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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. these have similar features to that of mainframe. 3. Micro Computer. While the software is programs. However. It is sometimes said. Typical example are DEC. The hardware. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. SUPER COMPUTER. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. namely. TANDY. the hardware is the physical component or devices. which make up the visible computer. It is the micro-processor in a computer. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. AMSTAD etc. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. ALU and control unit. PDP series and data general series. PC. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. In this system. MINI COMPUTER. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. it consists of main storage. 4.

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Battery pack (CMOS batteries). The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system.g. language translators. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Mother board. There are two main types of software 1. It must be available when needed 4 . Power supply unit (PSU). plotter etc. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma].••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Cooling fan. System software 2. These include. operating systems. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. Hard disk drive (HDD). iii. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). database management system. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. Joystick etc. UNIX MS Windows etc. Example are MS DOS. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. Must be of high performance 3. E. Fax modem (in latest PCs). Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. System unit ii. the system unit houses a number of system components. Sound card. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Examples are Computer keyboard. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. Main memory or RAM. Mouse. printers.

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The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . 3. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. such as the public telephone services. Dust. satellite or private line. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. uninterruptible power supply.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. Provide fire extinguishers. 2. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. There are two major types of computer networks. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. usage and other technical details 7. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. 6.

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Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. proper. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. 3. And it does all that in the background. Some of the other operating systems DOS. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. the hard disk. 4. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. homes and institutions or organi ations. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. such as in building. 6 . The desktop. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. keyboard. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. is the large area of the screen. Follow these steps: 1. used mainly in large businesses. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. without your even being aware of it. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . Just click your user name (or Guest.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. example shown below. mouse. the programs you use. i L If your computer supports multiple users. Turn on the main power on the system unit. and Linux and UNIX. such as your monitor and printer. starting Windows XP is a simple task. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. often abbreviated OS. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. And without your having to know how it does it. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. which looks something like the example shown below. 5. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen.

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Each icon. and the Notifications area. Document icon: Represents a document. document. To open an icon. The Start button 7 . folder. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. or some location on your computer where things are stored. or Web site. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. typically this is something you can change and print. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. in turn. represents some program you can run.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. the Quick Launch toolbar.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP.

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Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. 2. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Also known as rebooting. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. Nothing is saved.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. Click the Log Off button that appears. you can just log off. 3. Click the Start button. This is not good. 2. If you share computer with others. but does not save current settings. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. Logging Off. or put it to sleep so to speak. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. and want to leave it on for them. follow these steps: 1. 3. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Click the Start button. follow these steps: 1. The Start menu is divided into two sections. no power is consumed while the computer is off. and restarting will be from scratch. To log off. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. 8 . To shut down the computer altogether. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and then instantly restarts it. Turn Off: Turns the computer off.

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Basic mouse movements 1. and then click a mouse button. 5.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. Dragging. 7. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. Shift clicking. To use the mouse. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. Selection. Clicking. you make a selection. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. An arrow. 6. 4.These tools are common to most windows. Pressing. POINTING. 9 . 2. the first thing to do is to open the menus. to display the contents of menus.shaped pointer moves across the screen. Double clicking. each time you press the mouse button.

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The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. 8. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. To move more quickly than that. drag it back into the taskbar. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. 13. To see the options for a particular window. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. and appears ³pushed in. Remember. drag the slider box through the slider bar. 10.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. To move a window to some new location on the screen. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. as mentioned. 15.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. Scroll bars Scroll bars. drag its dots to the left. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. 16. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). no other windows overlap the active window 6. To add toolbars to. 7. 10 . click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. 14. To rearrange items in the toolbar. or down. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. 11. If it won¶t go. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. up. click the up. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. right-click its taskbar button. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. right. To resi e an item within the toolbar. doubleclick its title bar. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. 2.´ That is. Alternatively. 12. 9. the taskbar. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. try widening it first. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. 17. To move up or down a little bit at a time. or remove toolbars from. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right.´ 4. drag the window by its title bar.

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You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Each tab groups a related set of options. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. a cleared box means it s not. and then click the option you want. A checked box means the option is selected. or type a number in the box. and then type the requested information. Click an option button to select it. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. To open the Folders list. Click the list arrow to display a list of options.. Spin box. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Preview box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Option buttons. Text box. If your mouse has a wheel. You can usually select only one. Click in the box. Click the box to turn on or off the option. List box. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. Check box. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Click a button to perform a specific action or command.. (I say may be able to. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select.) opens another dialog box. Button. Click a tab to display its options.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs.

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4. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. From the shortcut menu. To display all open windows in equal si es. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2.

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part of the Microsoft Office Suite. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. which is why most businesses have adopted it. One method is from the Start button. or even write a complicated. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . you can double -click it to quickly access Word. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. it s also very easy to use. You can create a simple letter to a friend. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop.

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A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. centre. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. are grouped together. by default. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Click on a menu selection. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. e For example. such as saving or opening. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. and right) are grouped together. you'll see the options available under that menu. the Alignment buttons (left. 14 . Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection.right-click to open a shortcut menu. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. and options that relate to files. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. 1. If you look closely. Right click anywhere in the document screen.

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Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. which is usually at the top of the screen. Release the mouse button. 3. Click on a toolbar button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. 1. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. 15 . The requested action will be performed. The description of that feature will appear 2. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3.

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It marks the location where text will appear when you type. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 .   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. my computer training programme have commence. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Press the enter key. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. 1.) to the next line for you. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. The program automatically moves down (word wrap.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. you'll need to move the insertion point around. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3.

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You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Or want to change some of the text in the document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. in the document window. Here is how to: Inserting. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Inserting Text 17 . and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Down. Right. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Selecting. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. Just type them in. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point.

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it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. 18 . or change the formatting of text. copy. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. When text is selected (called highlighted).•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. Selecting Text Before you can move. you must first select the text you want to edit. Select All. delete. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing.

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a phrase. if you close the document. TIP 19 . Be aware. Each time you press F3. after highlighting your text. lower. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). Also. delete text you just typed. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. when you reopen it. TIP To deselect text. click once anywhere in the document. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. For example. word. that if you save your document. Click on OK. or title case." If. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. The option will be selected 5. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. or reverse a recently taken action. use Word's Undo feature." You can apply a text case change to a word. press the F3 key. if you type "SPringtime. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. however. Click on the undo button. 4. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. Click on a case option. 1." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. or any amount of selected text. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. however. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include.

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Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Click on the copy button. With Cut and Paste. Click on the Paste button. 2. Word will reverse the previous undo action. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. 1. 1. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. 3. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. holds it. 2. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . then bolded the text. 1. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. Word deletes the selected text. and then places it into a new location. to cut text. When you undoa previous step. use the Redo feature. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. Optionally. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. Click on the action you want to undo. For example. to paste text. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. The text will be highlighted. Click on the Redo button. choose Undo from the Edit menu.•• Optionally. If you undo the Change Case action. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Select the text you want to copy. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. then underlined the text. imagine you changed the case of some text.

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Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Those names are temporary names. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. However. to copy text. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. Click on the Paste button. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. and so forth. 21 . a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. Fortunately. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. and after that. then Document3. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Click the mouse where you want to place the text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3.

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TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. When you close a document. you are only putting the document away²not the program. The original document will remain. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. you should close it. 22 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. and then choose Save As. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. Word is still active and ready to work for you. click on File. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document.

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Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. If you make any changes. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. be sure to save the file again. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .

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Click on Print Preview. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. b. you may want to preview it on the screen. you won't be able to edit it. you will only be able to see the document. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. The Print Preview window will open. Printing with the Print Button 24 . Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. In Print Preview. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. will look in the printed document. such as margins.

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the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. you must display the Prin dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. or if you want to change which printer is being used. or just specific pages. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. 25 . including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear.

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Click on Page Setup.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. 5. or at any time in between. after you've completed the entire document. Click on File. click on the Margins tab. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. Left. left. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. left. Bottom. 4. 3. and right margins. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 2. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. bottom. The File menu will appear. or right margin setting. 26 . bottom.

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Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. The File menu will appear 2. 2. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. Click on Break. The blinking insertion point will appear. but you cannot make a page longer. for example. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. Click on Page Setup. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. A dropdown menu will appear. 1. 27 . You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. Click on Insert. Click on File. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. The Insert menu will appear 3. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. 1.

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Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. You can also justify your text. Like line spacing. and Ctrl+5 for 1. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. Word comes with extra fonts. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. 28 . Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine.5 line spacing. right. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. or centre.

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a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. Therefore. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. italic. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. and Ctrl+U for underline. add impact by adding some colour. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. Applying Bold. Italic. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. 29 . Font sizes are measured in points. Ctrl+I for italic.

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phrase. 30 . paragraph. Click on Insert. 4. The symbol will appear selected 7. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. check marks. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click on a font. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. such as a title page of a document. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. You can also add a border around an entire page. it may be available in a different font. The text will appear in the selected colour. Click on a symbol. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. stars. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. or airplanes. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want.

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Note that when you use the asterisk key. you can easily turn off the feature. type an asterisk. Word will continue the list with the same character. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. 1. Word continues the list using the same format. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. 2. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. instead of typing a number at the first item. Click on Tools. 1. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. then a closing parenthesis. a period. The tools menu will appear. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. filled-in-bullet. Click on AutoCorrect Options. Press the spacebar or Tab key. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. Type the text for the first item on your list. Click on OK. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. hyphen. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. or a hyphen. Type a number. or dash. word will convert it to a round. The text will display in the document 4.

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it's easy to change it. The picture menu will appear. 1. Click on insert. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Again. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. Click on clip Art. The list will be highlighted. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Select the list of items you want to modify. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . The list will change to bulleted. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. If you'r not already e using one of these views. The text will be highlighted. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. The blinking insertion point will appear. The list will change to numbered. 1. 2. 1. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. The insert menu will appear 3. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Click on Go. 4. OR 3. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. 2. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. Click on picture.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. or other type of artwork. You can create shadowed. The insert menu will appear 3. Click on a WordArt style. Click on from file. The insert picture dialogue box will open. The selection will have a box around it 5. The picture submenu will appear 3. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. Click on picture. Click on insert. The blinking insertion point will appear. rotated. a drawing. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. The picture menu will appear 4. 1. A placeholder in the Text box will say. "Your Text Here. whether it's a photograph. containing predefined styles 4. Click on insert. Click on OK. skewed. Click on WordArt. scanned image." 33 . The insert menu will appear 2. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. . 1. and stretched text. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. Click on picture. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image.

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1. 34 . The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. Click on Toolbars. Click on View. The view menu will appear 2. Click on Drawing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar.

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A sample diagram will appear in your document. 1. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. The number will display 5. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. Click on Table. Click on Insert. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. 1. Click on the diagram type you want to use. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. You can insert it from a menu selection. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. The number will be displayed 6. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on Table. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Click on OK.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. The Table menu will appear 2. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. or draw it manually. The table will be created 35 . all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. create it from the toolbar. Click on OK. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. The Insert submenu will appear 3. and you're ready to go.

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The insertion point will move up a row. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. The blinking insertion point will appear. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. The table grid will appear in the document. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. Down Arrow key. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. As you enter text in the cells. 1. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. Shift+Tab key. 1. Type some text. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. 2. To use the mouse. the text automatically wraps to the next line. 36 . Up Arrow key. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. The insertion point will move down to the next row. The column width will change. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2.

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3. 1. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. Press the tab key. For example. Click on Columns. The insert menu will appear. Click on Object. The Table menu will appear 3. The delete submenu will appear 4. Select the data. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on OK. The current column will be deleted OR 5. The Object dialogue box will open 4. Click on Table. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. 37 . Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. The selection will be highlighted 6. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. 1. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. column heads. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The data will be highlighted. and row labels of your table. Click in the last Cell of the last row. Just follow the same procedure. Click on Rows Above. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Table. Click on Delete. The Table. Click on Insert. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click on Insert. 2. Click anywhere in the document. 1. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. The create new tab will come to the front 5. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The table menu will appear 3. 1. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Rows.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. or even pictures. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. a header prints at the top of every page. try them out on some of the other Office programs. Headers and footers can contain text. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. Time. Type and format some text. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. 1. The footer box will appear 5. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. and a footer prints at the bottom. Click on Header and Footer 3. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. Click on View. Type some text. The View menu will appear 2. when you print the document. dates.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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and then point to Microsoft Office. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. dates and times. The values can be in form of text. and numbers. Point to All Programs. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel.

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numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. 2. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. 3. and then click New. Click Blank Workbook." "Book2. Click the File menu. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. A blank workbook is opened. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want." and so on). Click the Close button on the task pane.

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4. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Type a number value. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. 2. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. Enter a Number as a Text 1. 3. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. 42 . Press Enter. punctuation. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Press Enter. 3. 2. If you want to save the file in another folder. Type' (an apostrophe). or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. 2. Type your text. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. click the Save In list arrow. spaces.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. and numbers 3. 4. Type the file name for the new workbook name.

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When you're finished using Excel.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. To protect your files. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. edit or move it. 2. 43 . If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. and then click Close. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. or click Cancel to cancel the save. Select a Contiguous Range 1. 2. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. and then click Exit. 3. you can close it. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. Excel is still running. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. Close a Workbook 1. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. or click the File menu. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. you can quit the program.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. use them in a formula. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. 3. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. Click the File menu. 2. click No to ignore any changes.

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Click Date. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1.M. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. followed by a space. while the additional cells are selected. Press Enter.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. To enter a date. When a range is selected. 2. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. day. Press Enter. followed by the minute. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. If necessary. 4. 44 .M. To enter a time. or P. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. 2. 2. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. 2. 3. followed by a colon (:). and then release the mouse button. 3. 4. and then click Cells. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. Press and hold Ctrl. 3. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. 3. Type a value. Click the Format menu. Enter a Date or Time 1. click the Number tab. To select more. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell.

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and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 3. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. 45 . Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. 2. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Right click the cell or range. 4. The insertion point appears in the cell. If necessary. Double-click the cell you want to edit. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit.•• 5. Enter the starting value to be repeated. Click OK. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. 3. or press Delete. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). 2. use the Home. Click the date or time format. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. 6. 4. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 2. and then type new characters as needed. Edit Cell Contents 1. End.

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press Esc to remove the marquee. and Comments 1. Click to select the Transpose check box. 5. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. 2. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. called a marquee. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Formatting. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Click OK. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Select the cells that you want to switch. 3. 3. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click All. The data remains on the Clipboard. 4. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. available for further pasting. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Drag the selection to the new location. 3. and then click Paste Special. 2. 46 . 3. 6. 2. 5. and then click Paste Special. and then point to Clear. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. press Esc to remove the marquee. 2. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 5. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 6. Click the Edit menu. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. until you replace it with another selection. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. 3. 4. Click the Edit menu. If you don't want to paste this selection. Paste Data with Special Results 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. shows the size of the selection. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 4. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. 2. 4. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Click the Edit menu. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1.

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Delete a Cell 1. not calculate. Excel will display. and then click Cells. Click the Edit menu. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. 3. 5. 6. When you delete a cell. Click the option you want. 3. Click OK. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. and then click Delete. Enter the next argument. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. 2. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. 4. Enter an arithmetic operator. Click the Insert menu. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. 47 . Enter the first argument. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. 3. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. 2. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Type = (an equal sign). 2. Click the option you want. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). Select the cell or range you want to delete. Insert a Cell 1. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. 4. Click OK. 4. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. the information you type. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up.

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Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 48 . and then click Options. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. 3. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Click to select the Formulas check box. 2. 3. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Display Formulas in Cells 1. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. 2. or press Enter. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click the Tools menu. Click OK. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click the type of calculation you want. Click the View tab. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs.

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type =AVERAGE(. Enter a Function 1. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. 2. Press Enter to accept the range selected. 3. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. or press Enter. or press Enter. Click the function you want to use. to insert the AVERAGE function.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. type the name of the function. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. 49 . Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type = (an equal sign). Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. For example.

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4. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. Click the Insert menu. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. Click OK. and then click Columns or Rows. To insert multiple rows. drag to select more columns or rows. 50 . 3. Click the Insert menu. If you want. and then click Column Width or Row Height. Type a new column width or row height in points. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). and then click Columns or Rows. Click the Edit menu. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. 5. To insert a row. and then click Delete. 2. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 2. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete.

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rather than on a new sheet. A chart. click Back or Forward. pie. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. 3. You can click Finish at any time. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. 51 . patterns become more apparent. Click a chart type. Click a chart sub-type. 4. the chart is called an embedded object. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. line. graphical representation of numerical data. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. 2. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. 6. surface. also called a graph. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Select the data range you want to chart. or bubble chart. 2. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Click Next to continue.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. 5. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 10. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. 52 . Select options to display a legend and its location. and then click Next to continue. Type titles for the chart. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. 12. 13. 8. Click a chart options tab. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. y Legend tab. y Data Table tab. y Data Labels tab. Click to add a table to the chart. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Preview the options. y Axes tab. Titles tab. Click Next to continue. x-axis. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Verify the data range. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. 11. y Gridlines tab. 9. Select the labels you want for the data. Click Finish.

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53 . Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Drag the slice away from the pie. Release the mouse button.

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and then type the title text. press Tab. Click OK 54 . 2. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. Preview the title(s) you are adding. Click the Titles tab. 6. 4. To add a title for the y-axis. press Tab. and then click Chart Options. and then type the text. and then type the text. 7. To add a title for the x-axis. 5. Click the Chart menu. Type the text you want for the title of the chart.or y-axis. f you want a second line for the x. 9.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. 3. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. 8.

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5. Click the File menu. and then click Page Break. Bottom. and then click Normal. Click the File menu. click Custom Footer. 2. 8. 5. and then click Page Break Preview. 2. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. Click the Top. and then click Page Setup. Click the Page tab. 3. Type information in the Left. click the View menu. click the column where you want to insert a page break. 9. Click the Portrait (8. Select the text you want to format. click Custom Header.5 inches) option to select page orientation. When you're done. 6. Centre. and then click Page Setup. Type the information in the Left. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. and then click Page Setup. or Right Section text boxes. Change a Header or Footer 1. Click OK. 3. Click the File menu. 4. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. unless you change it. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Arial. or Right Section text boxes. Centre. 2. 3. Click the View menu. and then click OK. 55 . If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. 4. To insert a vertical page break. 7. To insert a horizontal page break. 4. or click a button to insert built-in header information. make font changes. Change the Margin Settings 1. Preview and Move a Page Break 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. click the row where you want to insert a page break. Left. Click OK. click the Font button. Click the Insert menu. 3. Excel will use the default font.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Click OK. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Change Page Orientation 1. 2. Click OK. 2. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Click OK 10. Click the Margins tab. Click the Header/Footer tab.

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2. 2. Click the File menu. 3. and then point to Print Area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 3. Type the range you want to print. Click the Sheet tab. and then click Page Setup. Click Set Print Area. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Click OK. select the cells you want to print. select the row or column with the mouse. Click OK. Click the File menu. Click the Sheet tab. 3. 2. 56 . Set the Print Area 1. 4. Click the File menu. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Select the range of cells you want to print. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. and then click Page Setup. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 4.

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57 . and then click Print. 5. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. Click the File menu. click the Name list arrow. the selected worksheets. Click Clear Print Area. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. and then click the printer you want to use. Click OK. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. and then point to Print Area. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. 2. 2. Click the File menu. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. If necessary. 6.

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