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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. PC. which make up the visible computer. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. TANDY. It is sometimes said. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. PDP series and data general series. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. While the software is programs. Micro Computer. ALU and control unit. the hardware is the physical component or devices. 4. MINI COMPUTER. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. In this system. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. The hardware. these have similar features to that of mainframe. AMSTAD etc. However. it consists of main storage. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. It is the micro-processor in a computer. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Typical example are DEC. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. SUPER COMPUTER. 3. namely. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe.

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g. Must be of high performance 3. Fax modem (in latest PCs). examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Mouse. operating systems. iii. Power supply unit (PSU). It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. It must be available when needed 4 . The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. the system unit houses a number of system components. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Sound card. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). database management system. UNIX MS Windows etc. Cooling fan. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. plotter etc. language translators. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. There are two main types of software 1. System software 2. Hard disk drive (HDD). Mother board. Examples are Computer keyboard. printers. Joystick etc. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Example are MS DOS.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Main memory or RAM. These include. System unit ii. E. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1.

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usage and other technical details 7. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. There are two major types of computer networks. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. computer systems must be handled with clean hands.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. 6. 3. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. Provide fire extinguishers. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. satellite or private line. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. Dust. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. such as the public telephone services. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. uninterruptible power supply. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. 2. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation.

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open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. 5. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. homes and institutions or organi ations. The desktop. often abbreviated OS. such as in building. starting Windows XP is a simple task. is the large area of the screen. And it does all that in the background. Turn on the main power on the system unit. Follow these steps: 1. keyboard.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. such as your monitor and printer. And without your having to know how it does it. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). without your even being aware of it. Some of the other operating systems DOS. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. and Linux and UNIX. mouse. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. 4. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . the programs you use. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. example shown below. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. proper. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. which looks something like the example shown below. the hard disk. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. 6 . 3. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. used mainly in large businesses. i L If your computer supports multiple users. Just click your user name (or Guest.

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To open an icon. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. Document icon: Represents a document. the Quick Launch toolbar. folder.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. or Web site. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. document. The Start button 7 . you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. or some location on your computer where things are stored. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. represents some program you can run. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. in turn. and the Notifications area. typically this is something you can change and print. Each icon.

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2. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. and restarting will be from scratch. no power is consumed while the computer is off. and then instantly restarts it. 3. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. This is not good. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. and want to leave it on for them. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Click the Start button. 8 . follow these steps: 1. To shut down the computer altogether. Also known as rebooting. or put it to sleep so to speak. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. 2. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Click the Log Off button that appears. 3. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. If you share computer with others. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. but does not save current settings. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. The Start menu is divided into two sections. you can just log off. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. Click the Start button. Nothing is saved. follow these steps: 1. To log off. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Logging Off.

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the first thing to do is to open the menus. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession.shaped pointer moves across the screen. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. and then click a mouse button. 6. Shift clicking. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. To use the mouse. 4. Basic mouse movements 1. to display the contents of menus. Selection. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. you make a selection. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. 5. An arrow. POINTING.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. Clicking. Pressing. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. 2. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. Dragging. each time you press the mouse button. 9 . 7.These tools are common to most windows. Double clicking. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do.

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drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. To move more quickly than that. no other windows overlap the active window 6. drag the slider box through the slider bar. If it won¶t go. up. 13. 15. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. 7. drag the window by its title bar. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. To rearrange items in the toolbar. 10 . drag it back into the taskbar.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 16. drag its dots to the left. click the up. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. 9. 10. 8. and appears ³pushed in. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. 12. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. To see the options for a particular window. 17. Remember. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). 11. To add toolbars to.´ That is. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. try widening it first. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. or remove toolbars from. doubleclick its title bar. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3.´ 4. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. right. as mentioned. 2. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. To resi e an item within the toolbar. Scroll bars Scroll bars. 14. right-click its taskbar button. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. To move a window to some new location on the screen. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. the taskbar. or down. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). Alternatively. To move up or down a little bit at a time.

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because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. or type a number in the box. Option buttons. Click the box to turn on or off the option. If your mouse has a wheel. and then click the option you want. Click in the box. You can usually select only one. Click a tab to display its options. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Check box. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. To open the Folders list. (I say may be able to. Preview box. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 .. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Click an option button to select it. Each tab groups a related set of options. List box. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. Text box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. a cleared box means it s not.) opens another dialog box.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. A checked box means the option is selected.. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. Spin box. and then type the requested information. Button.

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To display all open windows in equal si es.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. From the shortcut menu. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. 4. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion.

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or even write a complicated. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. it s also very easy to use. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. You can create a simple letter to a friend. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. One method is from the Start button. which is why most businesses have adopted it. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. you can double -click it to quickly access Word.

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by default. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. If you look closely. e For example. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. 14 . Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. you'll see the options available under that menu. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment.right-click to open a shortcut menu. are grouped together. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. such as saving or opening. and options that relate to files. Right click anywhere in the document screen. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Click on a menu selection. and right) are grouped together. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. centre. 1. the Alignment buttons (left. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen.

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TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. 15 . Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. 1. The requested action will be performed. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. Release the mouse button. which is usually at the top of the screen. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. 3. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. Click on a toolbar button. The toolbar will remain in the new position. The description of that feature will appear 2.

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The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. 1. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. my computer training programme have commence.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph.) to the next line for you. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. you'll need to move the insertion point around. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. Press the enter key. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God.

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To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Down. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Just type them in. Or want to change some of the text in the document. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. in the document window. Right. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Selecting. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Here is how to: Inserting. Inserting Text 17 . and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document.

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18 . Select All. you must first select the text you want to edit. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. Selecting Text Before you can move.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. or change the formatting of text. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. copy. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. When text is selected (called highlighted). delete. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit.

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however. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. if you close the document. 4. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. press the F3 key. click once anywhere in the document. Be aware. however." If. if you type "SPringtime. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. that if you save your document. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. 1. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. after highlighting your text. word. The option will be selected 5. or title case. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Click on the undo button. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. TIP 19 . delete text you just typed. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. when you reopen it. Also. or any amount of selected text. TIP To deselect text. use Word's Undo feature. Click on a case option. For example. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. Click on OK." You can apply a text case change to a word. lower. Each time you press F3." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. or reverse a recently taken action. a phrase.

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holds it. choose Undo from the Edit menu. 2. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. 3. For example. imagine you changed the case of some text. Click on the copy button.•• Optionally. then underlined the text. Click on the action you want to undo. With Cut and Paste. Word deletes the selected text. If you undo the Change Case action. 1. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. When you undoa previous step. Optionally. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . to paste text. 2. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. to cut text. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Word will reverse the previous undo action. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. 1. then bolded the text. use the Redo feature. Click on the Redo button. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. and then places it into a new location. Click on the Paste button. 1. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. The text will be highlighted. Select the text you want to copy. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu.

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to help protect you against such a catastrophe. 21 . Fortunately. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Click on the Paste button. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. and so forth. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. to copy text. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. and after that. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Those names are temporary names.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. However. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. then Document3. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar.

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TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. click on File. 22 . you are only putting the document away²not the program. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. you should close it. and then choose Save As. Word is still active and ready to work for you. The original document will remain. When you close a document. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes.

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If you make any changes. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. be sure to save the file again. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box.

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Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. you may want to preview it on the screen. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. Printing with the Print Button 24 . Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. The Print Preview window will open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. you won't be able to edit it. such as margins. In Print Preview. Click on Print Preview. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. will look in the printed document. b. you will only be able to see the document.

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Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. 25 . you must display the Prin dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. or just specific pages. or if you want to change which printer is being used. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document.

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Click on File. bottom. left. bottom. and right margins. 3. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 4. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. left. The File menu will appear. 2. after you've completed the entire document. click on the Margins tab. 5. or at any time in between. 26 . Left. or right margin setting. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. Click on Page Setup. Bottom.

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The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. Click on Page Setup. A dropdown menu will appear. The File menu will appear 2. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. 27 . The Insert menu will appear 3. Click on Break. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. The blinking insertion point will appear. for example. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. 1. 1. but you cannot make a page longer.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. Click on File. Click on Insert. 2. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses.

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Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. Word comes with extra fonts. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. or centre. 28 . The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge.5 line spacing. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. You can also justify your text. and Ctrl+5 for 1. Like line spacing. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. right.

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or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Applying Bold. italic. Therefore. Ctrl+I for italic. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. Italic. and Ctrl+U for underline. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Font sizes are measured in points.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. 29 . Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. add impact by adding some colour.

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Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. it may be available in a different font. Click on a font. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. You can also add a border around an entire page. The symbol will appear selected 7. phrase. such as a title page of a document. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. 30 . A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. or airplanes. paragraph. The text will appear in the selected colour. check marks. 4. stars. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. Click on Insert. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. Click on a symbol.

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Click on OK. or dash. The tools menu will appear. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. type an asterisk. Press the spacebar or Tab key. filled-in-bullet. hyphen. 1. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. 2. a period. Click on Tools. or a hyphen. Click on AutoCorrect Options. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. instead of typing a number at the first item. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Type a number. 1. Word will continue the list with the same character. Type the text for the first item on your list. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. then a closing parenthesis. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. Note that when you use the asterisk key. The text will display in the document 4. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . word will convert it to a round.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Word continues the list using the same format. you can easily turn off the feature.

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2. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. If you'r not already e using one of these views. Click on Go.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. 1. Click on insert. Again. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. 1. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. it's easy to change it. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. The text will be highlighted. Click on clip Art. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. The list will change to numbered. The clip Art task pane will open 5. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. 2. Select the list of items you want to modify. 1. The list will be highlighted. 4. OR 3. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The insert menu will appear 3. The picture menu will appear. The blinking insertion point will appear. The list will change to bulleted. Click on picture.

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Click on picture. You can create shadowed. The blinking insertion point will appear. The insert menu will appear 3. The picture submenu will appear 3. scanned image. The insert picture dialogue box will open. or other type of artwork. 1. . Click on a WordArt style. skewed. a drawing. containing predefined styles 4. rotated. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click on insert. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. The picture menu will appear 4. and stretched text. Click on insert. Click on OK. The selection will have a box around it 5. The insert menu will appear 2." 33 . Click on from file. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. whether it's a photograph.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. Click on WordArt. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on picture. "Your Text Here. 1.

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1. Click on Drawing. Click on Toolbars. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. The view menu will appear 2. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Click on View. 34 . A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3.

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Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on Insert. The number will be displayed 6. Click on the diagram type you want to use. The table will be created 35 . The Table menu will appear 2. Click on Table. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. A sample diagram will appear in your document. or draw it manually. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. 1. Click on OK. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. create it from the toolbar. You can insert it from a menu selection. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. The number will display 5. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. 1. Click on Table. and you're ready to go. Click on OK. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. The Insert submenu will appear 3.

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The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Click the mouse pointer in a cell.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. The column width will change. The insertion point will move down to the next row. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. 1. 36 . The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. The table grid will appear in the document. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. To use the mouse. As you enter text in the cells. 2. The insertion point will move up a row. Shift+Tab key. 1. Down Arrow key. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. the text automatically wraps to the next line. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. Up Arrow key. The blinking insertion point will appear. Type some text.

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Select the data. The table menu will appear 3. column heads. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The Object dialogue box will open 4. The Table menu will appear 3. Just follow the same procedure. Click on Table. Click on Table. 1. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The current column will be deleted OR 5. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. Press the tab key. The data will be highlighted. Click on Rows. Click anywhere in the document. Click on Insert. Click on Rows Above. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. 1. Click on OK. The Table. Click on Columns. The create new tab will come to the front 5. The insert submenu will appear 4. 3. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. 2. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. Click in the last Cell of the last row. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click on Delete. 37 . 1. Click on Insert. and row labels of your table. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The selection will be highlighted 6. OR Click on Rows Below. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. For example. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. The insert menu will appear. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. 1. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click on Object.

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Headers and footers can contain text. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. Click on Header and Footer 3. Click on View. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. and a footer prints at the bottom. or even pictures. try them out on some of the other Office programs. Type some text. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. 1. a header prints at the top of every page. The View menu will appear 2. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. The footer box will appear 5. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. Type and format some text. Time. when you print the document. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. dates.

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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .

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Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . and then point to Microsoft Office. Point to All Programs. and numbers. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. The values can be in form of text. dates and times. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel." and so on). Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. A blank workbook is opened. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . Click the File menu. Click Blank Workbook. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. 3. Click the Close button on the task pane. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. and then click New." "Book2. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. 2. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want.

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Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. 4. click the Save In list arrow. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. If you want to save the file in another folder. Press Enter. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. 42 . Click the cell where you want to enter a label. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. 2. Type a number value. 2. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. and numbers 3. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. 3. Type your text. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. spaces. Type' (an apostrophe). and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. punctuation. 2. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Type the file name for the new workbook name. 3. 4.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Press Enter.

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you can close it. 2. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. use them in a formula.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. you can quit the program. 43 . To protect your files. and then click Exit. Close a Workbook 1. edit or move it. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Excel is still running. When you're finished using Excel. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. click No to ignore any changes. or click the File menu. and then click Close. Click the File menu. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. 3.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. or click Cancel to cancel the save. 2. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). Select a Contiguous Range 1. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. 3. 2. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved.

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Enter a Date or Time 1. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. 3. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. followed by the minute. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. 44 . Click the Format menu. while the additional cells are selected. and then click Cells. 3. To enter a time. Press Enter. To enter a date. Click Date.M. To select more. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. 2. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. Press Enter. 2. followed by a colon (:). and then release the mouse button. 2. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. 3. 4. If necessary.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. Press and hold Ctrl. Type a value. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. 4. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. followed by a space. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. click the Number tab. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. or P. When a range is selected. day.M. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. 2. 3. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A.

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•• 5. 3. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. Click the date or time format. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Select the cell or range you want to clear. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. use the Home. Click OK. 3. 45 . 4. and then type new characters as needed. 2. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. If necessary. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. 4. Enter the starting value to be repeated. 2. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. End. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Double-click the cell you want to edit. or press Delete. Right click the cell or range. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. 6. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. The insertion point appears in the cell. 2. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Edit Cell Contents 1.

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Click the Edit menu. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. called a marquee. and Comments 1. If you don't want to paste this selection. 3. and then click Paste Special. Formatting. 4. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Paste Data with Special Results 1. 5. The data remains on the Clipboard. press Esc to remove the marquee. available for further pasting. press Esc to remove the marquee. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. 2. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click to select the Transpose check box. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 5. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. shows the size of the selection. 4. Click All. 4. and then point to Clear. Select the cells that you want to switch. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Edit menu. 3. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. and then click Paste Special. Click OK. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 6. 46 . Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 5. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. 2. 6. 4. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. 2. until you replace it with another selection. 3. 3. Drag the selection to the new location. Click the Edit menu. 2. 2. 3.

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the information you type. 3. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. Delete a Cell 1. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. y Entire Column to delete the entire column.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. When you delete a cell. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. 4. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. 5. 2. Select the cell or range you want to delete. Click the Edit menu. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Click the option you want. 3. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. 4. 3. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. 4. Click the option you want. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Click OK. 47 . and then click Delete. Enter the next argument. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. 2. Enter an arithmetic operator. not calculate. Insert a Cell 1. Enter the first argument. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. 2. Type = (an equal sign). Click OK. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Excel will display. 6. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. and then click Cells. Click the Insert menu.

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Click the View tab. 2. 4. Display Formulas in Cells 1. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 3. Click OK. and then click Options. 3. Click to select the Formulas check box. or press Enter. Click the Tools menu. 2. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Calculate a Range Automatically 1. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. 48 . Click the type of calculation you want.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7.

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Click the Enter button on the formula bar. type the name of the function. 3. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. type =AVERAGE(. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Type = (an equal sign). or press Enter. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. 2. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. to insert the AVERAGE function. For example. 49 . Press Enter to accept the range selected. Enter a Function 1. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the function you want to use.

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Click OK. If you want. 50 . Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. and then click Delete. To insert a row. 2. Click the Edit menu. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. 5. and then click Column Width or Row Height. 2. and then click Columns or Rows. 4. To insert multiple rows. Type a new column width or row height in points. Click the Insert menu. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. 3. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Click the Insert menu. 2. drag to select more columns or rows. and then click Columns or Rows. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert.

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Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. You can click Finish at any time. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. 6. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. or bubble chart. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. pie. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. surface. 4. 2. click Back or Forward. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. Click a chart type. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. 2. line. 5. also called a graph. 51 . To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. A chart. Click Next to continue. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. patterns become more apparent. Click a chart sub-type. rather than on a new sheet. Select the data range you want to chart. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. graphical representation of numerical data. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. the chart is called an embedded object.

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8. Click Next to continue. and then click Next to continue. 52 . Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. x-axis. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. Select the axes you want to display for the data. y Data Labels tab. Click Finish. y Axes tab. Click a chart options tab. Titles tab. Select the labels you want for the data. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Type titles for the chart. 11. Select options to display a legend and its location. 9. y Gridlines tab. 12. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. y Legend tab. Preview the options. Verify the data range. Click to add a table to the chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 10. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. 13. y Data Table tab.

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Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Release the mouse button. 53 . Drag the slice away from the pie.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart.

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To add a title for the y-axis. 8. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. To add a title for the x-axis. press Tab. Click the Titles tab. press Tab. Click the Chart menu. and then type the text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. and then click Chart Options. 2. 7.or y-axis. f you want a second line for the x. 4. and then type the text. Click OK 54 . Preview the title(s) you are adding. 6. 9. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 5. and then type the title text. 3. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box.

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Click the Portrait (8. Select the text you want to format. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Click the Insert menu.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. Click the Margins tab. make font changes. Click the File menu. Type the information in the Left. Click the View menu. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. 3. Centre. Click the Page tab. 6. Change the Margin Settings 1. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. 2. click the View menu. Click the Top. Click OK. 3. Arial. 2. 4. 7. Click OK 10. 5. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. 3. Click the File menu. Click OK.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. 3. Type information in the Left. and then click OK. 2. To insert a horizontal page break. click Custom Header. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want.5 inches) option to select page orientation. Centre. click the column where you want to insert a page break. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. unless you change it. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. click the row where you want to insert a page break. Change Page Orientation 1. 9. Left. 4. Click the File menu. 2. or Right Section text boxes. or Right Section text boxes. click the Font button. Excel will use the default font. click Custom Footer. 5. and then click Page Break. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. Click OK. and then click Page Setup. and then click Page Setup. Click the Header/Footer tab. 4. and then click Page Setup. When you're done. 2. To insert a vertical page break. 55 . If you don't want a header to appear at all. Bottom. Change a Header or Footer 1. and then click Page Break Preview. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. and then click Normal. 8. Click OK.

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Click the Sheet tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. 3. 4. 2. Click the File menu. 2. select the cells you want to print. 56 . 4. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. select the row or column with the mouse. Click the Sheet tab. 2. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. Click the File menu. 3. Click the File menu. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. and then point to Print Area. Set the Print Area 1. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. and then click Page Setup. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Click Set Print Area. Select the range of cells you want to print. 3. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Type the range you want to print. Click OK.

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Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. and then click Print. 57 . Click Clear Print Area. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. 2. If necessary. Click the File menu. 6. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. the selected worksheets. 5. Click the File menu. Click OK. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. 2. and then click the printer you want to use. and then point to Print Area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. click the Name list arrow.