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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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While the software is programs.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. However. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. PC. Micro Computer. MINI COMPUTER. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. 4. It is sometimes said. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . namely. which make up the visible computer. 3. SUPER COMPUTER. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. Typical example are DEC. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. TANDY. these have similar features to that of mainframe. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. PDP series and data general series. it consists of main storage. the hardware is the physical component or devices. In this system. It is the micro-processor in a computer. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. ALU and control unit. The hardware. AMSTAD etc. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable.

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Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. printers. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs.g. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. It must be available when needed 4 . which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Sound card. UNIX MS Windows etc. operating systems. iii. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Example are MS DOS. Power supply unit (PSU). Main memory or RAM. Must be of high performance 3. plotter etc. Cooling fan. There are two main types of software 1. Mouse. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. These include. database management system. E. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. Mother board. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). System unit ii. System software 2. Examples are Computer keyboard. Fax modem (in latest PCs). the system unit houses a number of system components. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). Hard disk drive (HDD). Joystick etc. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. language translators.

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satellite or private line. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. such as the public telephone services. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. 6. Dust. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. Provide fire extinguishers. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. 2. 3. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. usage and other technical details 7. There are two major types of computer networks.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. uninterruptible power supply. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust.

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Turn on the main power on the system unit. mouse. Follow these steps: 1. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. And without your having to know how it does it. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. 5. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. used mainly in large businesses. keyboard. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. And it does all that in the background. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. often abbreviated OS. such as your monitor and printer. i L If your computer supports multiple users. the hard disk. 6 . The desktop. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. such as in building. 3. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. and Linux and UNIX. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . example shown below. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. Some of the other operating systems DOS. starting Windows XP is a simple task. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). 4. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. which looks something like the example shown below. the programs you use. without your even being aware of it. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. proper.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. homes and institutions or organi ations. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. Just click your user name (or Guest. is the large area of the screen.

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The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. Each icon. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. in turn. Document icon: Represents a document. represents some program you can run. the Quick Launch toolbar. typically this is something you can change and print. and the Notifications area. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. or Web site. To open an icon. folder. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. document. The Start button 7 . or some location on your computer where things are stored.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon.

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Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. follow these steps: 1. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. To log off. To shut down the computer altogether. and then instantly restarts it. and want to leave it on for them. 3. follow these steps: 1. The Start menu is divided into two sections. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Nothing is saved. 2. Click the Log Off button that appears. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. 2. Logging Off. but does not save current settings. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. This is not good. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. 3. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Also known as rebooting. or put it to sleep so to speak. so that it consumes little or no electricity. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. no power is consumed while the computer is off. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. 8 . If you share computer with others. Click the Start button. you can just log off. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. Click the Start button. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. and restarting will be from scratch.

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the first thing to do is to open the menus.These tools are common to most windows. each time you press the mouse button. Basic mouse movements 1. Pressing. Double clicking. An arrow. Clicking. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. 6. 5. and then click a mouse button. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. Selection. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. Shift clicking. POINTING. To use the mouse. 4.shaped pointer moves across the screen. 2. to display the contents of menus.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. Dragging. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. 9 . you make a selection. 7.

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´ 4. doubleclick its title bar. If it won¶t go. 15. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. no other windows overlap the active window 6. 16. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. or remove toolbars from. or down. 14. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). and appears ³pushed in. drag it back into the taskbar. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. To move more quickly than that. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. right. 10 . right-click its taskbar button. 13. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. 9. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. drag its dots to the left. To add toolbars to. click the up. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. the taskbar. 17. drag the window by its title bar. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. 8. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. To move a window to some new location on the screen. To see the options for a particular window. To rearrange items in the toolbar. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. To resi e an item within the toolbar. 2. Alternatively.´ That is. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. up. try widening it first. 12. as mentioned. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. drag the slider box through the slider bar. 7. 11. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. Scroll bars Scroll bars. Remember. To move up or down a little bit at a time. 10.

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) opens another dialog box. Each tab groups a related set of options. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Text box. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Click an option button to select it. A checked box means the option is selected. and then type the requested information. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. Option buttons. and then click the option you want. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. You can usually select only one. Click the box to turn on or off the option. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Spin box. Click a tab to display its options. or type a number in the box. a cleared box means it s not. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. To open the Folders list. Button. (I say may be able to. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 .) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. List box.. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. Preview box. If your mouse has a wheel. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel.. Check box. Click in the box.

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To display all open windows in equal si es.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. From the shortcut menu. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . 4. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion.

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you can double -click it to quickly access Word. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. or even write a complicated. You can create a simple letter to a friend. it s also very easy to use. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. One method is from the Start button. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. which is why most businesses have adopted it.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 .

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centre. 1. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. Right click anywhere in the document screen. the Alignment buttons (left. are grouped together. and options that relate to files. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. If you look closely. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Click on a menu selection. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. and right) are grouped together. 14 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. such as saving or opening.right-click to open a shortcut menu. you'll see the options available under that menu. e For example. by default.

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Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. Click on a toolbar button. 1. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. 3. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. 15 . Release the mouse button. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. which is usually at the top of the screen. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. The requested action will be performed. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. The description of that feature will appear 2.

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Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. you'll need to move the insertion point around. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. The program automatically moves down (word wrap.) to the next line for you.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. Press the enter key. my computer training programme have commence. 1. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that.

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Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. Inserting Text 17 . a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Or want to change some of the text in the document. Down. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. Selecting. Just type them in. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Here is how to: Inserting. Right. in the document window. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze.

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18 . you must first select the text you want to edit. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. Selecting Text Before you can move. Select All. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. copy. delete. or change the formatting of text. When text is selected (called highlighted).

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however. use Word's Undo feature. 4. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. or title case. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. TIP To deselect text. delete text you just typed. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. click once anywhere in the document. a phrase. Click on OK. or any amount of selected text. The option will be selected 5. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. TIP 19 . you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. if you close the document. that if you save your document. lower. Click on a case option." If. after highlighting your text. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. Click on the undo button. press the F3 key. Also. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. Each time you press F3. For example. word. Be aware.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. or reverse a recently taken action. however. 1. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action." You can apply a text case change to a word." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. if you type "SPringtime. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. when you reopen it. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted.

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Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. Word will reverse the previous undo action. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. For example. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Click on the action you want to undo. 2. 1. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. use the Redo feature. Click on the Redo button. Word deletes the selected text. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. choose Undo from the Edit menu. If you undo the Change Case action. 2. Click on the Paste button. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. With Cut and Paste. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. and then places it into a new location. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . holds it. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Click on the copy button. The text will be highlighted. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. Click the mouse where you want to place the text.•• Optionally. Optionally. 3. then underlined the text. to paste text. Select the text you want to copy. then bolded the text. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. imagine you changed the case of some text. to cut text. When you undoa previous step. 1.

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to copy text. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. and after that. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Those names are temporary names. and so forth. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Click on the Paste button. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. 21 . a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. Fortunately.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. then Document3. However.

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Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. When you close a document. you should close it. you are only putting the document away²not the program. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. 22 . Word is still active and ready to work for you. and then choose Save As. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. click on File. The original document will remain. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified.

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allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. be sure to save the file again. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. If you make any changes. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document.

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you will only be able to see the document. such as margins. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. Click on Print Preview. will look in the printed document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. you may want to preview it on the screen. Printing with the Print Button 24 . b. In Print Preview. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. you won't be able to edit it. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. The Print Preview window will open.

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t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. or just specific pages. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. or if you want to change which printer is being used. you must display the Prin dialog box. 25 . the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document.

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5. after you've completed the entire document. bottom. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. and right margins. or at any time in between. bottom. left. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. Click on File. or right margin setting. 4. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. Click on Page Setup. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. 3. 2. left. 26 . The File menu will appear. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. Bottom. Left. click on the Margins tab.

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but you cannot make a page longer. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. Click on File. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. Click on Insert. 27 . 1. for example. Click on Page Setup. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. Click on Break. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. A dropdown menu will appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. The File menu will appear 2. 2. The Insert menu will appear 3.

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Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. 28 . Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge.5 line spacing. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. and Ctrl+5 for 1. You can also justify your text. right. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Like line spacing. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. or centre. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. Word comes with extra fonts. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document.

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You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. Therefore. Applying Bold. Ctrl+I for italic. add impact by adding some colour. Italic. 29 . or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Font sizes are measured in points. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. and Ctrl+U for underline. italic. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold.

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or airplanes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. it may be available in a different font. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click on Insert. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. check marks. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. 30 . Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. paragraph. The symbol will appear selected 7. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. 4. Click on a font. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. phrase. such as a title page of a document. The text will appear in the selected colour. stars. Click on a symbol. You can also add a border around an entire page. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. Type a number. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Note that when you use the asterisk key. then a closing parenthesis. instead of typing a number at the first item. Click on Tools. 1. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Press the spacebar or Tab key. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. word will convert it to a round. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. a period. hyphen. type an asterisk. Word will continue the list with the same character. 2. The tools menu will appear. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. Type the text for the first item on your list. Click on AutoCorrect Options. or dash. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. filled-in-bullet. Click on OK. you can easily turn off the feature. or a hyphen. The text will display in the document 4. 1. Word continues the list using the same format.

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If you'r not already e using one of these views. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. The text will be highlighted. Click on Go. 2. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. it's easy to change it. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Click on clip Art. 1. 4. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. Again. 2. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. The list will be highlighted. Select the list of items you want to modify. The picture menu will appear. Click on insert. OR 3. The list will change to numbered. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. The insert menu will appear 3. 1. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. The list will change to bulleted.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Click on picture. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image.

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and stretched text. The picture menu will appear 4. Click on insert. Click on picture. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. Click on from file. The insert menu will appear 2. The insert picture dialogue box will open. containing predefined styles 4. Click on insert. scanned image.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. 1. whether it's a photograph. The selection will have a box around it 5. The blinking insertion point will appear. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click on WordArt. 1. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. a drawing. skewed. or other type of artwork. Click on picture. "Your Text Here. The picture submenu will appear 3. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text." 33 . Click on OK. rotated. You can create shadowed. Click on a WordArt style. The insert menu will appear 3. . Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. Click on Drawing. The view menu will appear 2. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. 1. Click on View. Click on Toolbars. 34 .

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or draw it manually. and you're ready to go. The number will display 5. 1. Click on OK. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on Table. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. create it from the toolbar. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. The Insert submenu will appear 3. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. The Table menu will appear 2. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. You can insert it from a menu selection. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. Click on OK. The table will be created 35 . The intersection of a column and row is called acell. Click on the diagram type you want to use. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. Click on Insert. 1. The number will be displayed 6. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on Table. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box.

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As you enter text in the cells. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Down Arrow key. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. The column width will change. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. The insertion point will move up a row. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. 36 . the text automatically wraps to the next line. 2. 1. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. Shift+Tab key. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Up Arrow key. The table grid will appear in the document. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. The blinking insertion point will appear. To use the mouse. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. Type some text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. 1. The insertion point will move down to the next row.

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Click on Rows Above. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. 2. The table menu will appear 3. Click on Object. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. Click in the last Cell of the last row. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Press the tab key. 37 . Click on Insert. The Table menu will appear 3. column heads. The Table. For example. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. Click on Columns. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Click on Delete. 1. The Object dialogue box will open 4. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Table. 1. The insert menu will appear. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Click on Table. 1. Click on OK. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. OR Click on Rows Below. and row labels of your table. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. 1. The insert submenu will appear 4. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Insert. The data will be highlighted. Select the data. Click anywhere in the document. The current column will be deleted OR 5. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The selection will be highlighted 6. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Just follow the same procedure.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. 3. Click on Rows.

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To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. Headers and footers can contain text. Click on View. Time. 1. The footer box will appear 5. dates. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. The View menu will appear 2. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. when you print the document. and a footer prints at the bottom. or even pictures. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Type and format some text. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. a header prints at the top of every page. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Type some text. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Click on Header and Footer 3. try them out on some of the other Office programs. Your type will appear in the Header box 4.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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dates and times. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. The values can be in form of text. and numbers. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . and then point to Microsoft Office. Point to All Programs. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws.

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2. 3. Click the Close button on the task pane. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. and then click New." and so on). A blank workbook is opened. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. Click the File menu. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it." "Book2. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. Click Blank Workbook.

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Press Enter. 42 . spaces. Press Enter. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. 4. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 3. and numbers 3. punctuation. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Type your text. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. Type' (an apostrophe). 2. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Type the file name for the new workbook name. If you want to save the file in another folder. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. 3. 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. click the Save In list arrow. 2. Type a number value. 4.

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If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. click No to ignore any changes. and then click Exit. 43 . 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. When you're finished using Excel. and then click Close. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. Close a Workbook 1. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. edit or move it. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. you can close it. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. Select a Contiguous Range 1. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. 3. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. To protect your files. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. use them in a formula.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. 2. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Excel is still running. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. or click Cancel to cancel the save. 2. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. you can quit the program. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Click the File menu. or click the File menu. 3. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other).

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Enter a Date or Time 1. or P. Press Enter. Type a value.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3.M. To select more. 2. followed by a space. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. 2. 3. To enter a time. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1.M. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. and then click Cells. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. day. 3. followed by a colon (:). 2. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. 4. When a range is selected. If necessary. 4. Click Date. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. Press Enter. 3. and then release the mouse button. 44 . 2. Press and hold Ctrl. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. followed by the minute. 3. while the additional cells are selected. click the Number tab. To enter a date. Click the Format menu.

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Right click the cell or range. Click the date or time format. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. 4. The insertion point appears in the cell. and then type new characters as needed. If necessary. 2. 45 . Click OK. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Enter the starting value to be repeated. Edit Cell Contents 1. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1.•• 5. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. End. 3. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. or press Delete. 3. 2. 6. 2. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 4. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. use the Home. Double-click the cell you want to edit. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit.

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The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. 4. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. If you don't want to paste this selection. 2. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. 4. Click the Edit menu. 4. and then click Paste Special. Drag the selection to the new location. 2. 5. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 2. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 6. and Comments 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. 3. Formatting. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 3. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 2. 6. available for further pasting. 3. 5. 5. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 4. press Esc to remove the marquee. The data remains on the Clipboard. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click to select the Transpose check box. press Esc to remove the marquee. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. until you replace it with another selection. 3. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 3. Click the Edit menu. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Select the cell or range you want to clear. and then click Paste Special. Select the cells that you want to switch. and then point to Clear. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Click OK. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. 2. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Click the Edit menu. shows the size of the selection. Click All. called a marquee. 46 .

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47 . 4. Click the Insert menu. and then click Delete. 2. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Insert a Cell 1. Delete a Cell 1. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. 3. Enter the next argument. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 4. not calculate. 2. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. 4. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. 3. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. When you delete a cell. Click OK. Enter the first argument. the information you type. Excel will display. Click the option you want. Type = (an equal sign). 6.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 3. Click OK. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. and then click Cells. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 2. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. Enter an arithmetic operator. Select the cell or range you want to delete. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. Click the option you want. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. 5. Click the Edit menu.

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Click OK. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. 2. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Display Formulas in Cells 1. Click the Tools menu. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. and then click Options. 4. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. 48 . Click the View tab. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click the Enter button on the formula bar. 2. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 3. or press Enter. Click the type of calculation you want. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. Click to select the Formulas check box. Calculate a Range Automatically 1.

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Click the function you want to use. type =AVERAGE(. 2. For example. Press Enter to accept the range selected. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). 49 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. to insert the AVERAGE function. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type = (an equal sign). Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. type the name of the function. 3. Enter a Function 1. or press Enter. or press Enter. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Enter button on the formula bar.

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2. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. and then click Column Width or Row Height. To insert multiple rows. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. 2. If you want. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. 4. and then click Delete.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. 5. and then click Columns or Rows. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. 50 . Click the Insert menu. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. To insert a row. Click the Insert menu. Click OK. Type a new column width or row height in points. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. 3. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. Click the Edit menu. and then click Columns or Rows. drag to select more columns or rows. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 2. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s).

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Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. graphical representation of numerical data. 6. also called a graph. Click a chart sub-type. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. 51 . Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. You can click Finish at any time. Click Next to continue. the chart is called an embedded object. Click a chart type. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. A chart. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. surface. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. 3. or bubble chart. click Back or Forward. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. line. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. 5. pie. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. patterns become more apparent. Select the data range you want to chart. 4. 2. rather than on a new sheet. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. 2.

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Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. Select options to display a legend and its location. 10. Click a chart options tab. Click to add a table to the chart. y Legend tab. and then click Next to continue. y Axes tab. y Data Labels tab. Type titles for the chart. 52 . 9.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Titles tab. y Gridlines tab. y Data Table tab. Select the labels you want for the data. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. 8. x-axis. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Select the axes you want to display for the data. 11. Verify the data range. Click Finish. Click Next to continue. Preview the options. 12. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. 13.

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Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Drag the slice away from the pie. Release the mouse button. Release the mouse button. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. 53 . Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart.

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5. To add a title for the y-axis. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. and then type the text. 6. To add a title for the x-axis. 8. 7. 3. f you want a second line for the x. and then type the title text. press Tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1.or y-axis. Click the Chart menu. 2. and then type the text. 9. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. Click OK 54 . and then click Chart Options. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. Preview the title(s) you are adding. 4. press Tab. Click the Titles tab.

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4. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. Click the File menu. 5. 3. Click the Header/Footer tab.5 inches) option to select page orientation. and then click Page Break. make font changes. Click the Margins tab. 6. Click OK 10. and then click Normal. Excel will use the default font. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. 4. 5. click the Font button. unless you change it. 3. click the column where you want to insert a page break. To insert a vertical page break. Type information in the Left. Change Page Orientation 1. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Change the Margin Settings 1. When you're done. or Right Section text boxes. 4.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Click the Page tab. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Click the File menu. Click the Portrait (8. Change a Header or Footer 1. Arial.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. Click OK. Click OK. and then click Page Break Preview. 2. To insert a horizontal page break. Click the View menu. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 3. click Custom Footer. Click OK. 2. 8. Click the Insert menu. 7. Centre. and then click OK. 2. 9. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. click Custom Header. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. 2. and then click Page Setup. click the View menu. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. Select the text you want to format. Centre. 55 . or Right Section text boxes. Click OK. and then click Page Setup. 2. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. 3. Click the Top. Bottom. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Type the information in the Left. Left.

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and then point to Print Area. Select the range of cells you want to print. and then click Page Setup. 4. Click the File menu. select the row or column with the mouse.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. 56 . Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Click OK. 3. Click OK. select the cells you want to print. 2. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 4. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 2. 3. 2. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Click the File menu. Click the Sheet tab. 3. Click the File menu. and then click Page Setup. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. Set the Print Area 1. Type the range you want to print. Click the Sheet tab. Click Set Print Area.

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6.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. 2. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. 2. 5. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. Click Clear Print Area. and then click Print. 57 . Click OK. and then point to Print Area. click the Name list arrow. If necessary. the selected worksheets. Click the File menu. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. Click the File menu. and then click the printer you want to use.

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