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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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AMSTAD etc. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. However. 3.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. the hardware is the physical component or devices. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. 4. In this system. PC. While the software is programs. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. which make up the visible computer. ALU and control unit. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. TANDY. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. it consists of main storage. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. The hardware. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. SUPER COMPUTER. Micro Computer. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. It is the micro-processor in a computer. these have similar features to that of mainframe. MINI COMPUTER. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. PDP series and data general series. namely. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. It is sometimes said. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. Typical example are DEC.

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iii. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Cooling fan. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. Mother board. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. There are two main types of software 1. language translators. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD).g. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Power supply unit (PSU). These include.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). E. Joystick etc. plotter etc. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Fax modem (in latest PCs). Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Mouse. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. System unit ii. Example are MS DOS. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Examples are Computer keyboard. database management system. printers. Must be of high performance 3. the system unit houses a number of system components. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. UNIX MS Windows etc. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. operating systems. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. It must be available when needed 4 . Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Main memory or RAM. System software 2. Hard disk drive (HDD). Sound card.

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such as the public telephone services. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. uninterruptible power supply. 3. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). Dust. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. There are two major types of computer networks. Provide fire extinguishers. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. satellite or private line. 2. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . 6.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. usage and other technical details 7.

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and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. Just click your user name (or Guest. example shown below. used mainly in large businesses. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. keyboard. mouse. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. such as your monitor and printer. 4. Follow these steps: 1. 6 . i L If your computer supports multiple users. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. 5. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. starting Windows XP is a simple task. the hard disk. The desktop. 3. proper. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. often abbreviated OS. the programs you use. such as in building. And it does all that in the background. is the large area of the screen. which looks something like the example shown below. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. and Linux and UNIX. And without your having to know how it does it. Turn on the main power on the system unit. homes and institutions or organi ations. without your even being aware of it. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. Some of the other operating systems DOS.

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folder. and the Notifications area. the Quick Launch toolbar. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. typically this is something you can change and print. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. document. The Start button 7 . Document icon: Represents a document. or Web site. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. To open an icon.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. or some location on your computer where things are stored. in turn. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. represents some program you can run. Each icon.

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If you share computer with others. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. and restarting will be from scratch. no power is consumed while the computer is off. 3. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. follow these steps: 1. To shut down the computer altogether. you can just log off. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. or put it to sleep so to speak. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. Nothing is saved. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. The Start menu is divided into two sections. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Click the Start button. 2. Click the Log Off button that appears. 2. so that it consumes little or no electricity. follow these steps: 1. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and want to leave it on for them. Also known as rebooting. To log off. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. 8 . Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. 3. but does not save current settings. Click the Start button. This is not good. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. and then instantly restarts it. Logging Off.

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Clicking.shaped pointer moves across the screen. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. the first thing to do is to open the menus. An arrow. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. and then click a mouse button. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. To use the mouse. 5. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. Double clicking. Shift clicking. 7. you make a selection. Dragging. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. POINTING. 2. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. 6. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen.These tools are common to most windows. Pressing. Basic mouse movements 1. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. 4. 9 . to display the contents of menus. Selection. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. each time you press the mouse button.

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2. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. Scroll bars Scroll bars. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. 17. right. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). doubleclick its title bar. To rearrange items in the toolbar. 8. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. 9. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. 10 . right-click its taskbar button. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. the taskbar. 14. as mentioned. or remove toolbars from. drag the window by its title bar. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. drag it back into the taskbar. up.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. 12. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). click the up. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. and appears ³pushed in. To move more quickly than that. If it won¶t go. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. no other windows overlap the active window 6. Alternatively. To add toolbars to. 13. try widening it first. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 10. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. drag its dots to the left. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. To resi e an item within the toolbar. 7.´ 4. 16. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. To see the options for a particular window. 15. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. 11. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. Remember. To move up or down a little bit at a time. To move a window to some new location on the screen. or down. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. drag the slider box through the slider bar.´ That is. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack.

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and then type the requested information. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. Check box. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number.. A checked box means the option is selected. List box. Click the box to turn on or off the option. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. To open the Folders list. Click a tab to display its options. If your mouse has a wheel. Button. Preview box. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. Click an option button to select it.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Click in the box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. Option buttons. Spin box. or type a number in the box. Each tab groups a related set of options.. Text box. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. and then click the option you want. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. a cleared box means it s not.) opens another dialog box. (I say may be able to. You can usually select only one.

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Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . From the shortcut menu. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. To display all open windows in equal si es.

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multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. or even write a complicated. One method is from the Start button. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. You can create a simple letter to a friend. which is why most businesses have adopted it. it s also very easy to use. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done.

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and right) are grouped together. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. the Alignment buttons (left. 14 ." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. If you look closely. you'll see the options available under that menu. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. Click on a menu selection. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu.right-click to open a shortcut menu. by default. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. are grouped together. Right click anywhere in the document screen. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. e For example. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. and options that relate to files. centre.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. such as saving or opening. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. 1.

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which is usually at the top of the screen. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. 3. The description of that feature will appear 2. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Click on a toolbar button. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. The requested action will be performed. The toolbar will remain in the new position. 1. 15 . press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position.

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Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. you'll need to move the insertion point around. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . The program automatically moves down (word wrap.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. my computer training programme have commence.) to the next line for you. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. 1. Press the enter key.

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Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. Or want to change some of the text in the document. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. Down. Here is how to: Inserting. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Just type them in. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Selecting. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Inserting Text 17 . Right.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. in the document window. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze.

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copy. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. 18 . or change the formatting of text. Select All. Selecting Text Before you can move. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. When text is selected (called highlighted). The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. you must first select the text you want to edit. delete.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document.

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however. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. Be aware. after highlighting your text. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. press the F3 key. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. or title case. a phrase. Click on the undo button. that if you save your document. delete text you just typed. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. click once anywhere in the document. 1. The option will be selected 5. Each time you press F3. Click on OK. word. TIP 19 . and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. use Word's Undo feature. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. 4. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. lower. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. however. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. or reverse a recently taken action. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. if you close the document. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character." You can apply a text case change to a word. or any amount of selected text. Also. if you type "SPringtime. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point." If. Click on a case option. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. when you reopen it. TIP To deselect text. For example. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME).

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The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. holds it. Click on the copy button. 1. If you undo the Change Case action. For example. 3. to paste text. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. to cut text. Select the text you want to copy. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. When you undoa previous step. The text will be highlighted. Click on the Redo button. 2. then bolded the text. Click the mouse where you want to place the text.•• Optionally. Word will reverse the previous undo action. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. 1. Word deletes the selected text. and then places it into a new location. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. then underlined the text. use the Redo feature. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Click on the action you want to undo. choose Undo from the Edit menu. 1. 2. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Optionally. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. imagine you changed the case of some text. With Cut and Paste. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Click on the Paste button. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed.

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The blinking insertion point will appear 4. to copy text. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. However. then Document3. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. and after that. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Fortunately. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. 21 . Click on the Paste button. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. and so forth. Those names are temporary names. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document.

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Word is still active and ready to work for you. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. and then choose Save As.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. click on File. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. you should close it. you are only putting the document away²not the program. The original document will remain. When you close a document. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. 22 .

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Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. If you make any changes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. be sure to save the file again. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. you may want to preview it on the screen. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. b. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. Click on Print Preview. In Print Preview. will look in the printed document. The Print Preview window will open. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. Printing with the Print Button 24 . such as margins. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. you won't be able to edit it. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. you will only be able to see the document.

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or just specific pages. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. you must display the Prin dialog box. 25 . Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. or if you want to change which printer is being used.

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2. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. after you've completed the entire document. click on the Margins tab. 3. Click on Page Setup. The File menu will appear. and right margins. 4. bottom. left. Left. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. left. bottom. or right margin setting. or at any time in between. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 26 . 5. Click on File. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. Bottom.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top.

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but you cannot make a page longer. 1. The Insert menu will appear 3. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. The File menu will appear 2. 1. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. for example. A dropdown menu will appear. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. Click on File. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. Click on Insert. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. The blinking insertion point will appear. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. 27 . 2. Click on Break. Click on Page Setup. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation.

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Ctrl+2 for double spacing. right. or centre. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar.5 line spacing. Word comes with extra fonts. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. You can also justify your text. Like line spacing. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. and Ctrl+5 for 1. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. 28 . which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. You can align paragraphs of text to the left.

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You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. 29 . or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. Font sizes are measured in points. add impact by adding some colour. Applying Bold. italic. and Ctrl+U for underline. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Italic. Ctrl+I for italic. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Therefore. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch.

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or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. it may be available in a different font. Click on a font. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. or airplanes. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. such as a title page of a document. paragraph. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. The symbol will appear selected 7. Click on a symbol. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. 4. You can also add a border around an entire page. phrase. The text will appear in the selected colour. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. 30 . NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. Click on Insert. stars. check marks.

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then a closing parenthesis. or dash. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. hyphen. type an asterisk. a period. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. you can easily turn off the feature. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. The tools menu will appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. word will convert it to a round. 1. Note that when you use the asterisk key. Type a number. filled-in-bullet. Word continues the list using the same format. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Click on Tools. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. Type the text for the first item on your list. instead of typing a number at the first item. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Click on AutoCorrect Options. Click on OK. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Word will continue the list with the same character. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. 1. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. 2. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . or a hyphen. The text will display in the document 4.

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OR 3. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. Click on clip Art. The insert menu will appear 3. 1. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. The picture menu will appear. The list will be highlighted. The list will change to numbered. 2. Click on picture. 4. 2. 1. it's easy to change it. If you'r not already e using one of these views. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. 1. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Click on insert. The blinking insertion point will appear. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. The list will change to bulleted. Click on Go. Select the list of items you want to modify. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . The text will be highlighted. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Again. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered.

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containing predefined styles 4. Click on WordArt. The picture submenu will appear 3. Click on insert. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. a drawing." 33 . Click on from file. rotated. The insert menu will appear 2. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. "Your Text Here. and stretched text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. The picture menu will appear 4. The insert picture dialogue box will open. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. The insert menu will appear 3. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. Click on a WordArt style. . Click on picture. Click on picture. whether it's a photograph. You can create shadowed. or other type of artwork. Click on OK. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. Click on insert. scanned image. 1. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. skewed. The selection will have a box around it 5.

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Click on Toolbars. Click on View. Click on Drawing. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. 34 . The view menu will appear 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. 1.

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The Insert submenu will appear 3. 1. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. and you're ready to go.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. You can insert it from a menu selection. Click on Insert. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. 1. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. The table will be created 35 . You can insert a table in a number of different ways. The Table menu will appear 2. Click on Table. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. The number will display 5. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. create it from the toolbar. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. Click on OK. or draw it manually. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Click on Table. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on the diagram type you want to use. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. The number will be displayed 6. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. Click on OK.

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Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. Shift+Tab key. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. To use the mouse. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. 1. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. Down Arrow key. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. the text automatically wraps to the next line. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. As you enter text in the cells. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. 36 . Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. The column width will change. 2. Type some text. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. The blinking insertion point will appear. The insertion point will move up a row. The insertion point will move down to the next row. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. simply click in the cell you want to work with. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. Up Arrow key. The table grid will appear in the document. 1. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want.

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2. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. The Table. Click on Table. The Object dialogue box will open 4. 1. 1. column heads. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. 1. OR Click on Rows Below. and row labels of your table. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. The blinking insertion point will appear 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click in the last Cell of the last row. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. Click on Columns. Click on Insert. The selection will be highlighted 6. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click on Table. Click on Delete. Click on Insert. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. Just follow the same procedure. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Click on Object. The create new tab will come to the front 5. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The Table menu will appear 3. The table menu will appear 3. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click on Rows Above. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. For example. Click on OK. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. The insert menu will appear. The data will be highlighted. 3. Select the data. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Press the tab key. 37 . 1. Click on Rows. Click anywhere in the document.

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Headers and footers can contain text. Your type will appear in the Header box 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. dates. Time. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. when you print the document. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. The footer box will appear 5. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. try them out on some of the other Office programs. Type some text. The View menu will appear 2. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. and a footer prints at the bottom. Click on Header and Footer 3. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. a header prints at the top of every page. or even pictures. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . 1. Click on View. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Type and format some text. Word will insert a field for the current date and time.

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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .

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and numbers. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. and then point to Microsoft Office. The values can be in form of text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . dates and times. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. Point to All Programs.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. 3." "Book2. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. and then click New. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. A blank workbook is opened. 2. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running." and so on). Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. Click the File menu. Click the Close button on the task pane. Click Blank Workbook. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it.

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Enter a Number as a Text 1. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. If you want to save the file in another folder. Press Enter. Type the file name for the new workbook name. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. 2. 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. 2. and numbers 3. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. punctuation. click the Save In list arrow. 3. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Type' (an apostrophe). 42 . Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Type your text. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. 3. Type a number value. spaces. 4. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 4. Press Enter. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1.

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Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. 3. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). click No to ignore any changes. 2. use them in a formula. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. you can close it. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. or click the File menu. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. edit or move it. and then click Exit. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. or click Cancel to cancel the save. 2. Click the File menu. 43 . When you're finished using Excel. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. Excel is still running. Close a Workbook 1. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. 2. To protect your files. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. and then click Close. you can quit the program. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Select a Contiguous Range 1. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range.

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2. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. click the Number tab. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. followed by a space. Press and hold Ctrl. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. Press Enter. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. Type a value. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. followed by a colon (:). To enter a time. Click the Format menu. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 2. day. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. To select more. If necessary. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change.M. and then release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. Press Enter. 44 . Enter a Date or Time 1. while the additional cells are selected. When a range is selected. 3. 3. 3. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. 2. or P. To enter a date. Click Date. 4. followed by the minute. 2. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. 3.M. and then click Cells. 4.

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Enter the starting value to be repeated. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 4. 6. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. 2. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. The insertion point appears in the cell. Click OK. use the Home. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. 3. Right click the cell or range. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. 3. 2.•• 5. 4. End. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. If necessary. 2. Click the date or time format. Double-click the cell you want to edit. 45 . Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. or press Delete. Edit Cell Contents 1. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. and then type new characters as needed.

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2. Click the Edit menu. 3. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 46 . 6. until you replace it with another selection. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Click All. 3. Formatting. Click OK. and Comments 1. 5. called a marquee. The data remains on the Clipboard. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 5. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. press Esc to remove the marquee. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 3. 3. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. 4. If you don't want to paste this selection. 4. available for further pasting. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click to select the Transpose check box. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. and then click Paste Special. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 2. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. and then point to Clear. Click the Edit menu. Drag the selection to the new location. shows the size of the selection. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the Edit menu. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Select the cells that you want to switch. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. and then click Paste Special.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 2. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 2. 3. 4. press Esc to remove the marquee. 2. 6. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. 5. 4.

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Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 3. Delete a Cell 1. Enter the first argument. Select the cell or range you want to delete. Click the option you want. When you delete a cell. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. 2. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. 5. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. Click the option you want. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. Click OK. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Type = (an equal sign). Enter an arithmetic operator. Enter the next argument.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 4. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. not calculate. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. and then click Cells. Click the Insert menu. 3. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. and then click Delete. Click the Edit menu. 2. 47 . You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. 4. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 4. Insert a Cell 1. 6. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. 3. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. the information you type. 2. Excel will display. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Click OK. An argument can be a number or a cell reference.

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or press Enter. 2. 3. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 3. Click the Tools menu. Click the View tab. Click to select the Formulas check box. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click OK. Display Formulas in Cells 1. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. Click the type of calculation you want. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. 48 . Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. and then click Options. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 2. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell.

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49 . Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. type =AVERAGE(. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. 2. type the name of the function. or press Enter. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). or press Enter. Press Enter to accept the range selected. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Type = (an equal sign). Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. to insert the AVERAGE function. Click the function you want to use. Enter a Function 1. For example.

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Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. If you want. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. and then click Columns or Rows. 2. Click the Insert menu. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). drag to select more columns or rows. To insert a row. Click OK. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. To insert multiple rows.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. 50 . Click the Insert menu. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. 3. 4. 5. 2. and then click Columns or Rows. and then click Column Width or Row Height. 2. Click the Edit menu. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Type a new column width or row height in points. and then click Delete. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete.

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the chart is called an embedded object. 2. 4. 3. pie. patterns become more apparent. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. surface. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. rather than on a new sheet. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. line. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. Click a chart type. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. 51 . Whether you turn numbers into a bar. click Back or Forward. 6. 5. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. 2. or bubble chart. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. also called a graph. graphical representation of numerical data. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Select the data range you want to chart. Click Next to continue. You can click Finish at any time. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. A chart. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. Click a chart sub-type. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change.

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11. 10. y Legend tab. Titles tab. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Click a chart options tab. 9. Type titles for the chart. 52 . Verify the data range. 13. 12. Select the labels you want for the data.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. x-axis. Click to add a table to the chart. Click Finish. y Axes tab. y Data Table tab. 8. and then click Next to continue. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. Click Next to continue. Preview the options. Select options to display a legend and its location. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. y Data Labels tab. Select the axes you want to display for the data. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. y Gridlines tab. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes.

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Release the mouse button. 53 . Drag the slice away from the pie. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie.

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5. f you want a second line for the x.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. To add a title for the y-axis. Click the Chart menu. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 4. 3. and then type the text. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. 8. press Tab. To add a title for the x-axis. 2. 9.or y-axis. 6. and then type the title text. Click OK 54 . Click the Titles tab. and then click Chart Options. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. and then type the text. 7. Preview the title(s) you are adding. press Tab.

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To insert a horizontal page break. When you're done. and then click Page Break. Centre. Left. and then click Page Setup. 7. Click the View menu. Arial. Click OK. Type the information in the Left. Type information in the Left. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. or Right Section text boxes. 2. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. 6.5 inches) option to select page orientation. click the View menu. 2. 4. Change a Header or Footer 1. 4. Select the text you want to format. Change the Margin Settings 1. Click the Top. If you don't want a header to appear at all. click the column where you want to insert a page break. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. To insert a vertical page break. or Right Section text boxes. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. or click a button to insert built-in header information. and then click Page Break Preview. 3. Click OK. and then click Page Setup. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. 2. Click the File menu. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. click Custom Header. click Custom Footer. 55 . Centre. Change Page Orientation 1. and then click OK. Click the Header/Footer tab. Click the Insert menu. Bottom. Click the File menu. 8. 9. and then click Page Setup. Excel will use the default font. Click the Margins tab. make font changes. Click OK 10. Click OK. unless you change it. Click the Portrait (8. Click the Page tab. 3. 2. Click OK. 5. and then click Normal. click the Font button. 3. click the row where you want to insert a page break. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Click the File menu. 4. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. 5.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. 3.

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and then click Page Setup. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 4. Select the range of cells you want to print. Click the Sheet tab. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Type the range you want to print. Click the File menu. 3. and then point to Print Area. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Click Set Print Area. and then click Page Setup. Click the Sheet tab. Click OK. select the cells you want to print. Set the Print Area 1. 3. 2. 2. Click the File menu. 3. 4. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click the File menu. 2. 56 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. Click OK. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. select the row or column with the mouse.

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the selected worksheets. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. Click the File menu. 5. If necessary. 2. Click OK. 2. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. and then click Print. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. click the Name list arrow. Click Clear Print Area. and then click the printer you want to use. Click the File menu. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. 57 . and then point to Print Area. 6.

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