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No.21, JR street,




The Manager,

HR department,



Sub: Applying for the post of Data analyst-reg.

Ref: Your advertisement in “ “website

With reference to the above I am writing in response. I wish to apply for the post of Data
analyst in your reputed organization. I am currently pursuing my B.E in Computer Science
Engineering. As I am in the procedure of finding the right job, I identified your company and
find it the right place as I will have the scope of being a part of the technical team, where I
can execute my knowledge. I would like to be a part of this reputed firm, where I can utilize
my skills, knowledge & talent. This would be the right opportunity and I strongly believe that
if given a chance I will prove myself and contribute to the growth & success of the
I have enclosed my resume for your perusal and kind consideration. Looking forward for
your positive reply.

Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,



1. Resume

2. Copies of qualification certificates.


NO.21, JR Street, Ph : 98455423653




To make a sound position in corporate world and work enthusiastically in team
to achieve goal of the organization with devotion and hard work and to seek
challenging assignment and responsibility, with an opportunity for growth and
career advancement as successful achievements.

Degree/ Institute/Univ./Board Year of Passing Percentage

B.E Computer Rajalakshmi Institute of (completed till

Science and Technology Vth sem) 7.65(CGPA)

HSC New prince matriculation 2013 93.2%

higher secondary school

New prince matriculation

SSLC higher secondary school 2011 95%

Languages Known:C,C++, Java.

Web Technologies: HTML, MYSQL.

 Quick Learner
 Good narrator and orator
 Good listener and patient observer
 Able to adapt to any culture
 Good communication skills
 Committed, focused, determined and dedicated to the work.

 Participated and won prizes in various college level symposiums.
 Performed and won prizes in quiz competitions.
 Basically a good team player.
 Actively participated in rotract club.
 Has been the representative of the class and organizer of events.

 Obtained certification on Cloud Infrastructure and Services program
conducted by EMC Academic Associate.
 Presented a paper on “Robust Object Detection for Enhanced video
Surveillance” in a national level symposium at Sri Venkateshwara
College of Engineering.
 Published a paper titled “Development of shopping assistant using
extraction of text images for visually impaired” in IEEE digital library.
 Has Attended Workshop on Cyber Security at KCG College Of
 Has done an internship in Enterprise Application Development at Biztime
IT Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
 Obtained certification on “Data science and big data analytics”.
 Presented a paper titled “VOICE BASED APPLICATION AS
 Presented a paper on “ Medicine identifying application using text
extraction for visually impaired” in an “ International Conference on
Engineering a Digital Green Era” at Rajalakshmi engineering college.
 Has attended a 5-day UTLP program by wipro and completed a project
on “Base of Records”.
 Member of Computer Society of India(CSI).



DATE OF BIRTH : 8th oct , 1995





LANGUAGES KNOWN: English, Tamil, Telugu, hindi.

1. Dr.D.Jayashree,
Head Of The Department,
Computer Science and Engineering,
Rajalakshmi Institute Of Technology.
2. Dr.M.Geetha,
Associate Professor,
Dept Of Computer Science and Engineering,
Rajalakshmi Institute Of Technology.

I hereby declare that above written particulars are true to the best of my
knowledge and belief.

Place: Chennai

Date: 30.03.2015

Yours Sincerely,


A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on mobile devices such
as smart phones and tablet computers. Most such devices are sold with several
apps bundled as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email
client, calendar, mapping program, and an app for buying music or other media
or more apps. Some pre-installed apps can be removed by an ordinary uninstall
process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software
does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps.
Mobile native apps stand in contrast to software applications that run on desktop
computers, and to web applications which run in mobile web browsers rather
than directly on the mobile device.
Apps that are not preinstalled are
usually available through distribution
platforms called app stores. They
began appearing in 2008 and are
typically operated by the owner of
the mobile operating system, such as
the Apple App Store, Google
Play, Windows Phone Store,
and BlackBerry App World. Some
apps are free, while others must be
bought. Usually, they are
downloaded from the platform to a target device, but sometimes they can be
downloaded to laptops or desktop computers. For apps with a price, generally a
percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider (such as iTunes), and the
rest goes to the producer of the app. The same app can therefore cost a different
price depending on the mobile platform.
The term "app" is a shortening of the term "application software". It has become
very popular, and in 2010 was listed as "Word of the Year" by the American
Dialect Society. In 2009, technology columnist David Pogue said that newer
smart phones could be nicknamed "app phones" to distinguish them from earlier
less-sophisticated smart phones.
Mobile apps were originally offered for general productivity and information
retrieval, including email, calendar, contacts, stock market and weather
information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools
drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as those handled by
desktop application software packages. As with other software, the explosion in
number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the
creation of a wide range of review, recommendation, and sources, including
blogs, magazines, and dedicated online app-discovery services. In 2014
government regulatory agencies began trying to regulate and curate apps,
particularly medical apps. Some companies offer apps as an alternative method
to deliver content (media) with certain advantages over an official website.
Developing apps for mobile devices requires considering the constraints and
features of these devices. Mobile devices run on battery and have less
powerful processors than personal computers and also have more features such
as location detection and cameras. Developers also have to consider a wide
array of screen sizes, hardware specifications and configurations because of
intense competition in mobile software and changes within each of the
platforms. Mobile application development requires use of
specialized integrated development environments. Mobile apps are first tested
within the development environment using emulators and later subjected to field
testing. Emulators provide an inexpensive way to test applications on mobile
phones to which developers may not have physical access.
Mobile user interface (UI) Design is also essential. Mobile UI considers
constraints and contexts, screen, input and mobility as outlines for design. The
user is often the focus of interaction with their device, and the interface entails
components of both hardware and software. User input allows for the users to
manipulate a system, and device's output allows the system to indicate the
effects of the users' manipulation. Mobile UI design constraints include limited
attention and form factors, such as a mobile device's screen size for a user's
hand. Mobile UI contexts signal cues from user activity, such as location and
scheduling that can be shown from user interactions within a mobile
application. Overall, mobile UI design's goal is primarily for an understandable,
user-friendly interface.
Mobile UIs, or front-ends, rely on mobile back-ends to support access to
enterprise systems. The mobile back-end facilitates data routing, security,
authentication, authorization, working off-line, and service orchestration. This
functionality is supported by a mix of middleware components including mobile
app servers, Mobile Backend as a service(MBaaS), and SOA infrastructure.
Mobile apps development means the core development of software particularly
for the smart phones and other gadgets. Today we are living in an age where our
thinking is not possible without Smartphone’s or electronic gadgets. Laptop, i-
pod, Tab—the list is boundless. Previous gadgets were not too much critical,
but with the advent of modern days, they also have gained modern touch. Our
ancestors could not imagine that one day train tickets would be available
through smart phones. Once upon a time, money transferring through mobile
phones was just like a saying of imaginary world. But all these are possible now
by the grace of modern science and mobile apps development is one of the most
important parts of it.


Mobile app development is a technique of software development for mobile

and the main fundamental concept is derived from it. The main thing is that
developing of different mobile applications that will run on mobile platform, is
primarily called mobile apps development. Right now, most popular and well-
known mobile operating systems are iOS, android, windows and blackberry.
Each operating system follows own rules and development procedures when to
develop a particular application on different platform. So, it’s very important for
the developers to grip all the techniques that are suitable for each platform when
to develop an application. As an example we can say that an android application
can’t run in windows or iOS platform.

Languages Used:

It entirely depends on the language of the mobile OS. Just like, Apple iOS is
based on C language and Android uses Java to develop their OS. So, “C” is the
preferred language for the application development that will be used in apple
iOS. Same thing is said on android.

Wide Area:

There are unlimited mobile applications are spread out worldwide and people
want more. At present, chatting, cooking, matrimony, shopping, money making,
share market news, banking- all at our hold. So the demands of the developers
are highly needed. For many reasons, people want up-graded version of apps.
New versions create interests among people; they experiment with it and
express their reviews through internet. It’s also a very productive way for an
enterprise to create a relationship with their customers.

Despite the many inherent benefits of traditional websites, mobile apps and
mobile websites are becoming very popular. This is because majority of the
consumers now basically browse the Internet using their mobile phones or

Convenience and accessibility.

Generally speaking, there are specific scenarios where mobile will be your best

For interactive application, a mobile app is almost always going to be your best
choice, at least for the foreseeable future.

If your target users are going to be using your application in a personalized
fashion on a regular basis then a mobile app provides a great way to do that.

Complex Calculations or Reporting.

If you need something that will take data and allow you to manipulate it with
complex calculations, charts or reports, a mobile app will help you do that very

Native Functionality or Processing Required.

If you need certain mobile-specific functions such as click-to-call, SMS and
GPS or if you need to access a user’s camera or processing power, a mobile app
will surely do that much more effectively.

Internet Connection is Not Always Required.

If you need to provide offline access to content or perform functions without a
network/wireless connection then a mobile app will surely deliver .

When it comes to deciding whether to build a native app or a mobile website,

the most appropriate choice really depends on your end goals. If you are
developing an interactive game an app is probably going to be your best option.
But if your goal is to offer mobile-friendly content to the widest possible
audience then a mobile website is probably the way to go. In some cases you
may decide you need both a mobile website and a mobile app, but it’s pretty
safe to say that it rarely makes sense to build an app without already having a
mobile website in place.

Generally speaking, a mobile website should be considered your first step in

developing a mobile web presence, whereas an app is useful for developing an
application for a very specific purpose that cannot be effectively accomplished
via a web browser.


A recent survey conducted by Compuware(link is external) has shown that 85%

of consumers favour apps over mobile websites due to convenience, speed and
ease of use. However, when it comes to deciding which is better for your
business, it’s important to make sure that you to weigh up the pros and cons
based on your specific requirements. Determining if you should opt for a mobile
app or website and working out which is most suited to your needs will depend
upon a number of factors, including target audiences, available budget, intended
purpose and required features.

The main benefit of developing a mobile app versus a mobile friendly website is
that by developing a mobile app in native code, you can embrace the native
functionality or the hardware of the phone. For example, most smart phones
have built in accelerometers, cameras, GPS and gyroscopes. Secondly, while a
mobile friendly website will always require an internet connection with an app,
this is not always the case. Many apps can store data locally on the phone, and
you can continue interacting with them even when no connections are available.

The Daily Mail app(link is external) is a good example, whereby when the user
opens the app, it will look to connect to the internet to download all of the
updated stories, all related images for use offline and will notify the user when
this is complete. They then effectively have today's newspaper downloaded onto
their phone. It is this content that will remain on the app until it is next 'synced'
to the internet.
It’s becoming increasingly easy to develop mobile apps(link is external) too
because the major operating systems offer developers free frameworks and
development tools to get started with app development. However, there are also
certain cases when building a mobile website may be a better solution.

When developing an app, you need to consider each platform on which you
want to make it available, driving up development and maintenance costs.
Whereas with a mobile website, there is only one version of your website you
need to maintain. Some companies may also find that their websites are gaining
a lot of traffic from mobile devices, giving a mobile website solution a priority
over an app.

Another important element to consider as part of your mobile strategy, once you
have decided on an app, mobile website, or potentially both, is that you will
need a firm plan in place of how you intend to effectively drive traffic to your
mobile website or app. This is particularly important if you intend to utilise the
mobile channel to open up new revenue streams or to enhance your brand
loyalty initiatives.

Mobile apps and mobile websites have their similarities and differences;
companies looking to take advantage of the mobile boom need to consider how
each solution will help them reach their business goals. Preparing before you
take your business mobile will help ensure the route you take will be the right

Despite the many inherent benefits of the mobile web, apps are still very
popular, and there are a number of specific use scenarios where an app will be
your best choice. Generally speaking, if you need one of the following, an app
makes sense:

 Interactivity/Gaming – for interactive games (think Angry Birds) an app

is almost always going to be your best choice, at least for the foreseeable
 Regular Usage/Personalization – If your target users are going to be
using your app in a personalized fashion on a regular basis (think Ever
Note) then an app provides a great way to do that.
 Complex Calculations or Reporting – If you need something that will
take data and allow you to manipulate it with complex calculations, charts
or reports (think banking or investment) an app will help you do that very
 Native Functionality or Processing Required - mobile web browsers are
getting increasingly good at accessing certain mobile-specific functions
such as click-to-call, SMS and GPS. However, if you need to access a
user's camera or processing power an app will still do that much more
 No connection Required – If you need to provide offline access to
content or perform functions without a network/wireless connection then
an app makes sense.

As with any project, when developing an app you want to ensure that your are
getting an optimal return on your investment. What you want to avoid at all
costs is the needless and expensive exercise of building an app to do something
basic that can be achieved with a mobile website.

1. Limitation
Since mobile devices has limited amount of storage and size of the products
screen compared to computer, there are limitation of using apps. For examples,
small display screen and overflow of data storage.

2. Accelerate Information Overload

Bulletin board advertising has been long rampant while not many people pay
attention to those ads when passing by on their way. But mobile applications
can make our mobile devices full of spam.

3. Privacy and Security

When downloading applications, users possibly have to allow the publishers to

track and analyze their actions. This would give birth to the loss or abuse of
personal information. On the other hand, one may get virus downloaded in
mobile devices without being aware of it.

4. Costs of developing and marketing

The cost spending on developing apps is high for better quality of application.
Since millions of mobile apps existing in the market, there is both huge time
and financial cost to stand out from the fierce competition. Moreover, If
spending on developing application is higher than the profits they earn, there
will be deficiency.


As long as mobile remains a relatively new frontier, the “app vs web” question
will remain a very real consideration for organizations seeking to establish a
mobile presence. If your mobile goals are primarily marketing-driven, or if your
aim is to deliver content and establish a broad mobile presence that can be
easily shared between users and found on search engines, then the a mobile
website is the logical choice. On the other hand, if your goal is interactive
engagement with users, or to provide an application that needs to work more
like a computer program than a website, then an app is probably going to be
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as
an environmental condition. Stress is a body's method of reacting to a challenge.
According to the stressful event, the body's way to respond to stress is
by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight
response. Because the body cannot keep this state for long periods of time, the
parasympathetic system returns the body's physiological conditions to normal
(homeostasis). In humans, stress typically describes a negative condition or a
positive condition that can have an impact on a person's mental and
physical well-being.

There is likely a connection between stress and illness. Theories of the stress–
illness link suggest that both acute and chronic stress can cause illness, and
several studies found such a link. According to these theories, both kinds of
stress can lead to changes in behaviour and in physiology. Behavioural changes
can be smoking and eating habits and physical activity. Physiological changes
can be changes in sympathetic activation or hypothalamic pituitary
adrenocorticoid activation, and immunological function. However, there is
much variability in the link between stress and illness.

Modern life is full of frustrations, deadlines,

and demands. For many people, stress is so
commonplace that it has become a way of
life. Stress isn’t always bad, though. Stress
within your comfort zone can help you
perform under pressure, motivate you to do
your best, even keep you safe when danger
looms. But when stress becomes
overwhelming, it can damage your health,
mood, relationships, and quality of life.

You can protect yourself by understanding how the body’s stress response
works, recognizing the signs and symptoms of stress overload, and taking steps
to reduce its harmful effects.

Stress is your body’s way of responding to any kind of demand or threat. When
you feel threatened, your nervous system responds by releasing a flood of stress
hormones, including adrenaline and cortisol, which rouse the body for
emergency action. Your heart pounds faster, muscles tighten, blood pressure
rises, breath quickens, and your senses become sharper. These physical changes
increase your strength and stamina, speed your reaction time, and enhance your

This is known as the “fight or flight” stress response and is your body’s way of
protecting you. When working properly, stress helps you stay focused,
energetic, and alert. In emergency situations, stress can save your life—giving
you extra strength to defend yourself, for example, or spurring you to slam on
the brakes to avoid an accident.

Stress can also help you rise to meet challenges. Stress is what keeps you on
your toes during a presentation at work, sharpens your concentration when
you’re attempting the game-winning free throw, or drives you to study for an
exam when you'd rather be watching TV.

But beyond your comfort zone, stress stops being helpful and can start causing
major damage to your mind and body.


The latest research into the brain shows that we, as mammals, have three ways
of regulating our nervous systems and responding to stress:

 Social engagement is our most evolved strategy for keeping ourselves

feeling calm and safe. Since the vagus nerve connects the brain to sensory
receptors in the ear, eye, face and heart, socially interacting with another
person—making eye contact, listening in an attentive way, feeling
understood—can calm you down and put the brakes on defensive
responses like “fight-or-flight.” When using social engagement, you can
think and feel clearly, and body functions such as blood pressure,
heartbeat, digestion, and the immune system continue to work
 Mobilization, otherwise known as the fight-or-flight response. When
social engagement isn’t an appropriate response and we need (or think we
need) to either defend ourselves or run away from danger, the body
prepares for mobilization. It releases chemicals to provide the energy you
need to protect yourself. At the same time, body functions not needed for
fight or flight—such as the digestive and immune systems—stop
working. Once the danger has passed, your nervous system calms the
body, slowing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, and winding back
down to its normal balance.
 Immobilization. This is the least evolved response to stress and used by
the body only when social engagement and mobilization have failed. You
may find yourself traumatized or “stuck” in an angry, panic-stricken or
otherwise dysfunctional state, unable to move on. In extreme, life-
threatening situations, you may even lose consciousness, enabling you to
survive high levels of physical pain. However, until you’re able to arouse
your body to a mobilization response, your nervous system may be
unable to return to its pre-stress state of balance.

While it’s not always possible to respond to stress using social engagement,
many of us have become conditioned to responding to every minor stressor by
immediately resorting to fight or flight. Since this response interrupts other
body functions and clouds judgment and feeling, over time it can cause stress
overload and have a detrimental effect on both your physical and mental health.


The body’s autonomic nervous system often does a poor job of distinguishing
between daily stressors and life-threatening events. If you’re stressed over an
argument with a friend, a traffic jam on your commute to work, or a mountain
of bills, for example, your body can still react as if you’re facing a life-or-death

When you repeatedly experience the fight or flight stress response in your daily
life, it can raise blood pressure, suppress the immune system, increase the risk
of heart attack and stroke, speed up the aging process and leave you vulnerable
to a host of mental and emotional problems.

Many health problems are caused or exacerbated by stress, including:

 Pain of any kind  Depression

 Heart disease  Weight problems
 Digestive problems  Auto immune diseases
 Sleep problems  Skin conditions, such as eczema


The following table lists some of the common warning signs and symptoms of
chronic stress. The more signs and symptoms you notice in yourself, the closer
you may be to stress overload.

Cognitive Symptoms:

 Memory problems
 Inability to concentrate
 Poor judgment
 Seeing only the negative
 Anxious or racing thoughts
 Constant worrying

Emotional Symptoms

 Moodiness
 Irritability or short temper
 Agitation, inability to relax
 Feeling overwhelmed
 Sense of loneliness and isolation
 Depression or general unhappiness

Physical Symptoms

 Aches and pains

 Diarrhea or constipation
 Nausea, dizziness
 Chest pain, rapid heartbeat
 Loss of sex drive
 Frequent colds

Behavioral Symptoms

 Eating more or less

 Sleeping too much or too little
 Isolating yourself from others
 Procrastinating or neglecting responsibilities
 Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax
 Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)


The situations and pressures that cause stress are known as stressors. We
usually think of stressors as being negative, such as an exhausting work
schedule or a rocky relationship. However, anything that puts high demands on
you or forces you to adjust can be stressful. This includes positive events such
as getting married, buying a house, going to college, or receiving a promotion.

Of course, not all stress is caused by external factors. Stress can also be self-
generated, for example, when you worry excessively about something that may
or may not happen, or have irrational, pessimistic thoughts about life.

Common external causes of stress

 Major life changes

 Work or school
 Relationship difficulties
 Financial problems
 Being too busy
 Children and family

Common internal causes of stress

 Chronic worry
 Pessimism
 Negative self-talk
 Unrealistic expectations/Perfectionism
 Rigid thinking, lack of flexibility
 All-or-nothing attitude

What causes excessive stress depends, at least in part, on your perception of it.
Something that's stressful to you may not faze someone else; they may even
enjoy it. For example, your morning commute may make you anxious and tense
because you worry that traffic will make you late. Others, however, may find
the trip relaxing because they allow more than enough time and enjoy listening
to music while they drive.


 Your support network – Social engagement is the body’s most evolved

strategy for responding to stress so it’s no surprise that people with a
strong network of supportive friends and family members are better able
to cope with life’s stressors. On the flip side, the more lonely and isolated
you are, the less opportunity you have to utilize social engagement and
the greater your vulnerability to stress.
 Your exercise levels. Your physical and mental health are intrinsically
linked, so the better you take care of your body, the greater resilience
you’ll have against the symptoms of stress. Exercising regularly (for 30
minutes or more on most days) can lift your mood and help relieve stress,
anxiety, anger, and frustration. It can also serve as a distraction to your
worries, allowing you to find some quiet time and break out of the cycle
of negative thoughts that feed stress and anxiety.
 Your diet. The food you eat can also have a profound effect on your
mood and how well you cope with life’s stressors. Eating a diet full of
processed and convenience food, refined carbohydrates, and sugary
snacks can worsen symptoms of stress while eating a diet rich in fresh
fruit and vegetables, high-quality protein, and healthy fats, especially
omega-3 fatty acids, can help you better cope with life’s ups and downs.
 Your sense of control – It may be easier to take stress in your stride if
you have confidence in yourself and your ability to influence events and
persevere through challenges. If you feel like things are out of your
control, you’re likely to have less tolerance for stress.
 Your attitude and outlook – Optimistic people are often more stress-
hardy. They tend to embrace challenges, have a strong sense of humor,
and accept that change is a part of life.
 Your ability to deal with your emotions – You’re extremely vulnerable
to stress if you don’t know how to calm and soothe yourself when you’re
feeling sad, angry, or overwhelmed by a situation. The ability to bring
your emotions into balance helps you bounce back from adversity and is a
skill that can be learned at any age.
 Your knowledge and preparation – The more you know about a
stressful situation, including how long it will last and what to expect, the
easier it is to cope. For example, if you go into surgery with a realistic
picture of what to expect post-op, a painful recovery will be less
traumatic than if you were expecting to bounce back immediately.


While unchecked stress is undeniably damaging, you have more control than
you might think. Unfortunately, many people cope with stress in ways that only
compound the problem. They drink too much to unwind at the end of a stressful
day, fill up on comfort food, zone out in front of the TV or computer for hours,
use pills to relax, or lash out at other people. However, there are many healthier
ways to cope with stress and its symptoms.

You may feel like the stress in your life is out of your control, but you can
always control the way you respond. Stress management can teach you healthier
ways to cope with stress, help you reduce its harmful effects, and prevent stress
from spiraling out of control again in the future.

 Engage socially. The simple act of talking face to face with another
human being can release hormones that reduce stress even if you’re still
unable to alter the stressful situation. Opening up to someone is not a sign
of weakness and it won’t make you a burden to others. In fact, most
friends will be flattered that you trust them enough to confide in them,
and it will only strengthen your bond.
 Get moving. Physical activity plays a key role in managing stress.
Activities that require moving both your arms and your legs are
particularly effective. Walking, running, swimming, dancing, and aerobic
classes are good choices, especially if you exercise mindfully (focusing
your attention on the physical sensations you experience as you move).
Focused movement helps to get your nervous system back into balance. If
you’ve been traumatized or experienced the immobilization stress
response, getting active can help you to become "unstuck."

You can also better cope with the symptoms of stress by strengthening your
physical health.

 Set aside relaxation time. Relaxation techniques such as yoga,

meditation, and deep breathing activate the body’s relaxation response, a
state of restfulness that is the opposite of the fight or flight stress
 Eat a healthy diet. Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope
with stress. Start your day with a healthy breakfast, reduce your caffeine
and sugar intake, add plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, and cut back on
alcohol and nicotine.
 Get plenty of sleep. Feeling tired can increase stress by causing you to
think irrationally. Keep your cool in stressful situations by getting a good
night’s sleep.


Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques

and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's levels of stress,
especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday
functioning. In this context, the term 'stress' refers only to a stress with
significant negative consequences, or distress in the terminology advocated
by Hans Selye, rather than what he calls as stress, a stress whose consequences
are helpful or otherwise positive.
Stress produces numerous physical and mental symptoms which vary according
to each individual's situational factors. These can include physical health
decline as well as depression. The process of stress management is named as
one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society. [1] Although life
provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle, stress
management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain
overall well-being.
Despite stress often being
thought of as a subjective
experience, levels of stress
are readily measurable,
using various physiological
tests, similar to those used
in polygraphs. Many
practical stress management
techniques are available,
some for use by health
professionals and others,
for self-help, which may
help an individual reduce their levels of stress, provide positive feelings of
control over one's life and promote general well-being.
Evaluating the effectiveness of various stress management techniques can be
difficult, as limited research currently exists. Consequently, the amount and
quality of evidence for the various techniques varies widely. Some are accepted
as effective treatments for use in psychotherapy, whilst others with less
evidence favouring them are consider alternative therapies. Many professional
organisations exist to promote and provide training in conventional or
alternative therapies.
There are several models of stress management, each with distinctive
explanations of mechanisms for controlling stress. Much more research is
necessary to provide a better understanding of which mechanisms actually
operate and are effective in practice. You may feel there’s nothing you can do
about stress. The bills won’t stop coming, there will never be more hours in the
day, and your work and family responsibilities will always be demanding. But
you have more control over stress than you might think. Stress management is
all about taking charge: of your lifestyle, thoughts, emotions, and the way you
deal with problems. No matter how stressful your life seems, there are steps you
can take to relieve the pressure and regain control.


Stress management strategy 1: Get moving

Physical activity plays a key role in reducing and preventing the effects of
stress, but you don’t have to be an athlete or spend hours in a gym to experience
the benefits. Just about any form of physical activity can help relieve stress and
burn away anger, tension, and frustration. Exercise releases endorphins that
boost your mood and make you feel good, and it can also serve as a valuable
distraction to your daily worries.

While the maximum benefit comes from exercising for 30 minutes or more, you
can start small and build up your fitness level gradually. Short, 10-minute bursts
of activity that elevate your heart rate and make you break out into a sweat can
help to relieve stress and give you more energy and optimism. Even very small
activities can add up over the course of a day. The first step is to get yourself up
and moving. Here are a few easy ways:

 Put on some music and dance around

 Take your dog for a walk
 Walk or cycle to the grocery store
 Use the stairs at home or work rather than an elevator
 Park your car in the farthest spot in the lot and walk the rest of the way
 Pair up with an exercise partner and encourage each other as you workout
 Play ping-pong or an activity-based video game with your kids

Managing stress with regular exercise

Once you’re in the habit of being physically active, try to incorporate regular
exercise into your daily schedule. Activities that are continuous and rhythmic—
and require moving both your arms and your legs—are especially effective at
relieving stress. Walking, running, swimming, dancing, cycling, tai chi, and
aerobic classes are good choices.

Pick an activity you enjoy, so you’re more likely to stick with it. Instead of
continuing to focus on your thoughts while you exercise, make a conscious
effort to focus on your body and the physical (and sometimes emotional)
sensations you experience as you’re moving. Adding this mindfulness element
to your exercise routine will help you break out of the cycle of negative
thoughts that often accompanies overwhelming stress. Focus on coordinating
your breathing with your movements, for example, or notice how the air or
sunlight feels on your skin. Getting out of your head and paying attention to
how your body feels is also the surest way to avoid picking up an injury.

When you’ve exercised, you’ll likely find it easier to put other stress
management techniques to use, including reaching out to others and engaging

Stress management strategy 2: Engage socially

Social engagement is the quickest, most efficient way to rein in stress and avoid
overreacting to internal or external events that you perceive as threatening.
There is nothing more calming to your nervous system than communicating
with another human being who makes you feel safe and understood. This
experience of safety—as perceived by your nervous system—results from
nonverbal cues that you hear, see and feel.

The inner ear, face, heart, and stomach are wired together in the brain, so
socially interacting with another person face-to-face—making eye contact,
listening in an attentive way, talking—can quickly calm you down and put the
brakes on defensive stress responses like “fight-or-flight.” It can also release
hormones that reduce stress, even if you’re unable to alter the stressful situation
itself. Of course, it’s not always realistic to have a pal close by to lean on when
you feel overwhelmed by stress, but by building and maintaining a network of
close friends you can improve your resiliency to life’s stressors. On the flip
side, the more lonely and isolated you are, the greater your vulnerability to

Reach out to family and friends and connect regularly in person. The people you
talk to don’t have to be able to fix your stress; they just need to be good
listeners. Opening up is not a sign of weakness and it won’t make you a burden
to others. In fact, most friends will be flattered that you trust them enough to
confide in them, and it will only strengthen your bond. And remember, it’s
never too late to build new friendships and improve your support network.

Stress management strategy 3: Avoid unnecessary stress

While stress is an automatic response from your nervous system, some stressors
arise at predictable times—your commute to work, a meeting with your boss, or
family gatherings, for example. When handling such predictable stressors, you
can either change the situation or change your reaction. When deciding which
option to choose in any given scenario, it’s helpful to think of the four A's:
avoid, alter, adapt, or accept.

Avoid the stressor

It’s not healthy to avoid a stressful situation that needs to be addressed, but you
may be surprised by the number of stressors in your life that you can eliminate.

 Learn how to say “no” – Know your limits and stick to them. Whether in
your personal or professional life, taking on more than you can handle is
a surefire recipe for stress. Distinguish between the “shoulds” and the
“musts” and, when possible, say “no” to taking on too much.
 Avoid people who stress you out – If someone consistently causes stress
in your life, limit the amount of time you spend with that person, or end
the relationship.
 Take control of your environment – If the evening news makes you
anxious, turn off the TV. If traffic makes you tense, take a longer but
less-traveled route. If going to the market is an unpleasant chore, do your
grocery shopping online.

Stress management strategy 4: Alter the situation

If you can’t avoid a stressful situation, try to alter it. Often, this involves
changing the way you communicate and operate in your daily life.

 Express your feelings instead of bottling them up. If something or

someone is bothering you, be more assertive and communicate your
concerns in an open and respectful way. If you’ve got an exam to study
for and your chatty roommate just got home, say up front that you only
have five minutes to talk. If you don’t voice your feelings, resentment
will build and the stress will increase.
 Be willing to compromise. When you ask someone to change their
behavior, be willing to do the same. If you both are willing to bend at
least a little, you’ll have a good chance of finding a happy middle ground.
 Manage your time better. Poor time management can cause a lot of stress.
But if you plan ahead and make sure you don’t overextend yourself,
you’ll find it easier to stay calm and focused.

Stress management strategy 5: Adapt to the stressor

How you think can have a profound effect on your stress levels. Each time you
think a negative thought about yourself, your body reacts as if it were in the
throes of a tension-filled situation. Regain your sense of control by changing
your expectations and attitude to stressful situations.

 Reframe problems. Try to view stressful situations from a more positive

perspective. Rather than fuming about a traffic jam, look at it as an
opportunity to pause and regroup, listen to your favorite radio station, or
enjoy some alone time.
 Look at the big picture. Take perspective of the stressful situation. Ask
yourself how important it will be in the long run. Will it matter in a
month? A year? Is it really worth getting upset over? If the answer is no,
focus your time and energy elsewhere.
 Adjust your standards. Perfectionism is a major source of avoidable
stress. Stop setting yourself up for failure by demanding perfection. Set
reasonable standards for yourself and others, and learn to be okay with
“good enough.”

Stress management strategy 6: Accept the things you can’t change

Many sources of stress are unavoidable. You can’t prevent or change stressors,
such as the death of a loved one, a serious illness, or a national recession. In
such cases, the best way to cope with stress is to accept things as they are.
Acceptance may be difficult, but in the long run, it’s easier than railing against a
situation you can’t change.

 Don’t try to control the uncontrollable. Many things in life are beyond
our control—particularly the behavior of other people. Rather than
stressing out over them, focus on the things you can control such as the
way you choose to react to problems.
 Look for the upside. When facing major challenges, try to look at them as
opportunities for personal growth. If your own poor choices contributed
to a stressful situation, reflect on them and learn from your mistakes.
 Learn to forgive. Accept the fact that we live in an imperfect world and
that people make mistakes. Let go of anger and resentments. Free
yourself from negative energy by forgiving and moving on.

Stress management strategy 7: Make time for fun and relaxation

Beyond a take-charge approach and a positive attitude, you can reduce stress in
your life by nurturing yourself. If you regularly make time for fun and
relaxation, you’ll be in a better place to handle life’s stressors.

Don’t get so caught up in the hustle and bustle of life that you forget to take
care of your own needs. Nurturing yourself is a necessity, not a luxury.

 Set aside relaxation time. Include rest and relaxation in your daily
schedule. Don’t allow other obligations to encroach. This is your time to
take a break from all responsibilities and recharge your batteries.
 Do something you enjoy every day. Make time for leisure activities that
bring you joy, whether it be stargazing, playing the piano, or working on
your bike.
 Keep your sense of humor. This includes the ability to laugh at yourself.
The act of laughing helps your body fight stress in a number of ways.

Stress management strategy 8: Adopt a healthy lifestyle

In addition to regular exercise, there are other healthy lifestyle choices that can
increase your resistance to stress.

 Eat a healthy diet. Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope with
stress, so be mindful of what you eat. Start your day right with breakfast,
and keep your energy up and your mind clear with balanced, nutritious
meals throughout the day.
 Reduce caffeine and sugar. The temporary "highs" caffeine and sugar
provide often end in with a crash in mood and energy. By reducing the
amount of coffee, soft drinks, chocolate, and sugar snacks in your diet,
you’ll feel more relaxed and you’ll sleep better.
 Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs. Self-medicating with alcohol or
drugs may provide an easy escape from stress, but the relief is only
temporary. Don’t avoid or mask the issue at hand; deal with problems
head on and with a clear mind.
 Get enough sleep. Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well as your body.
Feeling tired will increase your stress because it may cause you to think