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Chapter 13: Springs

™ Spring Functions & Types
™ Helical Springs

with several figures from:

MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 2ed by Robert L. Norton,
Prentice-Hall 2000

The Function(s) of Springs Some Review

linear springs: k=F/y
Most fundamentally: to STORE ENERGY F

k dF
nonlinear springs: k =

Many springs can also: push y Parallel

pull Series
1 1 1 1
= + +
ktotal k1 k 2 k3 ktotal=k1+k2+k3

Types of Springs More Springs

Washer Springs:

Power springs:



Helical Compression
Springs Length Terminology
minimum of 10-15%
d diameter of wire clash allowance
D mean coil diameter
Lf free length
p pitch
Nt Total coils

Free Length Assembled Max Working Bottomed

may also need: Length Load Out
Do and Di

Lf La Lm Ls

Stresses in Helical
End Conditions Springs
Plain Plain Ground F
Spring Index C=D/d

Typically: 4 ≤ C ≤ 12
Na =
Active Coils 8FD 2C + 1
τ max = K s , where K s =
T πd 3 2C
Square Square Ground F

Curvature Stress Spring Deflection

Inner part of spring is a stress concentration
(see Chapter 4)

Kw includes both the direct shear factor and

the stress concentration factor
8 FD 3 N a
τ max = K w
8 FD
, where K w =
4C − 1 0.615
+ y≈
πd 3 4C − 4 C d 4G
™ under static loading, local yielding eliminates stress
concentration, so use Ks
™ under dynamic loading, failure happens below Sy:
use Ks for mean, Kw for alternating

Spring Rate Helical Springs
8 FD 3 N a ™ Compression
y≈ ¾Nomenclature
d 4G ¾Stress
¾Deflection and Spring Constant
k=F/y ¾Static Design
¾Fatigue Design

d 4G
™ Extension
k≈ ™ Torsion
8D 3 N a

Static Spring Design Material Properties

™ Inherently iterative ™ Sut ultimate tensile strength
¾Some values must be set to calculate ¾Figure 13-3
stresses, deflections, etc. ¾Table 13-4 with Sut=Adb
™ Truly Design
¾there is not one “correct” answer ™ Sys torsional yield strength
¾must synthesize (a little bit) in addition to ¾Table 13-6 – a function of Sut and set

Treatments What are You Designing?
™ Setting Given Find
¾ overstress material in same direction as applied
load F, y k d, C, D*, Lf*, Na*, clash
» increase static load capacity 45-65% k, y F + allowance (α)**, material**
» increase energy storage by 100%
¾ use Ks, not Kw (stress concentration relieved)
design variables
™ Load Reversal with Springs
Such that:
™ Shot Peening Safety factor is > 1
¾ What type of failure would this be most effective Spring will not buckle
against? Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space

* - often can calculate from given

** - often given/defined

Static Design: Wire
Static Spring Flow Chart Diameter
if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F 8 FD 8FD 3 N a
τ max = K s y≈
Na , α πd 3 d 4G
D, Ks, Kw
Ns=Sys/τ Lf, yshut, Fshut
material strengths Based on Ns=Ssy/τ and above equation for τ:
for shut spring if possible
1 ( 2 +b )
8 N (C + 0.5)[Fwork (1 + α ) − Finitial (α )]
if not, for max working load
d = s 
 πK m A 
Three things to know: ITERATE?
• effect of d Three things to know: use Table 13-2 to select standard d near
buckling, Nshut, Di, Do
• shortcut to finding d • effect of d calculated d K =S /S m ys ut
• how to check buckling Nshut=Sys/τshut • shortcut to finding d
*maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b
• how to check buckling

Buckling Helical Springs

™ Compression

S .R. =
D ¾Stress
yinit + y working
y′ = ¾Deflection and Spring Constant
¾Static Design
¾Fatigue Design
™ Torsion
Three things to know:
• effect of d In general; S .R. = < 4 for safe design
• shortcut to finding d D
• how to check buckling

Modified Goodman for

Material Properties Springs
™ Sus ultimate shear strength ™ Sfw, Sew are for torsional strengths, so von
¾ Sus≈0.67 Sut Mises not used
™ Sfw´ torsional fatigue strength τa
¾ Table 13-7 -- function of Sut, # of cycles
¾ repeated, room temp, 50% reliability, no corrosion te
ea S fw S us
Sew´ torsional endurance limit Sfs C ep S fs = 0.5
( )
™ R
¾ for steel, d < 10mm S us − 0.5 S fw
0.5 Sfw
¾ see page 816 (=45 ksi (310 MPa) if unpeened,
=67.5 ksi (465 MPa) if peened)
¾ repeated, room temp., 50% reliability, no corrosion
0.5 Sfw Sus

Fatigue Safety Factor What are you Designing?
τa Fi=Fmin
Given Find
Fm=(Fmax+Fmin)/2 Fmax,Fmin, ∆y k d, C, D*, Lf*, Na*, clash
Sfs +
k, ∆ y F allowance (α)**, material**
lo a

0.5 Sfw mload

N fs = a Sa design variables
τa τa mgood Such that:
0.5 Sfw τi τm Sus
τm Fatigue Safety Factor is > 1
Shut Static Safety Factor is > 1
S fs (S us − τ i ) Spring will not buckle
τa,load = τa,good at intersection N fs = Spring is well below natural frequency
S fs (τ m − τ i ) + S usτ a Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space
* - often can calculate from Given
…on page 628
** - often given/defined

Fatigue Spring Design Fatigue Design:Wire

Strategy Diameter
if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F
as before, you can iterate to find d, or you can use an equation
Na , α derived from relationships that we already know:
STRESSES 1 ( 2+b )
D, Ks, Kw  8CN fs  N fs − 1  Ad b   
S fs (S us − τ i )
N fs = d =  K s Fm − K s Fmin + 1.34 − 1 K w Fa  
material strengths S fs (τ m − τ i ) + S usτ a Lf, yshut, Fshut  0.67πA  N fs  S fw   
 
use Table 13-2 to select standard d near
calculated d
ITERATE? buckling, frequency,
Two things to know: Two things to know:
Nshut, Di, Do
• shortcut to finding d • shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency Nshut=Sys/τshut • how to check frequency *maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b

Natural Frequency: Surge Review of Design Strategy

Surge == longitudinal resonance
for fixed/fixed end conditions:
1 kg
fn = (Hz)
2 Wa Find Loading Find Loading
Select C, d Select C, safety factor

ideally, fn will be at least 13x more than fforcing… Solve for d, pick standard d
Find stresses
it should definitely be multiple times bigger Find stresses
Determine material properties
Find safety factor Determine material properties
Check safety factor
Two things to know:
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency …see pages 814-815 for more

Strategy Review
Continued Consider the Following:
Find spring constant, Na, Nt

Find FSHUT (must find lengths and y’s to do this)

Find static shut shear stress and safety factor

Check Buckling

Check Surge

Check Di, Do if pin to fit over, hole to fit in

Torsion Springs
Helical Springs
Deflection & Spring Rate
™ Compression
1 MLw where,
θ rev = ,
¾Nomenclature 2π EI Lw = length of wire = πDN a
πd 4
¾Stress I=
¾Deflection and Spring Constant MDN a
θ rev,roundwire = 10.2
¾Static Design d 4E
¾Fatigue Design
θ rev,roundwire = 10.8 (if we account for
™ Torsion d 4E Friction)

θ rev

Stresses Materials
(1) Static -Compressive is Max –(Kbi > Kbo) – Inside of Coil
see Tables 13-13 and 13-14, page 850
M c 32 M max
σ imax = K bi max = K bi
I πd 3 follow book on Sewb=Sew/0.577… for now

4C − C − 1
K bi =
4C (C − 1)
(2) Fatigue – (since fatigue is a tensile stress phenomenon) – Outside of Coil

32 M max 32 M min
σ omax = K bo σ omin = K bo
πd 3 πd 3
4C + C − 1
K bo =
4C (C + 1)

Strategy Helical Springs
Select C, d
™ Compression
• fit over pin (if there is one)
• don’t exceed stresses ¾Nomenclature
¾Deflection and Spring Constant
¾Static Design
¾Fatigue Design
™ Torsion