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Brief paper

Robust and adaptive variable structure output feedback control of

uncertain systems with input nonlinearity夡

Qinglei Hu a,b,∗ , Guangfu Ma a , Lihua Xie b

a School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China

b School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore

Received 8 October 2005; received in revised form 21 December 2006; accepted 16 June 2007

Available online 21 December 2007

Abstract

This brief proposes a robust control algorithm for stabilization of a three-axis stabilized ﬂexible spacecraft in the presence of parametric

uncertainty, external disturbances and control input nonlinearity/dead-zone. The designed controller based on adaptive variable structure output

feedback control satisﬁes the global reaching condition of sliding mode and ensures that the system state globally converges to the sliding

mode. A modiﬁed version of the proposed control law is also designed for adapting the unknown upper bounds of the lumped uncertainties and

perturbations. The stability of the system under the modiﬁed control law is established. Numerical simulations show that the precise attitude

pointing and vibration suppression can be accomplished using the derived robust or adaptive controller.

䉷 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction (Bošković, Li, & Mehra, 2001; Chen & Lo, 1993; Hu & Ma,

2005; Iyer & Singh, 1991; Lo & Chen, 1995; Shen, Liu, & Hu,

The ﬁne attitude control of rigid and ﬂexible structures during 2000; Zeng, Araujo, & Singh, 1999). However, in those works,

tracking maneuvers has been an important issue in spacecraft VSC is limited to systems with full state feedback. In practical

applications. The dynamics of large rotational and tracking ma- applications, full measurement of state might be neither possi-

neuvers are time varying and nonlinear and contain bounded ble nor feasible, for example, it is difﬁcult to measure the vari-

parameter uncertainties, and they are affected by various dis- ables describing the ﬂexible motion, the modal position, and

turbances coming from environments. Therefore, the design of the velocity of ﬂexible spacecrafts. Therefore, the direct

effective disturbance rejection control systems that are robust output feedback design in VSC is worth investigating. Sev-

to parametric uncertainty poses a challenging task for space- eral authors have considered VSC with static output feedback

craft designers. (Heck & Ferri, 1989; Yallapragada, Heck, & Finney, 1996;

Variable structure control (VSC) is known to be an ef- Zak & Hui, 1993).

fective control technique applicable to a wide class of non- Another important problem encountered in practice is the

linear systems subject to modeling uncertainty and external control input nonlinearities, such as saturation and dead-zones,

disturbances (Drakunov & Utkin, 1992). It has been applied to originating from actuators in system realization. The phe-

spacecraft attitude control problems in some previous studies nomenon often appears when the reaction wheel is used as

the actuator for a spacecraft (Werta, 1978, Chapter 7). This

kind of input nonlinearity is a source of performance degrada-

夡 This paper was not presented at any IFAC meeting. This paper was

tion or even worse, instability of a system. Consequently, the

recommended for publication in revised form by Associate Editor Xiaohua problem of control design for systems with input nonlinearity

Xia under the direction of Editor M. Araki.

∗ Corresponding author. School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Tech- has recently become an area of interests (Hsu, Wang, & Lin,

nology, Harbin 150001, China. 2004; Shyu, Liu, & Hsu, 2003). Hsu et al. (2004) has proposed

E-mail address: huqinglei@hit.edu.cn (Q. Hu). VSC schemes for uncertain dynamic systems with dead-zone

0005-1098/$ - see front matter 䉷 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.automatica.2007.06.024

Q. Hu et al. / Automatica 44 (2008) 552 – 559 553

information of upper bound of uncertainties is required. In ⎧ umax

⎪

⎪ if ui − u0 > umax ,

general, this bound is difﬁcult to measure in practical applica- ⎪ ui − u 0

tions. An adaptive approach may offer a simple and effective ⎨

⎪

if ui − u0 umax for ui u0 ,

(ui − u0 ) = 1 (5)

tool to solve this problem (Yoo & Chung, 1992). ⎪

⎪ if u i + u 0 − u max for ui − u0 ,

⎪

⎪

The contribution of this brief is the design of a nonlinear ⎩ −umax if u + u < − u

i 0 max

controller to achieve the attitude maneuver of a three-axis sta- ui − u 0

bilized ﬂexible spacecraft while actively suppressing the vibra-

and such that 0 < i (ui − u0 ) 1.

tions of the ﬂexible appendages under parametric uncertainty,

external disturbances and control input nonlinearity/dead-zone.

3. Robust adaptive variable structure output feedback

The proposed controller ensures the global reaching condition

control design

of the sliding mode of the uncertain system in the presence of

input dead-zone nonlinearity. In addition, the developed adap-

A linear switching surface is deﬁned as

tive variable structure output feedback controller is also ex-

tended to a modiﬁed case without the limitation of knowing S(t) = Gy = GCx(t), (6)

the bounds of the uncertainties and perturbations. The stability

of the modiﬁed control system is established. Numerical sim- where S(t) = [s1 (t), s2 (t), . . . , sm (t)]T is a vector of sliding

ulations performed on a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with surfaces and G = [g1 , . . . , gm ]T ∈ R m×p is a speciﬁed constant

ﬂexible appendages during rest-to-rest maneuver demonstrate matrix such that matrix GCB is nonsingular.

the effectiveness and feasibility of the method. Let S̃(t) = [s̃1 (t), s̃2 (t), . . . , s̃m (t)]T = B T C T GT S(t), and

then the following VSC law with nonlinearity/dead-zone is

2. Uncertain systems proposed:

⎧ s̃i (t)

A general description of nonlinear systems containing ⎪

⎪

⎪ −kˆ(t) + u0 if s̃i (t) < 0,

nonlinearity/dead-zone in the input function is given in the form ⎨ S̃(t)

ui = 0 if s̃i (t) = 0, (7)

ẋ(t) = (A + A(t))x(t) + B(u) + f (t), ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎩ −kˆ(t)

s̃i (t)

− u0 if s̃i (t) > 0,

y = Cx, (1)

S̃(t)

where x(t) ∈ Rnis the state, u ∈ the control input, y ∈ R p

Rm

where k = max(GCA, GCB), > 1, > 0, which will be

the output, and f (t) ∈ R the external disturbance. A(t)

m

deﬁned later, and ˆ (t) is generated as the solution of the linear

denotes time-varying bounded uncertainty and (u) the input

differential equation

nonlinearity.

Throughout this paper, the following assumptions are made. ˙ˆ (t) = kˆ3 (t)B T C T GT S(t) (8)

Assumption 1. The triplet (A, B, C) is controllable and ob- with ˆ (0) = 0 . Note that 0 is the bounded positive initial value

servable. of ˆ (t).

Assumption 2. The uncertainty matrix A(t) and disturbance Lemma 1. For all the input nonlinearities (u) satisfying As-

f satisfy the following matching conditions: sumption 3, the control law (7) satisﬁes that

A(t) = BH(t), H (t) 1 , (2a)

S̃ T (t)(u) − kˆ(t)S̃ T (t), (9)

f (t) = Bd(t), d(t) < 2 , (2b)

where 0 < i (ui − u0 ) 1.

where H and d are with appropriate dimensions.

Proof. From Eqs. (4) and (7), ui > ui0 implies that s̃i (t) < 0

Assumption 3. The nonlinear input function (u) satisﬁed the and thus

saturation and dead-zone nonlinearity. All three components of

s̃i

the control torque u(t) are constrained by a saturation value (ui − ui0 )(ui ) = − kˆ(t) (ui )

umax and dead-zone value u0 , expressed by S̃

ui (t) − u0 umax for ui (t)u0 , (3a) s̃i2

(ui − ui0 )2 = [kˆ(t)]2 , (10a)

S̃2

ui (t) + u0 − umax for ui (t) − u0 . (3b)

whereas for ui < − ui0 , s̃i (t) > 0 and thus

Note that a conservative common saturation limit umax and

u0 is adopted here to streamline the analysis. Eq. (3) can be s̃i

expressed as (ui + ui0 )(ui ) = − kˆ(t) (ui )

S̃

(ui ) = (ui − u0 ) · (ui − u0 ) for ui u0 , (4a) s̃i2

(ui + ui0 )2 = [kˆ(t)]2 . (10b)

(ui ) = (ui + u0 ) · (ui + u0 ) for ui − u0 , (4b) S̃2

554 Q. Hu et al. / Automatica 44 (2008) 552 – 559

control design

s̃i2

s̃i i (ui ) − kˆ(t) . (11)

S̃ In Section 3, we have presented a robust adaptive variable

Therefore, the following inequality holds: structure output feedback control for uncertain systems with

saturation nonlinearity and dead-zone where the bounds of the

m m

s̃i2 (t) uncertainties and disturbances are known. In this section, we

S̃ (t)(u) =

T

s̃i (t)(ui ) −kˆ(t) shall address a modiﬁed adaptive variable structure output feed-

i=1 i=1

S̃(t)

back when these bounds are unknown.

= − kˆ(t)S̃ T (t). (12) We now propose the following adaptive variable structure

Note that a nonsingular transformation of switching surface will output feedback control:

not change the sliding mode dynamics. If a particular switching ⎧ s̃i (t)

surface S1 = G1 y is chosen, it can be transformed to S = Gy, ⎪

⎪ −k ˆ

ˆ (t) + u0 if s̃i (t) < 0,

⎪

⎨ S̃(t)

where G=(G1 CB)−1 G1 . Therefore, without loss of generality, ui = 0 if s̃i (t) = 0, (20)

assume that GCB = I in the following. ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎩ −k ˆ

ˆ (t)

s̃i (t)

− u0 if s̃i (t) > 0,

S̃(t)

Theorem 1. Consider the nonlinear system (1) subjected to

Assumptions 1–3. If the input u(t) is given as that indicated by with ˆ (t) given as

Eq. (7) with the adaptive control Eq. (8), then the system trajec-

tories asymptotically converge to the sliding manifold S(y)=0. ˙ˆ (t) = k ˆ

ˆ 3 (t)B T C T GT S(t). (21)

ˆ is the estimate of , and ˆ can be obtained from

the following dynamics:

V (t) = 21 S T S + 21 ˜ 2 , (13)

˙ˆ = q̄ −1 kB T C T GT S(t),

(t) (0)

ˆ = 0 , (22)

where ˜ (t) = ˆ −1 (t) − .

Then, the time derivative of V (t) has where q̄ > 0 and 0 is positive and bounded initial value of (t).

ˆ

Let (t)

˜ = (t)

ˆ − denote the adaptation error. Because

V̇ (t) = S T GC[Ax + B(u) + BHx + Bd] is assumed to be constant, then the following expression keeps

+ ˜ (t)˙˜ (t)kS(x + H + d) valid:

+ S T GCB(u) + ˜ (t)˙˜ (t). (14)

(t) ˙ˆ

˙˜ = (t). (23)

Now deﬁne a constant which always exists, satisfying

Based on the above parameter adaptive controller, we obtain

∞ > (x + H + d) (15) the following theorem.

for all ∞ > t 0, and apply Lemma 1 and the assumption

GCB = I , we have Theorem 2. Consider the nonlinear system as described in Eq.

(1). If the modiﬁed law is designed as Eq. (20) with Eqs. (21)

V̇ (t)kS − kˆ(t)S T (t) + ˜ (t)˙˜ (t) and (22), and Assumptions 1–3 hold, then the trajectory of the

= kS − (kˆ(t) + ˜ (t)kˆ(t))S(t) nonlinear system converges to the sliding manifold S(y) = 0.

= (1 − )kS 0. (16)

Proof. Consider the Lyapunov function candidate as V̄˙ (t) =

If w̄(t)=(−1)kS is deﬁned, integrating the above equation V (t) + (q̄/2)˜ 2 , q̄ > 0. Using Eq. (20) and the same manipu-

from zero to t yields lations as Eqs. (14)–(16), the time derivative of V̄ (t) becomes

t

t

V1 (0) V1 (t) + w̄() d w̄() d. (17) V̇ (t) k S

ˆ − k ˆˆ (t)S T (t)

+ ˜ (t)˙˜ (t) + ˜ (1

˙˜

0 0

− )k S

ˆ 0. (24)

Taking the limit as t → ∞ on both side of Eq. (17) gives

t For the moment, using the result of Theorem 1, we can con-

∞ > V1 (0) lim w̄() d. (18) clude that S(y) → 0 as t → ∞. Hence the proof is achieved

t→∞ 0 completely.

Thus according to Barbalat lemma (Popov, 1973), we obtain

Remark. In this section, the modiﬁed adaptive version of the

lim w̄(t) = lim ( − 1)kS = 0. (19) proposed adaptive variable structure output feedback control

t→∞ t→∞

law has been also designed for adapting the unknown upper

Since > 0 for all t > 0, > 1, k > 0 and GCB = 0, Eq. (19) bounds of the lumped uncertainties and perturbations so that

implies S(y) → 0 as t → ∞. Hence the proof is achieved the limitation of knowing the bound of the uncertainties and

completely. perturbations in advance is released.

Q. Hu et al. / Automatica 44 (2008) 552 – 559 555

5.1. Mathematical model In this section, application of the proposed control schemes

to the attitude control of a ﬂexible spacecraft is presented using

The dynamics of spacecraft with ﬂexible appendages can be MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The nominal moments of in-

obtained from the Lagrangian approach (Gennaro, 1998). With ertia parameters, coupling matrices, and the natural frequencies

the assumption of a small Euler angle rotations, the dynamic are taken from Gennaro (1998).

model can be approximated as Suppose the initial values of the three attitude angles are

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ (0) = 6◦ ,

(0) = 4◦ , and (0) = −4◦ . The control objec-

¨ ˙ tive is to drive each of the attitude angles to zero from their

(JT − JR ) ⎢

¨ ⎥

T

0 0 ⎢

˙ ⎥ initial value within tf = 150 s, and each of the vibration

⎣¨⎦+ ⎣˙⎦

I 0 D mode coordinates satisﬁes i = ˙ i = i (tf ) = ˙ i (tf ) = 0,

¨ ˙ i = 1, 2, 3, 4. Suppose that the matched uncertainty and distur-

⎡ ⎤

bance are of the forms: As = Be(1+sin xs ) and fs = B[sin 5t],

0 0 ⎢

⎥ I

+ ⎣ ⎦= (
(·) − us ), (25) respectively.

0 K 0 In the numerical simulation, for comparison, three cases are

conducted: (1) attitude maneuver control using the proposed

robust adaptive variable structure output feedback controller

where ,

and are roll, pitch and yaw attitude angles, and

(7); (2) attitude maneuver control using the traditional vari-

(·) is a function of the moments of inertia of the ﬂexible

able structure output feedback controller given in Yallapragada

spacecraft, the coupling matrix between attitude and vibrations

et al. (1996) as follows:

modes, etc.

Introducing a new variable S

u = Ny − (GCB)−1 (29)

S +

z = [

] T

(26)

and (3) attitude maneuver control using the modiﬁed adaptive

and setting variable structure output feedback controllers (20). The attitude

response and vibration suppression are analyzed to study the

(JT − JR ) T 0 0 performances of the controllers.

M̄ = , D̄ = ,

I 0 D

5.2.1. Robust adaptive variable structure output feedback

0 0 control (RAVSOFC)

K̄ = , B̄ = [I 0]T , Fig. 1 shows the results of the proposed robust adaptive vari-

0 K

able structure output feedback controller in the presence of un-

the following equation can be obtained: certainty and disturbance. From Fig. 1(a), it can be seen that

each of the three-attitude angle responses (solid line) almost

M̄ z̈ + D̄ ż + K̄z = B̄[
(·) − us ]. (27) approaches zero around the time of 100 s, and the steady error

of each angle is less than 0.002◦ . Fig. 1(b) shows the responses

Deﬁne the state variable xs = [

˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ]T ∈ (solid line) of angular velocity of the ﬂexible spacecraft and

2( n̄+3)

R , the state-space spacecraft model describing the dy- the steady errors are no more than 0.002◦ /s. Responses of the

namics behavior of the ﬂexible spacecraft can be described by vibrations modes are illustrated in Fig. 1(d). The maximum in-

duced vibration coordinate of the ﬁrst mode is effectively sup-

ẋs (t) = (As + As )xs (t) + Bs s (us ) + fs (t),

pressed. It is noted that all the vibration modal coordinates and

ys = Cs xs , (28) vibration rates approach zero at time 10 s.

where

5.2.2. Traditional variable structure output feedback control

0 I 0 (TVSOFC)

As = , Bs = ,

−M̄ −1 K̄ −M̄ −1 D̄ M̄ −1 B̄ For the purpose of comparison, the system employed by TV-

SOFC law in Eq. (32) proposed by Yallapragada et al. (1996)

I3×3 03×n̄ 03×3 03×n̄ is also considered in this section. The same simulation case is

f (t) = Bs
(·), Cs = . repeated with the TVSOFC replacing the proposed RAVSOFC

03×3 03×n̄ I3×3 03×n̄

for a fair complexion and the results of simulation were also

Suppose that As is the parametric uncertainty matrix of As shown in Fig. 1 (dotted line). For this case, a signiﬁcant amount

and n̄ is the number of elastic modes considered. Here the of the oscillations of the attitude angle and rate occurred during

nonlinearities in the input s (us ) is taken as saturation and the maneuvering as demonstrated in Figs. 1(a) and (b) (dot-

dead-zone whose saturated value and dead-band value are 10 ted line) with steady errors more than 0.05◦ and 0.05◦ /s, re-

and 0.5 N m, respectively. In addition, the system satisﬁes all spectively. Moreover, the oscillations do not settle within 300 s.

of the assumptions given earlier. The disturbance rejection is markedly worse than that achieved

556 Q. Hu et al. / Automatica 44 (2008) 552 – 559

Fig. 1. Attitude maneuver control using proposed RAVSOFC and TVSOFC. (a) Responses of attitude angle. (b) Responses of attitude angle rate. (c) Coordinate

responses of ﬁrst–fourth vibration modes.

Q. Hu et al. / Automatica 44 (2008) 552 – 559 557

Fig. 2. Attitude maneuver control using modiﬁed AVSOFC. (a) Responses of attitude angle. (b) Responses of attitude angle rate. (c) Coordinate responses of

ﬁrst–fourth vibration modes.

by the proposed approach. In addition, from the dotted line as 5.2.3. Adaptive variable structure output feedback control

shown in Fig. 1(c), TVSOFC also introduces much more vi- For the modiﬁed adaptive control case in Eq. (20) with adap-

brations to the ﬁrst four modes than proposed RAVSOFC and tive laws (21) and (22), the same tests are also repeated with the

the maximum induced vibration coordinate of the ﬁrst mode is same control parameters and the simulation results are shown

nearly close to 0.5 kg1/2 m. in Fig. 2. In this case, the attitude angles and rates response of

558 Q. Hu et al. / Automatica 44 (2008) 552 – 559

each axis are shown in Figs. 2(a) and (b), respectively. As ex- Iyer, A., & Singh, S. N. (1991). Variable structure slewing control and

pected, the responses of both the angle displacement and the vibration damping of ﬂexible spacecraft. Acta Astronautica, 25(1), 1–9.

angular velocity almost also converge to zero in 100 s. The Lo, S. C., & Chen, Y. P. (1995). Smooth sliding mode control for spacecraft

attitude tracking maneuvers. Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics,

maximum induced vibration coordinate of the ﬁrst mode is ef- 18(6), 1345–1349.

fectively suppressed to below 0.1 kg1/2 m as shown in Fig. 2(c). Popov, V. M. (1973). Hyperstability of control system. Berlin: Spinger.

It is seen that the adaptive control law, as expected, is essen- Shen, Y., Liu, C., & Hu, H. (2000). Output feedback variable structure control

tially capable of suppressing the vibrations while maintaining for uncertain systems with input nonlinearities. Journal of Guidance,

the attitude maneuvering capability of ﬂexible spacecraft even Control and Dynamics, 23(4), 762–764.

Shyu, K. K., Liu, W. J., & Hsu, K. C. (2003). Decentralized variable

the information of upper bound of the perturbations and uncer- structure control of uncertain large-scale systems containing a dead-zone.

tainties is not required in advance. IEE Proceedings of Control Theory and Applications, 150(5), 467–475.

Werta, J. R. (1978). Spacecraft attitude determination and control (pp.

6. Conclusions 270–272). Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Yallapragada, S. V., Heck, B. S., & Finney, J. D. (1996). Reaching conditions

for variable structure control with output feedback. Journal of Guidance,

In this paper, the problem of vibration suppression of three- Control and Dynamics, 19(4), 848–853.

axis stabilized ﬂexible spacecraft during attitude maneuver in Yoo, D. S., & Chung, M. J. (1992). A variable structure control with simple

the presence of bounded model uncertainty, external distur- adaptation laws for upper bounds on the norm of the uncertainties. IEEE

bances and control input nonlinearity/dead-zone has been in- Transactions on Automatic Control, AC-37(6), 860–864.

Zak, S. H., & Hui, S. (1993). On variable structure output feedback controllers

vestigated. A robust adaptive variable structure output feedback for uncertain dynamic systems. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control,

controller to stabilize uncertain dynamics system with explic- AC-38(10), 1509–1512.

itly considering nonlinearity/dead-zone control in control in- Zeng, Y., Araujo, A. D., & Singh, S. N. (1999). Output feedback variable

put has been proposed. It is shown that the designed controller structure adaptive control of a ﬂexible spacecraft. Acta Astronautica, 44(1),

guarantees the global reaching condition of the sliding mode 11–22.

for the uncertain system. In addition, we have also proposed

a modiﬁed adaptive version of this algorithm, which removes Qinglei Hu obtained his B.Eng. degree in 2001

from the Department of Electrical and Elec-

the constraint of known parametric uncertainty bound and dis- tronic Engineering at the Zhengzhou University,

turbance bound. Simulations have veriﬁed the effectiveness of PR China, and M.Eng. and Ph.D. degree from

the proposed designs. the Department of Control Science and Engi-

neering at Harbin Institute of Technology with

specialization in controls, PR China, in 2003

Acknowledgments and 2006, respectively.

Since 2003, he has been with the Department

of Control Science and Engineering at Harbin

This present work was supported by National Natural Science Institute of Technology and was promoted as

Foundation of China (Project Number: 60674101) and Research an Associate Professor in 2006. He is currently working as a Postdoctoral Re-

search fellow in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang

Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China Technological University. His research interests include variable structure

(Project Number: 20050213010). The authors would like to control and application, robust control and application, active vibration con-

thank the reviewers and the Editor for many suggestions that trol, spacecraft attitude control, and fuzzy control and application. He was

an Associate Editor for the Journal of the Franklin Institute.

helped improve the paper.

Guangfu Ma is currently a Professor in the

References Department of Control Science and Engineer-

ing, Harbin Institute of Technology. He received

his Ph.D. and M.S. in electrical engineering

Bošković, J. D., Li, S. M., & Mehra, R. K. (2001). Robust adaptive variable from Harbin Institute of Technology in 1993

structure control of spacecraft under control input saturation. Journal of and 1987, respectively. In 1992, he became an

Guidance, Control and Dynamics, 24(1), 14–22. Associate Professor and in 1997, Professor at

Chen, Y., & Lo, S. (1993). Sliding mode controller design for spacecraft Harbin Institute of Technology, where he cur-

attitude tracking maneuvers. IEEE Transaction on Aerospace and rently teaches and performs research in the ﬁelds

Electronics, 1328–1333. of spacecraft attitude control and aerospace con-

trol systems.

Drakunov, S. V., & Utkin, V. I. (1992). Sliding mode control in dynamic

systems. International Journal of Control, 55, 1029–1037.

Lihua Xie received the B.E. and M.E. degrees

Gennaro, S. D. (1998). Adaptive robust tracking for ﬂexible spacecraft in in electrical engineering from Nanjing Univer-

presence of disturbance. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, sity of Science and Technology in 1983 and

98(3), 545–568. 1986, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in elec-

Heck, B. S., & Ferri, A. A. (1989). Application output feedback for variable trical engineering from the University of New-

structure systems. Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, 12(6), castle, Australia, in 1992. Since 1992, he has

932–935. been with the School of Electrical and Elec-

Hsu, K. C., Wang, W. Y., & Lin, P. Z. (2004). Sliding mode control tronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological Uni-

for uncertain nonlinear systems with multiple inputs containing sector versity, Singapore, where he is a Professor. He

held teaching appointments in the Department

nonlinearities and dead-zone. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and

of Automatic Control, Nanjing University of

Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, 34(1), 374–380. Science and Technology from 1986 to 1989.

Hu, Q. L., & Ma, G. F. (2005). Variable structure control and active vibration He has also held visiting appointments with the University of Newcastle,

suppression of ﬂexible spacecraft during attitude maneuver. Aerospace the University of Melbourne, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and South

Science and Technology, 9, 307–317. China University of Technology.

Q. Hu et al. / Automatica 44 (2008) 552 – 559 559

Dr. Xie’s research interests include robust control and estimation, net- Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II. He is also a member of the Editorial

worked control systems, time delay systems, control of disk drive systems Board of IET Proceedings on Control Theory and Applications. He served

and sensor networks. In these areas, he has published a number of pa- as an Associate Editor of International Journal of Control, Automation and

pers and co-authored two patents and the books H-inﬁnity Control and Systems from 2004 to 2006 and an Associate Editor of the Conference

Filtering of Two-dimensional Systems (with C. Du); Optimal and Robust Editorial Board, IEEE Control Systems Society from 2000 to 2005. He was

Estimation (with F.L. Lewis and D. Popa) and Control and Estimation of the General Chairman of the ninth International Conference on Control,

Systems with Input/Output Delays (with H. Zhang). He is an Associate Automation, Robotics and Vision. Dr. Xie is a Fellow of IEEE and a Fellow

Editor of IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Automatica and IEEE of Institution of Engineers, Singapore.

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