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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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It is the micro-processor in a computer. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. it consists of main storage.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . While the software is programs. However. Micro Computer. 3. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. AMSTAD etc. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. The hardware. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. In this system. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. Typical example are DEC. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. MINI COMPUTER. PC. namely. It is sometimes said. ALU and control unit. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. PDP series and data general series. TANDY. the hardware is the physical component or devices. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. 4. these have similar features to that of mainframe. SUPER COMPUTER. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. which make up the visible computer.

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A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. printers. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. System unit ii. System software 2. UNIX MS Windows etc. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. It must be available when needed 4 . Power supply unit (PSU). Cooling fan. Main memory or RAM. plotter etc. Sound card. the system unit houses a number of system components. E. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Mother board. Examples are Computer keyboard. operating systems. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. There are two main types of software 1. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Joystick etc. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. iii. language translators. Hard disk drive (HDD). Mouse.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Must be of high performance 3. Fax modem (in latest PCs). which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Example are MS DOS.g. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. database management system. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. These include.

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Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. such as the public telephone services. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. 3. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Provide fire extinguishers. 2. Dust. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. usage and other technical details 7. satellite or private line. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. uninterruptible power supply. There are two major types of computer networks. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. 6. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1.

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open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. often abbreviated OS. mouse. And it does all that in the background. 5. used mainly in large businesses. Some of the other operating systems DOS. such as in building. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. keyboard. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. 4. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. If your computer has a floppy disk drive.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. such as your monitor and printer. which looks something like the example shown below. the hard disk. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. starting Windows XP is a simple task. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. without your even being aware of it. proper. Just click your user name (or Guest. The desktop. 6 . And without your having to know how it does it. 3. example shown below. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. Turn on the main power on the system unit. i L If your computer supports multiple users. Follow these steps: 1. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. the programs you use. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. and Linux and UNIX. is the large area of the screen. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. homes and institutions or organi ations.

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Each icon. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. and the Notifications area. typically this is something you can change and print.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. in turn. document. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. or Web site. the Quick Launch toolbar. or some location on your computer where things are stored. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. The Start button 7 . folder. represents some program you can run. Document icon: Represents a document. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. To open an icon.

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Nothing is saved. or put it to sleep so to speak. 3. 2. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. 2. and restarting will be from scratch. and then instantly restarts it. you can just log off. follow these steps: 1. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. and want to leave it on for them. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Logging Off. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. but does not save current settings. 3. If you share computer with others. Also known as rebooting. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. follow these steps: 1. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. This is not good. To log off. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. The Start menu is divided into two sections. Click the Log Off button that appears. Click the Start button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. To shut down the computer altogether. no power is consumed while the computer is off. Click the Start button. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. 8 .

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All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. and then click a mouse button. To use the mouse. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. Pressing. Double clicking. 2. An arrow. you make a selection.shaped pointer moves across the screen. Clicking. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. 4. the first thing to do is to open the menus. POINTING. 5.These tools are common to most windows. 6. Shift clicking. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. 9 . Dragging. to display the contents of menus. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. each time you press the mouse button. Basic mouse movements 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. 7. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. Selection. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button.

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To move a window to some new location on the screen. To move more quickly than that. To rearrange items in the toolbar. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. 10.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. drag the window by its title bar. 8. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). up. the taskbar. drag its dots to the left. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. click the up. 16. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. To add toolbars to. 14. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. drag it back into the taskbar. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. 11. If it won¶t go. To resi e an item within the toolbar. right-click its taskbar button. 10 . or remove toolbars from. 12. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. 15. drag the slider box through the slider bar.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. as mentioned. and appears ³pushed in. To move up or down a little bit at a time. doubleclick its title bar. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. no other windows overlap the active window 6. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). 13. Scroll bars Scroll bars. 2. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. right. 17. try widening it first. or down. Remember. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. Alternatively.´ 4. To see the options for a particular window. 9. 7.´ That is. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide.

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Click a tab to display its options. Spin box. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. Click an option button to select it. If your mouse has a wheel. You can usually select only one. Check box. Click a button to perform a specific action or command..) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. A checked box means the option is selected. Option buttons. Each tab groups a related set of options.. Preview box. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. (I say may be able to. Click in the box. and then type the requested information. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Text box.) opens another dialog box. a cleared box means it s not. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. Button. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. and then click the option you want. or type a number in the box. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Click the box to turn on or off the option. To open the Folders list. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. List box.

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4. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. To display all open windows in equal si es. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. From the shortcut menu.

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One method is from the Start button. it s also very easy to use. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. You can create a simple letter to a friend. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. or even write a complicated. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . which is why most businesses have adopted it. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter.

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by default. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. 14 . centre. you'll see the options available under that menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. are grouped together. the Alignment buttons (left. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. and right) are grouped together.right-click to open a shortcut menu. Right click anywhere in the document screen. and options that relate to files. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. 1. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. such as saving or opening. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. e For example. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. Click on a menu selection. If you look closely. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but.

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1. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. Release the mouse button. Click on a toolbar button. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. 15 . The requested action will be performed. The description of that feature will appear 2. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. which is usually at the top of the screen. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. 3. The toolbar will remain in the new position.

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Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2.) to the next line for you. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. Press the enter key. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. you'll need to move the insertion point around. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. 1. my computer training programme have commence.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary.

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Right. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. Inserting Text 17 . Down. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. Just type them in. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Here is how to: Inserting. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. Selecting. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Or want to change some of the text in the document. in the document window. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up.

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When text is selected (called highlighted). delete. Select All. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. 18 . copy. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. you must first select the text you want to edit. Selecting Text Before you can move. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. or change the formatting of text.

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Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. use Word's Undo feature. when you reopen it. Click on a case option. Click on the undo button. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). a phrase. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. Also. For example. 4. after highlighting your text. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. click once anywhere in the document." If. TIP 19 ." You can apply a text case change to a word. or title case. or reverse a recently taken action. if you close the document. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. word. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. lower. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. The option will be selected 5. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. Be aware. or any amount of selected text. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. however. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. however. delete text you just typed. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. 1. press the F3 key." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. if you type "SPringtime. Each time you press F3. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. TIP To deselect text. Click on OK. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. that if you save your document.

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Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. The text will be highlighted. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. For example. to cut text. choose Undo from the Edit menu. Click the mouse where you want to place the text.•• Optionally. 2. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. to paste text. imagine you changed the case of some text. Click on the copy button. Word will reverse the previous undo action. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. When you undoa previous step. Click on the action you want to undo. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Click on the Redo button. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. 1. Click on the Paste button. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. 1. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. and then places it into a new location. With Cut and Paste. Optionally. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. use the Redo feature. then underlined the text. Select the text you want to copy. If you undo the Change Case action. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. 3. 2. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Word deletes the selected text. then bolded the text. holds it. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps.

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Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. However. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. then Document3. Click on the Paste button. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Those names are temporary names. Fortunately. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. and after that. and so forth. to copy text. 21 . Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Click the mouse where you want to place the text.

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you are only putting the document away²not the program. The original document will remain. 22 . you should close it. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. and then choose Save As. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. When you close a document. click on File. Word is still active and ready to work for you. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use.

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Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. be sure to save the file again. If you make any changes. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .

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Click on Print Preview. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. The Print Preview window will open. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. b. you will only be able to see the document. will look in the printed document. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. such as margins. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. Printing with the Print Button 24 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. In Print Preview. you won't be able to edit it. you may want to preview it on the screen. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen.

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the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. you must display the Prin dialog box. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. or if you want to change which printer is being used. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. 25 . t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. or just specific pages.

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bottom. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. 5. after you've completed the entire document. 26 . Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. Click on File. Click on Page Setup. 2. or at any time in between. The File menu will appear. bottom. 4. 3. or right margin setting. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. click on the Margins tab. left. Left. left. and right margins. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. Bottom. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top.

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Click on Insert. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. Click on Break. A dropdown menu will appear. Click on Page Setup. Click on File.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. The File menu will appear 2. but you cannot make a page longer. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. The Insert menu will appear 3. 2. 1. 27 . 1. for example. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. The blinking insertion point will appear. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin.

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Word comes with extra fonts. or centre. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. 28 .5 line spacing. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. Like line spacing. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. right. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. You can also justify your text. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. and Ctrl+5 for 1. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar.

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italic. add impact by adding some colour. Font sizes are measured in points. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. and Ctrl+U for underline. Applying Bold. Therefore. Italic. 29 . TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. Ctrl+I for italic.

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paragraph. such as a title page of a document. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. Click on Insert. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click on the Font drop-down arrow.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. it may be available in a different font. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. The symbol will appear selected 7. You can also add a border around an entire page. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. check marks. or airplanes. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. Click on a font. 4. The text will appear in the selected colour. Click on a symbol. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. phrase. stars. 30 .

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Word continues the list using the same format. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. you can easily turn off the feature. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. word will convert it to a round. instead of typing a number at the first item. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. filled-in-bullet. Click on OK. The text will display in the document 4. Click on Tools. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . Type the text for the first item on your list. Click on AutoCorrect Options. Press the spacebar or Tab key. 2. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Type a number. Word will continue the list with the same character. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. type an asterisk. 1. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. 1. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. or dash. or a hyphen. The tools menu will appear. then a closing parenthesis. Note that when you use the asterisk key. hyphen. a period.

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The list will change to bulleted. Click on clip Art. Click on picture. OR 3. 1. Again. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. The picture menu will appear. 2. The insert menu will appear 3. it's easy to change it. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. The list will change to numbered. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. Select the list of items you want to modify. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. The text will be highlighted. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. If you'r not already e using one of these views. 1. Click on insert. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. 4. Click on Go. The list will be highlighted. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. The clip Art task pane will open 5.

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Click on a WordArt style. Click on OK. A placeholder in the Text box will say. skewed. whether it's a photograph. "Your Text Here. The selection will have a box around it 5. containing predefined styles 4. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. Click on insert. The picture menu will appear 4. or other type of artwork. Click on picture." 33 . Click on WordArt. The blinking insertion point will appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. . and stretched text. Click on insert. 1. a drawing. Click on from file. scanned image. The insert picture dialogue box will open. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. The insert menu will appear 2. 1. The insert menu will appear 3. The picture submenu will appear 3. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. rotated. Click on picture. You can create shadowed.

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Click on Toolbars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. Click on View. Click on Drawing. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. 34 . The view menu will appear 2. 1. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document.

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1. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. or draw it manually. The number will display 5. The Insert submenu will appear 3. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. Click on OK. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Click on Table. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. 1. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. and you're ready to go. Click on the diagram type you want to use. The table will be created 35 . You can insert a table in a number of different ways. Click on OK. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. Click on Table. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. The number will be displayed 6. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. create it from the toolbar. Click on Insert. The Table menu will appear 2. You can insert it from a menu selection.

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The blinking insertion point will appear. To use the mouse. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. Type some text. Down Arrow key. Shift+Tab key. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. The table grid will appear in the document. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. simply click in the cell you want to work with. 36 . if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. As you enter text in the cells. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. The column width will change. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. 2. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Up Arrow key. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. the text automatically wraps to the next line. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. 1. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The insertion point will move up a row. 1.

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1. 1. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Press the tab key. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The delete submenu will appear 4. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. Click anywhere in the document. 1. The insert submenu will appear 4. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click on Object. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. The Object dialogue box will open 4. The Table. The Table menu will appear 3. Click on Insert. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. The current column will be deleted OR 5. and row labels of your table. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. Click on Table. Click on Columns. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. The create new tab will come to the front 5. For example. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. Click in the last Cell of the last row. The insert menu will appear. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. Click on Insert. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Delete. The selection will be highlighted 6. Click on Rows Above. Select the data. 2. Click on Table. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on OK. Click on Rows. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The table menu will appear 3. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. If necessary click on the Create New tab. The data will be highlighted. 3. column heads. 1. Just follow the same procedure. 37 .

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The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. dates. 1. when you print the document. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. or even pictures. The View menu will appear 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. The footer box will appear 5. Click on Header and Footer 3. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. and a footer prints at the bottom. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Time. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Word will insert a field for the current date and time. Type some text. try them out on some of the other Office programs. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. a header prints at the top of every page. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Headers and footers can contain text. Type and format some text. Click on View. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. and numbers. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. The values can be in form of text. and then point to Microsoft Office. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Point to All Programs. dates and times. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 .

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and you can start as many new workbooks as you want." "Book2. A blank workbook is opened. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. Click the Close button on the task pane. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. 3." and so on).•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. and then click New. 2. Click the File menu. Click Blank Workbook. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1.

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2. Type' (an apostrophe). Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. 4. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. If you want to save the file in another folder. and numbers 3. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Press Enter. Press Enter. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. punctuation. Enter a Number as a Text 1. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 3. Type your text. 42 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. 3. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. 2. Type the file name for the new workbook name. 2. Type a number value. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. click the Save In list arrow. 4. spaces. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell where you want to enter a label.

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always quit Excel before turning off your computer. you can close it. 2. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. and then click Close. 2. When you're finished using Excel. edit or move it. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. To protect your files. 43 . or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. or click Cancel to cancel the save. and then click Exit. or click the File menu. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. Click the File menu. Close a Workbook 1. 3. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. click No to ignore any changes. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. 2. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. Excel is still running. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. use them in a formula. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. Select a Contiguous Range 1. you can quit the program. 3. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it.

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Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. Press Enter. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. Press Enter. followed by a colon (:). and then click Cells. followed by a space. 2.M. and then release the mouse button. 3. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. Click Date. followed by the minute. 2. 44 . Type a value. Click the Format menu. 3. day. Enter a Date or Time 1. To enter a time.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 3. When a range is selected. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. 3. If necessary. 4. To enter a date. To select more. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell.M. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. click the Number tab. Press and hold Ctrl. 2. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. or P. 4. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. while the additional cells are selected. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1.

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Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. use the Home. 2. 2. Edit Cell Contents 1. 4. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. 45 . Right click the cell or range. 2. Click the date or time format. or press Delete. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. 3. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. The insertion point appears in the cell. and then type new characters as needed. 4. Select the cell or range you want to clear. End.•• 5. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Click OK. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Enter the starting value to be repeated. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. 6. Double-click the cell you want to edit. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). If necessary. 3. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit.

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5. 6. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Select the cells that you want to switch. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. Formatting. 3. 3. The data remains on the Clipboard. 2. 2. Click OK. Click the Edit menu. Click the Edit menu. and then click Paste Special. 2. shows the size of the selection. 2. Drag the selection to the new location. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. and Comments 1. 4. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. available for further pasting. and then click Paste Special. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 4. and then point to Clear. press Esc to remove the marquee. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. Select the cell or range you want to clear. called a marquee. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 4. 2. Paste Data with Special Results 1. until you replace it with another selection. 6. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 3. 5. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 46 . Click the Edit menu. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click All. 4. press Esc to remove the marquee. If you don't want to paste this selection. 3. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 5. Click to select the Transpose check box. 3.

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5. An argument can be a number or a cell reference.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. Click the Insert menu. 2. 4. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. Click the option you want. Click the option you want. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. 3. Type = (an equal sign). 6. 4. 4. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. Excel will display. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. 2. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. the information you type. and then click Cells. 2. When you delete a cell. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Click OK. not calculate. 3. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. Click OK. and then click Delete. Insert a Cell 1. Select the cell or range you want to delete. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Enter the next argument. Enter the first argument. Click the Edit menu. Enter an arithmetic operator. Delete a Cell 1. 3. 47 .

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right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 2. or press Enter. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Display Formulas in Cells 1. 48 . 3. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click to select the Formulas check box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. and then click Options. 4. Click the Tools menu. 3. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Click OK. 2. Click the View tab. Click the type of calculation you want. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs.

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to insert the AVERAGE function. 3. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. type the name of the function. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. 2. Enter a Function 1. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. 49 . Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. or press Enter. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. For example. Press Enter to accept the range selected. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. type =AVERAGE(. Click the function you want to use. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. Type = (an equal sign). Click the Enter button on the formula bar.

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2. 2. and then click Columns or Rows. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. Click OK. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 2. 3. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Click the Insert menu. 5. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. To insert a row. Click the Edit menu. and then click Column Width or Row Height. and then click Columns or Rows. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Click the Insert menu. To insert multiple rows. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. 50 . Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. 4. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. Type a new column width or row height in points. drag to select more columns or rows. and then click Delete. If you want.

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Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. also called a graph. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. 2. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. 2. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. surface. 3. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. rather than on a new sheet. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. 51 . pie. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. or bubble chart. patterns become more apparent. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. Click a chart type. the chart is called an embedded object. Click a chart sub-type. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. graphical representation of numerical data. Select the data range you want to chart. 4. 5. A chart. line. You can click Finish at any time. 6. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. click Back or Forward. Click Next to continue. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information.

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and then click Next to continue. Type titles for the chart. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Preview the options. Select options to display a legend and its location. Click a chart options tab. Click Next to continue.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 9. Click to add a table to the chart. y Data Labels tab. y Legend tab. 13. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. 12. Titles tab. Select the labels you want for the data. Verify the data range. Click Finish. y Data Table tab. 52 . and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. y Axes tab. 8. y Gridlines tab. 10. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. 11. x-axis.

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Drag the slice away from the pie. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Release the mouse button. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. 53 . Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart.

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5. Click the Titles tab. 3. 8.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. 6. and then type the title text. and then click Chart Options. f you want a second line for the x. 4. To add a title for the y-axis. Preview the title(s) you are adding. To add a title for the x-axis. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 2. 7. Click the Chart menu. 9. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. press Tab. press Tab. and then type the text. and then type the text. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. Click OK 54 .or y-axis.

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3. 9. and then click Normal. 3. 3. and then click Page Setup. and then click OK. 55 . Click the Header/Footer tab. 2. Centre. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Change a Header or Footer 1. Click OK.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. 5. or Right Section text boxes. 4. and then click Page Break. Click OK. 2. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. If you don't want a header to appear at all. 3. 7. Click the Portrait (8. When you're done.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. Left. click Custom Header. Bottom. Click the File menu. click Custom Footer. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. Click OK. Type information in the Left. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. and then click Page Setup. Click the Insert menu. 5. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. click the row where you want to insert a page break. Click the Page tab. Arial. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. Excel will use the default font. click the View menu. To insert a vertical page break. 2. 4. 2. Click the Top. To insert a horizontal page break. Click the File menu. click the Font button. Click the Margins tab. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Click the File menu. Select the text you want to format. 2. 4. make font changes. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want.5 inches) option to select page orientation. and then click Page Break Preview. 6. Click the View menu. 8. Click OK 10. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Type the information in the Left. unless you change it. or Right Section text boxes. Change Page Orientation 1. Change the Margin Settings 1. Centre.

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Or click the Collapse Dialog button. select the row or column with the mouse. Click the Sheet tab. Click the File menu. 56 . 4. Click the File menu. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Set the Print Area 1. 2. Click Set Print Area. and then point to Print Area. 3. 4. and then click Page Setup. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Type the range you want to print. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 2. Click the Sheet tab. Click the File menu. Select the range of cells you want to print. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 3. 3. Click OK. 2. select the cells you want to print. Click OK. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. and then click Page Setup.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1.

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4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. 57 . the selected worksheets. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. 2. and then point to Print Area. Click Clear Print Area. 6. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Click OK. and then click Print. Click the File menu. Click the File menu. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. If necessary. click the Name list arrow. and then click the printer you want to use. 5.