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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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It is the micro-processor in a computer. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. TANDY. the hardware is the physical component or devices. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. MINI COMPUTER. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. it consists of main storage.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. ALU and control unit. Micro Computer. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. SUPER COMPUTER. The hardware. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. PDP series and data general series. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. In this system. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. PC. namely. However. While the software is programs. these have similar features to that of mainframe. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. which make up the visible computer. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . It is sometimes said. 4. AMSTAD etc. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. 3. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. Typical example are DEC.

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These include. Examples are Computer keyboard. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. There are two main types of software 1. UNIX MS Windows etc. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. iii. the system unit houses a number of system components. Mouse.g. Hard disk drive (HDD). It must be available when needed 4 . System unit ii. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). database management system. Joystick etc. printers. Cooling fan. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. E. System software 2. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. Fax modem (in latest PCs). examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. operating systems. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. Must be of high performance 3. Main memory or RAM. Mother board. Sound card. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. language translators. Example are MS DOS. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. plotter etc. Power supply unit (PSU). operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules.

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The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. usage and other technical details 7. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. There are two major types of computer networks. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. 3. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. satellite or private line. such as the public telephone services.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. Provide fire extinguishers. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. 6. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). Dust. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. 2. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. uninterruptible power supply.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. keyboard. The desktop. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). Follow these steps: 1. And without your having to know how it does it. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. i L If your computer supports multiple users. example shown below. such as your monitor and printer. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. Turn on the main power on the system unit. mouse. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. without your even being aware of it. such as in building. 5. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. starting Windows XP is a simple task. used mainly in large businesses. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. 3. Just click your user name (or Guest. and Linux and UNIX. Some of the other operating systems DOS. proper. 6 . and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. the programs you use. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. 4. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. And it does all that in the background. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. which looks something like the example shown below. the hard disk. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. homes and institutions or organi ations. often abbreviated OS. is the large area of the screen.

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Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. the Quick Launch toolbar.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. Document icon: Represents a document. Each icon. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. typically this is something you can change and print. The Start button 7 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. or some location on your computer where things are stored. in turn. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. document. and the Notifications area. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. or Web site. folder. represents some program you can run. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. To open an icon.

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or put it to sleep so to speak. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. To log off. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. and want to leave it on for them.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. Click the Log Off button that appears. and restarting will be from scratch. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Nothing is saved. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. 8 . follow these steps: 1. no power is consumed while the computer is off. you can just log off. follow these steps: 1. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. To shut down the computer altogether. 3. Click the Start button. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. but does not save current settings. The Start menu is divided into two sections. and then instantly restarts it. If you share computer with others. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. Also known as rebooting. This is not good. Click the Start button. 2. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. 3. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. 2. Logging Off.

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hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. Basic mouse movements 1. Dragging. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. each time you press the mouse button. POINTING. Shift clicking. An arrow. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. Pressing. 7. Double clicking. Selection. to display the contents of menus. 5. 9 . and then click a mouse button. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. the first thing to do is to open the menus. 6.shaped pointer moves across the screen. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. Clicking. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. you make a selection. To use the mouse. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. 2.These tools are common to most windows. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen.

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up. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). drag the window by its title bar. 2. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. 11. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. 10 . enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. To move up or down a little bit at a time. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 10. 14. To add toolbars to. 13. right. try widening it first. right-click its taskbar button. drag the slider box through the slider bar.´ 4. 8. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. and appears ³pushed in. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. Scroll bars Scroll bars. Remember. If it won¶t go. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). To resi e an item within the toolbar. To move a window to some new location on the screen.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. as mentioned. To move more quickly than that.´ That is. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. no other windows overlap the active window 6. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. drag its dots to the left. To see the options for a particular window. 17. Alternatively. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. or remove toolbars from. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar).or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. 15. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. click the up. doubleclick its title bar. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. 7. 12. To rearrange items in the toolbar. or down. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. 16. the taskbar. drag it back into the taskbar. 9. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item.

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A checked box means the option is selected. Spin box.. and then type the requested information. Each tab groups a related set of options. Text box.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. Option buttons. You can usually select only one. Click the box to turn on or off the option. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Click the list arrow to display a list of options. (I say may be able to. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. If your mouse has a wheel. Preview box. Click in the box. Click an option button to select it. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. or type a number in the box. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. Button. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. To open the Folders list.) opens another dialog box. Check box. a cleared box means it s not.. List box. and then click the option you want. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. Click a tab to display its options.

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From the shortcut menu. 4. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. To display all open windows in equal si es. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1.

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Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. which is why most businesses have adopted it. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. it s also very easy to use. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. One method is from the Start button. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. or even write a complicated. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. You can create a simple letter to a friend. part of the Microsoft Office Suite.

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e For example. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. 14 . only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. Click on a menu selection. you'll see the options available under that menu. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. and right) are grouped together. the Alignment buttons (left. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. If you look closely. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. such as saving or opening. by default. and options that relate to files." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. 1. Right click anywhere in the document screen. are grouped together. centre.right-click to open a shortcut menu. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands.

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15 . The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. Click on a toolbar button. which is usually at the top of the screen. The requested action will be performed. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. 1. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. The description of that feature will appear 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. Release the mouse button. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. 3. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space.

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The program automatically moves down (word wrap. Press the enter key. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. 1. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . The insertion point will move down to the next line 3.) to the next line for you. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. you'll need to move the insertion point around. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. my computer training programme have commence.

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You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Inserting Text 17 . To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. in the document window. Selecting. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Or want to change some of the text in the document. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. Just type them in. Right. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Here is how to: Inserting. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. Down.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text.

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Select All. 18 . just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. copy. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. you must first select the text you want to edit.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. delete. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. or change the formatting of text. When text is selected (called highlighted). press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. Selecting Text Before you can move. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text.

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press the F3 key. or reverse a recently taken action. 4. Each time you press F3. lower. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Also. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. after highlighting your text. 1. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. if you type "SPringtime. Click on the undo button. however. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document." You can apply a text case change to a word. Click on a case option. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. a phrase. if you close the document. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. use Word's Undo feature. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). The option will be selected 5. TIP To deselect text. Click on OK. that if you save your document." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. however. or any amount of selected text. click once anywhere in the document. For example. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. word. Be aware. when you reopen it. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include." If. delete text you just typed. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. TIP 19 . Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. or title case.

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use the Redo feature. 1. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Click on the Paste button. to paste text. With Cut and Paste. choose Undo from the Edit menu. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. and then places it into a new location. imagine you changed the case of some text. 1. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally.•• Optionally. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Click on the action you want to undo. 3. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. If you undo the Change Case action. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. then bolded the text. to cut text. 2. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. then underlined the text. Click on the copy button. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. For example. 1. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. Select the text you want to copy. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. 2. Click on the Redo button. Optionally. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. When you undoa previous step. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. Word will reverse the previous undo action. The text will be highlighted. holds it. Word deletes the selected text.

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press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. However. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. and so forth. to copy text. Click on the Paste button. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. Those names are temporary names. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. and after that. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. then Document3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. 21 . Fortunately.

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click on File. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. 22 . you should close it. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. When you close a document. and then choose Save As. The original document will remain.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. Word is still active and ready to work for you. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. you are only putting the document away²not the program. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use.

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Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. be sure to save the file again. If you make any changes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box.

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Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. Click on Print Preview. such as margins. will look in the printed document. Printing with the Print Button 24 . b. you won't be able to edit it. In Print Preview. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. you will only be able to see the document. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. The Print Preview window will open. you may want to preview it on the screen.

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25 . or if you want to change which printer is being used. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. you must display the Prin dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. or just specific pages.

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and right margins. 26 . 3. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. Left. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. left. 2. The File menu will appear. left. or at any time in between. Bottom. bottom. 5. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. Click on Page Setup. Click on File. bottom. click on the Margins tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. after you've completed the entire document. 4. or right margin setting. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document.

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Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. The Insert menu will appear 3. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. 27 . 1. The blinking insertion point will appear. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. but you cannot make a page longer. Click on Break. The File menu will appear 2. Click on Page Setup. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. A dropdown menu will appear. for example. Click on File. Click on Insert. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. 2. 1.

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which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Word comes with extra fonts. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. Like line spacing. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. 28 . Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. or centre. right. and Ctrl+5 for 1.5 line spacing. You can also justify your text.

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or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Applying Bold. and Ctrl+U for underline. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. add impact by adding some colour. Therefore. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. italic. Ctrl+I for italic. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Italic. Font sizes are measured in points. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. 29 .

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30 . Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. it may be available in a different font. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. paragraph. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. phrase. stars. Click on a font. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click on Insert. The symbol will appear selected 7. The text will appear in the selected colour. 4. You can also add a border around an entire page. check marks. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. or airplanes. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. Click on a symbol. such as a title page of a document.

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Type a number. Click on AutoCorrect Options. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . word will convert it to a round. a period. or dash. 2. 1. The tools menu will appear. instead of typing a number at the first item. Click on OK. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. or a hyphen. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. Note that when you use the asterisk key. then a closing parenthesis. hyphen. Type the text for the first item on your list. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. Word continues the list using the same format. The text will display in the document 4. filled-in-bullet. Click on Tools. type an asterisk. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Word will continue the list with the same character. Press the spacebar or Tab key. you can easily turn off the feature. 1.

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The text will be highlighted. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Again. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. 1. 2. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. Click on insert. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The insert menu will appear 3. The list will change to numbered. 1. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. 4. The list will change to bulleted. Click on picture. OR 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. 1. 2. The list will be highlighted. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Click on clip Art. The picture menu will appear. If you'r not already e using one of these views. it's easy to change it. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on Go. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Select the list of items you want to modify.

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a drawing. skewed. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. The selection will have a box around it 5. A placeholder in the Text box will say. scanned image. whether it's a photograph. The insert picture dialogue box will open. Click on from file. Click on insert. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. The picture submenu will appear 3. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on OK. Click on picture. Click on WordArt." 33 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. The insert menu will appear 2. "Your Text Here. You can create shadowed. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. The picture menu will appear 4. Click on a WordArt style. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. or other type of artwork. The insert menu will appear 3. 1. Click on insert. containing predefined styles 4. . and stretched text. Click on picture. rotated.

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Click on Drawing. 34 . A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. Click on Toolbars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. Click on View. 1. The view menu will appear 2. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function.

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The intersection of a column and row is called acell. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on OK. The number will display 5. The Table menu will appear 2. The table will be created 35 . and you're ready to go. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. A sample diagram will appear in your document. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. Click on Table. The number will be displayed 6. You can insert it from a menu selection. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. or draw it manually. 1. The Insert submenu will appear 3. Click on OK. Click on Table. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. create it from the toolbar. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on the diagram type you want to use. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. 1. Click on Insert. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities.

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if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. As you enter text in the cells. Shift+Tab key. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. simply click in the cell you want to work with. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. Type some text. the text automatically wraps to the next line. The column width will change.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Down Arrow key. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. Up Arrow key. 1. The table grid will appear in the document. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. To use the mouse. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The insertion point will move up a row. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. 36 . 2.

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The insert submenu will appear 4. 1. The Table. The table menu will appear 3. 37 . The insert menu will appear. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. and row labels of your table. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. 1. Click on Object. Click on Rows. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The Table menu will appear 3. Click on Insert. Press the tab key. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. column heads. For example. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Select the data. Click in the last Cell of the last row. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The current column will be deleted OR 5. 1. The Object dialogue box will open 4. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Delete. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click on Rows Above. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. Click on Insert. Just follow the same procedure. 3. The selection will be highlighted 6. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Table. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The data will be highlighted. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Click on Columns. If necessary click on the Create New tab. 2. Click on Table. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click anywhere in the document. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on OK.

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Word will insert a field for the current date and time. or even pictures. try them out on some of the other Office programs. 1. when you print the document. dates. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Type some text. and a footer prints at the bottom. Time.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. The footer box will appear 5. The View menu will appear 2. Type and format some text. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Click on Header and Footer 3. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Click on View. Headers and footers can contain text. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . a header prints at the top of every page.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. and numbers. dates and times. The values can be in form of text. and then point to Microsoft Office. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Point to All Programs.

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Click the File menu. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. A blank workbook is opened. 2. Click Blank Workbook. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. Click the Close button on the task pane. 3. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want." "Book2. and then click New. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1." and so on).

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and numbers 3. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. click the Save In list arrow. Type a number value. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. 2. 4. spaces. 4. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 2. If you want to save the file in another folder. 42 . Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. punctuation. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Press Enter. Type' (an apostrophe). Press Enter. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Type the file name for the new workbook name. 3. 3. Type your text. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters.

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When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. you can close it. When you're finished using Excel. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. or click the File menu. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Excel is still running. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. 43 . Click the File menu. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. or click Cancel to cancel the save. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. you can quit the program. and then click Close. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. and then click Exit. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). click No to ignore any changes. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. edit or move it. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. 3. Close a Workbook 1. 3. To protect your files. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. use them in a formula. 2.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Select a Contiguous Range 1. 2.

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M. Click Date. 3. Press and hold Ctrl. followed by the minute. followed by a colon (:). Press Enter.M. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. 2. click the Number tab. and then click Cells. 4. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. 3. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type a value. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. 3. 4. To select more. When a range is selected. 44 . To enter a date. day. If necessary. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. 3. or P. Press Enter. followed by a space. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. 2. and then release the mouse button. Enter a Date or Time 1. 2. Click the Format menu. while the additional cells are selected. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. To enter a time. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. Click the first cell you want to include in the range.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 2. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell.

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Enter the starting value to be repeated. Click the date or time format. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. 4.•• 5. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. 2. 2. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. 3. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. use the Home. 6. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. 4. End. Edit Cell Contents 1. 2. The insertion point appears in the cell. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 3. Double-click the cell you want to edit. If necessary. or press Delete. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Click OK. Select the cell or range you want to clear. and then type new characters as needed. 45 . Right click the cell or range.

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available for further pasting. and then click Paste Special. 3. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. The data remains on the Clipboard. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 5. until you replace it with another selection. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click the Edit menu. Select the cells that you want to switch. and Comments 1. 5. Click All. Click the Edit menu. 2. Formatting. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. 2. 2. 3. Drag the selection to the new location. shows the size of the selection. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. 4. press Esc to remove the marquee. Click to select the Transpose check box. 4. 46 . 5. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 4. 2. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Click the Edit menu. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 4. 6. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Click OK. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. and then point to Clear. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 3. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. 6. 2. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. called a marquee. 3. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 3. and then click Paste Special. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. If you don't want to paste this selection. Paste Data with Special Results 1. press Esc to remove the marquee.

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3. Enter the first argument. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Enter the next argument. Delete a Cell 1. Click the option you want. 2. Click the Edit menu. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Click OK. 4. Click OK. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. and then click Delete. 3. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. Type = (an equal sign). 47 . Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. 5. When you delete a cell. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Insert a Cell 1. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. 2. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. not calculate. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. 2. 4. 3. Enter an arithmetic operator. Excel will display. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. and then click Cells. Click the Insert menu. Click the option you want. 4. Select the cell or range you want to delete. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. the information you type.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 6. y Entire Column to delete the entire column.

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Click the View tab. Display Formulas in Cells 1. 3. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. Click the Tools menu. 3. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. 2. 48 . and then click Options. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. 4. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. Click OK. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Click the type of calculation you want. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. or press Enter. 2. Click to select the Formulas check box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7.

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Press Enter to accept the range selected. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. or press Enter. to insert the AVERAGE function. 2. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. type the name of the function. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. or press Enter. type =AVERAGE(. Click the function you want to use. 3. Type = (an equal sign). For example. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. 49 . Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. Enter a Function 1.

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2. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Click the Insert menu. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. and then click Column Width or Row Height. To insert multiple rows.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. and then click Columns or Rows. Type a new column width or row height in points. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. Click the Edit menu. 50 . Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). and then click Columns or Rows. Click OK. Click the Insert menu. 4. 2. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. 5. and then click Delete. drag to select more columns or rows. 2. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. To insert a row. 3. If you want.

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surface. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. line. 5. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. 4. Click a chart sub-type. 51 . also called a graph. 2. You can click Finish at any time. rather than on a new sheet. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. A chart. Click a chart type. the chart is called an embedded object. 6. click Back or Forward. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. Click Next to continue. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. 2. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. 3. graphical representation of numerical data. Select the data range you want to chart. or bubble chart. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. pie. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. patterns become more apparent.

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y Gridlines tab. y Data Table tab. x-axis. y Data Labels tab. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Select the labels you want for the data. Click Finish. 9. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Type titles for the chart. Preview the options. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. y Legend tab. 8. 13. y Axes tab. and then click Next to continue. Click to add a table to the chart. Titles tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Click Next to continue. Select options to display a legend and its location. Verify the data range. 11. 52 . 10. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. 12. Click a chart options tab.

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Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. 53 . Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Release the mouse button. Drag the slice away from the pie.

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Click OK 54 . and then type the text. 6. 4. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. and then click Chart Options. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 7. Preview the title(s) you are adding. 3. Click the Chart menu.or y-axis. press Tab. and then type the title text. 9. 2. 5.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. f you want a second line for the x. Click the Titles tab. To add a title for the y-axis. 8. and then type the text. press Tab. To add a title for the x-axis. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box.

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click the Font button. 8. 3. Click the View menu. Click the Insert menu. Click the Portrait (8. 3. Click OK. Arial. 4. and then click Page Break. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. click Custom Footer. 3. or click a button to insert built-in header information. 2. and then click OK. Click OK. Click the File menu. or Right Section text boxes. When you're done. and then click Page Setup.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. 3.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. click the View menu. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Left. unless you change it. 5. Change Page Orientation 1. 2. Click the Top. Click the File menu. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. click Custom Header. or Right Section text boxes.5 inches) option to select page orientation. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. Change a Header or Footer 1. Select the text you want to format. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. 2. Change the Margin Settings 1. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 4. 7. Click OK 10. 4. Type information in the Left. and then click Page Break Preview. 9. make font changes. Centre. Excel will use the default font. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. 5. To insert a horizontal page break. To insert a vertical page break. 2. Click the File menu. Click the Header/Footer tab. Centre. Click the Page tab. and then click Normal. 6. 2. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. If you don't want a header to appear at all. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. 55 . Type the information in the Left. Bottom. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Click the Margins tab.

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2. 3. 2. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Click the Sheet tab. Click OK. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. and then click Page Setup. Type the range you want to print. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. Click the Sheet tab. 56 . select the cells you want to print. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 4. Click OK. 3. Select the range of cells you want to print. select the row or column with the mouse. 4. Click Set Print Area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. 3. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then point to Print Area. Click the File menu. 2. Set the Print Area 1. Click the File menu. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. and then point to Print Area. and then click the printer you want to use. Click the File menu. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. Click Clear Print Area. 5. Click OK. 2. click the Name list arrow. 2. and then click Print. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. Click the File menu. the selected worksheets. 57 . 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. 6. If necessary.

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