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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. the hardware is the physical component or devices. MINI COMPUTER. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. Typical example are DEC. which make up the visible computer. While the software is programs. TANDY. ALU and control unit. AMSTAD etc. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. The hardware. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. In this system. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. 4.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. However. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. PDP series and data general series. It is the micro-processor in a computer. Micro Computer. these have similar features to that of mainframe. namely. PC. 3. It is sometimes said. it consists of main storage. SUPER COMPUTER.

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examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Cooling fan. operating systems. the system unit houses a number of system components. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. System unit ii. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. Hard disk drive (HDD). Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Example are MS DOS. Main memory or RAM.g. Sound card. Joystick etc. There are two main types of software 1. Mouse. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. E. database management system. Mother board.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). These include. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. language translators. iii. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Must be of high performance 3. It must be available when needed 4 . plotter etc. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Power supply unit (PSU). The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. UNIX MS Windows etc. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Fax modem (in latest PCs). System software 2. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. printers. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. Examples are Computer keyboard.

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There are two major types of computer networks. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. 2. Provide fire extinguishers. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). usage and other technical details 7. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Dust. uninterruptible power supply. 3. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . 6. such as the public telephone services.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. satellite or private line. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system.

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And without your having to know how it does it. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. Just click your user name (or Guest. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. used mainly in large businesses.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. is the large area of the screen. which looks something like the example shown below. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. the hard disk. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). example shown below. And it does all that in the background. Turn on the main power on the system unit. mouse. 5. often abbreviated OS. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. without your even being aware of it. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. starting Windows XP is a simple task. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. such as in building. such as your monitor and printer. Some of the other operating systems DOS. 6 . The desktop. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . and Linux and UNIX. 3. keyboard. proper. homes and institutions or organi ations. 4. i L If your computer supports multiple users. Follow these steps: 1. the programs you use. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system.

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The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. Document icon: Represents a document. document. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. or some location on your computer where things are stored. The Start button 7 . folder.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. or Web site. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. Each icon. typically this is something you can change and print. To open an icon. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. represents some program you can run. in turn. the Quick Launch toolbar. and the Notifications area.

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If you share computer with others. 2. 3. Nothing is saved. and want to leave it on for them. and then instantly restarts it. but does not save current settings. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. Logging Off. Click the Log Off button that appears. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Click the Start button. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Also known as rebooting. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. This is not good. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. 3. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. 8 . follow these steps: 1. and restarting will be from scratch. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. no power is consumed while the computer is off. you can just log off.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. or put it to sleep so to speak. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. follow these steps: 1. To shut down the computer altogether. The Start menu is divided into two sections. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. 2. To log off. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. Click the Start button.

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Selection. 2. 9 . this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. to display the contents of menus. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. Clicking. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. 7. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. you make a selection. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. An arrow. and then click a mouse button. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. 4. 6. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. 5. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. Double clicking. Dragging. the first thing to do is to open the menus. Pressing. To use the mouse. Basic mouse movements 1. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface.shaped pointer moves across the screen.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently.These tools are common to most windows. Shift clicking. each time you press the mouse button. POINTING.

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10 . To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. To move up or down a little bit at a time. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. To rearrange items in the toolbar. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). Scroll bars Scroll bars. or remove toolbars from. 17. 2.´ 4. no other windows overlap the active window 6. as mentioned. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. Remember. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. To move a window to some new location on the screen. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 14. right. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. 11. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. right-click its taskbar button. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. try widening it first. 16. or down.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. drag the slider box through the slider bar. and appears ³pushed in. drag its dots to the left. Alternatively. up. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down.´ That is. doubleclick its title bar. the taskbar. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. 15. click the up. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. drag the window by its title bar. 10.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. 8. 9. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. To resi e an item within the toolbar. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. To see the options for a particular window. 12. drag it back into the taskbar. 7. To add toolbars to. 13. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). To move more quickly than that. If it won¶t go.

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Click the box to turn on or off the option. Click a tab to display its options. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Check box. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. If your mouse has a wheel. List box. Text box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. (I say may be able to. Button. Click an option button to select it. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. To open the Folders list. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. or type a number in the box. Spin box. Click in the box. a cleared box means it s not. Preview box. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. A checked box means the option is selected..) opens another dialog box. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. and then type the requested information. Each tab groups a related set of options.. and then click the option you want. You can usually select only one. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. Option buttons. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box.

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Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . Open multiple windows on the desktop 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. From the shortcut menu. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. 4. To display all open windows in equal si es.

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Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . which is why most businesses have adopted it. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. it s also very easy to use. One method is from the Start button. You can create a simple letter to a friend. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. or even write a complicated. part of the Microsoft Office Suite.

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e For example. centre. and options that relate to files. 1. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. you'll see the options available under that menu. 14 . Right click anywhere in the document screen. are grouped together. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. such as saving or opening.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice.right-click to open a shortcut menu. If you look closely. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. and right) are grouped together. by default. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Click on a menu selection. the Alignment buttons (left.

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press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. which is usually at the top of the screen. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Click on a toolbar button. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. The description of that feature will appear 2. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. 3. Release the mouse button. 15 . Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. 1. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. The requested action will be performed.

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Press the enter key. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point.) to the next line for you. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. 1. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. my computer training programme have commence. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. you'll need to move the insertion point around. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Here is how to: Inserting. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. in the document window. Just type them in. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Down. Right. Inserting Text 17 . To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Or want to change some of the text in the document. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. Selecting.

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just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. delete. 18 . Selecting Text Before you can move. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. copy. Select All. you must first select the text you want to edit. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. or change the formatting of text. When text is selected (called highlighted).

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Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. TIP To deselect text. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. lower. however. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. Click on a case option. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. or reverse a recently taken action. however. 4. word. TIP 19 . if you type "SPringtime. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. when you reopen it." If." You can apply a text case change to a word. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. a phrase. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. The option will be selected 5. press the F3 key. that if you save your document. Click on the undo button. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. Be aware. delete text you just typed. click once anywhere in the document. 1. or title case." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. Each time you press F3. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. For example. use Word's Undo feature. if you close the document. Also. after highlighting your text. Click on OK. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. or any amount of selected text. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document.

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press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. The text will be highlighted. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps.•• Optionally. 3. For example. Word will reverse the previous undo action. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. 1. then bolded the text. With Cut and Paste. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. 1. Click on the Paste button. choose Undo from the Edit menu. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. to paste text. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. When you undoa previous step. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Optionally. Click on the Redo button. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. use the Redo feature. holds it. Click on the action you want to undo. and then places it into a new location. Word deletes the selected text. then underlined the text. imagine you changed the case of some text. to cut text. Select the text you want to copy. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. 2. 2. 1. Click on the copy button. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. If you undo the Change Case action.

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The blinking insertion point will appear 4. then Document3. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Those names are temporary names. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. However. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. Fortunately. and so forth. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. 21 . The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. and after that. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. to copy text. Click on the Paste button.

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Word is still active and ready to work for you. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. and then choose Save As. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. The original document will remain. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. you are only putting the document away²not the program. When you close a document. click on File. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. you should close it. 22 .

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If you make any changes. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. be sure to save the file again. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used.

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will look in the printed document. Using Print Preview Before you print your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. such as margins. The Print Preview window will open. Printing with the Print Button 24 . you may want to preview it on the screen. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. b. you will only be able to see the document. Click on Print Preview. In Print Preview. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. you won't be able to edit it.

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Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. you must display the Prin dialog box. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. 25 . including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. or just specific pages. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. or if you want to change which printer is being used.

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and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. after you've completed the entire document. 2. Click on File. or at any time in between. and right margins. bottom. bottom. or right margin setting. Bottom.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. Left. Click on Page Setup. left. click on the Margins tab. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 26 . 5. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. left. The File menu will appear. 4. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. 3. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary.

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The Insert menu will appear 3. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. 1. but you cannot make a page longer. Click on File. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. 1. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. Click on Insert. Click on Page Setup. The File menu will appear 2. 27 . A dropdown menu will appear. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. for example. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. Click on Break. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. 2.

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The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. right. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. You can align paragraphs of text to the left.5 line spacing. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Like line spacing. or centre. Word comes with extra fonts.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. 28 . You can also justify your text. and Ctrl+5 for 1. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document.

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a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. add impact by adding some colour. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Italic. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. and Ctrl+U for underline. Ctrl+I for italic. 29 . Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. Font sizes are measured in points. Applying Bold. italic. Therefore. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar.

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check marks. The symbol will appear selected 7. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. Click on a font.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. such as a title page of a document. phrase. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. Click on Insert. stars. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. 30 . NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. or airplanes. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. 4. The text will appear in the selected colour. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. You can also add a border around an entire page. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. paragraph. it may be available in a different font. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click on a symbol.

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The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Type the text for the first item on your list. you can easily turn off the feature. word will convert it to a round. The text will display in the document 4. Click on Tools. The tools menu will appear. a period. 2. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Type a number. filled-in-bullet. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. or dash. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Note that when you use the asterisk key. Click on OK. Word will continue the list with the same character. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . preceding it with a bullet character or a number. then a closing parenthesis. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. Click on AutoCorrect Options. hyphen. or a hyphen. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. 1. 1. type an asterisk. Word continues the list using the same format. instead of typing a number at the first item.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8.

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you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. The list will change to numbered. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . If you'r not already e using one of these views. Click on clip Art. The text will be highlighted. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. 1. The picture menu will appear. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Again. Click on insert. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The list will be highlighted. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. it's easy to change it. Click on picture. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. 1. 2. The list will change to bulleted. The insert menu will appear 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. 4. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. OR 3. Select the list of items you want to modify. 2. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Click on Go.

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Click on insert. 1. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. Click on WordArt. a drawing. rotated. . The selection will have a box around it 5. Click on a WordArt style. Click on insert. Click on from file. whether it's a photograph." 33 . containing predefined styles 4. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. Click on picture. The picture menu will appear 4. Click on picture. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. The picture submenu will appear 3. A placeholder in the Text box will say. You can create shadowed. The insert menu will appear 2. The insert picture dialogue box will open. scanned image. "Your Text Here. The insert menu will appear 3. and stretched text. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. or other type of artwork. skewed. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. Click on OK. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text.

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Click on Toolbars. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. Click on Drawing. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. 1. The view menu will appear 2. Click on View.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. 34 .

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Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. Click on OK. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. 1. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. and you're ready to go. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. A sample diagram will appear in your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. create it from the toolbar. The number will be displayed 6. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Click on Table. The number will display 5. Click on Insert. Click on Table. You can insert it from a menu selection. Click on the diagram type you want to use. 1. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. The table will be created 35 . Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. The Table menu will appear 2. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. Click on OK. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. or draw it manually. The Insert submenu will appear 3.

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simply click in the cell you want to work with. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Shift+Tab key. To use the mouse. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Down Arrow key. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. 2. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. 36 . The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. 1. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. The insertion point will move up a row. The column width will change. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. 1. Type some text. the text automatically wraps to the next line. Up Arrow key. The blinking insertion point will appear. As you enter text in the cells. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. The table grid will appear in the document.

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Click on Object. Press the tab key.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. Click on Insert. For example. Click in the last Cell of the last row. 2. 1. Click anywhere in the document. The table menu will appear 3. Select the data. column heads. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click on Table. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. Click on Columns. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. and row labels of your table. Click on Insert. Click on Rows Above. 3. 1. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click on Table. The create new tab will come to the front 5. If necessary click on the Create New tab. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. The Table. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The Object dialogue box will open 4. Click on Rows. The data will be highlighted. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Just follow the same procedure. OR Click on Rows Below. The delete submenu will appear 4. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. Click on OK. 37 . A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The Table menu will appear 3. 1. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The selection will be highlighted 6. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Delete. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The insert menu will appear.

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1. The View menu will appear 2. Type some text. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Click on View. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. try them out on some of the other Office programs. or even pictures. The footer box will appear 5. Time. Headers and footers can contain text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. and a footer prints at the bottom. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. Type and format some text. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Click on Header and Footer 3. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. dates. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. when you print the document. a header prints at the top of every page.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Point to All Programs. and then point to Microsoft Office. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. dates and times. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . and numbers. The values can be in form of text.

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the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. 2. A blank workbook is opened." "Book2. 3. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. Click the Close button on the task pane." and so on). Click Blank Workbook. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. and then click New. Click the File menu. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want.

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4. spaces. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. punctuation. Enter a Number as a Text 1. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 2. 3. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Type a number value. Press Enter. Press Enter. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Type' (an apostrophe).••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Type the file name for the new workbook name. 2. and numbers 3. 42 . click the Save In list arrow. 3. 4. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. Type your text. If you want to save the file in another folder.

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or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Close a Workbook 1. or click Cancel to cancel the save. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). 2. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. To protect your files. 2. and then click Close. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. or click the File menu. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. and then click Exit. you can close it. edit or move it. When you're finished using Excel. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. 43 . 3. Click the File menu. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. 2. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. Select a Contiguous Range 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. you can quit the program. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. Excel is still running. use them in a formula. 3. always quit Excel before turning off your computer.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. click No to ignore any changes.

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44 . To enter a time.M. If necessary. followed by a colon (:). followed by a space. Click Date. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 3. 2. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. Enter a Date or Time 1. Press and hold Ctrl. 2.M. while the additional cells are selected. Type a value. Click the Format menu. or P. 3. click the Number tab. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. and then release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. Press Enter. followed by the minute. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. To select more. Press Enter. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. and then click Cells. 2. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. 3. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. day. 4. To enter a date. When a range is selected. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. 3. 2. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. 4. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock.

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4. 45 . 3. and then type new characters as needed. Double-click the cell you want to edit. Enter the starting value to be repeated. or press Delete. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. Click the date or time format. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Right click the cell or range. End. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 2. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. use the Home. 6. Edit Cell Contents 1. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. If necessary. Click OK. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. 2.•• 5. 2. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. 4. 3. The insertion point appears in the cell.

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5. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. shows the size of the selection. 3. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Click All. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click OK. called a marquee. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 2. 2. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. and then point to Clear. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Click to select the Transpose check box. 4. available for further pasting. The data remains on the Clipboard. Formatting. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. and Comments 1. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Edit menu. 4. 5. 4. 46 . 4. Click the Edit menu. until you replace it with another selection. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. and then click Paste Special. 3. 5. 3. 3. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. press Esc to remove the marquee. 3. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. If you don't want to paste this selection. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. press Esc to remove the marquee. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 6. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Select the cells that you want to switch. 2. 2. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 6. Click the Edit menu. and then click Paste Special. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. 2. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Drag the selection to the new location. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy.

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y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. Insert a Cell 1. Click the Edit menu. 5. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. y Entire Column to delete the entire column.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 3. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Enter the first argument. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Click OK. Click the Insert menu. Enter an arithmetic operator. Click the option you want. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. Click the option you want. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. 3. Enter the next argument. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. 4. Type = (an equal sign). If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. 2. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. 47 . Select the cell or range you want to delete. 6. and then click Cells. Excel will display. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Delete a Cell 1. 2. When you delete a cell. 4. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 2. and then click Delete. 4. Click OK. not calculate. the information you type. 3.

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48 . the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click the Tools menu. Click OK. or press Enter. 2. 3. Click the type of calculation you want. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Click to select the Formulas check box. 4. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Display Formulas in Cells 1. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Click the View tab. and then click Options. 2. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. 3.

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Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. type =AVERAGE(. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. type the name of the function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Press Enter to accept the range selected. 49 . and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Enter a Function 1. or press Enter. or press Enter. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. to insert the AVERAGE function.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. 2. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. For example. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type = (an equal sign). 3. Click the function you want to use.

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and then click Column Width or Row Height. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. Click the Insert menu. 4. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. 5. and then click Delete. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. 2. To insert multiple rows. drag to select more columns or rows. To insert a row. 2. 2. Type a new column width or row height in points. and then click Columns or Rows. Click OK. 50 . and then click Columns or Rows. Click the Insert menu. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 3. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Click the Edit menu. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. If you want. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert.

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Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. A chart. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. 4. or bubble chart. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. 51 . Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. surface. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. graphical representation of numerical data. Select the data range you want to chart. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. 2. the chart is called an embedded object. 6. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. pie. rather than on a new sheet. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. 5. You can click Finish at any time. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Click a chart type. 3. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. 2. click Back or Forward. patterns become more apparent. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. Click a chart sub-type. also called a graph. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. line. Click Next to continue.

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Preview the options. Click a chart options tab. 8. y Axes tab. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Titles tab. y Data Labels tab. and then click Next to continue. y Legend tab. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Verify the data range. 13. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. 11. Click to add a table to the chart. 10. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. Click Finish. Click Next to continue. x-axis. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Select the labels you want for the data. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. 52 . Type titles for the chart. y Data Table tab. y Gridlines tab. 9.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 12. Select options to display a legend and its location.

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Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. 53 . Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag the slice away from the pie. Release the mouse button. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.

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7. Preview the title(s) you are adding. 9. 2. To add a title for the y-axis. 6. 5.or y-axis. and then type the text. Click the Chart menu. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. press Tab. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. f you want a second line for the x. 3. Type the text you want for the title of the chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. Click the Titles tab. press Tab. 8. Click OK 54 . and then type the title text. and then type the text. To add a title for the x-axis. and then click Chart Options. 4.

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3. or Right Section text boxes. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Centre. 55 . 2. Click the Margins tab. 3. 7. Click OK. Centre. 4. 5.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. Click the Portrait (8. 3. 4. and then click OK. and then click Page Setup. Click OK 10. If you don't want a header to appear at all. 9. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. Click the View menu. click the View menu. 2. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. click the Font button.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. and then click Normal. Click the File menu. Arial. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. Bottom. Click the Header/Footer tab. Click the File menu. Click OK. Type the information in the Left. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. Click OK. Click the Insert menu. 2. and then click Page Break. Click the Top. 3. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. click Custom Header. or click a button to insert built-in header information. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. and then click Page Setup. To insert a horizontal page break. click Custom Footer. Left. 5. Change Page Orientation 1. 4. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. 2. Change a Header or Footer 1. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Change the Margin Settings 1. unless you change it. When you're done. click the row where you want to insert a page break. Click the Page tab. 6. 2. and then click Page Break Preview. Excel will use the default font. Select the text you want to format. To insert a vertical page break. Click the File menu. make font changes. or Right Section text boxes.5 inches) option to select page orientation. Type information in the Left. 8.

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Click the Sheet tab. Type the range you want to print. Click the File menu. 2. and then point to Print Area. select the cells you want to print. 4. Set the Print Area 1. Click OK. Select the range of cells you want to print. Click Set Print Area. 2. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. 3. 4. Click the File menu. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 2. 3. select the row or column with the mouse. Click OK. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click Page Setup. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click the Sheet tab. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 56 . Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. 3.

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and then click Print. Click the File menu. Click OK. Click the File menu. 6. Click Clear Print Area. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 57 . 5. If necessary. and then click the printer you want to use. 2. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. and then point to Print Area. click the Name list arrow. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. 2. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. the selected worksheets. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data.

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