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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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PC. It is the micro-processor in a computer. Micro Computer. SUPER COMPUTER. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. it consists of main storage. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. the hardware is the physical component or devices. The hardware. which make up the visible computer. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. It is sometimes said. these have similar features to that of mainframe. AMSTAD etc. PDP series and data general series.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. 4. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. In this system. MINI COMPUTER. TANDY. 3. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. While the software is programs. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. However. namely. Typical example are DEC. ALU and control unit.

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plotter etc. the system unit houses a number of system components. Mouse.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Hard disk drive (HDD). System unit ii. iii. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. printers. Example are MS DOS. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Mother board. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. operating systems. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system.g. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. Fax modem (in latest PCs). language translators. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Examples are Computer keyboard. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. There are two main types of software 1. Cooling fan. Sound card. UNIX MS Windows etc. System software 2. Must be of high performance 3. database management system. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. E. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Joystick etc. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Main memory or RAM. These include. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Power supply unit (PSU). It must be available when needed 4 . It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2.

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such as the public telephone services. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. satellite or private line.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. uninterruptible power supply. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. usage and other technical details 7. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. Dust. Provide fire extinguishers. 3. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. 2. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. There are two major types of computer networks. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). 6. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation.

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T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . 6 . and Linux and UNIX. Follow these steps: 1. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. Just click your user name (or Guest. mouse. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. such as in building. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. proper. Turn on the main power on the system unit. keyboard. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. 5. which looks something like the example shown below. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). homes and institutions or organi ations. the programs you use. 4. such as your monitor and printer. starting Windows XP is a simple task. the hard disk. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. 3. used mainly in large businesses. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. Some of the other operating systems DOS. example shown below. without your even being aware of it. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. The desktop. And it does all that in the background. i L If your computer supports multiple users. is the large area of the screen. And without your having to know how it does it. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. often abbreviated OS.

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The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. or Web site. Document icon: Represents a document. document. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. To open an icon. the Quick Launch toolbar. or some location on your computer where things are stored.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. The Start button 7 . folder. and the Notifications area. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. Each icon. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. represents some program you can run.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. typically this is something you can change and print. in turn.

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2. or put it to sleep so to speak. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. This is not good. 8 . The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Nothing is saved. so that it consumes little or no electricity. and want to leave it on for them. you can just log off. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. Also known as rebooting. no power is consumed while the computer is off. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and restarting will be from scratch. 3. but does not save current settings. Click the Log Off button that appears. To log off. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. follow these steps: 1. and then instantly restarts it. Logging Off. 2. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. The Start menu is divided into two sections. Click the Start button. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Click the Start button. To shut down the computer altogether. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. follow these steps: 1. If you share computer with others.

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each time you press the mouse button. 9 . 5. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. Clicking. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. and then click a mouse button. POINTING. Pressing. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. To use the mouse. Double clicking. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer.shaped pointer moves across the screen. the first thing to do is to open the menus. Shift clicking. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. you make a selection. to display the contents of menus. Basic mouse movements 1. Selection. 4. 6. 7. Dragging. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. An arrow.These tools are common to most windows. 2.

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´ That is. right-click its taskbar button. drag the window by its title bar. 17. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. and appears ³pushed in. 14. 8. To move up or down a little bit at a time. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. To move a window to some new location on the screen. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. no other windows overlap the active window 6. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. click the up. try widening it first. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). 13. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. as mentioned. 10 . drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. or down. drag the slider box through the slider bar. To move more quickly than that. right. drag its dots to the left. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. or remove toolbars from. drag it back into the taskbar. 12. 10. To see the options for a particular window. 7. To add toolbars to. Scroll bars Scroll bars. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. To rearrange items in the toolbar. 16. doubleclick its title bar. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. Remember. the taskbar.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide.´ 4. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. up. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. 15. 11. If it won¶t go. To resi e an item within the toolbar. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. 9. Alternatively. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. 2.

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a cleared box means it s not. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Each tab groups a related set of options.. If your mouse has a wheel. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. A checked box means the option is selected.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . To open the Folders list. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Click an option button to select it. Click in the box. or type a number in the box. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. Spin box. and then type the requested information. Button. Option buttons. and then click the option you want. Preview box. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk.. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. Click the box to turn on or off the option. Text box.) opens another dialog box. (I say may be able to. Click a tab to display its options. List box. You can usually select only one. Check box.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment.

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To display all open windows in equal si es. 4. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. From the shortcut menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3.

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or even write a complicated.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. which is why most businesses have adopted it. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. it s also very easy to use. You can create a simple letter to a friend. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. One method is from the Start button. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program.

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and options that relate to files. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. and right) are grouped together. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. you'll see the options available under that menu.right-click to open a shortcut menu. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. 14 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. 1." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. e For example. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. Right click anywhere in the document screen. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. are grouped together. If you look closely. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. the Alignment buttons (left. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. centre. Click on a menu selection. by default. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. such as saving or opening.

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Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. 3. 15 . The requested action will be performed. 1. The description of that feature will appear 2. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. which is usually at the top of the screen. Release the mouse button. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Click on a toolbar button.

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  Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . you'll need to move the insertion point around. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy.) to the next line for you. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. 1. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. Press the enter key. my computer training programme have commence. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Down. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. Right. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Selecting. Just type them in. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Or want to change some of the text in the document. Inserting Text 17 . The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. in the document window. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Here is how to: Inserting. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point.

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it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. you must first select the text you want to edit. When text is selected (called highlighted). just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. or change the formatting of text. delete. 18 . Select All. copy. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. Selecting Text Before you can move.

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You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted." If. Also. Click on the undo button. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. however. TIP To deselect text. Be aware. TIP 19 . or any amount of selected text. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. For example. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. that if you save your document. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). when you reopen it. Click on a case option. delete text you just typed." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. a phrase. The option will be selected 5.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. Each time you press F3. Click on OK. if you type "SPringtime. however. if you close the document. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. use Word's Undo feature. lower. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. 4. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. word. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. click once anywhere in the document. 1. press the F3 key. or title case. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. or reverse a recently taken action. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. after highlighting your text. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally." You can apply a text case change to a word.

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Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. 1. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. choose Undo from the Edit menu. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. to paste text. When you undoa previous step. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Select the text you want to copy. Optionally. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. to cut text. then underlined the text. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Click on the copy button. holds it. If you undo the Change Case action. Click on the action you want to undo. then bolded the text. imagine you changed the case of some text. Click on the Paste button.•• Optionally. The text will be highlighted. 1. Word will reverse the previous undo action. 2. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Word deletes the selected text. use the Redo feature. For example. With Cut and Paste. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. 2. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. and then places it into a new location. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. 3. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. 1. Click on the Redo button. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it.

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Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. and after that. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. and so forth. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. then Document3. Fortunately. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. 21 . to help protect you against such a catastrophe.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. to copy text. However. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Click on the Paste button. Those names are temporary names. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly.

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Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. The original document will remain. you are only putting the document away²not the program. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. Word is still active and ready to work for you. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. and then choose Save As. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. you should close it. click on File. When you close a document. 22 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it.

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Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. be sure to save the file again. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. If you make any changes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .

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you may want to preview it on the screen. b. you will only be able to see the document. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Click on Print Preview. In Print Preview. you won't be able to edit it. Printing with the Print Button 24 . such as margins. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. The Print Preview window will open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. will look in the printed document. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings.

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the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. you must display the Prin dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. 25 . including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. or if you want to change which printer is being used. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. or just specific pages.

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Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. The File menu will appear. click on the Margins tab. after you've completed the entire document. bottom. 26 . Click on Page Setup. bottom. left. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. or at any time in between. left.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. Click on File. 2. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 5. and right margins. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. 3. 4. Bottom. or right margin setting. Left.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. but you cannot make a page longer. 1. The File menu will appear 2. for example. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. Click on Page Setup. A dropdown menu will appear. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. Click on File. 27 . Click on Break. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on Insert. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. 2. 1. The Insert menu will appear 3. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box.

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and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look.5 line spacing. or centre. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Ctrl+2 for double spacing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. Word comes with extra fonts. and Ctrl+5 for 1. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. Like line spacing. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. right. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. 28 . You can align paragraphs of text to the left. You can also justify your text.

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or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. italic. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. Ctrl+I for italic. and Ctrl+U for underline. Therefore. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. add impact by adding some colour. Applying Bold. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Italic. Font sizes are measured in points. 29 . a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch.

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NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. check marks. 30 . stars. or airplanes. You can also add a border around an entire page. such as a title page of a document. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. Click on Insert. The text will appear in the selected colour. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. Click on a font. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. phrase. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. it may be available in a different font.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. paragraph. Click on a symbol. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. The symbol will appear selected 7. 4. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area.

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Type the text for the first item on your list.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. Click on AutoCorrect Options. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. then a closing parenthesis. Word will continue the list with the same character. or dash. type an asterisk. filled-in-bullet. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . 1. Click on Tools. a period. hyphen. Note that when you use the asterisk key. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Word continues the list using the same format. or a hyphen. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Type a number. The tools menu will appear. 1. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. 2. The text will display in the document 4. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. word will convert it to a round. instead of typing a number at the first item. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. you can easily turn off the feature. Click on OK.

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The clip Art task pane will open 5. Again. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. The insert menu will appear 3. 4. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Click on clip Art. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. 1. If you'r not already e using one of these views. The text will be highlighted. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. 2. The list will change to numbered. The picture menu will appear. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. 2. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on picture. The blinking insertion point will appear. The list will change to bulleted. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. The list will be highlighted. Select the list of items you want to modify. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. OR 3. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . it's easy to change it. 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. 1. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. Click on insert. Click on Go.

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The blinking insertion point will appear. scanned image.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. Click on OK. The insert menu will appear 2. The insert picture dialogue box will open. The picture menu will appear 4. skewed. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. Click on a WordArt style. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. whether it's a photograph. or other type of artwork. A placeholder in the Text box will say. The picture submenu will appear 3. a drawing. Click on picture. Click on picture. and stretched text. . 1. containing predefined styles 4. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. "Your Text Here. The insert menu will appear 3. Click on insert. You can create shadowed. rotated. The selection will have a box around it 5." 33 . Click on insert. 1. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on from file. Click on WordArt. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text.

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Click on Drawing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. The view menu will appear 2. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. 1. Click on Toolbars. Click on View. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. 34 .

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The Table menu will appear 2. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. Click on Insert. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. or draw it manually. Click on Table.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. The number will be displayed 6. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Click on the diagram type you want to use. You can insert it from a menu selection. and you're ready to go. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. The number will display 5. The table will be created 35 . you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on Table. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. A sample diagram will appear in your document. create it from the toolbar. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. 1. 1. Click on OK. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. Click on OK. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. The Insert submenu will appear 3.

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36 . and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. To use the mouse.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Down Arrow key. The column width will change. 1. simply click in the cell you want to work with. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Up Arrow key. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. the text automatically wraps to the next line. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear. 2. The table grid will appear in the document. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. The insertion point will move up a row. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. Type some text. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. The insertion point will move down to the next row. As you enter text in the cells. Shift+Tab key. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally.

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OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Rows. The selection will be highlighted 6. Click on Delete. The create new tab will come to the front 5. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. The Table. If necessary click on the Create New tab. 1. The data will be highlighted. Select the data. The insert menu will appear. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. Click on Columns. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. 3. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. 2. The Object dialogue box will open 4. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. column heads. Click anywhere in the document. 1. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The Table menu will appear 3. Click in the last Cell of the last row. 37 . Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. and row labels of your table. Click on Table. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click on Table. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. Click on OK. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click on Rows Above. Click on Object. Click on Insert. 1. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Click on Insert. For example. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. Just follow the same procedure. The table menu will appear 3. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. including totals can distort the overall chart picture.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Press the tab key.

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or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. try them out on some of the other Office programs. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. 1. dates. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. and a footer prints at the bottom. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. The footer box will appear 5. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. Headers and footers can contain text. The View menu will appear 2. Click on Header and Footer 3. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. or even pictures. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Time. when you print the document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Type and format some text. Type some text. a header prints at the top of every page. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. Click on View.

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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .

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and then point to Microsoft Office. dates and times. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . The values can be in form of text. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. Point to All Programs. and numbers.

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3." and so on). Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. Click the Close button on the task pane. Click the File menu. 2." "Book2. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. A blank workbook is opened. Click Blank Workbook. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. and then click New.

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punctuation. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. Press Enter. 3. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type the file name for the new workbook name. 2. 4. Type a number value. 42 . Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. If you want to save the file in another folder. spaces. Type' (an apostrophe). Enter a Number as a Text 1. 4. and numbers 3. Press Enter. Type your text. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 3. click the Save In list arrow. 2. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1.

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or click Cancel to cancel the save. 2. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Close a Workbook 1. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. you can close it. use them in a formula. 3. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. edit or move it. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. click No to ignore any changes. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. 43 . 2. To protect your files. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). 3. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. When you're finished using Excel. 2. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. Click the File menu. or click the File menu. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. and then click Exit. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Excel is still running. you can quit the program.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. and then click Close. Select a Contiguous Range 1. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. Click Yes to save any workbook changes.

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2. Click the Format menu. while the additional cells are selected. 2. followed by a space. or P. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. To enter a date. To select more. 44 . 3. Type a value. 2. followed by the minute. 2. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. Enter a Date or Time 1. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. 3. To enter a time. 3. and then click Cells. Press and hold Ctrl. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. followed by a colon (:). Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. When a range is selected. If necessary. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. 4. and then release the mouse button. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. click the Number tab. or click the Enter button on the formula bar.M.M. Press Enter. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. 4. Click Date. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. 3. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. Press Enter. day. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1.

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6.•• 5. If necessary. End. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 4. 3. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Enter the starting value to be repeated. or press Delete. 4. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. Click the date or time format. Double-click the cell you want to edit. 2. Right click the cell or range. use the Home. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). 3. Edit Cell Contents 1. Click OK. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 2. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. and then type new characters as needed. 45 . Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. 2. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. The insertion point appears in the cell. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit.

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press Esc to remove the marquee. and then click Paste Special. Click to select the Transpose check box. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. 5. 4. and then click Paste Special. 2. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 4. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. 6. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Edit menu. Click the Edit menu. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. If you don't want to paste this selection. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. The data remains on the Clipboard. and Comments 1. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Drag the selection to the new location. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. 2. 5. Select the cells that you want to switch. 2. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 3. called a marquee. Click the Edit menu. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. until you replace it with another selection. 2. 5. Formatting. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 3. press Esc to remove the marquee. 46 . 3. 3. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 3. shows the size of the selection. Click All. available for further pasting. Paste Data with Special Results 1. 4. and then point to Clear. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 6. Click OK. 2. 4.

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6. and then click Cells. 47 . Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. Click the Insert menu. 3. 2. Enter an arithmetic operator. Click the Edit menu. Insert a Cell 1. Click the option you want. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. not calculate. and then click Delete. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Click OK. Click the option you want. Type = (an equal sign). Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. 4. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. 3. 3. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. 4. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Select the cell or range you want to delete. 2. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Enter the next argument.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 2. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). the information you type. 5. Click OK. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Delete a Cell 1. When you delete a cell. Excel will display. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 4. Enter the first argument.

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Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. 48 . 2. 3. Display Formulas in Cells 1. 3. Click the View tab. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. or press Enter. Click OK. Click the type of calculation you want. Click to select the Formulas check box. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). and then click Options. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the Tools menu. 4. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. 2.

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Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Press Enter to accept the range selected. Enter a Function 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. or press Enter. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. to insert the AVERAGE function. Type = (an equal sign). Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the function you want to use. type the name of the function. For example. type =AVERAGE(. 2. 49 . 3. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar.

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Click the Insert menu. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. If you want. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 3. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. and then click Columns or Rows. drag to select more columns or rows. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Click the Edit menu. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. 4. 2. and then click Delete. and then click Column Width or Row Height. 5. Type a new column width or row height in points. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. 50 . 2. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. Click OK. 2. To insert a row. and then click Columns or Rows. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. To insert multiple rows. Click the Insert menu.

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5. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. You can click Finish at any time. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. graphical representation of numerical data. 2. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. Click a chart type. also called a graph.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. 6. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. pie. 2. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. patterns become more apparent. Click a chart sub-type. click Back or Forward. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. line. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. 51 . surface. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. the chart is called an embedded object. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. or bubble chart. Select the data range you want to chart. Click Next to continue. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. 3. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. rather than on a new sheet. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. A chart. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. 4.

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10. Verify the data range. Titles tab. Click to add a table to the chart. 13.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 8. Type titles for the chart. Select the labels you want for the data. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. 9. 11. y Data Table tab. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Select options to display a legend and its location. x-axis. y Axes tab. 52 . y Gridlines tab. Preview the options. Select the axes you want to display for the data. y Legend tab. Click a chart options tab. y Data Labels tab. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Click Finish. and then click Next to continue. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. Click Next to continue. 12.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag the slice away from the pie. 53 . Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Release the mouse button. Release the mouse button. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.

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Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. 9. and then type the text. 2. 7. To add a title for the y-axis. To add a title for the x-axis.or y-axis. and then click Chart Options. 6. f you want a second line for the x. Preview the title(s) you are adding. Click the Chart menu. Click OK 54 . 5. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. and then type the title text. 3. and then type the text. 8. 4. press Tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. Click the Titles tab. press Tab.

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click Custom Header. Click the View menu. Click the Header/Footer tab. Click the Portrait (8. Left. 3. or Right Section text boxes. and then click Page Break Preview. Change a Header or Footer 1. unless you change it. or click a button to insert built-in header information. 3. 55 . Select the text you want to format. click the Font button. Click OK. click the View menu. and then click Page Break. When you're done. Type the information in the Left. or Right Section text boxes. 6. and then click Page Setup. Click the Insert menu. Click the File menu.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. 2. and then click Page Setup. Click the Margins tab. Click OK. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. Bottom.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. Click OK. 2. Click OK 10. If you don't want a header to appear at all. 2. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins.5 inches) option to select page orientation. 2. Arial. To insert a vertical page break. Click OK. Click the Page tab. Change Page Orientation 1. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. 5. Click the Top. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. Centre. make font changes. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Change the Margin Settings 1. Centre. and then click Normal. 4. and then click Page Setup. click Custom Footer. 5. 7. Click the File menu. 2. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Excel will use the default font. 9. To insert a horizontal page break. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. 4. 3. Click the File menu. and then click OK. 8. Type information in the Left. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 4. 3.

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Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. and then click Page Setup. Click Set Print Area. select the row or column with the mouse. 2. 4. 3. Type the range you want to print. Select the range of cells you want to print. 2. Click the Sheet tab. Click OK. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 3. 4. Click OK. Click the File menu. 2. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. and then click Page Setup. select the cells you want to print. 3. Click the File menu. and then point to Print Area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. 56 . and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Set the Print Area 1. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. Click the Sheet tab. Click the File menu.

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3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. Click Clear Print Area. 57 . Click the File menu. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. and then point to Print Area. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. click the Name list arrow. 2. If necessary.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. and then click the printer you want to use. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. the selected worksheets. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. Click the File menu. Click OK. 5. and then click Print. 6. 2.

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