5

Multiply any 2-figure numbers together by mere mental arithmetic!

If you want 21 stamps at 26 pence each you can

easily find the total price in your head.

There were no carries in the method given above.

However, this only involves one small extra step.

21 x 26 = 546

2 1

|x|

2 6 x

_______

4 14 6 = 546

_______ ___

except that we get a 2-figure number, 14, in the

middle step, so the 1 is carried over to the left

(4 becomes 5).

Practise a few:

1) 21 2) 23 3) 32 4) 42 6) 71

x 47 43 53 32 72

Exercise 2b Sample 5

33 x 44 = 1452

3 3

|x|

4 4x

_______

12 24 12 = 1452

_______ ____

Crosswise gives us 24, so we carry 2 to the left

and mentally get 144.

here is carried over to the 144 to make 1452.

6) 32 7) 32 8) 31 9) 44 10) 54

x 56 54 72 53 64

__ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __

multiplied in one line by this method.

Sample 6

Multiplying a number by 11.

To multiply any 2-figure number by 11 we just put

the total of the two figures between the 2 figures.

26 x 11 = 286

being multiplied.

So 72 x 11 = 792

Exercise 1 Sample 6

Multiply by 11:

1) 43 2) 81 3) 15 4) 44 5) 11

77 x 11 = 847

we get 77 x 11 = 7147 = 847.

Exercise 2 Sample 6

Multiply by 11:

1) 88 2) 84 3) 48 4) 73 5) 56

234 x 11 = 2574

We add the first pair 2 + 3 = 5.

and we add the last pair: 3 + 4 = 7.

Exercise 3 Sample 6

Multiply by 11:

Sample 7

Method for dividing by 9.

23 / 9 = 2 remainder 5

The remainder is just 2 and 3 added up!

43 / 9 = 4 remainder 7

and 4 + 3 = 7 is the remainder - could it be easier?

Exercise 1a Sample 7

Divide by 9:

1) 61 2) 33 3) 44 4) 53 5) 80

134 / 9 = 14 remainder 8

1 is just the first figure of 134.

4 is the total of the first two figures 1+ 3 = 4,

and 8 is the total of all three figures 1+ 3 + 4 = 8.

Exercise 1b Sample 7

Divide by 9:

6) 232 7) 151 8) 303 9) 212 10) 2121

permitted because we are trying to find how

many 9's there are in 842.

left over the final answer will be 93 remainder 5

Exercise 2 Sample 7

Divide these by 9:

1) 771 2) 942 3) 565 4) 555 5) 777 6) 2382 7) 7070

Answers

1) 223

2) 717

3) 495

4) 7655

5) 0124

6) 8899

7) 43

8) 943

9) 9679

10) 9962

1) 64

2) 63

3) 72

4) 49

5) 81

6) 216 = 36

Answers to exercise 2 Sample 2

1) 8526

2) 8536

3) 7546

4) 8928

5) 8648

6) 6336

7) 9506 (we put 06 because, like all the others,

we need two figures in each part)

1) 10914

2) 10918

3) 10816

4) 11772

5) 12423

6) 10506 (we put 06, not 6)

1) 29/30

2) 7/12

3) 20/21

4) 19/30

5) 1/20

6) 13/15

1) 2025

2) 4225

3) 9025

4) 1225

5) 225

1) 2021

2) 624

3) 4216

4) 221

5) 3009

6) 5621

Answers to exercise 1 Sample 5

1) 294

2) 682

3) 651

4) 462

5) 672

1) 987

2) 989

3) 1696

4) 1344

5) 5112

6) 1792

7) 1728

8) 2232

9) 2332

10) 3456

1) 473

2) 891

3) 165

4) 484

5) 121

1) 968

2) 924

3) 528

4) 803

5) 616

Answers to exercise 3 Sample 6

1) 1661

2) 5797

3) 3663

4) 7854

5) 9999

1) 6 r 7

2) 3 r 6

3) 4 r 8

4) 5 r 8

5) 8 r 8

Exercise 1b Sample 7

Answers to exercise 1b (Sample 7)

1) 25 r 7

2) 16 r 7

3) 33 r 6

4) 23 r 5

5) 235 r 6 (we have 2, 2 + 1, 2 + 1 + 2, 2 + 1 + 2 + 1)

1) 714 r15 = 84 r15 = 85 r6

2) 913 r 15 = 103 r15 = 104 r6

3) 516 r16 = 61 r16 = 62 r7

4) 510 r15 = 60 r15 = 61 r6

5) 714 r21 = 84 r21 = 86 r3

6) 2513 r15 = 263 r15 = 264 r6

7) 7714 r14 = 784 r14 = 785 r5

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