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A STUDY ON LEADERSHIP STYLES IN WORK FORCE

Submitted to University of Madras

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree

Master of Business Administration

Submitted by

NUSHRATH BANU.M
(Roll No.13M115)

Under the guidance of

M.S.VIJAY RAO
Assistant professor

MEASI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT


(Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to University of Madras)
#87, Peters Road, Royapettah, Chennai - 600 014.
July -2014
MEASI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
(Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to University of Madras)

#87, Peters Road, Royapettah, Chennai - 600 014.

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report titled “A STUDY ON LEADERSHIP STYLES IN C-DOT ALCATEL-
LUCENT” submitted by Ms. NUSHRATH BANU.M (Roll no:13M115) in partial fulfillment of the
requirements of the Post Graduate Degree course in Masters of Business Administration (M.B.A) for the year
2013-2015 is the original work of the above candidate.

M.S.VIJAY RAO DIRECTOR

PROJECT GUIDE
DECLARATION

I, NUSHRATH BANU.M (Roll no:13M115) Bonafide student of Business Studies, MEASI


Institute of Management, affiliated to University of Madras hereby declare that Project entitled “A STUDY ON
LEADERSHIP STYLES” was prepared towards the partial fulfillment of Master of Business Administra tio n
(M.B.A) final year Degree course from the University of Madras. The report was prepared by my own effort and
it has not been submitted earlier either to this university or to any other university / Institution for the award of
any degree or diploma.

PLACE : Chennai Signature

DATE : (NUSHRATH BANU.M)


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and the foremost wishes, I would like to thank the ALMIGHTY for the blessings to complete this project

successfully.

I owe my sincere thanks to our beloved Director Dr. D. Nisar ahmed MEASI Institute of Management, Chennai

for their advice to carry out this project.

I express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide M.S.Vijay rao MEASI Institute of Management for his valuable

guidance and who has always been the source for visualization and presentation for this project.

I owe my sincere thanks to Management & teaching as well as non-teaching staff of MEASI Institute of

Management for their constant encouragement and guidance through-out the project.

I would like to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my family members and my best friends, who remain

constant source of encouragement and inspiration throughout my life and academic career.
CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE No

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION

 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY

 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 NEED FOR THE STUDY

 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

 INDUSTRY PROFILE

 COMPANY/PRODUCT PROFILE

CHAPTER II

 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

CHAPTER III

 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER IV

 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

CHAPTER V : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND

CONCLUSION

 FINDINGS

 RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS

 CONCLUSIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNEXURES (QUESTIONNAIRE)
LIST OF TABLES

S.NO LIST OF TABLES PG.NO


1. AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS
2. DESIGNATION OF THE RESPONDENTS
3. SALARY OF THE RESPONDENTS
4. EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS
5. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE TIMELY REVIEW ON ORGANISATION’S
GOALS & MISSIONS
6. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE DETAILS GIVEN TO A COMMITTEE TO
CARRY OUT AN ASSIGNMENT
7. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE MONITORING WHILE CARRYING OUT
THE ASSIGNMENT BY THE COMMITTEE
8. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE NUMBER OF SUBORDINATES HAVE
COME TO RELATE PERSONAL PROBLEMS OR ACCOMPLISHMENTS DURING
THE PAST YEAR

9. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE REASONS TO MEET THE LEADER


DURING WORKING HOURS
10. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE WAYS THAT THEIR LEADER IS HELPFUL
IN SOLVING GRIEVANCES
11. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE TYPE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE PREFERED
IN THE ORGANISATION
12. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE LEADER’S MEET TO THE SUBORDINATES
SOCIALLY
13. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE LEADER’S ENCOURAGEMENT TO THE
SUBORDINATES DURING THE PAST YEAR
14. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE NUMBER OF SUBORDINATES GOT
COMMENTS FOR SPECIAL ACHIEVEMENTS
15. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE MANAGER’S ENCOURAGEMENT TO
PARTICIPATE IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS RELATING TO THE POLICY
MATTERS
LIST OF FIGURES

S.NO LIST OF FIGURES PG.NO


1. AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS
2. DESIGNATION OF THE RESPONDENTS
3. SALARY OF THE RESPONDENTS
4. EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS
5. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE TIMELY REVIEW ON ORGANISATION’S
GOALS & MISSIONS
6. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE DETAILS GIVEN TO A COMMITTEE TO
CARRY OUT AN ASSIGNMENT
7. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE MONITORING WHILE CARRYING OUT
THE ASSIGNMENT BY THE COMMITTEE
8. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE NUMBER OF SUBORDINATES HAVE
COME TO RELATE PERSONAL PROBLEMS OR ACCOMPLISHMENTS DURING
THE PAST YEAR

9. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE REASONS TO MEET THE LEADER


DURING WORKING HOURS
10. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE WAYS THAT THEIR LEADER IS HELPFUL
IN SOLVING GRIEVANCES
11. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE TYPE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE PREFERED
IN THE ORGANISATION
12. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE LEADER’S MEET TO THE SUBORDINATES
SOCIALLY
13. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE LEADER’S ENCOURAGEMENT TO THE
SUBORDINATES DURING THE PAST YEAR
14. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE NUMBER OF SUBORDINATES GOT
COMMENTS FOR SPECIAL ACHIEVEMENTS
15. RESPONDENTS OPINIONS ON THE MANAGER’S ENCOURAGEMENT TO
PARTICIPATE IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS RELATING TO THE POLICY
MATTERS
CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
Leadership is an abstract quality in a human being to induce others to do whatever they are directed to do with
zeal and confidence. It is a quality or ability of an individual to persuade others to seek defined objectives
enthusiastically. The leader is a force of the organization that designs, executes, coordinates, and controls all the
functions of an organization, i.e. planning, executing, organizing, directing, and controlling. Leadership
inspires; creates confidence; helps the team mates to give their maximum for the attainment of objectives. In a
business organization, managers at all levels, by whatever name called, are leaders because they all have
subordinates whose efforts are canalized in a definite direction. A leader gives a company the life which creates
the products and innovations that it sells. Effective leaders develop a team of effective employees, subordinates
or followers, and they together develop a more effective organization.

In order to run the organizations effortlessly, effectively and efficiently, the most important and valued factor
organizations need are Human resources. The success of an organization depends on the diligent, loyal and
concerned managers and employees. Leadership is required in every organization at every level, the success or
failure of an organization depends on the quality of leadership particularly on the part of top management. In
this competitive era where world has become a global village, firms are considered to be competitive on the
basis of competence of their human resources. Management of employees mostly depends on the quality of
leadership organizations have (Albioon & Gagliardi, 2007). Concept of leadership is not a new concept in the
field of social science studies. In the recent years, the area of leadership has been widely studied more than any
other aspect of human resource management.

Peter. F. Drucker considers leadership as a human characteristic which lifts a man’s vision to higher sights;
raises and builds his performance to higher standards, and builds man’s personality beyond its normal limits.
Leadership is an important abstract quality of the leader that sets apart a successful organization from an
unsuccessful one. Leadership is, therefore, regarded as the process of influencing the activities of an individual
towards goal achievement in a given situation. This process has been explained by Hersey and Blanchard in the
form of the following equation:

L=f (l, f, s) Leadership is a function of leader (l), the followers (f) and other situational variables(s).

LEADERSHIP DEFINITIONS:

•Leadership is Inter-Personal influence exercised in a situation and directed through communication process,
towards the attainment of a specialized goal and goals. - Robert Tannehbaum

•Leadership is that combination of qualities by the possession of which one able to get something done by
others, chiefly because, through his influence, they become willing to do so. - Ordway Tead

•Leadership is the ability to secure desirable actions from a group of followers voluntarily without the use of
coercion. - Alford and Beatty
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To study the style of leadership at ALCATEL.

2. To analyze the perception of the team members about their team leader.

3. To study the kind of relationship exists between team leader and team members.

4. To find out what kind of LEADER SHIP STYLES are existed in the teams of C-Dot Alcatel.

5. To suggest strategies to enhance team performance.


NEED FOR THE STUDY

Leadership style concepts may be valuable in identifying strengths and weaknesses of current and future
leaders, and leadership style inventories and assessments are available. They can also be used to identify what
kind of leader is needed for a particular organization at a particular time and assist in choosing someone who
has the desired leadership approach. Finally, they can be useful in increasing a leader’s self-awareness of his or
her own leadership preferences and approaches for the purpose of self -development.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study analyses the type of leadership style adopted by the top level management for the functioning of the
organization. As there are various type of styles adopted by different leaders in various organization. The study
covers the leadership styles in C-DOT ALCATEL and its impact on the effective functioning of the
organization.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

•The time period for carrying out the research was short as result of which many facts have been left
unexplored.

•Sample size was restricted to 50.

•While collection of the data many employees were unwilling to fill the questionnaires. Respondents were
having a feeling of wastage of time for them.
INDUSTRY PROFILE
The telecom industry has been divided into two major segments, that is, fixed and wireless cellular services for this
report. Besides, internet services, VAS, PMRTS and VSAT also have been discussed in brief in the report.

In today’s information age, the telecommunication industry has a vital role to play. Considered as the backbone of
industrial and economic development, the industry has been aiding delivery of voice and data services at rapidly
increasing speeds, and thus, has been revolutionizing human communication.

Although the Indian telecom industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world, the current tele density or
telecom penetration is extremely low when compared with global standards. India’s tele density of 36.98% in FY09 is
amongst the lowest in the world. Further, the urban tele density is over 80%, while rural tele d ensity is less than 20%,
and this gap is increasing. As majority of the population resides in rural areas, it is important that the government takes
steps to improve rural tele density. No doubt the government has taken certain policy initiatives, which in clude the
creation of the Universal Service Obligation Fund, for improving rural telephony. These measures are expected to
improve the rural tele-density and bridge the rural-urban gap in tele-density.

Indian telecom sector is more than 165 years old. Telecommunications was first introduced in India in 1851 when the
first operational land lines were laid by the government near Kolkata (then Calcutta), although telephone services were
formally introduced in India much later in 1881. Further, in 1883, telephone services were merged with the postal
system. In 1947, after India attained independence, all foreign telecommunication companies were nationalized to form
the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph (PTT), a body that was governed by the Ministry of Communicatio n. The Indian
telecom sector was entirely under government ownership until 1984, when the private sector was allowed in
telecommunication equipment manufacturing only. The government concretized its earlier efforts towards developing
R&D in the sector by setting up an autonomous body – Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) in 1984 to
develop state-of-the-art telecommunication technology to meet the growing needs of the Indian telecommunication
network. The actual evolution of the industry started after the Government separated the Department of Post and
Telegraph in 1985 by setting up the Department of Posts and the Department of Telecommunications (DoT).

The entire evolution of the telecom industry can be classified into three distinct phases.

Phase I- Pre-Liberalization Era (1980-89)

Phase II- Post Liberalization Era (1990-99)

Phase III- Post 2000

Until the late 90s the Government of India held a monopoly on all types of communications – as a result of the
Telegraph Act of 1885. As mentioned earlier in the chapter, until the industry was liberalized in the early nineties, it was
a heavily government-controlled and small-sized market, Government policies have played a key role in shaping the
structure and size of the Telecom industry in India. As a result, the Indian telecom market is one of the most liberalized
market in the world with private participation in almost all of its segments. The New Telecom Policy (NTP -99) provided
the much needed impetus to the growth of this industry and set the trend for liberalization in the industry.
COMPANY PROFILE
CARC is an award-winning R&D center in India, dedicated to developing next generation broadband wireless
technologies and telecom solutions that change the way the world communicates.

With a rich legacy of innovation, proven wireless expertise, end-to-end product development and
superior RF design capabilities extending across all wireless technologies, CARC is well poised to deliver the
broadband future.

Future plans:

Wireless Centre of Excellence

Globally deployed 4G solutions

Customized solutions for specialized requirements

Low cost designs

Focused on India and emerging markets

OVERVIEW:

A joint venture of C-DOT (Centre for Development of Telematics) & Alcatel-Lucent, CARC is an
award-winning R&D center in India, dedicated to developing next generation broadband wireless technologies
and telecom solutions that change the way the world communicates. With a rich legacy of innovation and a
strong emphasis on maintaining high standards in product quality, service offerings and design processes,
CARC is poised to provide the foundation for delivering the broadband future.
PRODUCTS & SOLUTIONS:

CARC's product portfolio encompasses a broad range of wireless products and solutions spanning several
technologies. These products and solutions have been designed to address market requirements in a wide range
of verticals and have been deployed across customer sites connecting millions of users all over the world.
OUR FACILITIES:

CARC's extensive state-of-the art laboratory provides the perfect platform for the development of end-to-end
products and customized solutions. The wide range of wireless equipment encompasses end-to-end 3G & 4G
networks, specialized test equipment, tools and other equipment used for certification and devices. The facility
also has simulated field environments for integration and testing.

SERVICES:

CARC offers a comprehensive portfolio of R&D services for organizations to meet their engineering needs with
a focus on accelerating innovation while addressing the major concerns of time to market, quality and cost.
These services primarily include System & Product Design, End-to-end product development and Testing,
Integration & Certification.

SYSTEM & PRODUCT DESIGN:

Leveraging its rich expertise in various technologies and verticals, CARC translates ideas into innovative,
highly differentiated products and solutions, thus enabling our customers to succeed in the global market.

Key Differentiators:

Proven expertise in all domains related to broadband wireless

Superior designs with key focus on innovation and quality

Experience in varied wireless technologies and standards - 2G, 3G, 4G & others.
END TO END PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT:

CARC is a proven leader in end-to-end product development with many of our solutions deployed worldwide.
CARC's capabilities include the entire product lifecycle - design, development, integration and validation.
CARC has undertaken both prototype development and mass production & quality systems.

KEY BENEFITS:

Accelerated time to market with improved product life cycle time


Access to expertise in different technologies and industries
Superior product quality.

INTEGRATION, TESTING and CERTIFICATION:

CARC provides a wide range of telecom testing services that include End-to-end testing, Interoperability testing
and H/W & Certification testing. These services range from developing the test strategy to actual test execution
and can be customized according to the requirements.

KEY BENEFITS:

Extensive environment for real world testing

Enhanced reliability and product quality

State of the art testing infrastructure.


CAREERS:

CARC provides myriad opportunities for both experienced and young professionals to be part of the global
wireless transformation by providing an unmatched R&D environment. Opportunities include working on the
latest technologies such as 3G, WIMAX & LTE and working with teams and customers across the globe.
CARC always encourages innovation and original thought and nurtures both technical and leadership growth.
With a challenging, yet flexible work environment, CARC offers strong work-life balance and is looking for
highly motivated team players, recognized for their achievements.
CHAPTER - 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Different scholars in social sciences have highlighted a variety of leadership styles.

Elance & Aggarwal (1975), investigated the leadership behavior taking different variables affecting the
leadership style along with delegation of authority of 123 executives from public and private sector. They found
that 67% executives in private sector and 57% in public sector units have employed democratic decision style or
leadership.

Norman (1970), the women in leadership position were found by Norman to be women of high intelligence,
confidence, composed, preserving, experimenting, liberal, socially precise, self-motivated and calculating, with
an intellectual approach to situations. They could maintain cordial relations with their superiors. He conducted a
study of women in leadership position in north California.

Singh (1978), in a study of leadership behavior found that total leadership was significantly related to the four
personality factors: outgoingness, intelligence, emotional stability and assertiveness. He conducted a study of
leadership behavior of head of secondary school in the state of Haryana.

Noel. M Tichy,David.O. Ulrich (1984), author purport that a new brand of leadership-transformational
leadership is the key to revitalizing large U.S corporations such as general motors, AT&T, general electric etc.
Based on the premise that the pressure for basic organizational change will intensify, mnot diminish, over the
years, they argue that transformational leaders must develop a new vision for the organization. Mobilize
employees to accept and work towards achieving the new vision and institutionalize the needed changes. Unless
the creation of this breed of leaders becomes a national agenda, the authors are not very optimistic about the
revitalization of the U.S economy. Based on the premise that the pressure for basic organizational change will
intensify, the authors concluded that transformational leadership is required for revitalizing our organizations.
Ultimately, its upto our leaders to choose the right kind of leadership and corporate lifestyle.

Reichmann (1991), examined the characteristics of team leaders in higher education. Team leaders exhibited
certain characteristics including conceptual leadership and attributes such as honesty, integrity and a sense of
fairness. He conducted a study on team leader effectiveness, high performance teams in higher education and
mainly observed the characteristics of team leaders.

Research journalist’s Journal of Management

Vol. 2 | No. 2 March | 2014 ISSN 2347-82178 www.researchjournali.com

North house (2001), leadership is described as the selection of bases of influence. The transformational
approach views leadership as a shared process. The outcome of this process is the ability to transform oneself,
others, and the organization to new, unimagined heights of motivation and performance.

Alpana Priyabhashini, Venkat R. Krishnan (2005), studied the relationship between transformational leadership,
leader’s expectation from follower (pygmalion effect) and follower’s readiness for promotion using a sample of
101 managers from two organizations in India. Respondents answered questions on their readiness for
promotions and on their superior’s transformational leadership and expectations. The readiness for promotion
was captured through two dimensions. The first one related to motivation of the subordinate to perform and to
rise. The second dimension was measured on confidence of the subordinate. The results showed that leader’s
expectation was significantly positively correlated to follower’s readiness for promotion. Each of the five
factors of transformational leadership was significantly was significantly positively correlated to leader’s
expectation. Readiness for promotion is positively related to only three factors of transformational leadership-
idealized influence, inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation and is not related to the fourth factor-
individualized consideration. Results also showed that leader’s expectation mediates.

David.M.Harold, Donald.B.Fedor (2008), in this study, investigated the effect of transformational and change
leadership on employee’s commitment to a change. The effects of transformational leadership on the outcomes
of specific change initiatives are not well understood.

Omar Bin Sayeed, Meera Shankar (2009), in their study attempted to examine multivariate relationships
between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. The canonical correlation between emotional
intelligence and transformational leadership dimensions revealed significant relationships, which confirmed
emotional intelligence as an important element of managerial temperament.

Vimal Babu (2011), studies have emphasized that expatriates leadership styles play a pivotal role. It has been
considered as a prime criterion to be successful and effective in the host country. Study has examined 25
Japanese and 23 American expats in India focusing on their leadership styles. In order to determine the
leadership styles of these managers from altogether different countries, the study has investigated ten leadership
components. Results were analyzed to identify the differences and similarities between the leadership styles.
Statistical tests revealed that there were significant differences on four leadership components out of ten and the
remaining six leadership components had non-significant differences. Results showed that American managers
had good communication skills. Japanese managers often motivated their subordinates to work harder by stating
clearly what the desired performance is and what is not. American managers had more knowledge and skills to
transfer and train their subordinates. The study also sheds light on the implications for expatriates with regard to
leadership effectiveness.

Research journalist’s Journal of Management Vol. 2 | No. 2 March | 2014 ISSN 2347-82179
www.researchjournali.com

Rezvan Mirsafaei Rizi, Aida Azadi, Maryam Eslami Farsani, Shahram Aroufzad (2013), relationship between
leadership styles and job satisfaction among physical education organization employees in Isfahan. Results
showed that the positive correlation between overall leadership styles and job satisfaction was significant at the
level of P<0.05. Also, the correlations between leadership styles sub-scales such as transactional leadership,
transformational leadership and passive/avoidant leadership and job satisfaction was significant at the level of
P<0.05. Based on these results, among determinants of job satisfaction, leadership is viewed as an important
predictor and plays a central role.
CHAPTER - 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
MEANING:

Research is a serious academic activity with the set of objectives to explain or analyze or understand a problem
or finding solutions for the problems by adopting a systematic approach in collecting, organizing the
information relating to the problem.

RESEARCH = SEARCH OF OLD THING + FIND OUT NEW THING

Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The
primary aim for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for
the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. It is
exploratory and often driven by the researcher’s curiosity, interest, and intuition. It is conducted without any
practical end in mind, although it may have unexpected results pointing to practical applications.

“Research means search for knowledge” sometimes it may refer to a scientific and systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact research is an art of scientific investigation.

SAMPLING:

Sampling is a part of the population or a subject of unit, which is provided by some process or others usually by
deliberate selection with the object of investigation. Here the sample survey is conducted for collection of the
data from the employees of “C-DOT ALCATEL”.

SAMPLE STRUCTURE:

For the purpose of this “A Study on Leader Ship Styles of the Top management MBA HR Project” study
sample has been collected from employees working in C-DOT ALCATEL, total 50 of sample were collected
among that 20 of female and 30 males there.

SAMPLE SIZE:

The total sample size for the analysis was 50 respondents of “C-DOT ALCATEL”

Under simple random sampling each member of the population has known & equal chance of being selected. A
selection tool frequency used with its design is random number tables.

SAMPLING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES:

Data has been analyzed by using, cross tabulations. From the total 50 members for the purpose of finding
overall leader ship styles, I analyzed the teams as single team wise and I compared the all teams to know what
leader ship styles are followed by the C-DOT ALCATEL.

Statistical tools like tabulation, graphic representations & percentages analysis are used in the computation of
data.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD:

To accomplish the objective of the study, descriptive research design is adopted to collect the data from the
employers of the company. Descriptive researches simply describe things such as style of leadership has been
performed in the organization. The descriptive study is typically concerned with determining the frequency with
which same thing occurs. This study is typically guided by initial hypothesis. In this study, collected two types
of data.

1. Primary Data

2. Secondary Data

1. Primary data:
The source of primary data used in my project is the questionnaire. Primary are the raw data like
raw material. Primary data are according to object of investigation and used without correction. The
collection of primary data requires large sum, energy and time. Precautions are not necessary in the
use of the primary data.

For this study the primary data is collected in three ways:

• Through observations

• Through questionnaires

• Through sampling procedure

2. Secondary data:

The secondary data is collected about the study is from various sources where information is
available like,

a) Organizational web site

b) Company Past records

c) Internet

d) Books

e) Magazines

SAMPLE DESIGN:

“Sampling may be defined as the selection of an aggregate or totally on the basis of which a judgment of
reference about the aggregate of totally is made.” Sampling is used in conducting surveys and in studying
various problems concerning production management, time and motion studies, market research, various areas
of accounting and finance and the like.

The sample design of a sample survey refers to the techniques for selecting a probability sample and the
methods to obtain estimates of the survey variables from the selected sample.

Sample design covers the method of selection, the sample structure and plans for analyzing and interpreting the
results. Sample designs can vary from simple to complex and depend on the type of information required and
the way the sample is selected.
CHAPTER - 4
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

AGE
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

21-30yrs 15 30.0

31-40yrs 13 26.0

Valid 41-50yrs 16 32.0

Above 50yrs 6 12.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
32% of the employee’s opinions regarding the age is 41-50yrs, 30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the
age is 21-30yrs, 26% of the employee’s opinions regarding the age is 31-40yrs,
12% of the employee’s opinions regarding the age is above 50yrs.
DESIGNATION
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Executive 22 44.0

Manager 14 28.0
Valid
Supervisors 14 28.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
44% of the employee’s opinions regarding the designation is executives, 28% of the employee’s opinions
regarding the designation is supervisors, 28% of the employee’s opinions regarding the designation is managers.
SALARY
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

<3 lakhs 21 42.0

3,00,001-5 lakhs 24 48.0


Valid
Above 5 lakhs 5 10.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
48% of the employee’s opinions regarding the salary is 3, 00, 000-5lakhs, 42% of the employee’s opinions
regarding the salary is <3 lakhs, 10% of the employee’s opinions regarding the salary is above 5 lakhs.
EXPERIENCE
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

<2yrs 9 18.0

2-5yrs 33 66.0
Valid
Above 5yrs 8 16.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
66% of the employee’s opinions regarding the experience is 2-5yrs, 18% of the employee’s opinions regarding
the experience is <2yrs, 16% of the employee’s opinions regarding the experience is above 5yrs.
HOW OFTEN DO YOU REVIEW THE ORGANISATION’S GOALS & MISSIONS
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Hardly ever 16 32.0

Occasionally but not too often 13 26.0

Valid
Fairly often 13 26.0

Quite often 8 16.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
32% of the employee’s opinions regarding the review of the organisation’s goals & missions
Is hardly ever, 26% of the employee’s opinions regarding the review of the organisation’s goals & missions Is
occasionally but not too often, 26% of the employee’s opinions regarding the review of the organisation’s goals
& missions Is fairly often, 16% of the employee’s opinions regarding the review of the organisation’s goals &
missions Is quite often.

HOW MUCH DETAILS DO YOU GIVE TO A COMMITTEE TO CARRY OUT AN ASSIGNMENT


OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Hardly any detail 12 24.0

Some but not much detail 19 38.0

Valid A fair amount of detail 12 24.0

Lots of detail 7 14.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
38% of the employee’s opinions regarding the details of a committee given to carry out an assignment is some
but not much detail, 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the details of a committee given to carry out an
assignment is hardly any detail, 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the details of a committee given to
carry out an assignment is a fair amount of detail, 14% of the employee’s opinions regarding the details of a
committee given to carry out an assignment is lots of detail.

HOW MUCH MONITORING DO YOU DO WHILE CARRYING OUT THE ASSIGNMENT BY THE
COMMITTEE
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Hardly any monitoring 11 22.0

Occasional but not much 13 26.0


Valid
A fair amount of monitoring 18 36.0

Lots of monitoring 8 16.0


Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
36% of the employee’s opinions regarding monitoring the committee while carrying out the assignment is a fair
amount of monitoring, 26% of the employee’s opinions regarding monitoring the committee while carrying out
the assignment is occasional but not much, 22% of the employee’s opinions regarding monitoring the
committee while carrying out the assignment is hardly any monitoring, 16% of the employee’s opinions
regarding monitoring the committee while carrying out the assignment is lots of monitoring.

HOW MANY OF YOUR SUBORDINATES HAVE COME TO YOU TO RELATE PERSONAL


ACCOMPLISHMENTS/PROBLEMS DURING THE PAST YEAR
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Hardly any 11 22.0


Valid
Less than 25% 15 30.0
Between 25-50% 10 20.0

More than 50% 14 28.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates have come to relate personal
accomplishments/problems during the past year is < 25%, 28% of the employee’s opinions regarding the
number of subordinates have come to relate personal accomplishments/problems during the past year is > 50%,
22% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates have come to relate personal
accomplishments/problems during the past year is hardly any, 20% of the employee’s opinions regarding the
number of subordinates have come to relate personal accomplishments/problems during the past year is between
25-50%.
FOR WHAT REASONS DO YOU MEET TO YOUR LEADER/MANAGER DURING WORKING
HOURS
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Work related activities 12 24.0

Decision making 11 22.0

Socialising 7 14.0
Valid
To share personal problems 9 18.0

Other factors 11 22.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the reasons to meet the leader/manager during the working hours is
work related activities, 22% of the employee’s opinions regarding the reasons to meet the leader/manager
during the working hours is decision making, 22% of the employee’s opinions regarding the reasons to meet the
leader/manager during the working hours is other factors, 18% of the employee’s opinions regarding the reasons
to meet the leader/manager during the working hours is to share personal problems, 14% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the reasons to meet the leader/manager during the working hours is socialising.
IN WHAT WAYS DOES YOUR MANAGER/LEADER IS HELPFUL IN SOLVING GRIEVANCES
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Takes authoritative decision 14 28.0

Takes decision in democratic style 12 24.0

Valid Leaves it to the concerned employees 12 24.0

Does not take care of the grievances 12 24.0

Total 50 100.0
Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
28% of the employee’s opinions regarding the ways that a manager/leader is helpful in solving grievances is
takes authoritative decisions, 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the ways that a manager/leader is
helpful in solving grievances is takes decision in democratic style, 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding
the ways that a manager/leader is helpful in solving grievances is leaves it to the concerned employees, 24% of
the employee’s opinions regarding the ways that a manager/leader is helpful in solving grievances is does not
take care of the grievances.

WHAT TYPE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE DO YOU PREFER IN YOUR MANAGER/LEADER


OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Autocratic 8 16.0

Democratic 17 34.0

Valid Free reign 14 28.0

Combination of all 11 22.0

Total 50 100.0
Inference:

From the above table it is inferred that,

34% of the employee’s opinions regarding the type of leadership style that they prefer is democratic, 28% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the type of leadership style that they prefer is free reign, 22% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the type of leadership style that they prefer is combination of all, 16% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the type of leadership style that they prefer is autocratic.

WITH HOW MANY OF YOUR SUBORDINATES DO YOU MEET SOCIALLY DURING THE PAST
YEAR
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Hardly any 12 24.0

Valid Less than 25% 18 36.0

Between 25-50% 12 24.0


More than 50% 8 16.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
36% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates meets socially during the past year is <
25%, 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates meets socially during the past year
is hardly any, 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates meets socially during the
past year is between 25-50%, 16% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates meets
socially during the past year is > 50%.
FOR HOW MANY OF YOUR SUBORDINATES DO YOU ENCOURAGE DURING THE PAST YEAR
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Hardly any 12 24.0

Less than 25% 14 28.0

Valid Between 25-50% 13 26.0

More than 50% 11 22.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
28% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates encouraged during the past year is <
25%, 26% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates encouraged during the past year is
between 25-50%, 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates encouraged during the
past year is hardly any, 22% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates encouraged
during the past year is >50%.
HOW MANY OF YOUR SUBORDINATES HAVE WRITTEN INFORMAL OR FORMAL
UNSOLICITED NOTES FOR COMMENDING THEM FOR SPECIAL ACHIEVEMENT
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Hardly any 10 20.0

Less than 25% 20 40.0

Valid Between 25-50% 12 24.0

More than 50% 8 16.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
40% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates that they have written informal or formal
unsolicited notes for commending them for special achievement is <25%,
24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates that they have written informal or formal
unsolicited notes for commending them for special achievement is between 25-50%, 20% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the number of subordinates that they have written informal or formal unsolicited notes for
commending them for special achievement is hardly any, 16% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number
of subordinates that they have written informal or formal unsolicited notes for commending them for special
achievement is >50%.

HOW OFTEN YOUR MANAGER ENCOURAGE TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISION MAKING


PROCESS RELATING TO THE POLICY MATTERS
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Regularly 10 20.0
Valid
Quite often 17 34.0
Sometimes 13 26.0

Rarely 10 20.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
34% of the employee’s opinions regarding the manager’s encouragement & participation in decision making
process relating to the policy matters is quite often, 26% of the employee’s opinions regarding the manager’s
encouragement & participation in decision making process relating to the policy matters is sometimes, 20% of
the employee’s opinions regarding the manager’s encouragement & participation in decision making process
relating to the policy matters is rarely, 20% of the employee’s opinions regarding the manager’s encouragement
& participation in decision making process relating to the policy matters is regularly.

EMPLOYEES NEED TO BE SUPERVISED CLOSELY OR THEY ARE NOT


LIKELY TO DO THEIR WORK
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly Disagree 5 10.0

Disagree 10 20.0

Neutral 15 30.0
Valid
Agree 10 20.0

Strongly agree 10 20.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
30% of the employee’s opinions regarding employees need to be closely supervised or not during their work is
neutral, 20% of the employee’s opinions regarding employees need to be closely supervised or not during their
work is disagree, 20% of the employee’s opinions regarding employees need to be closely supervised or not
during their work is agree, 20% of the employee’s opinions regarding employees need to be closely supervised
or not during their work is strongly agree, 10% of the employee’s opinions regarding employees need to be
closely supervised or not during their work is strongly disagree.
EMPLOYEES WANT TO BE A PART OF THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 6 12.0

Disagree 9 18.0

Neutral 12 24.0
Valid
Agree 12 24.0

Strongly agree 11 22.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s part in decision making process is agree, 24% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s part in decision making process is neutral, 22% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s part in decision making process is strongly agree, 18% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s part in decision making process is disagree, 12% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s part in decision making process is Strongly disagree.

IN COMPLEX SITUATIONS, LEADERS SHOULD LET SUBORDINATES WORK PROBLEMS OUT


ON THEIR OWN
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 7 14.0

Disagree 9 18.0

Neutral 9 18.0
Valid
Agree 14 28.0

Strongly agree 11 22.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
28% of the employee’s opinions regarding the subordinate’s freedom during the complex situations is agree,
22% of the employee’s opinions regarding the subordinate’s freedom during the complex situations is strongly
agree, 18% of the employee’s opinions regarding the subordinate’s freedom during the complex situations is
disagree, 18% of the employee’s opinions regarding the subordinate’s freedom during the complex situations is
neutral, 14% of the employee’s opinions regarding the subordinate’s freedom during the complex situations is
strongly disagree.

IT IS FAIR TO SAY THAT MOST EMPLOYEES IN THE GENERAL POPULATION


ARE LAZY
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 15 30.0

Valid Disagree 19 38.0

Neutral 8 16.0
Agree 6 12.0

Strongly agree 2 4.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
38% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s general population lazy is disagree,
30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s general population lazy is strongly disagree, 16% of
the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s general population lazy is neutral, 12% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the employee’s general population lazy is agree, 4% of the employee’s opinions regarding
the employee’s general population lazy is strongly agree.

PROVIDING GUIDANCE WITHOUT PRESSURE IS THE KEY TO BEING A GOOD LEADER


OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT
Strongly disagree 3 6.0

Disagree 5 10.0

Neutral 13 26.0
Valid
Agree 14 28.0

Strongly agree 15 30.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s guidance without pressure is strongly agree, 28% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s guidance without pressure is agree,
26% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s guidance without pressure is neutral, 10% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s guidance without pressure is disagree, 6% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the leader’s guidance without pressure is strongly agree.
LEADERSHIP REQUIRES STAYING OUT OF THE WAY OF SUBORDINATES
AS THEY DO THEIR WORK
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 6 12.0

Disagree 4 8.0

Neutral 6 12.0
Valid
Agree 11 22.0

Strongly agree 23 46.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
46% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leaders staying away from the subordinates work is strongly
agree, 22% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leaders staying away from the subordinates work is agree,
12% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leaders staying away from the subordinates work is neutral, 12%
of the employee’s opinions regarding the leaders staying away from the subordinates work is strongly disagree,
8% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leaders staying away from the subordinates work is disagree.

AS A RULE, EMPLOYEES MUST BE GIVEN REWARDS OR PUNISHMENTS IN ORDER TO


MOTIVATE THEM TO ACHIEVE ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 3 6.0

Disagree 2 4.0
Valid
Neutral 15 30.0

Agree 18 36.0
Strongly agree 12 24.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
36% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s rewards or punishments is agree,
30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s rewards or punishments is neutral,
24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s rewards or punishments is strongly agree, 6% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s rewards or punishments is strongly disagree, 4% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s rewards or punishments is disagree.

MOST WORKERS WANT FREQUENT AND SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION FROM THEIR


LEADERS
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Valid Strongly disagree 3 6.0


Disagree 3 6.0

Neutral 8 16.0

Agree 21 42.0

Strongly agree 15 30.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
42% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s support from the leaders is agree, 30% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s support from the leaders is strongly agree, 16% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s support from the leaders is neutral, 6% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the employee’s support from the leaders is disagree, 6% of the employee’s opinions
regarding the employee’s support from the leaders is strongly disagree.
AS A RULE, LEADERS SHOULD ALLOW SUBORDINATES TO APPRAISE THEIR
OWN WORK
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 6 12.0

Disagree 8 16.0

Neutral 13 26.0
Valid
Agree 11 22.0

Strongly agree 12 24.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
26% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s appraisal on subordinates work is neutral,
24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s appraisal on subordinates work is strongly agree, 22% of
the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s appraisal on subordinates work is agree, 16% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the leader’s appraisal on subordinates work is disagree, 12% of the employee’s opinions
regarding the leader’s appraisal on subordinates work is strongly disagree.
MOST EMPLOYEES FEEL INSECURE ABOUT THEIR WORK AND NEED DIRECTION
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 4 8.0

Disagree 8 16.0

Neutral 15 30.0
Valid
Agree 12 24.0

Strongly agree 11 22.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the table it is inferred that,
30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s feeling of insecurity on work is neutral, 24% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s feeling of insecurity on work is agree, 22% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the employee’s feeling of insecurity on work is strongly agree, 16% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the employee’s feeling of insecurity on work is disagree, 8% of the employee’s opinions
regarding the employee’s feeling of insecurity on work is strongly disagree.

LEADERS NEED TO HELP SUBORDINATES ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR COMPLETING


THEIR WORK
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 3 6.0

Disagree 5 10.0
Valid
Neutral 11 22.0

Agree 15 30.0
Strongly agree 16 32.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
32% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s help to complete the work is strongly agree, 30% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s help to complete the work is agree,
22% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s help to complete the work is neutral, 10% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s help to complete the work is disagree, 6% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the leader’s help to complete the work is strongly disagree.
LEADERS SHOULD GIVE SUBORDINATES COMPLETE FREEDOM TO SOLVE PROBLEMS ON
THEIR OWN
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 4 8.0

Disagree 4 8.0

Neutral 9 18.0
Valid
Agree 16 32.0

Strongly agree 17 34.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
34% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s freedom towards subordinates is strongly agree, 32% of
the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s freedom towards subordinates is agree, 18% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the leader’s freedom towards subordinates is neutral, 8% of the employee’s opinions
regarding the leader’s freedom towards subordinates is strongly disagree, 8% of the employee’s opinions
regarding the leader’s freedom towards subordinates is disagree.
THE LEADER IS THE CHIEF JUDGE OF THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE
GROUP
OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 6 12.0

Disagree 5 10.0

Neutral 8 16.0
Valid
Agree 11 22.0

Strongly agree 20 40.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
40% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s judgement on the achievements of the members is
strongly agree, 22% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s judgement on the achievements of the
members is agree, 16% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s judgement on the achievements of the
members is neutral, 12% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s judgement on the achievements of
the members is strongly disagree, 10% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s judgement on the
achievements of the members is disagree.

IT IS THE LEADER’S JOB TO HELP SUBORDINATES FIND THEIR “PASSION”


OPINIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Strongly disagree 8 16.0

Disagree 5 10.0
Valid
Neutral 4 8.0

Agree 18 36.0
Strongly agree 15 30.0

Total 50 100.0

Inference:
From the above table it is inferred that,
36% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s job to help their subordinates is agree,
30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s job to help their subordinates is strongly agree, 16% of
the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s job to help their subordinates is strongly disagree, 10% of the
employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s job to help their subordinates is disagree, 8% of the employee’s
opinions regarding the leader’s job to help their subordinates is neutral.
CHAPTER - 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
 32% of the employee’s opinions regarding the age is 41-50yrs.
 44% of the employee’s opinions regarding the designation is executives.
 48% of the employee’s opinions regarding the salary is 3, 00, 000-5lakhs.
 66% of the employee’s opinions regarding the experience is 2-5yrs.
 32% of the employee’s opinions regarding the review of the organization’s goals & missions
Is hardly ever.
 38% of the employee’s opinions regarding the details of a committee given to carry out an
assignment is some but not much detail.
 36% of the employee’s opinions regarding monitoring the committee while carrying out the
assignment is a fair amount of monitoring.
 30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates have come to relate
personal accomplishments/problems during the past year is < 25%.
 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the reasons to meet the leader/manager during the
working hours is work related activities.
 28% of the employee’s opinions regarding the ways that a manager/leader is helpful in solving
grievances is takes authoritative decisions.
 34% of the employee’s opinions regarding the type of leadership style that they prefer is
democratic.
 36% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates meets socially during the
past year is < 25%.
 28% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates encouraged during the past
year is < 25%.
 40% of the employee’s opinions regarding the number of subordinates that they have written
informal or formal unsolicited notes for commending them for special achievement is <25%.
 34% of the employee’s opinions regarding the manager’s encouragement & participation in
decision making process relating to the policy matters is quite often.
 30% of the employee’s opinions regarding employees need to be closely supervised or not during
their work is neutral.
 24% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s part in decision making process is agree.
 28% of the employee’s opinions regarding the subordinate’s freedom during the complex
situations is agree.
 38% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s general population lazy is disagree.
 30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s guidance without pressure is strongly agree.
 46% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leaders staying away from the subordinates work is
strongly agree.
 36% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s rewards or punishments is agree.
 42% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s support from the leaders is agree.
 26% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s appraisal on subordinates work is neutral.
 30% of the employee’s opinions regarding the employee’s feeling of insecurity on work is neutral.
 32% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s help to complete the work is strongly agree.
 34% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s freedom towards subordinates is strongly
agree.
 40% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s judgement on the achievements of the
members is strongly agree.
 36% of the employee’s opinions regarding the leader’s job to help their subordinates is agree.
RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS

 The le a d e r s hip s tyle mus t b e c o ngr ue nt s o a s to acquire the best output from the
employees.
 The M a na ge me nt ha s to fur the r inve s t iga te whe the r the le a d e r s hip s tyle is
consistent to the company goals and objectives.
 Is the existing or predominant corporate culture is consistent with the company goals should further be
investigated by the management.

CONCLUSION
The experience and knowledge that I gained during the entire project was a whole new and a very
interesting experience. I learnt many new things in the due course of time like how important is LEADERSHIP
STYLE upon conducting this research, new findings were discovered. However, the main objectives of this
research were achieved. The research managed to determine the relationship between the employer & the
employee, goals/missions/objectives, age /income with the workers. From the analysis conducted to test
relationships, all three attributes had a significant relationship with leadership style. Finally, to conclude it all,
future research is still needed to justify and strengthen the outcomes of this research. There may have been
research similar to this topic but the situations in all the researches may be different, including this research.
Therefore, future researchers are welcomed to conduct a similar research as this in the same context.