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Original Title: 2015 Ish Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gis Based on Improved Bp Network

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2015 Ish Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gis Based on Improved Bp Network

Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gis Based on Improved Bp Network

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ON IMPROVED BP NETWORK

1, 3* 1 2 1 1 3

Y. Y. Wang , C. Z. Tian , Y. B. Shao , J. H. Huang , S. Q. Wang and Y. M. Li

1

State Grid Henan Economic Research Institute, Zhengzhou, China

2

State Grid Henan Electric Power Research Institute, Zhengzhou, China

3

Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China

*Email: <wangyuanyuan17@ha.sgcc.com.cn>

Abstract: As the rapid development of electrical industry, higher standards have been set

for the reliability of electrical equipment. Gas insulated substation (GIS) is widely used

nowadays because of its small volume and high operational reliability, and online

monitoring of partial discharge (PD) in GIS has become the focus of current research.

Pattern recognition of the PD signals acquired is proved to be effective to grasp the

different characteristics of typical defects in GIS. In this paper, three defect models are

tested by acoustic method including the metallic protrusion, the floating potential and

inner defect model, the PD data of which acquired after repeated experiments were

analysed. Four spectrograms were calculated and displayed including the pulse count

distribution n, the maximum pulse height distribution qmax, the mean pulse height

distribution qn and the discharge amplitude distribution (q). The graphic differences

of three defects are preliminarily summarized. 32 PD parameters were calculated as the

possible input of improved back propagation (BP) neutral network, including discharge

asymmetry, phase asymmetry, the cross-correlation factor, and the number of peaking,

the phase median, skewness and kurtosis. Combined with three parameter-selecting

schemes, which are respectively proposed based on the repeatability, the statistical

features of the PD data and the distance criterion, the results of pattern recognition were

compared. It is found that the scheme based on the class distance criterion is

comprehensively optimal.

1 INTRODUCTION

reported two defect models of GIS can be

recognized by adaptive resonance theory NN with

With the rapid development of electrical industry,

repetition rate and main frequency of the PD pulse

Gas insulated switchgear (GIS) has been widely

as input variables [5].

used in power system nowadays for its compact

structure and high reliability. However, severe In this paper, an improved back propagation (BP)

accidents can be caused by sudden breakdowns. NN is constructed to differentiate three defects in

Early detection and analysis of partial discharge GIS including the metallic protrusion, the floating

(PD) signals are proved effective to evaluate inner potential, and the inner air gap. Feature extraction

insulation condition. of two-dimension phase-resolved partial discharge

(PRPD) spectrum is discussed, and selection

Feature parameters extracted from PD spectrums

principles of input variable are compared.

usually consist of statistical feature, fractal feature,

wavelet feature, and moment feature. Statistical

feature is preferably adopted in pattern recognition 2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PRPD

of GIS for its easy application and rich information SPECTRUM

content. As for the analysis method, it ranges from

direct observation of graphic feature to genetic

2.1 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

algorithm (GA), neural net (NN), fuzzy logic (FL),

expert system (ES) and grey correlation analysis

[1-2]. Researches show that NN can be Schematic of the testing circuit is shown as Figure

successfully applied to the pattern recognition of 1, where T1 is a regulator, T2 is an isolation

defects in GIS, whereas, the method of feature transformer, T3 is a testing transformer, R is a

extraction and the type of NN affect the accuracy protective resistance approximately 300 kΩ, and

of recognition evidently. Cx represents the defect model. The isolation

transformer is adopted to minimize the harmonic

It is proposed by Hans-Gerd Kranz that NN and interference from the grid. PD signals are acquired

minimum distance classification can be applied in by the acoustic sensor and then real-time

the pattern recognition of PD signals acquired by transmitted to AIA compact tester.

acoustic method [3]. Differential box counting, multi

fractal dimension and graphic center of the PD Defect models investigated include the metallic

spectrum were extracted and then classified by protrusion, the floating potential, and the inner air

gap, with the structural diagrams shown in Figure 2. then n stands for the sum of discharge count in

The top and bottom of the three models are made all phase windows of m cycles. As for n and

of aluminium, the sidewall of the cylinder is made qmax, the following equations are established.

of plexiglass, the inner diameter is 100mm, the qmax ( ) max{q1 ( ), q2 ( ), qm ( )} (1)

height is 60mm, and the pressure tolerance is

k

1MPa. In the metallic protrusion model, the

equivalent radius of the curvature for the needle is q ( )

i

qmean ( ) i 1

(2)

m

the needle and the ground electrode is adjustable. In equation (2), the sum of the discharge count is

In the floating potential model, the upper electrode divided by m rather than k to minimize the

is an aluminium cylinder with the diameter of influence of discharge randomness on qn. As

10mm and the length of 10mm, the diameter of the

for (q), the horizontal axis is the discharge

insulation ring is 30mm, the floating potential is

capacity, and the vertical axis is the discharge

also made of aluminium with the diameter of 10mm,

count of a certain discharge capacity. It contains

the length of 15mm, and the sharpened tip with the

the information of both amplitude and count of the

curvature radius of 4mm. In the inner air gap model,

PD pulse, and the processing method is similar as

three layers of epoxy are glued together with an

that of n.

inside air gap.

Typical PRPD spectrums of three defect models

are listed as in Figure 3. As for the metallic

protrusion model, the needle-to-plane distance is

set to 5mm, the applied voltage is 14.5kV, and the

filled gas pressure is 0.45MPa. As for floating

potential model, the distance between the floating

potential and the HV electrode is set to 0.09mm,

the applied voltage is 14.5kV, and the filled gas

Figure 1: Schematic of the testing circuit pressure is 0.1MPa. As for the inner gap model,

the diameter of the air gap is set to 2mm, the

applied voltage is 10kV, and the filled gas pressure

is 0.1MPa.

(c) Inner air gap (a) Metallic protrusion (b) Floating potential

DEFECT MODEL

spectrums containing information of multiple cycles

are usually adopted for signal analysis. The

following four types of spectrums are calculated

and displayed, including the phase distribution of

(c) Inner air gap

pulse count n, the phase distribution of pulse

peak qmax, the phase distribution of mean Figure 3: PRPD spectrums of three defect models

discharge capacity qn, and the amplitude

distribution of discharge count (q). As for the As shown in Figure 3, graphic features of PRPD

spectrums of phase distribution, every cycle of spectrum of the three defects differ a lot. As for the

power frequency (50Hz) is divided into several metallic protrusion, the discharge amplitude in the

phase windows. If the cycle count measured is m, positive half of the voltage cycle stabilizes at 2mV,

each cycle is divided into n phase windows, and however, camel-back curve of the amplitude is

the discharge count in each phase window is k, observed in the negative half. The discharge count

distribute evenly in the whole cycle, except for the

phase interval between 200° and 250°. As for the Qs N

floating potential model, phase intervals of PD Q (7)

include 0~50°, 150~250°, and 330~360°, and the Qs N

amplitude range of PD distribute at 20~40mV, Qs and Qs refer to the sum of discharge capacity

20~60mV, and 20~40mV respectively. As for the in positive and negative half cycle respectively.

inner air gap model, two symmetrical camel-back

curves of the PD pulses are observed in the phase N and N stand for the corresponding discharge

intervals of 0~100° and 150~250°. Despite of the count. Q reflects the asymmetry of PD in the

obvious difference in graphic features of three positive and negative half cycle.

defects, it is difficult to tell them apart by sole direct inc

/ inc

(8)

observation. Therefore, it is essential for the

feature extraction of two-dimensional spectrums

in c and in c refer to the inception phase of

and construction of BP network. discharge in the positive and negative half cycle

respectively.

3 PARAMETER EXTRACTION AND cc

xi yi xi yi / n (9)

SELECTION OF PD SPECTRUMS [ xi2 ( xi ) 2 / n][ yi2 ( yi ) 2 / n]

xi and yi stand for the discharge capacity of the

3.1 PARAMETER EXTRACTION phase window numbered i in the positive and

negative half cycle respectively, and n refers to the

Statistical operator is the characteristic description phase window count. cc reflects the shape

of the distribution function extracted from a large asymmetry of the positive and negative half cycle.

amount of raw data. The statistical operator of PD Q, and cc all describe the distribution difference

contains skewness (Sk), kurtosis (Ku), local peak between the positive and negative half cycle in the

count (Pe), cross-correlation factor (cc), discharge PD spectrum, and all range from 0 to 1, where 0

asymmetry (Q), phase median (), phase stands for the asymmetry of discharge capacity,

asymmetry (). Based on the selection method inception phase of discharge and shape between

adopted by Haefely TE571 PD tester with minor the positive and negative half cycle, and stands for

adjustment, 32 statistical operators are extracted symmetry.

from four two-dimensional spectrums as follows.

n: S k , K u , Pe , cc , Q , , 3.2 PARAMETER SELECTION

qmax: S k

, K u , Pe

, cc ,

Selection of 32 parameters is essential for the

qn: S k

, K u , Pe

, cc , algorithm simplification, boost of calculation speed,

and the increase of recognition accuracy. Three

(q) : S k , K u , Pe

schemes of parameter selections are proposed,

Sk, Ku, Pe and for both positive and negative and the whole 32-parameter scheme is calculated

cycles of n, qmax and qn need to be for comparison. PD data to be analysed are from

calculated. The calculation formulas for the 60 experiments (20 per defect type) with various

statistical operators are listed as equation (3) to (9). experimental conditions.

xi Pi (3)

3.2.1 Data repeatability

xi stands for discrete value of the phase window

numbered i, and Pi stands for the probability of xi. Poor reproducibility of some parameters is found

x Pi after repeated experiments. The first scheme is

3

Sk i

(4) proposed based on the exclusion of these

3

parameters. Take the metallic protrusion defect

is the standard deviation of xi. The spectrum is with the same experimental conditions as in 2.2 for

of full symmetry when Sk equals zero, leans to the example, the repeatability of 32 operators in four

right side when Sk is below zero, leans to the left spectrums after three experiments are shown in

side when Sk is above zero. Figure 4. It can be seen that operators with poor

x Pi repeatability in the metallic protrusion defect are

4

Ku i

3 (5) Ku in n, Sk and cc in qmax. As for the

- +

4

floating potential, operators with poor repeatability

The spectrum fits the normal distribution exactly are Ku , cc in nSk and Ku in q. And when it

+

when Ku equals zero, is flatter than the normal comes to the inner air gap, the operators with poor

distribution when Ku is below zero, is steeper than repeatability are Ku , Ku in qmax, Ku , Ku , cc in

+ - + -

the normal distribution when Ku is above zero.

qn, and Pe, Sk in q. Based on the above, 13

Pe Peak ( xi ) (6) statistical operators with poor repeatability are

proposed including Ku , cc in n, Sk , Ku , cc in

+- + +-

When dyi 1 / dxi 1 0 and dyi 1 / dxi 1 0 both are

qmax, Ku , cc in qn, Pe, Sk, Ku in q.

+-

satisfied, xi is treated as a local peak and Peak (xi)

equals 1.

1.4

n-sk+

n-sk-

n is the total sample count of one defect, which is

1.2

1.0

n-Ku+

n-Ku-

20 in this paper. xi stands for an operator of one

0.8

n-cc

n-u+

sample in one defect. x refers to the average value

0.6

n-u-

0.4 n-Pe+

of xi. Distribution of the mean value and absolute

n-Pe-

0.2 value of RSD of 32 operators are presented in

parameter

0.0

-0.2 Figure 5 and 6, where the operators from left to

right are , Q, cc, , , Pe , Pe , Sk , Sk , Ku , Ku in

-0.4 + - + - + -

-0.6

+ - + - + -

-0.8

-1.0 + - + - + -

-1.2

experiment

the phase medians are divided by 180 for

(a) n normalization.

Qmax-sk+

0.8 Qmax-sk-

Qmax-Ku+

0.6 Qmax-Ku-

Qmax-cc

0.4

Qmax-u+

0.2 Qmax-u-

Qmax-Pe+

0.0 Qmax-Pe-

parameter

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1.0

-1.2

1 2 3

experiment Figure 5: Average value of 32 operators

(b) qmax

0.8

0.7 Qmean-sk+

0.6 Qmean-sk-

0.5 Qmean-Ku+

0.4 Qmean-ku-

0.3

Qmean-cc

0.2

0.1

Qmean-u+

0.0 Qmean-u-

parameter

-0.1 Qmean-Pe+

-0.2 Qmean-Pe-

-0.3

-0.4

-0.5

-0.6

-0.7

-0.8

-0.9

-1.0

-1.1

1 2 3

Figure 6: Absolute RSD of 32 operators

experiment

(c) qn

2.4

If the difference of the average value of a certain

2.2

2.0 Q

operator among three defects is above 0.05, the

1.8

1.6

fi

q-pe

operator is considered as separable for the

1.4 q-sk

q-ku

recognition. The following four groups are selected

1.2

from 32 operators.

parameter

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4 1) Absolute RSD of all three defects are below 0.2,

and the average is separable. , in qmaxSk

0.2 -

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

1 2

experiment

3

n, in qnAbsolute RSD of all three

(d) q defects are above 0.5 with separable average. in

n, Ku , Ku in qmaxAbsolute RSD of two

+ -

Figure 4: Repeatability of statistical operators in defects are above 0.8 with separable average. Ku ,

+

metallic protrusion

Ku in nKu , Ku in qn

- + -

Therefore, the left 19 operators are selected in the When the average value of an operator in three

first scheme. defects is separable, the smaller the absolute RSD

value, it is easier for the BP network to tell different

3.2.2 Statistical characteristics defects apart. However, as for operators with large

absolute RSD value, more information is obtained

In the second scheme, 32 operators are grouped in the learning process of the network. Therefore,

by the absolute value of relative standard deviation, the second scheme contains the operators listed in

with the calculation formula in equation (10). the four groups mentioned above. Meanwhile, sub

n

i 1

i

absolute RSD are proposed for comparison.

RSD (10)

x

3.2.3 Class distance criterion

The third scheme is proposed based on the

dispersion degree of the sample in feature space.

If the pattern vectors of the three defects locate at

different areas of the feature space, these defects

are considered as separable. According to the

distance separability criterion, with the increase of

class distance and decrease of divergence within

class, the discrimination gets easier.

In an M-dimensional feature space defined by a

candidate feature set X = [x1, x2, ..., xM], if d(Xim,

Xjm) represents the distance between the sample

numbered m in the defect type numbered i and the

sample numbered m in the defect type numbered j,

the calculation formula is as equation (11). Figure 7: Distance among class of 32 operators

D

d ( X im , X jm ) (x

k 1

ik , m x jk ,m ) 2 (11)

N is the number of defects which is 3 in this paper,

M is the total count of candidate feature which is

32, D is the count of training sample which is 20.

As for the class distance as in equation (12),

1 N N

1 D

Jm

2 i 1

P (i )

j 1

P ( j ) d ( X ik ,m , X jk ,m ) (12)

D k 1

Figure 8: Distance within class of 32 operators

where: P(i), P(j) stand for the prior probability of the

corresponding defect, which is 1/3. Distance and from the input layer to invisible layer. is the

among class and within class of 32 parameters are learning rate ranges from 0 to 1, dk stands for the

shown as Figure 7 and 8, where the operators from expectative output, ok stands for the actual output,

left to right are Sk , Sk , Ku , Ku ,cc in qmaxSk ,

+ - + - +

xi refers to the input, yj refers to output of the

hidden layer, and k refers to error signal of the

o

Sk , Ku , Ku ,cc in qnQ, Sk , Sk , Ku , Ku , , cc

- + - + - + -

in nPe in qPe , Pe in qmaxPe , Pe in

+ - + -

Three measures are taken to improve traditional

nPe , Pe in qnSk, Ku in qIt is found

+ -

BP network, including the addition of momentum,

that Ku , Ku in qmaxqnn and Ku in q

+ -

adjustable training rate, and the introduction of

are of large class distance. However, the distance steepness factor, listed as equation (16) to (18).

within class of these operators for inner defect is

also large, which violates the distance separability ∆W(t) = X + ∆W(t-1) (16)

criterion. 10 operators are selected after overall is the coefficient of the momentum, and ranges

consideration including Q, in n, Sk , Sk , cc

+ -

from 0 to 1. The addition reflects the experience of

in qmaxSk , Sk , , in qn

+ -

former adjustments, and increase the calculation

speed when the error surface fluctuates violently.

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1.05 (t) E(t+1)<E(t)

(t+1) = 0.7 (t) E(t+1)>1.05E(t) (17)

4.1 CONSTRUCTION OF IMPROVED BP (t) others

NETWORK Proper adjustable learning rate could help boost

the convergence rate of the network, and the initial

Unipolar sigmoid function, as in equation (13), is of nerure in the hidden layer should be larger

selected as the activation function of BP network. than that in the output layer.

1 1

f ( x) (13) ok (18)

1 e x 1 e netk /

Calculation formulas of weight adjustment in three- Steepness factorIs introduced in the original

layer BP network are listed in equation (14), (15). transforming function to increase the convengence

jk (d k ok )ok (1 ok ) y j (14) rate. Besides, raw data are pre processed into the

l range from 0 to 1 in order to be comparable to the

vij ( ko jk ) y j (1 y j ) xi (15) output range of unipolar sigmoid function, as in

k 1 equation (19), where xi is the raw data, and xi is

where: Δ jk, Δij stand for the adjustment of the

the processed data.

weight vector from the output layer to the neure,

xi x min (19) training sample in further study. Sub scheme 3) is

xi

x max x min a combination of 1) and 2), with high recognition

accuracy.

4.2 RESULTS OF PATTERN RECOGNITION

Table 2: Results comparison of pattern recognition

Data of 90 experiments obtained from AIA are Defect Correct/Total Average iteration

analysed (30 per defect), 20 samples out of 30 are type 1 2 3 1 2 3

randomly selected as the teaching sample, and the Metallic

9/10 5/10 8/10

left 10 are treated as the test sample. The output protrusion

Floating 1899 5730 4308

parameters are defined as O1, O2, and (O1, O2) = potential

10/10 5/10 8/10

(0.01, 0.01), (0.5, 0.5), (1.0, 1.0) represents the Inner air gap 7/10 8/10 10/10

metallic protrusion, floating potential, and the inner

air gap defect respectively. The governing error of 4.2.3 Distance among and within class

iteration E is defined as equation (20).

Comparison between the third scheme and the

1 n

E Ep (20) whole-parameter scheme is presented in Table 3.

n i 1 It is shown that the third scheme is of the best

where: n is the total count of teaching sample. The recognition accuracy, with a satisfying speed of

network training stops when E<0.01 or N>15000, iteration. Compared with the schemes mentioned

the initial and both are 0.05, the initial weight above, the scheme proposed by class distance is

matrix are randomly generated. The parameters comprehensive optimal.

are adjusted to get the optimal group, and the

Table 3: Results comparison of pattern recognition

group of test parameters stay the same in one

learning and recognition process. Defect type

Correct/Total Average iteration

10-input 32-input 10-input 32-input

4.2.1 Data repeatability Metallic protrusion 10/10 5/10

Floating potential 9/10 4/10 1134 1962

Comparison between the 19-input and the 32-input Inner air gap 8/10 7/10

schemes are presented as in Table 1. It is shown

that compared to the whole-parameter scheme, the 5 CONCLUSION

first scheme is of relatively high learning efficiency,

few iterations, and high recognition accuracy. It is 1) Difference of graphic feature is observed in the

also found that the 32-input scheme could stuck in PRPD spectrum of the metallic protrusion, the

the local minima easily, and the initial optimal floating potential, and the inner air gap defect. Four

parameters are difficult to obtain. It is observed the spectrums are calculated including n, qmax,

cause of recognition failure in the 32-input scheme qn, and H(q).

is that deviation of certain sample stays large when 2) Three measures are taken to construct the

E is below 0.01.

improved BP network including the addition of

Table 1: Results comparison of pattern recognition momentum, adjustable training rate, and the

introduction of steepness factor.

Correct/Total Average iteration

Defect type

19-input 32-input 19-input 32-input

3) 32 statistical operators including Sk, Ku, Pe, cc,

Metallic protrusion 7/10 5/10

Floating potential 7/10 4/10 1853 1962

Q, , are extracted from the four spectrums.

Inner air gap 9/10 7/10 Three schemes of parameter selection based on

the repeatability, the statistical characteristics and

4.2.2 Statistical characteristics the class distance are proposed and compared.

Three sub schemes are proposed including 1) 7 Results show that the scheme based on the class

operators with small absolute RSD and separable distance criterion is comprehensively optimal.

average, 2) 7 operators with large absolute RSD

and separable average, 3) the 14 operators in 1) REFERENCES

and 2). BP network is stable because the total [1] T. Hucker, H. G. Kranz. New approach in partial discharge

count of input operator is low. So, the restriction of diagnosis and pattern recognition [J]. IEEE proceedings,

iteration can be modified to E<0.005 or N>8000, Science Measurement and Technology,1995,1(142):89-94.

[2] Tan Kay Huan, Ahmad Bin Darus. Pattern recognition of

with other parameters stay the same. Comparison partial discharge signal in Gas Insulated Switchgear

of recognition results are presented in Table 2. It is apparatus using visual and cluster analysis[C]//Power

found the learning speed of scheme 1) is relatively System Technology, 2002. Proceedings. PowerCon 2002.

fast, and the recognition accuracy is satisfying, [3] Hans-Gerd Kranz. Diagnosis of partial discharge signals

using neural networks and minimum distance classification

which is consistent with the inference. As for sub [J]. IEEE Transaction on Electrical Insulation, 1993,

scheme 2), average iterations increase evidently 28(6):1016-1024.

as a result of the fluctuation of input operators. [4] X. X. Zhang, J. Tang, C. X. Sun and et al. Pattern

Meanwhile, the network is less stable and with low recognition of GIS based on multiple factual dimensions [J].

Journal of Scientific instrument, 2007, 28(4):597-601.

recognition accuracy, which is slightly different [5] Y. Xiao, H. Hu, W. Y. Yu and et al. New method for the

from the original inference, possible improvement pattern recognition of GIS insulation fault based on ARTNN

are expected with the increase on the count of [J]. High Voltage Engineering, 2007, 33(12): 75-79.

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