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# Chapter 13: Springs

Outline
 Spring Functions & Types
 Helical Springs
¾Compression
¾Extension
¾Torsional

## with several figures from:

MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 2ed by Robert L. Norton,
Prentice-Hall 2000

## The Function(s) of Springs Some Review

linear springs: k=F/y
Most fundamentally: to STORE ENERGY F

k dF
nonlinear springs: k =
dy

## Many springs can also: push y Parallel

pull Series
twist
1 1 1 1
= + +
ktotal k1 k 2 k3 ktotal=k1+k2+k3

## Types of Springs More Springs

Helical:
Washer Springs:

Power springs:
Beams:

Compression

Extension
Torsion

1
Helical Compression
Springs Length Terminology
minimum of 10-15%
d diameter of wire clash allowance
D mean coil diameter
Lf free length
p pitch
Nt Total coils

## Free Length Assembled Max Working Bottomed

may also need: Length Load Out
Do and Di

Lf La Lm Ls

Stresses in Helical
End Conditions Springs
Plain Plain Ground F
Spring Index C=D/d

Typically: 4 ≤ C ≤ 12
Na =
Active Coils 8FD 2C + 1
τ max = K s , where K s =
T πd 3 2C
F
Square Square Ground F
T

## Curvature Stress Spring Deflection

Inner part of spring is a stress concentration
(see Chapter 4)

## Kw includes both the direct shear factor and

the stress concentration factor
8 FD 3 N a
τ max = K w
8 FD
, where K w =
4C − 1 0.615
+ y≈
πd 3 4C − 4 C d 4G
 under static loading, local yielding eliminates stress
concentration, so use Ks
 under dynamic loading, failure happens below Sy:
use Ks for mean, Kw for alternating

2
Spring Rate Helical Springs
8 FD 3 N a  Compression
y≈ ¾Nomenclature
d 4G ¾Stress
¾Deflection and Spring Constant
k=F/y ¾Static Design
¾Fatigue Design

d 4G
 Extension
k≈  Torsion
8D 3 N a

## Static Spring Design Material Properties

 Inherently iterative  Sut ultimate tensile strength
¾Some values must be set to calculate ¾Figure 13-3
stresses, deflections, etc. ¾Table 13-4 with Sut=Adb
 Truly Design
¾there is not one “correct” answer  Sys torsional yield strength
¾must synthesize (a little bit) in addition to ¾Table 13-6 – a function of Sut and set
analyze

Spring/Material
Treatments What are You Designing?
 Setting Given Find
¾ overstress material in same direction as applied
load F, y k d, C, D*, Lf*, Na*, clash
» increase static load capacity 45-65% k, y F + allowance (α)**, material**
» increase energy storage by 100%
¾ use Ks, not Kw (stress concentration relieved)
design variables
 Load Reversal with Springs
Such that:
 Shot Peening Safety factor is > 1
¾ What type of failure would this be most effective Spring will not buckle
against? Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space

## * - often can calculate from given

** - often given/defined

3
Static Design: Wire
Static Spring Flow Chart Diameter
if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F 8 FD 8FD 3 N a
τ max = K s y≈
Na , α πd 3 d 4G
d, C DEFLECTION
STRESSES
D, Ks, Kw
Ns=Sys/τ Lf, yshut, Fshut
material strengths Based on Ns=Ssy/τ and above equation for τ:
for shut spring if possible
1 ( 2 +b )
material
8 N (C + 0.5)[Fwork (1 + α ) − Finitial (α )]
if not, for max working load
d = s 
 πK m A 
CHECK
Three things to know: ITERATE?
• effect of d Three things to know: use Table 13-2 to select standard d near
buckling, Nshut, Di, Do
• shortcut to finding d • effect of d calculated d K =S /S m ys ut
• how to check buckling Nshut=Sys/τshut • shortcut to finding d
*maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b
• how to check buckling

## Buckling Helical Springs

 Compression

Lf
¾Nomenclature
S .R. =
D ¾Stress
yinit + y working
y′ = ¾Deflection and Spring Constant
Lf
¾Static Design
¾Fatigue Design
 Torsion
Three things to know:
Lf
• effect of d In general; S .R. = < 4 for safe design
• shortcut to finding d D
• how to check buckling

## Modified Goodman for

Material Properties Springs
 Sus ultimate shear strength  Sfw, Sew are for torsional strengths, so von
¾ Sus≈0.67 Sut Mises not used
 Sfw´ torsional fatigue strength τa
¾ Table 13-7 -- function of Sut, # of cycles
d
¾ repeated, room temp, 50% reliability, no corrosion te
ea S fw S us
Sew´ torsional endurance limit Sfs C ep S fs = 0.5
( )
 R
¾ for steel, d < 10mm S us − 0.5 S fw
B
0.5 Sfw
¾ see page 816 (=45 ksi (310 MPa) if unpeened,
=67.5 ksi (465 MPa) if peened)
A
¾ repeated, room temp., 50% reliability, no corrosion
0.5 Sfw Sus
τm

4
Fatigue Safety Factor What are you Designing?
τa Fi=Fmin
Fa=(Fmax-Fmin)/2
Given Find
Fm=(Fmax+Fmin)/2 Fmax,Fmin, ∆y k d, C, D*, Lf*, Na*, clash
Sfs +
ine
k, ∆ y F allowance (α)**, material**
dl
lo a

## 0.5 Sfw mload

S
N fs = a Sa design variables
τa τa mgood Such that:
0.5 Sfw τi τm Sus
τm Fatigue Safety Factor is > 1
Shut Static Safety Factor is > 1
S fs (S us − τ i ) Spring will not buckle
τa,load = τa,good at intersection N fs = Spring is well below natural frequency
S fs (τ m − τ i ) + S usτ a Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space
* - often can calculate from Given
…on page 628
** - often given/defined

## Fatigue Spring Design Fatigue Design:Wire

Strategy Diameter
if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F
as before, you can iterate to find d, or you can use an equation
Na , α derived from relationships that we already know:
d, C DEFLECTION
STRESSES 1 ( 2+b )
D, Ks, Kw  8CN fs  N fs − 1  Ad b   
S fs (S us − τ i )
N fs = d =  K s Fm − K s Fmin + 1.34 − 1 K w Fa  
material strengths S fs (τ m − τ i ) + S usτ a Lf, yshut, Fshut  0.67πA  N fs  S fw   
 
material
use Table 13-2 to select standard d near
calculated d
CHECK
ITERATE? buckling, frequency,
Two things to know: Two things to know:
Nshut, Di, Do
• shortcut to finding d • shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency Nshut=Sys/τshut • how to check frequency *maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b

## Natural Frequency: Surge Review of Design Strategy

Surge == longitudinal resonance
ITERATIVE USING d EQUATION
for fixed/fixed end conditions:
1 kg
fn = (Hz)
2 Wa Find Loading Find Loading
Select C, d Select C, safety factor

ideally, fn will be at least 13x more than fforcing… Solve for d, pick standard d
Find stresses
it should definitely be multiple times bigger Find stresses
Determine material properties
Find safety factor Determine material properties
Check safety factor
Two things to know:
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency …see pages 814-815 for more

5
Strategy Review
Continued Consider the Following:
Find spring constant, Na, Nt

## Find FSHUT (must find lengths and y’s to do this)

Find static shut shear stress and safety factor

Check Buckling

Check Surge

## Check Di, Do if pin to fit over, hole to fit in

Torsion Springs
Helical Springs
Deflection & Spring Rate
 Compression
1 MLw where,
θ rev = ,
¾Nomenclature 2π EI Lw = length of wire = πDN a
πd 4
¾Stress I=
64
¾Deflection and Spring Constant MDN a
θ rev,roundwire = 10.2
¾Static Design d 4E
¾Fatigue Design
MDN a
θ rev,roundwire = 10.8 (if we account for
 Torsion d 4E Friction)

M
k=
θ rev

Stresses Materials
(1) Static -Compressive is Max –(Kbi > Kbo) – Inside of Coil
see Tables 13-13 and 13-14, page 850
M c 32 M max
σ imax = K bi max = K bi
I πd 3 follow book on Sewb=Sew/0.577… for now

2
4C − C − 1
K bi =
4C (C − 1)
(2) Fatigue – (since fatigue is a tensile stress phenomenon) – Outside of Coil

32 M max 32 M min
σ omax = K bo σ omin = K bo
πd 3 πd 3
2
4C + C − 1
K bo =
4C (C + 1)

6
Strategy Helical Springs
θ
Select C, d
 Compression
• fit over pin (if there is one)
• don’t exceed stresses ¾Nomenclature
M K
¾Stress
¾Deflection and Spring Constant
¾Static Design
¾Fatigue Design
 Torsion