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You are on page 1of 7

Outline

Spring Functions & Types

Helical Springs

¾Compression

¾Extension

¾Torsional

MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 2ed by Robert L. Norton,

Prentice-Hall 2000

linear springs: k=F/y

Most fundamentally: to STORE ENERGY F

k dF

nonlinear springs: k =

dy

pull Series

twist

1 1 1 1

= + +

ktotal k1 k 2 k3 ktotal=k1+k2+k3

Helical:

Washer Springs:

Power springs:

Beams:

Compression

Extension

Torsion

1

Helical Compression

Springs Length Terminology

minimum of 10-15%

d diameter of wire clash allowance

D mean coil diameter

Lf free length

p pitch

Nt Total coils

may also need: Length Load Out

Do and Di

Lf La Lm Ls

Stresses in Helical

End Conditions Springs

Plain Plain Ground F

Spring Index C=D/d

Typically: 4 ≤ C ≤ 12

Na =

Active Coils 8FD 2C + 1

τ max = K s , where K s =

T πd 3 2C

F

Square Square Ground F

T

Inner part of spring is a stress concentration

(see Chapter 4)

the stress concentration factor

8 FD 3 N a

τ max = K w

8 FD

, where K w =

4C − 1 0.615

+ y≈

πd 3 4C − 4 C d 4G

under static loading, local yielding eliminates stress

concentration, so use Ks

under dynamic loading, failure happens below Sy:

use Ks for mean, Kw for alternating

2

Spring Rate Helical Springs

8 FD 3 N a Compression

y≈ ¾Nomenclature

d 4G ¾Stress

¾Deflection and Spring Constant

k=F/y ¾Static Design

¾Fatigue Design

d 4G

Extension

k≈ Torsion

8D 3 N a

Inherently iterative Sut ultimate tensile strength

¾Some values must be set to calculate ¾Figure 13-3

stresses, deflections, etc. ¾Table 13-4 with Sut=Adb

Truly Design

¾there is not one “correct” answer Sys torsional yield strength

¾must synthesize (a little bit) in addition to ¾Table 13-6 – a function of Sut and set

analyze

Spring/Material

Treatments What are You Designing?

Setting Given Find

¾ overstress material in same direction as applied

load F, y k d, C, D*, Lf*, Na*, clash

» increase static load capacity 45-65% k, y F + allowance (α)**, material**

» increase energy storage by 100%

¾ use Ks, not Kw (stress concentration relieved)

design variables

Load Reversal with Springs

Such that:

Shot Peening Safety factor is > 1

¾ What type of failure would this be most effective Spring will not buckle

against? Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space

** - often given/defined

3

Static Design: Wire

Static Spring Flow Chart Diameter

if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F 8 FD 8FD 3 N a

τ max = K s y≈

Na , α πd 3 d 4G

d, C DEFLECTION

STRESSES

D, Ks, Kw

Ns=Sys/τ Lf, yshut, Fshut

material strengths Based on Ns=Ssy/τ and above equation for τ:

for shut spring if possible

1 ( 2 +b )

material

8 N (C + 0.5)[Fwork (1 + α ) − Finitial (α )]

if not, for max working load

d = s

πK m A

CHECK

Three things to know: ITERATE?

• effect of d Three things to know: use Table 13-2 to select standard d near

buckling, Nshut, Di, Do

• shortcut to finding d • effect of d calculated d K =S /S m ys ut

• how to check buckling Nshut=Sys/τshut • shortcut to finding d

*maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b

• how to check buckling

Compression

Lf

¾Nomenclature

S .R. =

D ¾Stress

yinit + y working

y′ = ¾Deflection and Spring Constant

Lf

¾Static Design

¾Fatigue Design

Torsion

Three things to know:

Lf

• effect of d In general; S .R. = < 4 for safe design

• shortcut to finding d D

• how to check buckling

Material Properties Springs

Sus ultimate shear strength Sfw, Sew are for torsional strengths, so von

¾ Sus≈0.67 Sut Mises not used

Sfw´ torsional fatigue strength τa

¾ Table 13-7 -- function of Sut, # of cycles

d

¾ repeated, room temp, 50% reliability, no corrosion te

ea S fw S us

Sew´ torsional endurance limit Sfs C ep S fs = 0.5

( )

R

¾ for steel, d < 10mm S us − 0.5 S fw

B

0.5 Sfw

¾ see page 816 (=45 ksi (310 MPa) if unpeened,

=67.5 ksi (465 MPa) if peened)

A

¾ repeated, room temp., 50% reliability, no corrosion

0.5 Sfw Sus

τm

4

Fatigue Safety Factor What are you Designing?

τa Fi=Fmin

Fa=(Fmax-Fmin)/2

Given Find

Fm=(Fmax+Fmin)/2 Fmax,Fmin, ∆y k d, C, D*, Lf*, Na*, clash

Sfs +

ine

k, ∆ y F allowance (α)**, material**

dl

lo a

S

N fs = a Sa design variables

τa τa mgood Such that:

0.5 Sfw τi τm Sus

τm Fatigue Safety Factor is > 1

Shut Static Safety Factor is > 1

S fs (S us − τ i ) Spring will not buckle

τa,load = τa,good at intersection N fs = Spring is well below natural frequency

S fs (τ m − τ i ) + S usτ a Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space

* - often can calculate from Given

…on page 628

** - often given/defined

Strategy Diameter

if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F

as before, you can iterate to find d, or you can use an equation

Na , α derived from relationships that we already know:

d, C DEFLECTION

STRESSES 1 ( 2+b )

D, Ks, Kw 8CN fs N fs − 1 Ad b

S fs (S us − τ i )

N fs = d = K s Fm − K s Fmin + 1.34 − 1 K w Fa

material strengths S fs (τ m − τ i ) + S usτ a Lf, yshut, Fshut 0.67πA N fs S fw

material

use Table 13-2 to select standard d near

calculated d

CHECK

ITERATE? buckling, frequency,

Two things to know: Two things to know:

Nshut, Di, Do

• shortcut to finding d • shortcut to finding d

• how to check frequency Nshut=Sys/τshut • how to check frequency *maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b

Surge == longitudinal resonance

ITERATIVE USING d EQUATION

for fixed/fixed end conditions:

1 kg

fn = (Hz)

2 Wa Find Loading Find Loading

Select C, d Select C, safety factor

ideally, fn will be at least 13x more than fforcing… Solve for d, pick standard d

Find stresses

it should definitely be multiple times bigger Find stresses

Determine material properties

Find safety factor Determine material properties

Check safety factor

Two things to know:

• shortcut to finding d

• how to check frequency …see pages 814-815 for more

5

Strategy Review

Continued Consider the Following:

Find spring constant, Na, Nt

Find static shut shear stress and safety factor

Check Buckling

Check Surge

Torsion Springs

Helical Springs

Deflection & Spring Rate

Compression

1 MLw where,

θ rev = ,

¾Nomenclature 2π EI Lw = length of wire = πDN a

πd 4

¾Stress I=

64

¾Deflection and Spring Constant MDN a

θ rev,roundwire = 10.2

¾Static Design d 4E

¾Fatigue Design

MDN a

θ rev,roundwire = 10.8 (if we account for

Torsion d 4E Friction)

M

k=

θ rev

Stresses Materials

(1) Static -Compressive is Max –(Kbi > Kbo) – Inside of Coil

see Tables 13-13 and 13-14, page 850

M c 32 M max

σ imax = K bi max = K bi

I πd 3 follow book on Sewb=Sew/0.577… for now

2

4C − C − 1

K bi =

4C (C − 1)

(2) Fatigue – (since fatigue is a tensile stress phenomenon) – Outside of Coil

32 M max 32 M min

σ omax = K bo σ omin = K bo

πd 3 πd 3

2

4C + C − 1

K bo =

4C (C + 1)

6

Strategy Helical Springs

θ

Select C, d

Compression

• fit over pin (if there is one)

• don’t exceed stresses ¾Nomenclature

M K

¾Stress

¾Deflection and Spring Constant

¾Static Design

¾Fatigue Design

Torsion

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