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PART - A

Compressible – variable Density

In compressible – Constant density

𝜌𝑉 2

𝑃+ = const

2

𝑃

= 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡

𝜌𝛾

It is the angle between mach line and the direction of motion of body.

5) Define (i) Zone of action (ii) Zone of silence (iii) Mach Waves (or) Mach lines.

Region inside the mach cone – zone of action

Region outside the cone – zone of silence

The lines at which the pressure disturbance is concentrated and which generate

the cone are called as mach waves or mach lines.

Subsonic mach no. 0.1 ≥ 𝑀 > 0.8

Transonic mach no. 0.8 ≥ 𝑀 > 1.2

Supersonic mach no 1.2 ≥ 𝑀 > 5

Hypersonic mach no. 𝑀 ≥ 5

7) How velocity of the flow varies in convergent and divergent ducts for subsonic and

supersonic condition.

velocity Subsonic Supersonic

8) What is meant by ‘De Laval Nozzle’?

It is the convergent Divergent nozzle. It is the only means to produce supersonic

flow.

𝐴 2 1 2 𝛾 − 1 2 (𝛾+1)(𝛾−1)

( ∗) = 2 [ (1 + 𝑀 )]

𝐴 𝑀 𝛾+1 2

1 𝜕𝑝 𝑉2

∫ 𝑑𝑠 + = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡

𝜌 𝜕𝑠 2

If the shock wave is perpendicular to the free stream velocity, then it is normal

shock wave

2) Write the Hugoniot equation and explain each terms involved in it.

𝑃1 + 𝑃2

𝑒2− 𝑒1 = (𝜗2 − 𝜗1 )

2

3) What is meant by shock tube?

It is a device to produce high speed flow with high temperatures, by traversing

normal shock waves which are generated by the rupture of a diaphragm

separating a high pressure gas from the low pressure gas.

If the shock developed due to the supersonic flow and if it is inclined at an angle,

β to the free stream direction, then it is oblique shock.

Shock wave Expansion wave.

Supersonic flow over the compression Supersonic flow over the expansion corner

corner produces shock waves produces expansion waves.

6) Give the relation between Shock angle (), Mach number and Flow deflection angle ().

𝑀1 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽 − 1

tan 𝜃 = 2 𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝛽 ( 2 )

𝑀1 (𝛾 + cos 2𝛽) + 2

7) What is meant by Shock Polar?

Shock polar is the graphical representation of the oblique shock properties.

The circle with radius M* =1 is called as the sonic circle. Inside the circle all the

velocities are subsonic and outside the velocities are supersonic.

If the Mach number is equal to one, then it is characteristic Mach number, M*

COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

(1 − 𝑀∞ 2 )∅𝑥𝑥 + ∅𝑦𝑦 + ∅𝑧𝑧 = 0

2) Write the Prandtl Glauret Rule.

a. Stream lines of the compressible flow are far apart from each other by

1

than in incompressible flow.

√1−𝑀∞ 2

1

compressible flow is also

√1−𝑀∞ 2

It is the small increment in the velocity potential function.

They exists only in supersonic flow field

Characteristics are co incident with mach lines

While the derivatives of the flow properties are discontinuous, the flow properties

themselves are continuous on the characteristics.

𝐶𝑃,𝑂

𝐶𝑝 =

√1 − 𝑀∞ 2

𝐶𝐿,𝑂

𝐶𝐿 =

√1 − 𝑀∞ 2

𝐶𝑀,𝑂

𝐶𝑀 =

√1 − 𝑀∞ 2

6) Define method of characteristics?

It is the numerical methods for solving the full non linear equations of motion for

in viscid, ir rotational, flow.

It is free stream Mach number, when the sonic condition is first attained at any

point of the body.

2) Distinguish between Lower Critical Mach number and Upper Critical Mach number.

The free stream Mach number for which the entire flow around the body is

subsonic is called the lower critical Mach number.

The free stream Mach number for which the entire flow around the body is

supersonic is called the upper critical Mach number.

a. The critical Mach number decreases with the increasing thickness of the

body.

b. The co-efficient of pressure for the thick airfoil is greater than the thin

airfoil.

The character of the thickness and the camber is proportional to each other.

a. The critical Mach number decreases with the increasing camber of the

body.

b. The co-efficient of pressure for the high camber airfoil is greater than the

less camber airfoil.

Transonic area rule states that, the cross sectional area of the body should have

smooth variation with the longitudinal distance along the body.

By sweeping the wing, we can reduce the thickness to chord ratio ie., it makes the airfoil

section thinner. Thus increasing the critical Mach number and thereby increasing the drag

divergence Mach number.

The value of Mach number when there is a sudden increase in the coefficient of te

drag starts is the drag divergence mach number.

8) Why drag increases drastically over sonic speed?

The drag increases drastically over the sonic region because the extensive region

of the supersonic flow over the airfoil will be terminated by the strong shock

wave. These shock waves cause the severe flow separation downstream the shock

which results in large increase in drag.

1) What is a wind tunnel and classify the wind tunnels?

Wind tunnel is the flow device used for the calibration of the flow properties over

the body.

It is a intermittent type in which the energy is stored in the form of pressure or vacuum or

both and is allowed to drive the wind tunnel only for few seconds out of each pumping

hour

It is the process of visualizing the flow patterns behind the body.

a. Interferometer

b. Schlieren system

c. Shadow graph

PART – B

2) Define De Laval Nozzle and derive the Area Mach number relation.

3) With neat sketch briefly explain the flow in a Convergent-divergent nozzle.

4) For an aircraft flying at a speed of 1000kmph, find the variation of speed of sound a, and

Mach number M, with sea level and 11km altitude.

5) During a flight, a fighter aircraft attains its cruise speed of 600 m/s at 10km altitude after

taking off at 150 m/s from sea level. Assuming the speed to have increased linearly with

altitude during the climb, compute the Mach number variation with altitude.

6) A fighter aircraft attains its maximum speed of 2160 kmph at an altitude of 12 km. The

take-off speed at sea level is 270 kmph. If the flight speed increases linearly with altitude,

compute the variation of stagnation temperature with altitude for a climb up to the

maximum speed.

7) Air flows through a duct. The pressure and temperature at station 1 are P1 = 0.7 atm and

T1 = 300C, respectively. At a second station, the pressure is 0.5 atm. Calculate the

temperature and density at the second station. Assume the flow to be isentropic.

8) Air is allowed to expand from an initial state A (where PA = 2.068 x 105 N/m2 and TA =

333K) to state B (where PB = 1.034 x 105 N/m2 and TB = 305 K). Calculate the change

in the specific entropy of the air, and show that the change in entropy is the same for (a)

an isobaric process from A to some intermediate state C followed by an isovolumetric

change from C to B, and (b) an isothermal change from A to some intermediate state D

followed by an isentropic change from D to B.

9) A ramjet flies at 11 km altitude with a flight mach number of 0.9. In the inlet diffuser, the

air is brought to the stagnation condition so that it is stationary just before the combustion

chamber. Combustion takes place at constant pressure and a temperature increase of

15000C results. The combustion products are then ejected through the nozzle. (a)

Calculate the stagnation pressure and temperature. (b) What will be the nozzle exit

velocity? ( At inlet P = 0.3 atm and T = 213 K, at exit Pexit = 0.3 atm).

10) A De Laval Nozzle has to be designed for an exit Mach number of 1.5 with exit diameter

of 200mm. Find the ratio of throat area to exit area necessary. The reservoir conditions

are given as P0 = 1 atm; T0 = 200C. Find also the maximum mass flow rate through the

nozzle. What will be the exit pressure and temperature?

2) Derive the Hugoniot equation and explain the Hugoniot Curve.

3) The flow Mach number, pressure, and temperature ahead of a normal shock are given as

2.0, 0.5 atm and 300 K respectively. Determine M2, P2 , T2, and V2 behind the wave.

4) A re-entry vehicle (RV) is at an altitude of 15,000 m and has a velocity of 1850 m/s. A

bow shock wave envelops the RV. Neglecting dissociation, determine the stagnation

pressure and temperature just behind the shock wave on the RV center line where the

shock wave may be treated as normal shock.. Assume that the air behaves as perfect gas,

with = 1.4 and R = 287 J/kg-K.

5) A normal shock moves in a constant area tube as shown in figure. In region 1, V1 = 100

m/s, T1 = 300C and P1 = 0.7 atm. Shock speed CS with respect to a fixed coordinate

system is 600 m/s. Find fluid properties in region 2.

6) Write short notes on

(i) Supersonic flow over a wedge

(ii) Weak Oblique shocks

(iii) Supersonic Compression

(iv) Supersonic Expansion by Turning

COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

2) Write short notes on.

(i) Mach waves

(ii) Mach angles

(iii) Solutions for Supersonic flows.

3) Derive the Linearised two-dimensional supersonic flow theory.

4) Derive the Prandtl Glauret affine transformation relations for subsonic flows.

5) Explain Small perturbation equation for compressible flows.

1) Briefly explain the characteristics features of the lower critical mach number and upper

critical mach number.

2) Briefly explain the characteristics features of swept wings.

3) Briefly explain the effects of thickness, camber and aspect ratio over the performance of

wings in high speed flows.

4) Briefly explain the need and characteristic features of Transonic area rule.

5) Explain the supersonic airfoil in detail.

6) Explain the following;

(iii) Disadvantages of Swept wings

(iv) Delta wing

2) Sketch a typical shock tunnel and explain its principle of operation. What are the

advantages and limitations of shock tunnel?

3) Draw a neat sketch of a supersonic wind tunnel circuit and explain the function of each

component.

4) Draw a neat sketch of a transonic wind tunnel circuit and explain the function of each

component.

5) Draw a neat sketch of a hypersonic wind tunnel circuit and explain the function of each

component.

6) Briefly explain the Blow down, indraft and induction tunnel layouts and their design

features.

7) Briefly explain the Helium and gun tunnels and its applications.

8) Briefly explain the various optical methods of flow visualization.

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