You are on page 1of 8

1.

1 FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS


 Statics (ES 11)
 Dynamics (ES 12)
 Strength of materials (ES 13)

Statics and Dynamics Strength of Materials

Body Rigid Real/Deformable

Force External effects Internal effects

Analysis FBD, Equilibrium equations FBD, Equil. equations, Deformation diagrams

Focus Identification of loads that act on a body Determining the strength and rigidity of a body

 As ENGINEERS, we need to:


Efficient Structure/
o Select proper material
machine
o Specify dimensions

1.2 ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL FORCES

P1 P1 My
a
P4 Py
P2 P2
Px Mx
Pz
a Mz
P3
FIG 1.1 An exploratory section a-a through an arbitrarily loaded body exposing the internal forces.

Analysis of forces wrt x-surface:

Component Type Direction wrt Area Internal Effect

ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 1


Px Axial/ Tension/
Normal ( P) Compression

Py , Pz Sliding/
Shear (V )
Shearing action

Mx Torque (T ) Twisting

Bending moment
M y, Mz Bending
(M)

1.3 SIMPLE STRESS


 Force per unit area; Unit strength
 Units: MPa( SI ) , psi(english)
 Three types: Normal, Shearing, and Bearing Stress

Example: Given two bars of same lengths but of different materials, suspended from a common support,
determine which bar is stronger.

MAX LOAD AREA


2
BAR 1 500 N 10 mm
2
BAR 2 5000 N 1000 mm

BAR 1 BAR 2

.: BAR 1 is stronger since maximum allowable stress is higher

1.3.1 Normal/Axial Stress (σ )


o Stress caused by axial force (Tensile/Compressive)
o acts normal/perpendicular to the resisting surface;
o results in volume change

P
σ ave=
A

Assumptions:
ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 2
 Bar is prismatic ( A=k )
 Uniform deformation at the centroidal axis
 Material is Homogeneous and isotropic (e.g. Steel)

Example: The bar ABCD in the figure consists of three cylindrical steel segments with different lengths and
cross-sectional areas. Axial loads are applied as shown. Calculate the normal stress in each segment.

1.3.2 Shearing Stress (τ )


o Stress caused by shearing force (e.g. bolts, pins, rivets)
o Acts tangent or parallel to the resisting surface
o Results in shape change

V
τ ave =
As

FIG 1.2 Examples of direct shear: (a) single shear in a rivet; (b) double shear in a bolt; and (c) shear in a metal sheet produced by
a punch.
V P
τ ave = =
CASE 1 :single shear A A

V P/ 2 P
CASE 2 :double shear τ ave = = =
A A 2A
ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 3
Example: Determine the average shear stress in the 20-mm-diameter pin at A and the 30-mm-diameter
pin at B that support the beam in the figure.

1.3.3 Bearing Stress (σ b)


o Contact Pressure between separate bodies
o Differs from normal stress which is the internal stress caused by a compressive force
o Examples: Soil pressure beneath a support, contact pressure between axle and its bearing

FIG 1.3 (a) a rivet in a lap joint; (b) bearing stress is not constant; (c) bearing stress caused by the bearing force Pb is
assumed to be uniform on projected area A b =td .

P P
σb= =
A b td

ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 4


Example: A load P = 10 kips is applied to a rod supported as shown by
a plate with a 0.6 in. diameter hole. Determine the shear stress in the
rod and the plate and the bearing stress between the surface of
contact.

ALLOWABLE DIMENSION OR LOAD

 Given dimension → allowable load/stress: lower load/stress value to be considered for a safe
design

 Given load/stress → allowable dimension: larger dimension (cross-section) value to be


considered

Example: A structure design uses wood and steel rods with the same diameters. The allowable stress of
wood and steel are 70 MPa and 140 MPa, respectively. Consider a load of 1000 N for these rods, what
should be the designed diameter?

FACTOR OF SAFETY (FOS)

 The ratio of the failure load to the allowable load

 A method of specifying the allowable load for a body

F fail
FOS=
F allow

Since load is linearly related to stress,

σ fail / ult τ fail /ult


FOS= FOS =
σ allow τ allow

*note: FOS is always greater than 1 to avoid potential failure

1.4 THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSEL


 Often cylindrical or spherical (pressure tanks and pipes)
 Pressure acting on the inner surface of the cylinder is resisted by r
tensile stresses in the walls of the vessel
r
 Thin-walled if the ratio of ≥10
t

ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 5


Three types of stresses developed in pressure cylinders:
a. Circumferential or hoop stress
b. Longitudinal stress in closed end cylinders
c. Radial stresses (for thick-walled only)

1.4.1 Cylindrical vessels


a. Circumferential Stress (σ c )
 Also known as hoop stress or tangential stress
 Acts tangent to surface of cylinder

pD
σc=
2t

b. Longitudinal Stress ( σ l )
 Acts parallel to longitudinal axis of cylinder

ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 6


pD
σl=
4t

Observations: σ t =2 σ l
 For failure to occur at the same time, longitudinal joint should be twice as strong as the girth joint

1.4.2 Spherical vessels


 Same analysis as longitudinal stress in cylinders
 Also, stress is the same regardless of direction

ES13 Chapter 1 - FRCBueta 7


pD
σl =
4t