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Strength of Materials

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Statics (ES 11)

Dynamics (ES 12)

Strength of materials (ES 13)

Focus Identification of loads that act on a body Determining the strength and rigidity of a body

Efficient Structure/

o Select proper material

machine

o Specify dimensions

P1 P1 My

a

P4 Py

P2 P2

Px Mx

Pz

a Mz

P3

FIG 1.1 An exploratory section a-a through an arbitrarily loaded body exposing the internal forces.

Px Axial/ Tension/

Normal ( P) Compression

Py , Pz Sliding/

Shear (V )

Shearing action

Mx Torque (T ) Twisting

Bending moment

M y, Mz Bending

(M)

Force per unit area; Unit strength

Units: MPa( SI ) , psi(english)

Three types: Normal, Shearing, and Bearing Stress

Example: Given two bars of same lengths but of different materials, suspended from a common support,

determine which bar is stronger.

2

BAR 1 500 N 10 mm

2

BAR 2 5000 N 1000 mm

BAR 1 BAR 2

o Stress caused by axial force (Tensile/Compressive)

o acts normal/perpendicular to the resisting surface;

o results in volume change

P

σ ave=

A

Assumptions:

ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 2

Bar is prismatic ( A=k )

Uniform deformation at the centroidal axis

Material is Homogeneous and isotropic (e.g. Steel)

Example: The bar ABCD in the figure consists of three cylindrical steel segments with different lengths and

cross-sectional areas. Axial loads are applied as shown. Calculate the normal stress in each segment.

o Stress caused by shearing force (e.g. bolts, pins, rivets)

o Acts tangent or parallel to the resisting surface

o Results in shape change

V

τ ave =

As

FIG 1.2 Examples of direct shear: (a) single shear in a rivet; (b) double shear in a bolt; and (c) shear in a metal sheet produced by

a punch.

V P

τ ave = =

CASE 1 :single shear A A

V P/ 2 P

CASE 2 :double shear τ ave = = =

A A 2A

ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 3

Example: Determine the average shear stress in the 20-mm-diameter pin at A and the 30-mm-diameter

pin at B that support the beam in the figure.

o Contact Pressure between separate bodies

o Differs from normal stress which is the internal stress caused by a compressive force

o Examples: Soil pressure beneath a support, contact pressure between axle and its bearing

FIG 1.3 (a) a rivet in a lap joint; (b) bearing stress is not constant; (c) bearing stress caused by the bearing force Pb is

assumed to be uniform on projected area A b =td .

P P

σb= =

A b td

Example: A load P = 10 kips is applied to a rod supported as shown by

a plate with a 0.6 in. diameter hole. Determine the shear stress in the

rod and the plate and the bearing stress between the surface of

contact.

Given dimension → allowable load/stress: lower load/stress value to be considered for a safe

design

considered

Example: A structure design uses wood and steel rods with the same diameters. The allowable stress of

wood and steel are 70 MPa and 140 MPa, respectively. Consider a load of 1000 N for these rods, what

should be the designed diameter?

F fail

FOS=

F allow

FOS= FOS =

σ allow τ allow

Often cylindrical or spherical (pressure tanks and pipes)

Pressure acting on the inner surface of the cylinder is resisted by r

tensile stresses in the walls of the vessel

r

Thin-walled if the ratio of ≥10

t

Three types of stresses developed in pressure cylinders:

a. Circumferential or hoop stress

b. Longitudinal stress in closed end cylinders

c. Radial stresses (for thick-walled only)

a. Circumferential Stress (σ c )

Also known as hoop stress or tangential stress

Acts tangent to surface of cylinder

pD

σc=

2t

b. Longitudinal Stress ( σ l )

Acts parallel to longitudinal axis of cylinder

pD

σl=

4t

Observations: σ t =2 σ l

For failure to occur at the same time, longitudinal joint should be twice as strong as the girth joint

Same analysis as longitudinal stress in cylinders

Also, stress is the same regardless of direction

pD

σl =

4t

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