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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. namely.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. Micro Computer. AMSTAD etc. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. 3. The hardware. Typical example are DEC. While the software is programs. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. It is the micro-processor in a computer. these have similar features to that of mainframe. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. PC. PDP series and data general series. it consists of main storage. SUPER COMPUTER. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. However. TANDY. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. In this system. MINI COMPUTER. which make up the visible computer. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. ALU and control unit. 4. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. the hardware is the physical component or devices. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. It is sometimes said. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe.

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UNIX MS Windows etc. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. E. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. Sound card. Mouse. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system.g. printers. Joystick etc. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. System unit ii.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. database management system. Example are MS DOS. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Must be of high performance 3. These include. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. System software 2. Cooling fan. the system unit houses a number of system components. language translators. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. It must be available when needed 4 . Examples are Computer keyboard. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Mother board. Main memory or RAM. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Hard disk drive (HDD). operating systems. iii. Power supply unit (PSU). plotter etc. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Fax modem (in latest PCs). Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. There are two main types of software 1.

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Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. Dust. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. 3. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. 6. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. Provide fire extinguishers. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). usage and other technical details 7. There are two major types of computer networks. satellite or private line. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. such as the public telephone services. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. uninterruptible power supply. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. 2.

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Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. the hard disk. example shown below. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. starting Windows XP is a simple task. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. used mainly in large businesses. Just click your user name (or Guest.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. which looks something like the example shown below. often abbreviated OS. 3. keyboard. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . If your computer has a floppy disk drive. mouse. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. And without your having to know how it does it. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. 6 . 5. is the large area of the screen. The desktop. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). without your even being aware of it. homes and institutions or organi ations. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. i L If your computer supports multiple users. Turn on the main power on the system unit. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. 4. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. the programs you use. And it does all that in the background. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. Some of the other operating systems DOS. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. such as in building. proper. Follow these steps: 1. and Linux and UNIX. such as your monitor and printer.

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in turn. or Web site. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. the Quick Launch toolbar. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. typically this is something you can change and print. and the Notifications area. represents some program you can run. Document icon: Represents a document. folder. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. Each icon. document. To open an icon. or some location on your computer where things are stored. The Start button 7 . a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder.

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follow these steps: 1. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Nothing is saved. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. you can just log off. so that it consumes little or no electricity. 8 . 3. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. and then instantly restarts it. The Start menu is divided into two sections. and restarting will be from scratch. Also known as rebooting. 2. Logging Off. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. This is not good. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. 3. To log off. 2. If you share computer with others. Click the Log Off button that appears. To shut down the computer altogether. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. and want to leave it on for them. or put it to sleep so to speak. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Click the Start button. no power is consumed while the computer is off. Click the Start button. but does not save current settings. follow these steps: 1. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV.

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An arrow. and then click a mouse button. Selection. Pressing. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. 4.These tools are common to most windows. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. POINTING. Clicking. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer.shaped pointer moves across the screen. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. each time you press the mouse button. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. the first thing to do is to open the menus. Dragging. To use the mouse. 6. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. Basic mouse movements 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. you make a selection. Double clicking. 7. 9 . this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. 5. Shift clicking. to display the contents of menus. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. 2.

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right-click its taskbar button. drag the slider box through the slider bar. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. up. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). To resi e an item within the toolbar. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. click the up. 15. Remember. right. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. Scroll bars Scroll bars. the taskbar. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. 8. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 9. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). To add toolbars to. 11. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. To move up or down a little bit at a time.´ That is. 10. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. To move a window to some new location on the screen. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently.´ 4. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. To rearrange items in the toolbar. 12. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. To move more quickly than that. 7. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. If it won¶t go. 14. 13.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. drag it back into the taskbar. and appears ³pushed in. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. doubleclick its title bar. 17. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. 10 . drag its dots to the left. drag the window by its title bar. as mentioned. or down. 16. no other windows overlap the active window 6. 2. try widening it first. Alternatively. To see the options for a particular window. or remove toolbars from.

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Check box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Each tab groups a related set of options. Spin box.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. Preview box. You can usually select only one. Click a tab to display its options. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. a cleared box means it s not. and then click the option you want. or type a number in the box. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. List box. If your mouse has a wheel. (I say may be able to. A checked box means the option is selected. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number.) opens another dialog box. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. Button. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. Click in the box.. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. A button name followed by an ellipsis (.. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Click the box to turn on or off the option. and then type the requested information. To open the Folders list. Text box. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. Option buttons. Click an option button to select it.

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4. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . Open multiple windows on the desktop 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. To display all open windows in equal si es. From the shortcut menu.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. which is why most businesses have adopted it. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . You can create a simple letter to a friend. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. One method is from the Start button. it s also very easy to use. or even write a complicated. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter.

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1.right-click to open a shortcut menu. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. by default. the Alignment buttons (left. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. 14 . Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. If you look closely.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. e For example. Click on a menu selection. are grouped together. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. such as saving or opening. and right) are grouped together. and options that relate to files." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Right click anywhere in the document screen. you'll see the options available under that menu. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. centre. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection.

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1. The toolbar will remain in the new position.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. Release the mouse button. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. The requested action will be performed. 15 . press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. Click on a toolbar button. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. 3. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. The description of that feature will appear 2. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. which is usually at the top of the screen. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space.

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Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. my computer training programme have commence. you'll need to move the insertion point around. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. Press the enter key. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . It marks the location where text will appear when you type. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. 1.) to the next line for you. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology.

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OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Down. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. in the document window. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Inserting Text 17 . Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Right. Just type them in. Here is how to: Inserting. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. Or want to change some of the text in the document. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Selecting. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse.

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you must first select the text you want to edit. copy.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. 18 . Selecting Text Before you can move. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. Select All. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. delete. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. When text is selected (called highlighted). it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. or change the formatting of text.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. however. 1. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Click on OK. when you reopen it. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. word. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. TIP To deselect text. if you close the document. after highlighting your text. Click on a case option. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. or reverse a recently taken action. click once anywhere in the document. For example. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. The option will be selected 5." If. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. delete text you just typed. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all." You can apply a text case change to a word. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. Each time you press F3. 4. Also. lower. a phrase. TIP 19 . press the F3 key. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. if you type "SPringtime. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. that if you save your document. Be aware. however. use Word's Undo feature. or title case. Click on the undo button. or any amount of selected text. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME).

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The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. 1. Select the text you want to copy. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. to paste text. and then places it into a new location. With Cut and Paste. If you undo the Change Case action. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Click on the Paste button. 3. holds it. choose Undo from the Edit menu. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. Word deletes the selected text. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Click on the Redo button. Click on the copy button. Optionally. For example. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. then underlined the text. to cut text. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps.•• Optionally. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. 2. then bolded the text. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . use the Redo feature. When you undoa previous step. Click on the action you want to undo. imagine you changed the case of some text. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. 2. The text will be highlighted. Word will reverse the previous undo action. 1.

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so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. 21 . press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. to copy text. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Those names are temporary names. then Document3. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. Click on the Paste button. Fortunately. and so forth. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. and after that. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. However.

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click on File. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. you should close it. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. The original document will remain. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. When you close a document. Word is still active and ready to work for you. 22 . and then choose Save As. you are only putting the document away²not the program.

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allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . be sure to save the file again.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. If you make any changes. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box.

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b.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. you may want to preview it on the screen. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. Click on Print Preview. Printing with the Print Button 24 . you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. will look in the printed document. you will only be able to see the document. such as margins. you won't be able to edit it. In Print Preview. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. The Print Preview window will open.

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including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. 25 . you must display the Prin dialog box. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. or if you want to change which printer is being used. or just specific pages. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button.

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left. bottom. 5. Bottom. Click on File.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. or right margin setting. 4. left. 2. The File menu will appear. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. 26 . Left. or at any time in between. Click on Page Setup. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. 3. after you've completed the entire document. click on the Margins tab. and right margins. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. bottom. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document.

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Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. but you cannot make a page longer. The blinking insertion point will appear. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. for example. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. 27 . Click on Break. 2. Click on Page Setup. 1. Click on Insert. 1. The Insert menu will appear 3. The File menu will appear 2. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. A dropdown menu will appear. Click on File.

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Ctrl+2 for double spacing. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. You can also justify your text. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. and Ctrl+5 for 1. Like line spacing. right. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. 28 . You can align paragraphs of text to the left. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar.5 line spacing. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. or centre. Word comes with extra fonts.

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Italic. 29 . add impact by adding some colour. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. Therefore. italic. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Applying Bold. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Ctrl+I for italic. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. and Ctrl+U for underline. Font sizes are measured in points.

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stars. or airplanes. it may be available in a different font. The symbol will appear selected 7. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. phrase. check marks. The text will appear in the selected colour. 30 . Click on a font. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. such as a title page of a document. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. You can also add a border around an entire page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. Click on Insert. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. 4. paragraph. Click on a symbol.

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Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. instead of typing a number at the first item. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. a period. Word will continue the list with the same character. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. 1. Type a number. Word continues the list using the same format. filled-in-bullet. The tools menu will appear. Click on AutoCorrect Options. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. type an asterisk. or a hyphen. Note that when you use the asterisk key. word will convert it to a round. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. 1. or dash. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. Click on OK. Click on Tools. hyphen. Type the text for the first item on your list. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. you can easily turn off the feature. then a closing parenthesis. The text will display in the document 4. 2. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. Press the spacebar or Tab key.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8.

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Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. 1. 2. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. 1. The text will be highlighted. If you'r not already e using one of these views. OR 3. Again. The clip Art task pane will open 5. 4. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. The list will change to bulleted. Click on Go. 2. The insert menu will appear 3. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Select the list of items you want to modify. The blinking insertion point will appear. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Click on clip Art. The list will change to numbered. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The list will be highlighted. it's easy to change it. 1. Click on insert. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. The picture menu will appear. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . Click on picture.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. whether it's a photograph. The insert menu will appear 3. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. The insert picture dialogue box will open. The picture submenu will appear 3. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. You can create shadowed. Click on OK. A placeholder in the Text box will say. rotated. The blinking insertion point will appear. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. skewed. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. Click on picture." 33 . 1. . and stretched text. or other type of artwork. 1. Click on insert. Click on insert. Click on from file. "Your Text Here. The picture menu will appear 4. The selection will have a box around it 5. a drawing. Click on a WordArt style. containing predefined styles 4. The insert menu will appear 2. Click on picture. Click on WordArt. scanned image. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image.

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Click on Toolbars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. Click on View. 34 . Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. The view menu will appear 2. 1. Click on Drawing. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3.

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The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. The number will display 5. The Table menu will appear 2. Click on Table. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. or draw it manually. Click on the diagram type you want to use. Click on OK. 1. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. You can insert it from a menu selection. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. The Insert submenu will appear 3. and you're ready to go. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Click on Insert. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. Click on OK. The table will be created 35 . You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. 1. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. create it from the toolbar. Click on Table. The number will be displayed 6. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table.

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The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. As you enter text in the cells. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Up Arrow key. The insertion point will move down to the next row. The table grid will appear in the document. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Down Arrow key. The column width will change. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. Type some text. 1. simply click in the cell you want to work with. The insertion point will move up a row. the text automatically wraps to the next line. The blinking insertion point will appear. 36 . Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. To use the mouse. 2. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. 1. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. Shift+Tab key.

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Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. The Object dialogue box will open 4. 1. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click on Insert. 37 . 3. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. The table menu will appear 3. Click on Rows Above. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Click on Table. The delete submenu will appear 4. and row labels of your table. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. The data will be highlighted. The insert submenu will appear 4. The insert menu will appear. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Click on OK. Click on Object. 1. Click on Insert. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Table. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The Table menu will appear 3. column heads. 2. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The selection will be highlighted 6. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click anywhere in the document. 1. Click on Delete. The Table. Select the data. Click in the last Cell of the last row. Just follow the same procedure.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. Click on Columns. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. 1. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. Click on Rows. For example. Press the tab key.

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To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Type and format some text. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. when you print the document. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. and a footer prints at the bottom. try them out on some of the other Office programs. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. a header prints at the top of every page. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Type some text. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. or even pictures. Click on View. The footer box will appear 5. Time. The View menu will appear 2. 1. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. Click on Header and Footer 3. Headers and footers can contain text. dates.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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dates and times. and then point to Microsoft Office. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. and numbers.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. Point to All Programs. The values can be in form of text. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 .

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Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. and then click New. 3. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. Click the File menu. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name." and so on). 2. A blank workbook is opened." "Book2. Click Blank Workbook. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Click the Close button on the task pane.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel.

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2. Type a number value. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. 4. 3. click the Save In list arrow. 42 . Type your text. 3. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. 4. punctuation. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Press Enter. 2. and numbers 3. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. If you want to save the file in another folder. spaces. Press Enter. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. Type' (an apostrophe). or click the Enter button on the formula bar. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. 2. Type the file name for the new workbook name. Enter a Number as a Text 1.

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3. When you're finished using Excel. 43 . 2. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. you can close it. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. use them in a formula. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. Select a Contiguous Range 1. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Close a Workbook 1. click No to ignore any changes. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. 2. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. To protect your files. or click Cancel to cancel the save. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). 3. or click the File menu. edit or move it. Excel is still running. Click the File menu. and then click Close. 2. and then click Exit. you can quit the program.

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and year in a cell or on the formula bar. To select more. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. 3. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. 3. If necessary. 4. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. or P. To enter a time. while the additional cells are selected. To enter a date. Press Enter. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. followed by a space. Type a value. Click the Format menu. followed by the minute. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. 3. Press Enter. 2. When a range is selected. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change.M. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. and then click Cells. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. 4. 44 . or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click Date.M. click the Number tab. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. and then release the mouse button. day. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 3. Enter a Date or Time 1. 2. followed by a colon (:). Press and hold Ctrl. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. 2.

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6. The insertion point appears in the cell. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 2. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). or press Delete. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Double-click the cell you want to edit.•• 5. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. use the Home. Click OK. 4. 45 . or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Edit Cell Contents 1. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. Right click the cell or range. Enter the starting value to be repeated. 4. 2. 3. 3. Click the date or time format. If necessary. and then type new characters as needed. 2. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. End. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents.

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2. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 4. 2. Click the Edit menu. 4. 2. 5. 46 . and then point to Clear. 3. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. 3. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click to select the Transpose check box.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. and Comments 1. Drag the selection to the new location. Click OK. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. shows the size of the selection. Click the Edit menu. until you replace it with another selection. 6. 2. available for further pasting. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Formatting. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. If you don't want to paste this selection. called a marquee. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. Select the cells that you want to switch. 4. The data remains on the Clipboard. and then click Paste Special. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 3. 3. Click the Edit menu. Click All. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. 3. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. press Esc to remove the marquee. 6. press Esc to remove the marquee. 5. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. and then click Paste Special. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 4. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. 5. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1.

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Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 2. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Enter an arithmetic operator. and then click Delete. Delete a Cell 1. 4. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. Enter the next argument. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Insert a Cell 1. Click the Insert menu. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. 4. Click OK. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. the information you type. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Type = (an equal sign). y Entire Column to delete the entire column. 3. 6. 47 . Click the Edit menu. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. 2. Enter the first argument. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Click the option you want. When you delete a cell. and then click Cells. Select the cell or range you want to delete. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 3. Excel will display. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Click OK. 5. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. not calculate. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. 3. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. 4. Click the option you want.

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Click the type of calculation you want. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. or press Enter. 4. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Click the View tab. Click OK. 48 . the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Calculate a Range Automatically 1. 3. 2. Click to select the Formulas check box. and then click Options. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 3. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Display Formulas in Cells 1. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. Click the Tools menu.

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49 . Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the function you want to use. type the name of the function. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. or press Enter. Type = (an equal sign). 2. Enter a Function 1. 3. or press Enter. For example. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. type =AVERAGE(. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. to insert the AVERAGE function. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Press Enter to accept the range selected.

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Click the Insert menu. To insert a row. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. and then click Columns or Rows. 2. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. 50 . Click OK. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. and then click Columns or Rows. 4. 2. Click the Insert menu. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. drag to select more columns or rows. 5. Type a new column width or row height in points. and then click Column Width or Row Height. If you want. and then click Delete. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). 2. Click the Edit menu. To insert multiple rows. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete.

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Whether you turn numbers into a bar. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. click Back or Forward. 51 . line. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. 2. Click a chart type. 4. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. also called a graph. rather than on a new sheet. the chart is called an embedded object. You can click Finish at any time. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. 3. or bubble chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. graphical representation of numerical data. Click Next to continue. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Select the data range you want to chart. 2. surface. A chart. patterns become more apparent. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. Click a chart sub-type. 5. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. 6. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. pie.

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Type titles for the chart. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Preview the options. y Data Labels tab. 52 . Click Finish. y Data Table tab. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. y Axes tab. Select the labels you want for the data. y Legend tab. x-axis. Select options to display a legend and its location. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Click Next to continue. 9. 8. 13. Titles tab. y Gridlines tab. 12. Click a chart options tab. Verify the data range. 10. Click to add a table to the chart. and then click Next to continue. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. 11. Select the axes you want to display for the data.

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Drag the slice away from the pie. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Release the mouse button. 53 . Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.

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Click the Titles tab. 3. and then type the text. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. f you want a second line for the x. Click the Chart menu. 6. 4. and then type the text. 2. 5. 9. 7. and then type the title text. Preview the title(s) you are adding.or y-axis. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. and then click Chart Options. To add a title for the x-axis. To add a title for the y-axis. Type the text you want for the title of the chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. press Tab. 8. press Tab. Click OK 54 .

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4. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. Type the information in the Left.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. Change Page Orientation 1. click Custom Footer. and then click Page Setup. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. click Custom Header. Click OK. When you're done. click the View menu. 2. 4. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. and then click Normal. Click the File menu. 2. Click the Portrait (8. unless you change it. and then click Page Break. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. Excel will use the default font. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. 5. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Click the Insert menu. Click the Top. 3. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. Click the Margins tab. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Left. 8. and then click Page Setup. or Right Section text boxes. and then click Page Break Preview. Change the Margin Settings 1. 7. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Change a Header or Footer 1. 4. Click OK. Click the File menu. 55 . 9. make font changes. Click OK. Click OK. 5. Bottom. Arial. Click the Page tab. click the Font button.5 inches) option to select page orientation. or Right Section text boxes. 3. 2. 3. Select the text you want to format. Centre.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. To insert a vertical page break. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. 3. Click the View menu. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Click OK 10. To insert a horizontal page break. 2. Centre. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 6. Click the Header/Footer tab. and then click OK. Type information in the Left. 2.

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select the row or column with the mouse. and then click Page Setup. Click the Sheet tab. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. Click OK. Click the File menu. Click OK. 4. Set the Print Area 1. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click the Sheet tab. Click Set Print Area. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. select the cells you want to print. 2. Select the range of cells you want to print. 3. and then point to Print Area. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 2. Type the range you want to print. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Click the File menu. and then click Page Setup. 3. 3. 2. 4. Click the File menu. 56 .

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If necessary. 6. the selected worksheets. Click OK. 2. and then point to Print Area. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. 2. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. and then click the printer you want to use. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. Click the File menu. and then click Print. Click Clear Print Area. click the Name list arrow.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. 57 . Click the File menu. 5.