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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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the hardware is the physical component or devices. 3. However. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. PC. it consists of main storage. It is the micro-processor in a computer. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. these have similar features to that of mainframe. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. PDP series and data general series. MINI COMPUTER. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. which make up the visible computer. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. ALU and control unit. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. Micro Computer. SUPER COMPUTER.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. The hardware. namely. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. In this system. While the software is programs. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. Typical example are DEC. 4. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. It is sometimes said. AMSTAD etc. TANDY.

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E. Power supply unit (PSU). Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. iii. System unit ii. Hard disk drive (HDD). plotter etc. Main memory or RAM. Fax modem (in latest PCs). Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. Sound card. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. database management system. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Mother board. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Joystick etc.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. It must be available when needed 4 . It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Must be of high performance 3. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task.g. There are two main types of software 1. printers. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. the system unit houses a number of system components. Examples are Computer keyboard. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Mouse. language translators. UNIX MS Windows etc. Cooling fan. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. Example are MS DOS. System software 2. These include. operating systems. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma].

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User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. 3. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. usage and other technical details 7. Dust. 2. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). There are two major types of computer networks. satellite or private line. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. uninterruptible power supply. such as the public telephone services. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. 6. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Provide fire extinguishers. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding.

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i L If your computer supports multiple users. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. The desktop. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . Some of the other operating systems DOS. 5. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. And without your having to know how it does it. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). such as in building. Just click your user name (or Guest. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. which looks something like the example shown below.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. and Linux and UNIX. such as your monitor and printer. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. the hard disk. Follow these steps: 1. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. starting Windows XP is a simple task. keyboard. And it does all that in the background. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. example shown below. 6 . proper. without your even being aware of it. mouse. Turn on the main power on the system unit. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. the programs you use. is the large area of the screen. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. often abbreviated OS. homes and institutions or organi ations. 4. used mainly in large businesses. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. 3.

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or Web site. document.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. To open an icon. represents some program you can run. Each icon.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. The Start button 7 . T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. the Quick Launch toolbar. typically this is something you can change and print. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. Document icon: Represents a document. in turn. or some location on your computer where things are stored. and the Notifications area. folder.

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Nothing is saved. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. or put it to sleep so to speak.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. follow these steps: 1. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. but does not save current settings. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. If you share computer with others. follow these steps: 1. To log off. 3. 3. 8 . The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and restarting will be from scratch. Also known as rebooting. Logging Off. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Click the Start button. no power is consumed while the computer is off. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. This is not good. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. Click the Log Off button that appears. and want to leave it on for them. To shut down the computer altogether. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. Click the Start button. The Start menu is divided into two sections. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. and then instantly restarts it. you can just log off. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. 2. 2.

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Shift clicking. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. 9 . This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button.These tools are common to most windows. you make a selection. and then click a mouse button. Dragging. the first thing to do is to open the menus. POINTING. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. An arrow. Selection. Clicking. each time you press the mouse button. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. 6. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. 7.shaped pointer moves across the screen. To use the mouse. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. to display the contents of menus. Double clicking.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. Basic mouse movements 1. 2. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. 4. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. 5. Pressing.

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12. 9. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. or down. Alternatively. 17. right. drag its dots to the left. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. Scroll bars Scroll bars. If it won¶t go. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. drag it back into the taskbar. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). To resi e an item within the toolbar. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. 11. 7. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. To see the options for a particular window.´ That is. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. right-click its taskbar button. or remove toolbars from. 8. and appears ³pushed in. click the up. To move up or down a little bit at a time.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. up. To move more quickly than that. 15. 10 . To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. try widening it first. To add toolbars to. as mentioned. no other windows overlap the active window 6. 16. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. To rearrange items in the toolbar. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. To move a window to some new location on the screen. drag the window by its title bar. Remember. doubleclick its title bar. 2. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. 10.´ 4. the taskbar. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. drag the slider box through the slider bar. 13. 14. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right.

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If your mouse has a wheel. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. and then click the option you want. To open the Folders list.) opens another dialog box. Preview box. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. Text box. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Click in the box. and then type the requested information. Spin box. Click the box to turn on or off the option.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. or type a number in the box.. A checked box means the option is selected. Click an option button to select it. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. Click a tab to display its options. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Check box. (I say may be able to. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . a cleared box means it s not. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. List box. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. Button.. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. You can usually select only one. Each tab groups a related set of options. Option buttons.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. From the shortcut menu. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . To display all open windows in equal si es. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. 4. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion.

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One method is from the Start button. it s also very easy to use. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. You can create a simple letter to a friend. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. which is why most businesses have adopted it. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. or even write a complicated.

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The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Click on a menu selection.right-click to open a shortcut menu. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. e For example. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. 14 . Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. and options that relate to files. If you look closely. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. centre. and right) are grouped together. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. 1. the Alignment buttons (left. Right click anywhere in the document screen. such as saving or opening. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. are grouped together. you'll see the options available under that menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. by default.

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15 . Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. The toolbar will remain in the new position. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. 3. The description of that feature will appear 2. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. which is usually at the top of the screen. Release the mouse button. The requested action will be performed. Click on a toolbar button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. 1. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other.

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Type a small amount of text such as my name 2.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. 1. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. my computer training programme have commence.) to the next line for you. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . It marks the location where text will appear when you type. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. Press the enter key. you'll need to move the insertion point around. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology.

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There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Just type them in.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Here is how to: Inserting. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Right. Selecting. in the document window. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Down. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. Or want to change some of the text in the document. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Inserting Text 17 . OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point.

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Selecting Text Before you can move. When text is selected (called highlighted). The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. copy. delete. 18 . you must first select the text you want to edit. Select All. or change the formatting of text. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit.

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4. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. when you reopen it. if you type "SPringtime. lower. TIP To deselect text. or reverse a recently taken action. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted." If. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. The option will be selected 5. word." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. 1. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. that if you save your document. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. For example. Click on the undo button. press the F3 key. use Word's Undo feature. TIP 19 . you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. or title case. or any amount of selected text. Click on OK. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. however. Each time you press F3. Be aware. delete text you just typed. click once anywhere in the document. after highlighting your text. Also. if you close the document. a phrase. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. however. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point." You can apply a text case change to a word. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Click on a case option.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text.

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Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. and then places it into a new location. 1. When you undoa previous step. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. choose Undo from the Edit menu. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . 1. to paste text. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. use the Redo feature. 2. 3. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it.•• Optionally. imagine you changed the case of some text. With Cut and Paste. to cut text. then underlined the text. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Optionally. The text will be highlighted. then bolded the text. Click on the action you want to undo. Click on the Redo button. 1. Select the text you want to copy. For example. Click on the copy button. If you undo the Change Case action. Word deletes the selected text. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. Click on the Paste button. 2. holds it. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Word will reverse the previous undo action.

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Click the mouse where you want to place the text. 21 . Fortunately. Click on the Paste button. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. However. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. then Document3. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. and after that. Those names are temporary names. to copy text. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. and so forth.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3.

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and then choose Save As. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. you are only putting the document away²not the program. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. you should close it. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. 22 . Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. When you close a document. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. The original document will remain. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. click on File. Word is still active and ready to work for you.

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Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. If you make any changes. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. be sure to save the file again.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it.

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Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. you won't be able to edit it. b. Click on Print Preview. will look in the printed document. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. Printing with the Print Button 24 . Using Print Preview Before you print your document. The Print Preview window will open. In Print Preview. such as margins. you will only be able to see the document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. you may want to preview it on the screen.

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you must display the Prin dialog box. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. or just specific pages. or if you want to change which printer is being used.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. 25 .

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and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. 5. 26 . 4. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. bottom. after you've completed the entire document. Click on File. click on the Margins tab. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 2. bottom. or at any time in between. and right margins. left. Left. Click on Page Setup. The File menu will appear. or right margin setting. 3. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. Bottom.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. left.

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The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. The blinking insertion point will appear. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. for example. Click on Page Setup. Click on Break. Click on Insert. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. 1. The File menu will appear 2. 27 . Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. 1. A dropdown menu will appear. but you cannot make a page longer. Click on File. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. 2. The Insert menu will appear 3.

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Like line spacing. You can align paragraphs of text to the left.5 line spacing. You can also justify your text. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. right. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Word comes with extra fonts. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. or centre. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. 28 . The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. and Ctrl+5 for 1. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine.

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TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Font sizes are measured in points. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. italic. Applying Bold. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. and Ctrl+U for underline. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. Ctrl+I for italic. Italic. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. 29 . a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. Therefore.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. add impact by adding some colour. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute.

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The symbol will appear selected 7. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. Click on Insert. it may be available in a different font. such as a title page of a document. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. 4. Click on a symbol. 30 . phrase. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. The text will appear in the selected colour. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. paragraph. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. or airplanes. Click on a font. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. stars. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. check marks. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. You can also add a border around an entire page. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word.

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Type a number. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. or a hyphen. Word continues the list using the same format. hyphen. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. 1. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. a period. type an asterisk. Click on AutoCorrect Options. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. The text will display in the document 4. filled-in-bullet. Type the text for the first item on your list. Click on Tools. instead of typing a number at the first item. you can easily turn off the feature. Click on OK. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. The tools menu will appear. Note that when you use the asterisk key. 1. then a closing parenthesis. Word will continue the list with the same character. or dash. Press the spacebar or Tab key. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. word will convert it to a round. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 .

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you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. 2. Click on clip Art. OR 3. Click on Go. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . If you'r not already e using one of these views. The list will change to bulleted. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. it's easy to change it. 4. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Click on insert. The clip Art task pane will open 5. The picture menu will appear. The blinking insertion point will appear. The insert menu will appear 3. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. 1. 1. The list will change to numbered. 1. 2. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Again. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. The list will be highlighted. Click on picture. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Select the list of items you want to modify. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The text will be highlighted. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered.

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Click on a WordArt style. The picture submenu will appear 3." 33 . skewed. You can create shadowed. The blinking insertion point will appear. The insert menu will appear 3. Click on picture. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. containing predefined styles 4. 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. whether it's a photograph. Click on OK. Click on picture. Click on WordArt. scanned image. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. rotated. or other type of artwork. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. a drawing. "Your Text Here. 1. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. The picture menu will appear 4. . A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click on insert. The selection will have a box around it 5. The insert picture dialogue box will open. The insert menu will appear 2. Click on from file. and stretched text. Click on insert.

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A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. Click on Toolbars. 1. Click on View. The view menu will appear 2. Click on Drawing. 34 .

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The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. or draw it manually. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. and you're ready to go. Click on Table. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on OK. The table will be created 35 . Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. create it from the toolbar. The Table menu will appear 2. A sample diagram will appear in your document. You can insert it from a menu selection. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. Click on Table. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. The number will be displayed 6. Click on OK. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Insert. The Insert submenu will appear 3. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. 1. 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. The number will display 5. Click on the diagram type you want to use.

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Down Arrow key. The insertion point will move down to the next row. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. 1. Shift+Tab key. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The table grid will appear in the document. the text automatically wraps to the next line. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. Type some text. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. The blinking insertion point will appear. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. The column width will change. As you enter text in the cells. 2. 36 . 1. The insertion point will move up a row. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. To use the mouse. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. Up Arrow key. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2.

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The current column will be deleted OR 5. Click on Table. Click in the last Cell of the last row. 1. Click anywhere in the document. Click on Delete. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. column heads. 2. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on OK. and row labels of your table. The selection will be highlighted 6. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The Table. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The insert submenu will appear 4. 37 . you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Click on Insert. Click on Table. For example. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Click on Object. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Columns. Click on Rows Above. The table menu will appear 3. 3. Select the data. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. 1. The create new tab will come to the front 5. The insert menu will appear. Just follow the same procedure.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. Press the tab key. The data will be highlighted. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. 1. The Object dialogue box will open 4. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. Click on Rows. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Insert. 1. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The Table menu will appear 3.

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Click on Header and Footer 3. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Type and format some text. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. The footer box will appear 5. Type some text. The View menu will appear 2. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. and a footer prints at the bottom. Headers and footers can contain text. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. try them out on some of the other Office programs. or even pictures.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. Time. 1. when you print the document. Click on View. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. dates. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . a header prints at the top of every page.

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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .

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and numbers. Point to All Programs. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. The values can be in form of text. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . and then point to Microsoft Office. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. dates and times.

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" "Book2. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. 3. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. A blank workbook is opened. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. and then click New." and so on).•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. Click the Close button on the task pane. 2. Click the File menu. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Click Blank Workbook.

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A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. and numbers 3. Press Enter. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. If you want to save the file in another folder. click the Save In list arrow. Enter a Number as a Text 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Type' (an apostrophe). Press Enter. 4. spaces. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 2. 4. 3. 2. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Type your text. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type the file name for the new workbook name. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. 42 . Click the cell where you want to enter a label. 2. Type a number value. 3. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. punctuation.

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2. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. and then click Close. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. edit or move it.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. 2. Excel is still running. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. you can close it. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. use them in a formula. and then click Exit. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. or click Cancel to cancel the save. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. 3. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). To protect your files. Close a Workbook 1. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. 2. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. you can quit the program. Click the File menu. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. 3. click No to ignore any changes. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. When you're finished using Excel. or click the File menu. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. 43 . Select a Contiguous Range 1.

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followed by a space. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. and then click Cells. To select more. followed by a colon (:). When a range is selected. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. 3. If necessary. 4. Type a value. Press Enter. click the Number tab. day. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. Click Date. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. Click the Format menu. 3. 2. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer.M. 3. while the additional cells are selected. followed by the minute. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. or P. and then release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 3. Press and hold Ctrl. 4. Press Enter. Enter a Date or Time 1. To enter a date. 2. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. 2. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. Click the first cell you want to include in the range.M. 44 . 2. To enter a time.

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Enter the starting value to be repeated. Edit Cell Contents 1. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Click the date or time format. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. Right click the cell or range. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 4. Double-click the cell you want to edit. 45 . 3. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Select the cell or range you want to clear.•• 5. 4. 2. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. 2. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. Click OK. and then type new characters as needed. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. use the Home. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. or press Delete. 6. End. The insertion point appears in the cell. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. 2. If necessary. 3. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell.

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and then click Paste Special. 2. Click OK. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 4. 4. called a marquee. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Drag the selection to the new location. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. 2. 3. Formatting. Paste Data with Special Results 1. If you don't want to paste this selection. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click All. available for further pasting. 2. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 6. The data remains on the Clipboard. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. shows the size of the selection. and then click Paste Special. 4. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. 46 . Select the cell or range you want to clear. Click the Edit menu. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click to select the Transpose check box. press Esc to remove the marquee. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. and Comments 1. 5. press Esc to remove the marquee. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. and then point to Clear. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. 5. 5. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the Edit menu. 4. 2. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. 3. 3. 3. until you replace it with another selection. 6. Click the Edit menu. Select the cells that you want to switch. 2. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 3. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead.

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If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. Excel will display. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. Click the option you want. Enter the first argument. Click OK.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 2. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Click the Edit menu. and then click Delete. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Click the option you want. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. not calculate. 3. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. Insert a Cell 1. 2. the information you type. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Delete a Cell 1. 2. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Type = (an equal sign). 47 . y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Enter an arithmetic operator. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. and then click Cells. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. Click the Insert menu. 4. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. Enter the next argument. 4. 4. Click OK. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. 5. Select the cell or range you want to delete. 6. 3. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. 3. When you delete a cell. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s).

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2. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Click the type of calculation you want. 2. 4. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Display Formulas in Cells 1. Click to select the Formulas check box. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click OK. and then click Options. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. 48 . 3. Click the View tab. or press Enter. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click the Tools menu.

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or press Enter. to insert the AVERAGE function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type = (an equal sign). type the name of the function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. or press Enter. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the cell where you want to enter the function. 3. For example. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Press Enter to accept the range selected. 2. Enter a Function 1. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. type =AVERAGE(. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the function you want to use. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. 49 .

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Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. To insert multiple rows. Click the Insert menu. If you want. 50 . 2. and then click Column Width or Row Height. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. 3. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 4. and then click Columns or Rows. 2. Click the Insert menu. To insert a row.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. and then click Delete. and then click Columns or Rows. Type a new column width or row height in points. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. drag to select more columns or rows. Click OK. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. 5. Click the Edit menu. 2. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s).

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You can click Finish at any time. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. also called a graph. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. graphical representation of numerical data. or bubble chart. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. 2. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. Click a chart type. 3. the chart is called an embedded object. Click a chart sub-type. Select the data range you want to chart. 5. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. A chart. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. pie. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. 4. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. 51 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. 6. line. rather than on a new sheet. Click Next to continue. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. patterns become more apparent. surface. click Back or Forward. 2.

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12. Type titles for the chart. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. Titles tab. Verify the data range. 52 . 11. y Legend tab. y Data Table tab. 8. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. y Gridlines tab. and then click Next to continue. Click Finish. 13. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Click to add a table to the chart. Click Next to continue. x-axis. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. Select the labels you want for the data. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. y Axes tab. Select the axes you want to display for the data. 10. 9. Select options to display a legend and its location. y Data Labels tab. Click a chart options tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Preview the options.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Release the mouse button. 53 . Release the mouse button. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Drag the slice away from the pie.

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6. Click the Titles tab. and then click Chart Options. and then type the text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. f you want a second line for the x. 5. To add a title for the y-axis. and then type the text. 8. 4. press Tab. Type the text you want for the title of the chart.or y-axis. 3. Click OK 54 . To add a title for the x-axis. Preview the title(s) you are adding. press Tab. 2. 7. Click the Chart menu. 9. and then type the title text.

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click the column where you want to insert a page break. Click OK. Click the File menu. 2. Click the Portrait (8. 3.5 inches) option to select page orientation. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. Bottom.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. 2. and then click Normal. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. 7. Left. or Right Section text boxes. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Type information in the Left. Type the information in the Left. Click the Header/Footer tab. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. Click the Top. 3. 8. Centre. Click the Insert menu. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. and then click Page Break. Click OK. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. click Custom Header. 2. Arial. and then click Page Setup. 4. Click OK. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. and then click OK. 9. To insert a vertical page break. Select the text you want to format. and then click Page Setup. click the View menu. 2. Centre. Excel will use the default font. unless you change it. click Custom Footer. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 3. Change the Margin Settings 1. Change Page Orientation 1. Click OK. 6. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. make font changes. Click the View menu. 4. 4. 5. 2. Click the Page tab.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. click the Font button. Click the File menu. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. To insert a horizontal page break. and then click Page Break Preview. Click OK 10. 5. or Right Section text boxes. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Change a Header or Footer 1. 55 . 3. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Click the Margins tab. When you're done.

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and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 4. Click the File menu. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Click the File menu. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 2. and then click Page Setup. Type the range you want to print.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. Set the Print Area 1. 3. Click OK. 56 . 3. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 3. Click Set Print Area. Select the range of cells you want to print. Click OK. and then point to Print Area. select the cells you want to print. Click the Sheet tab. 4. 2. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. 2. Click the Sheet tab. select the row or column with the mouse.

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2. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. and then click Print. and then click the printer you want to use. 6. If necessary. Click the File menu. 5. the selected worksheets. Click the File menu. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. Click Clear Print Area. click the Name list arrow. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. 57 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Click OK. 2. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. and then point to Print Area.

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