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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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ALU and control unit. these have similar features to that of mainframe. PDP series and data general series. Typical example are DEC. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. namely. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. Micro Computer. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. However. 4. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. 3. MINI COMPUTER. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. it consists of main storage. In this system. The hardware. While the software is programs. SUPER COMPUTER. It is sometimes said. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. TANDY. It is the micro-processor in a computer. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. which make up the visible computer. the hardware is the physical component or devices. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. AMSTAD etc.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. PC.

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The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Joystick etc. operating systems. Must be of high performance 3. Main memory or RAM. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. System unit ii. Power supply unit (PSU). Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. language translators. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). Fax modem (in latest PCs). iii. E. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma].••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Hard disk drive (HDD). Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. the system unit houses a number of system components. Cooling fan. Examples are Computer keyboard. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. System software 2. These include. It must be available when needed 4 . Sound card. There are two main types of software 1. printers.g. Example are MS DOS. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). Mouse. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. database management system. UNIX MS Windows etc. plotter etc. Mother board. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system.

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Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. Dust. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. satellite or private line. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. 6. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. 3. Provide fire extinguishers. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). There are two major types of computer networks. such as the public telephone services. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. 2. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . uninterruptible power supply. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. usage and other technical details 7. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust.

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proper. such as in building. without your even being aware of it. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. Some of the other operating systems DOS. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. 3. which looks something like the example shown below.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. 4. example shown below. the programs you use. mouse. often abbreviated OS. starting Windows XP is a simple task. And without your having to know how it does it. Follow these steps: 1. i L If your computer supports multiple users. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. the hard disk. 5. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . and Linux and UNIX. Turn on the main power on the system unit. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. homes and institutions or organi ations. keyboard. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. The desktop. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. is the large area of the screen. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. used mainly in large businesses. 6 . LAN permits the movement of data between computers. Just click your user name (or Guest. And it does all that in the background. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). such as your monitor and printer. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers.

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The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. Each icon. The Start button 7 . a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. Document icon: Represents a document. in turn. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. and the Notifications area. typically this is something you can change and print. To open an icon. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. folder. or Web site. or some location on your computer where things are stored. the Quick Launch toolbar. document. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. represents some program you can run.

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Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. so that it consumes little or no electricity. and want to leave it on for them. To log off. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. no power is consumed while the computer is off. but does not save current settings. Click the Start button. you can just log off. and restarting will be from scratch. follow these steps: 1. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Logging Off. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Also known as rebooting. This is not good. Nothing is saved. Click the Start button. To shut down the computer altogether. If you share computer with others. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and then instantly restarts it.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. or put it to sleep so to speak. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. follow these steps: 1. Click the Log Off button that appears. 2. 2. 8 . The Start menu is divided into two sections. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. 3. 3.

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this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. 5.These tools are common to most windows. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. Selection. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. Double clicking. Shift clicking. Dragging. 9 . this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. POINTING. 6. and then click a mouse button. each time you press the mouse button. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. Pressing. to display the contents of menus. 7. Clicking. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. Basic mouse movements 1. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. To use the mouse. An arrow. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. you make a selection. 2. the first thing to do is to open the menus. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button.shaped pointer moves across the screen. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently.

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up. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!).or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. 9. drag its dots to the left. drag the slider box through the slider bar. 17. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. 12. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. To move up or down a little bit at a time. To see the options for a particular window. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. To rearrange items in the toolbar. 13. or remove toolbars from. right-click its taskbar button.´ 4.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. click the up. To add toolbars to. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 2. 11. drag the window by its title bar. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. To move a window to some new location on the screen. doubleclick its title bar. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. 14. If it won¶t go. 10. try widening it first. Alternatively. right. Remember. 15. 7. 10 . the taskbar. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. 8. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. Scroll bars Scroll bars. no other windows overlap the active window 6. 16. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. To move more quickly than that. and appears ³pushed in.´ That is. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. To resi e an item within the toolbar. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). drag it back into the taskbar. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. as mentioned. or down.

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visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar.) opens another dialog box. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. To open the Folders list. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. Click an option button to select it. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. A checked box means the option is selected. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. Button. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. If your mouse has a wheel. Check box. and then type the requested information. Click a tab to display its options. List box. or type a number in the box. Each tab groups a related set of options. Preview box.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Option buttons. A button name followed by an ellipsis (.. (I say may be able to. Spin box. Text box. a cleared box means it s not.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list.. You can usually select only one. Click in the box. Click the box to turn on or off the option. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. and then click the option you want. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. just click the Folders button on the toolbar.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. 4. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. From the shortcut menu. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. To display all open windows in equal si es. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3.

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multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . part of the Microsoft Office Suite. You can create a simple letter to a friend. which is why most businesses have adopted it. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. One method is from the Start button. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. it s also very easy to use. or even write a complicated.

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A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. are grouped together.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. If you look closely. the Alignment buttons (left." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. and options that relate to files. centre. 14 . you'll see the options available under that menu. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. such as saving or opening.right-click to open a shortcut menu. 1. Click on a menu selection. and right) are grouped together. e For example. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. by default. Right click anywhere in the document screen. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out.

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which is usually at the top of the screen. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. The requested action will be performed. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. 3. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Click on a toolbar button. 15 . Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Release the mouse button. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. The description of that feature will appear 2. 1. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar.

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Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. my computer training programme have commence. you'll need to move the insertion point around. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3.) to the next line for you. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. 1. Press the enter key.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary.

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Here is how to: Inserting. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Right. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. Just type them in. Or want to change some of the text in the document. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. Down. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Selecting. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Inserting Text 17 . in the document window. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars.

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it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. 18 . delete. When text is selected (called highlighted). or change the formatting of text. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. Select All. copy. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. you must first select the text you want to edit.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. Selecting Text Before you can move. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing.

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Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). however. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. For example. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. lower. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. or title case. use Word's Undo feature. however. Click on OK. that if you save your document. press the F3 key. or reverse a recently taken action. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. Each time you press F3. TIP 19 . or any amount of selected text. Click on the undo button. Click on a case option.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all." If. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. Also. a phrase. word. if you type "SPringtime. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. if you close the document." You can apply a text case change to a word. 4. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. TIP To deselect text. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. when you reopen it. The option will be selected 5. Be aware. click once anywhere in the document. 1. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. after highlighting your text. delete text you just typed." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys.

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Click on the action you want to undo. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. Word will reverse the previous undo action. to paste text. The text will be highlighted. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. 3. 2. 1. 1. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. Click on the Redo button. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Click on the copy button.•• Optionally. For example. Optionally. holds it. to cut text. choose Undo from the Edit menu. and then places it into a new location. If you undo the Change Case action. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Click on the Paste button. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Word deletes the selected text. Select the text you want to copy. 2. 1. imagine you changed the case of some text. then bolded the text. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. With Cut and Paste. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. use the Redo feature. When you undoa previous step. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. then underlined the text. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed.

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and after that. to copy text. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. However. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 21 . Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. Click on the Paste button. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. then Document3. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. and so forth. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Those names are temporary names. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. Fortunately.

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TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. When you close a document. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. click on File. Word is still active and ready to work for you. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. and then choose Save As. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. The original document will remain. you should close it. 22 . you are only putting the document away²not the program. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. be sure to save the file again. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. If you make any changes. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .

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you may want to preview it on the screen.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. such as margins. In Print Preview. you won't be able to edit it. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. Click on Print Preview. b. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. you will only be able to see the document. will look in the printed document. Printing with the Print Button 24 . Using Print Preview Before you print your document. The Print Preview window will open.

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25 . the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. or just specific pages. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. you must display the Prin dialog box. or if you want to change which printer is being used.

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5. 3. left. and right margins. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. The File menu will appear. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. 4. click on the Margins tab. or at any time in between. Click on File.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. Click on Page Setup. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. or right margin setting. Left. after you've completed the entire document. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. Bottom. 2. bottom. bottom. 26 . left. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document.

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Click on Page Setup. 27 . Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. The File menu will appear 2. for example. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. Click on Insert. Click on Break. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. Click on File. The Insert menu will appear 3. 2. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. 1. but you cannot make a page longer. A dropdown menu will appear. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. The blinking insertion point will appear.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. or centre. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. 28 . Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. and Ctrl+5 for 1. right. Like line spacing. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Word comes with extra fonts.5 line spacing. You can also justify your text. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine.

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You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. Font sizes are measured in points. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. Therefore. Applying Bold. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Italic. 29 . Ctrl+I for italic. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. and Ctrl+U for underline. add impact by adding some colour.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. italic. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute.

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or airplanes. 4. it may be available in a different font. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. check marks. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. The symbol will appear selected 7. such as a title page of a document. stars. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. phrase. paragraph. The text will appear in the selected colour. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. 30 . Click on Insert. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. Click on a symbol. You can also add a border around an entire page. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. Click on a font.

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1. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. a period. or dash. type an asterisk. 1. Word will continue the list with the same character. or a hyphen. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. filled-in-bullet. The text will display in the document 4. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Word continues the list using the same format. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. Type the text for the first item on your list. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. word will convert it to a round. Click on OK. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. instead of typing a number at the first item. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Note that when you use the asterisk key. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. Click on AutoCorrect Options. you can easily turn off the feature. Click on Tools. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. The tools menu will appear. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . hyphen. then a closing parenthesis. Type a number.

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Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. 4. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. The insert menu will appear 3. The picture menu will appear. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. 2. Select the list of items you want to modify. The text will be highlighted. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. OR 3. The list will change to bulleted. Again.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . it's easy to change it. Click on picture. 1. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. The list will change to numbered. 1. The list will be highlighted. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. 2. The blinking insertion point will appear. The clip Art task pane will open 5. If you'r not already e using one of these views. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Click on clip Art. Click on insert. Click on Go. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. 1.

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" 33 . Click on picture. The picture submenu will appear 3. "Your Text Here. and stretched text. scanned image. Click on insert. Click on WordArt. Click on insert. Click on OK. The insert picture dialogue box will open. Click on picture. or other type of artwork. whether it's a photograph. The selection will have a box around it 5. a drawing. The insert menu will appear 2. Click on from file. rotated. The picture menu will appear 4. skewed. . You can create shadowed. containing predefined styles 4. The insert menu will appear 3. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on a WordArt style. 1. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. A placeholder in the Text box will say.

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Click on Drawing. 1. Click on View.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Click on Toolbars. 34 . The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. The view menu will appear 2. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function.

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Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. or draw it manually. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. Click on OK. Click on the diagram type you want to use. The table will be created 35 . A sample diagram will appear in your document. create it from the toolbar. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. The number will display 5. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. and you're ready to go. Click on Insert. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. The Table menu will appear 2. The number will be displayed 6. Click on Table. You can insert it from a menu selection. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. 1. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. 1. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. Click on OK. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. Click on Table. The Insert submenu will appear 3.

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The column width will change. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. As you enter text in the cells. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. 1. The table grid will appear in the document. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. the text automatically wraps to the next line. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Shift+Tab key. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. The insertion point will move up a row. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. 36 . The blinking insertion point will appear. Up Arrow key. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. Down Arrow key. 2. To use the mouse. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. Type some text. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. The insertion point will move down to the next row. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table.

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be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. 1. The insert menu will appear. The data will be highlighted. The selection will be highlighted 6. column heads. and row labels of your table. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The Table menu will appear 3. 1. OR Click on Rows Below. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click anywhere in the document. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. Click on OK. Click on Rows. The Object dialogue box will open 4. Click on Insert. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. For example. Select the data.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Click on Rows Above. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. Click on Table. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. Click on Table. 1. Just follow the same procedure. The create new tab will come to the front 5. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. If necessary click on the Create New tab. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. 2. 1. Click on Object. 37 . Press the tab key. Click in the last Cell of the last row. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Click on Insert. The table menu will appear 3. Click on Delete. The insert submenu will appear 4. 3. The Table. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. Click on Columns. The delete submenu will appear 4. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart.

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dates. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Click on Header and Footer 3. or even pictures. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. a header prints at the top of every page. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. The footer box will appear 5. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . 1. when you print the document. Headers and footers can contain text. The View menu will appear 2. and a footer prints at the bottom. try them out on some of the other Office programs. Click on View. Type some text. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Time. Type and format some text.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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and then point to Microsoft Office. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. The values can be in form of text. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . and numbers. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Point to All Programs. dates and times.

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the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. 2. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. and then click New. Click Blank Workbook. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Click the Close button on the task pane." and so on). and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. A blank workbook is opened. 3. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel." "Book2. Click the File menu. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1.

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The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Type a number value. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. click the Save In list arrow. 2. If you want to save the file in another folder. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Type' (an apostrophe). 2. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. Type your text. Press Enter. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. spaces. punctuation. Type the file name for the new workbook name. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. 2. and numbers 3. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Enter a Number as a Text 1. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. 3.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. 4. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 4. Press Enter. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. 3. 42 .

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Click the File menu. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. edit or move it. Close a Workbook 1. you can close it. or click Cancel to cancel the save. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. To protect your files. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. and then click Exit. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. you can quit the program. or click the File menu. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. use them in a formula. click No to ignore any changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. and then click Close. 3. When you're finished using Excel. 2. Select a Contiguous Range 1. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. 2. Click Yes to save any workbook changes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Excel is still running. 43 . 3. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. 2.

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2. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. followed by a space. Click the Format menu. Press and hold Ctrl. click the Number tab. or P.M. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. Click Date. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. To select more. When a range is selected. To enter a date. 2. 2. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 4. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. followed by the minute. day. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. 3. followed by a colon (:). To enter a time. while the additional cells are selected. 44 . repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. Enter a Date or Time 1. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. 3. 3.M. and then click Cells. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. Type a value. Press Enter. If necessary. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. 4. Press Enter. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. 2. and then release the mouse button.

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4. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. and then type new characters as needed. End. 45 . 4. Right click the cell or range. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell.•• 5. 2. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. 2. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. If necessary. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. Enter the starting value to be repeated. Double-click the cell you want to edit. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Edit Cell Contents 1. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 3. The insertion point appears in the cell. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). or press Delete. Click OK. Select the cell or range you want to clear. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. 6. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Click the date or time format. 2. use the Home. 3. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill.

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and then click Paste Special. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 6. 2. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. until you replace it with another selection. press Esc to remove the marquee. called a marquee. shows the size of the selection. Click All. 3. Click the Edit menu. If you don't want to paste this selection. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Click OK. Click the Edit menu. and then point to Clear. Formatting. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 4. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. press Esc to remove the marquee. 4. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 2. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. and then click Paste Special. 46 . The data remains on the Clipboard. 3. 2. 3. and Comments 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 3. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Drag the selection to the new location. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. available for further pasting. Click to select the Transpose check box. Click the Edit menu. 5. 4. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 4. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 6. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 5. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 3. 2. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 2. Select the cells that you want to switch. 5.

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Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. not calculate. Enter an arithmetic operator. 3. 2. 2. Click the option you want. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. 4. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. Click the option you want.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. Enter the first argument. 5. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Click the Edit menu. 3. 4. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. the information you type. Select the cell or range you want to delete. and then click Cells. Click OK. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. Enter the next argument. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Click OK. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. 3. Excel will display. and then click Delete. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. 4. When you delete a cell. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. 47 . 6. 2. Type = (an equal sign). y Entire Column to delete the entire column. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Click the Insert menu. Delete a Cell 1. Insert a Cell 1. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells.

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right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Click OK. 48 . Click the type of calculation you want. Click to select the Formulas check box. or press Enter. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Click the Tools menu. 2. 3. Display Formulas in Cells 1. and then click Options. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click the View tab. 4. 3. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7.

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49 . Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. 2. Press Enter to accept the range selected. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. type =AVERAGE(. For example. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. or press Enter. Type = (an equal sign). or press Enter. Click the function you want to use. Enter a Function 1. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the Enter button on the formula bar. to insert the AVERAGE function. type the name of the function. 3. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function.

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Click the Insert menu. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. To insert multiple rows. Click the Insert menu. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. drag to select more columns or rows. Click the Edit menu. 2. Click OK. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 2. To insert a row. 3. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. and then click Columns or Rows. and then click Columns or Rows. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. 5. 50 . and then click Column Width or Row Height. 2. If you want. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. and then click Delete. Type a new column width or row height in points. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust.

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2. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. You can click Finish at any time. 5. Select the data range you want to chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. 4. Click Next to continue. click Back or Forward. Click a chart sub-type. line. 3. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. Click a chart type. patterns become more apparent. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. the chart is called an embedded object. 6. A chart. 2. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. also called a graph. rather than on a new sheet. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. 51 . pie. or bubble chart. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. graphical representation of numerical data. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. surface.

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Click to add a table to the chart. Titles tab. Type titles for the chart. Select the labels you want for the data. and then click Next to continue. 10. Verify the data range. x-axis. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. 11. 52 . 12. 9. 13. y Data Labels tab. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Click Finish. 8.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Click a chart options tab. Select options to display a legend and its location. y Legend tab. y Data Table tab. y Axes tab. y Gridlines tab. Click Next to continue. Preview the options. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object.

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Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag the slice away from the pie. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. 53 . Release the mouse button. Release the mouse button.

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Click the Chart menu. 5. 2. and then click Chart Options. Click the Titles tab. 9. f you want a second line for the x. 4. press Tab. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. To add a title for the x-axis. 6. 8. Preview the title(s) you are adding. and then type the text. and then type the title text.or y-axis. and then type the text. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. To add a title for the y-axis. 7. press Tab. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. Click OK 54 .

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Type information in the Left. Left. 6. 3. Change a Header or Footer 1. Centre. Click OK. click Custom Footer. Click the View menu. 5. Click the Top. and then click Page Setup. 5. Arial. or Right Section text boxes. Bottom. 9. 4. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. 55 . Click the File menu. Centre. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. When you're done. 7. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Click the Header/Footer tab. and then click Normal. make font changes. click the View menu. or Right Section text boxes. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. Select the text you want to format.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Click the Insert menu. click Custom Header. To insert a vertical page break. Click the Page tab. and then click Page Setup. click the column where you want to insert a page break. 8. 3. click the Font button. Click OK. 4. Click the File menu. 2. and then click OK. Click OK 10. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 2. Type the information in the Left. To insert a horizontal page break.5 inches) option to select page orientation. Change the Margin Settings 1. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. unless you change it. and then click Page Break Preview.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. and then click Page Break. 3. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Click the Margins tab. 3. Click OK. Excel will use the default font. 2. 2. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Click the File menu. Change Page Orientation 1. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. 2. 4. Click the Portrait (8.

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and then click Page Setup.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. 56 . Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 2. Click the Sheet tab. 4. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Click the File menu. and then point to Print Area. Click the Sheet tab. Type the range you want to print. 3. Click Set Print Area. 3. Select the range of cells you want to print. Click OK. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 3. select the row or column with the mouse. 2. 4. and then click Page Setup. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. select the cells you want to print. Click the File menu. Click the File menu. Set the Print Area 1. Click OK. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 2.

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Click Clear Print Area. 6.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Click OK. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. click the Name list arrow. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. and then click the printer you want to use. Click the File menu. Click the File menu. 2. and then click Print. the selected worksheets. If necessary. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 57 . and then point to Print Area. 5. 2. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify.

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