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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. AMSTAD etc. Micro Computer. ALU and control unit. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. MINI COMPUTER. these have similar features to that of mainframe. While the software is programs. PDP series and data general series. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. SUPER COMPUTER. Typical example are DEC. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. It is sometimes said. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. TANDY. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. PC. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. It is the micro-processor in a computer. The hardware. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. 3. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. In this system. However. it consists of main storage. which make up the visible computer. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. the hardware is the physical component or devices. namely. 4.

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Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Hard disk drive (HDD). It must be available when needed 4 . performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. System unit ii. language translators. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Sound card. UNIX MS Windows etc. Fax modem (in latest PCs). Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Mother board. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. printers. the system unit houses a number of system components.g. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. database management system. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Main memory or RAM. iii. There are two main types of software 1. These include. Must be of high performance 3. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). Examples are Computer keyboard. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Mouse. Example are MS DOS. Cooling fan. System software 2. E. operating systems. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. Power supply unit (PSU). plotter etc. Joystick etc. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4.

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computer systems must be handled with clean hands. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. uninterruptible power supply. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. such as the public telephone services. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Provide fire extinguishers. Dust. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). usage and other technical details 7. satellite or private line. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. 3. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. 2. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. There are two major types of computer networks. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. 6. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust.

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often abbreviated OS. i L If your computer supports multiple users. the programs you use. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . Follow these steps: 1. which looks something like the example shown below. 4. 3. the hard disk. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. Turn on the main power on the system unit. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. The desktop. proper. keyboard. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. And it does all that in the background. starting Windows XP is a simple task. 5. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. such as your monitor and printer. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. without your even being aware of it. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. such as in building. and Linux and UNIX. is the large area of the screen. Some of the other operating systems DOS. example shown below. used mainly in large businesses. Just click your user name (or Guest. And without your having to know how it does it. homes and institutions or organi ations. mouse. 6 .

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you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. and the Notifications area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. the Quick Launch toolbar. or some location on your computer where things are stored. or Web site. folder. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. document. represents some program you can run. in turn. typically this is something you can change and print. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. To open an icon. The Start button 7 . The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. Document icon: Represents a document.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. Each icon.

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3. If you share computer with others.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and want to leave it on for them. but does not save current settings. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. you can just log off. Logging Off. follow these steps: 1. Also known as rebooting. To log off. 3. The Start menu is divided into two sections. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. Nothing is saved. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. 8 . and restarting will be from scratch. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. 2. Click the Log Off button that appears. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. so that it consumes little or no electricity. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. 2. and then instantly restarts it. or put it to sleep so to speak. Click the Start button. To shut down the computer altogether. Click the Start button. no power is consumed while the computer is off. This is not good. follow these steps: 1. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu.

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this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common.shaped pointer moves across the screen. To use the mouse.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. Selection. 6. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. Dragging. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. Shift clicking. 7. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. 9 . the first thing to do is to open the menus. POINTING. to display the contents of menus. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. 5. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. Double clicking. Basic mouse movements 1. Pressing. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. each time you press the mouse button. An arrow. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. 2. Clicking.These tools are common to most windows. 4. you make a selection. and then click a mouse button.

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drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. To move a window to some new location on the screen. 9. drag it back into the taskbar. right-click its taskbar button. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. up. try widening it first. drag the window by its title bar. To resi e an item within the toolbar.´ 4. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. right.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. 12. 11. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. 14. drag the slider box through the slider bar. or down. Alternatively. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). and appears ³pushed in. as mentioned. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). 7. doubleclick its title bar. no other windows overlap the active window 6.´ That is. To see the options for a particular window. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. drag its dots to the left. the taskbar. 8. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. To rearrange items in the toolbar. If it won¶t go. 2. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. 15. 10. 17. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. 16. click the up. To move up or down a little bit at a time. or remove toolbars from. Remember. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. 10 . Scroll bars Scroll bars. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 13. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. To move more quickly than that. To add toolbars to. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen.

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you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. A checked box means the option is selected.. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. a cleared box means it s not. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number.) opens another dialog box. and then type the requested information. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. Preview box. Click the box to turn on or off the option. Check box.. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. Text box. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. Spin box. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Click in the box. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. Each tab groups a related set of options. Click a tab to display its options. List box. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. Click an option button to select it. To open the Folders list. If your mouse has a wheel. You can usually select only one.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. or type a number in the box. Button. and then click the option you want. Option buttons. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. (I say may be able to.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. To display all open windows in equal si es. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. From the shortcut menu. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. 4.

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you can double -click it to quickly access Word. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . You can create a simple letter to a friend.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. which is why most businesses have adopted it. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. One method is from the Start button. or even write a complicated. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. it s also very easy to use. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application.

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Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. by default. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. and right) are grouped together. e For example. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. 14 . centre. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen.right-click to open a shortcut menu. you'll see the options available under that menu." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. Right click anywhere in the document screen. If you look closely. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. and options that relate to files. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. the Alignment buttons (left. Click on a menu selection. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. are grouped together. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. 1. such as saving or opening.

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1. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. Release the mouse button. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. which is usually at the top of the screen. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. The description of that feature will appear 2. Click on a toolbar button. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. 3. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. 15 . The requested action will be performed.

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my computer training programme have commence. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . The insertion point will move down to the next line 3.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. you'll need to move the insertion point around. 1. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. Press the enter key. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document.) to the next line for you. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. The program automatically moves down (word wrap.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point.

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and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. Just type them in. in the document window. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. Inserting Text 17 . Here is how to: Inserting.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Down. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Or want to change some of the text in the document. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Right. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Selecting. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document.

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you must first select the text you want to edit. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. delete. Selecting Text Before you can move. 18 . When text is selected (called highlighted). The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. or change the formatting of text. Select All. copy.

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you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. click once anywhere in the document. however. delete text you just typed. after highlighting your text. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. 4. The option will be selected 5. Each time you press F3. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. if you close the document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text." If. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. or title case. For example. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. word. Also. lower. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. TIP To deselect text. if you type "SPringtime. Click on OK. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. Click on the undo button. 1. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. a phrase. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. or any amount of selected text. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). Click on a case option. or reverse a recently taken action. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. that if you save your document. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. use Word's Undo feature. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. press the F3 key. Be aware. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. TIP 19 . hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include." You can apply a text case change to a word. however. when you reopen it.

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•• Optionally. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. then underlined the text. Word deletes the selected text. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. 2. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . and then places it into a new location. When you undoa previous step. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. If you undo the Change Case action. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. to cut text. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. 1. then bolded the text. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. Click on the Paste button. For example. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Click on the Redo button. With Cut and Paste. use the Redo feature. Click on the action you want to undo. holds it. 3. to paste text. Word will reverse the previous undo action. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Optionally. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. 1. 2. choose Undo from the Edit menu. Click on the copy button. Select the text you want to copy. The text will be highlighted. 1. imagine you changed the case of some text.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. and so forth. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. Those names are temporary names. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. However. 21 . so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Click on the Paste button. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Fortunately. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. and after that. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. then Document3. to copy text. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word.

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When you close a document. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. you are only putting the document away²not the program. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. 22 . Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. The original document will remain. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. and then choose Save As. you should close it. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. Word is still active and ready to work for you. click on File.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it.

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Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. be sure to save the file again. If you make any changes. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it.

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TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Printing with the Print Button 24 . will look in the printed document. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. such as margins. you won't be able to edit it. b. Click on Print Preview. you may want to preview it on the screen. you will only be able to see the document. The Print Preview window will open. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. In Print Preview.

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t Many options are available from the Print dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. or if you want to change which printer is being used. you must display the Prin dialog box. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. 25 . Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. or just specific pages. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages.

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Click on Page Setup. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. or right margin setting. click on the Margins tab. Click on File. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 2. Bottom. The File menu will appear. 26 . left. 4. and right margins. 5.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. 3. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. after you've completed the entire document. bottom. or at any time in between. bottom. left. Left.

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for example. 1. Click on File. The blinking insertion point will appear. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. The Insert menu will appear 3. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. A dropdown menu will appear. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. Click on Page Setup. but you cannot make a page longer. Click on Break. 27 . Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. The File menu will appear 2. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. Click on Insert. 1.

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Ctrl+2 for double spacing. or centre. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. Word comes with extra fonts. and Ctrl+5 for 1. You can also justify your text. Like line spacing. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar.5 line spacing. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. 28 . and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. right. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page.

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Ctrl+I for italic. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. Applying Bold. Italic. Font sizes are measured in points. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. italic. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. and Ctrl+U for underline.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. 29 . or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. add impact by adding some colour. Therefore.

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Click on Insert. Click on a symbol. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. or airplanes. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. phrase. check marks. 30 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. Click on a font. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. such as a title page of a document. The text will appear in the selected colour. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. The symbol will appear selected 7. stars. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. paragraph. You can also add a border around an entire page. it may be available in a different font. 4.

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Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. instead of typing a number at the first item. then a closing parenthesis. Press the spacebar or Tab key. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. 1. Word continues the list using the same format. Type a number. hyphen. Note that when you use the asterisk key. Click on AutoCorrect Options. Click on Tools. 2. The tools menu will appear. Type the text for the first item on your list. a period. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. 1. filled-in-bullet.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. The text will display in the document 4. Click on OK. type an asterisk. Word will continue the list with the same character. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . preceding it with a bullet character or a number. or a hyphen. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. you can easily turn off the feature. or dash. word will convert it to a round. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item.

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you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. The clip Art task pane will open 5. The blinking insertion point will appear. 4. The text will be highlighted. Click on picture.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. 2. The list will be highlighted. 2. 1. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Again. 1. Click on Go. Select the list of items you want to modify. OR 3. The list will change to bulleted. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. Click on insert. 1. The insert menu will appear 3. Click on clip Art. If you'r not already e using one of these views. The list will change to numbered. The picture menu will appear. it's easy to change it. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 .

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The selection will have a box around it 5." 33 . Click on insert. The picture submenu will appear 3. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. Click on insert. scanned image.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. whether it's a photograph. Click on picture. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click on from file. Click on picture. 1. containing predefined styles 4. The insert menu will appear 2. or other type of artwork. The insert picture dialogue box will open. a drawing. Click on a WordArt style. You can create shadowed. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on OK. 1. . and stretched text. The picture menu will appear 4. The blinking insertion point will appear. The insert menu will appear 3. "Your Text Here. rotated. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. skewed. Click on WordArt.

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Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. Click on Drawing. Click on Toolbars. The view menu will appear 2. 34 . Click on View. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. 1. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar.

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A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. The table will be created 35 . The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. 1. and you're ready to go. Click on OK. Click on Insert. Click on OK. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. The number will display 5. 1. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. The Table menu will appear 2. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Click on Table. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. The Insert submenu will appear 3. The number will be displayed 6. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. or draw it manually. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. You can insert it from a menu selection. A sample diagram will appear in your document. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. Click on Table. create it from the toolbar. Click on the diagram type you want to use.

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and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. Type some text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. The insertion point will move up a row. The insertion point will move down to the next row. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. 2. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. 1. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. 36 . if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. Up Arrow key. Down Arrow key. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. the text automatically wraps to the next line. The column width will change. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Shift+Tab key. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. 1. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. The blinking insertion point will appear. The table grid will appear in the document. As you enter text in the cells. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. To use the mouse.

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The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Just follow the same procedure. Click on Columns. Click on Insert. Click anywhere in the document. Press the tab key. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. Click on Delete. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Select the data. If necessary click on the Create New tab. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The current column will be deleted OR 5. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The table menu will appear 3. 3. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Rows Above. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. The data will be highlighted. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. 1. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. The insert menu will appear. 1. Click on Table. The create new tab will come to the front 5. The insert submenu will appear 4. The Table. Click on Rows. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. column heads. Click on Insert. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. The Object dialogue box will open 4. Click on OK. and row labels of your table. The Table menu will appear 3. Click on Table. 1. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. 2. For example. The selection will be highlighted 6. Click on Object. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. 37 . Click in the last Cell of the last row. 1.

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Type some text. Click on Header and Footer 3. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. Click on View. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. The footer box will appear 5. The View menu will appear 2. or even pictures. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. dates. 1. try them out on some of the other Office programs. Word will insert a field for the current date and time.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Headers and footers can contain text. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. a header prints at the top of every page. Time. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. and a footer prints at the bottom. Type and format some text. when you print the document.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. The values can be in form of text. and then point to Microsoft Office.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Point to All Programs. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. and numbers. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . dates and times. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003.

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Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name." and so on). and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. Click the File menu. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . Click Blank Workbook." "Book2. and then click New. 3. 2. A blank workbook is opened. Click the Close button on the task pane. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1.

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click the Save In list arrow. 42 . or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Type' (an apostrophe). and numbers 3. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. 3. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Type a number value. punctuation. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. If you want to save the file in another folder. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. 2. 2. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. Press Enter. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. 2. 3. spaces. 4. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Type the file name for the new workbook name. Press Enter. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Type your text. 4.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. or click the Enter button on the formula bar.

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you can quit the program. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. 43 . Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. edit or move it. and then click Exit. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. or click Cancel to cancel the save. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. 3. 2. Close a Workbook 1. To protect your files. click No to ignore any changes. 2. 3. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. you can close it. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. Select a Contiguous Range 1. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. use them in a formula. Click the File menu.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. or click the File menu. When you're finished using Excel. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. and then click Close. Excel is still running. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes.

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Type a value. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. and then release the mouse button. 3. Click the Format menu. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. To enter a date. followed by a colon (:). or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. followed by the minute. To select more. 2. Press Enter. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 3. If necessary. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. followed by a space. Press Enter. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. 4. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. Enter a Date or Time 1. To enter a time. 2. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range.M. 44 . Press and hold Ctrl. while the additional cells are selected. and then click Cells. 4. day. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. When a range is selected. click the Number tab. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1.M. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. 2. Click Date. or P. 3. 2. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1.

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Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. 2. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. 3. End. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. 2. If necessary. 4. The insertion point appears in the cell. Enter the starting value to be repeated. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). 6. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. Edit Cell Contents 1. 4. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. 3. use the Home. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. Click the date or time format. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit.•• 5. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. Right click the cell or range. 2. 45 . and then type new characters as needed. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Click OK. or press Delete. Double-click the cell you want to edit.

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6. If you don't want to paste this selection. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click to select the Transpose check box. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 46 . Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Select the cells that you want to switch. 3. Click OK.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 4. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 4. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 4. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 3. 6. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Click the Edit menu. until you replace it with another selection. Click All. called a marquee. 3. 2. 5. 2. and then click Paste Special. and then click Paste Special. and Comments 1. shows the size of the selection. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. 2. Click the Edit menu. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. 2. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Click the Edit menu. press Esc to remove the marquee. 3. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. available for further pasting. 5. and then point to Clear. 4. Drag the selection to the new location. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 5. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. Formatting. press Esc to remove the marquee. 3. 2. The data remains on the Clipboard.

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y Entire Column to delete the entire column. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). Click the option you want. 47 . deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. 5. 2. 3. Click OK. Enter an arithmetic operator. not calculate. Enter the first argument. Excel will display.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. Click the Insert menu. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. 2. the information you type. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. Type = (an equal sign). 4. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. 3. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Click OK. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. Insert a Cell 1. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. 3. and then click Cells. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. 6. Delete a Cell 1. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. When you delete a cell. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. and then click Delete. Click the option you want. Select the cell or range you want to delete. 4. Click the Edit menu. Enter the next argument. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. 4. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. 2.

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48 . y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Click the Tools menu. or press Enter.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 2. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). 3. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. 3. 4. Click to select the Formulas check box. Click the type of calculation you want. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. 2. Click the View tab. and then click Options. Display Formulas in Cells 1. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click OK. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs.

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and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Type = (an equal sign). Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. or press Enter. type the name of the function. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. Click the function you want to use. Press Enter to accept the range selected. 2. 49 . Enter a Function 1. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. For example. type =AVERAGE(. to insert the AVERAGE function. 3. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. or press Enter.

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If you want. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. and then click Columns or Rows. drag to select more columns or rows. Click OK. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. 5. and then click Delete.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. 50 . Type a new column width or row height in points. 4. and then click Column Width or Row Height. and then click Columns or Rows. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. 3. Click the Insert menu. Click the Insert menu. 2. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. To insert multiple rows. 2. 2. Click the Edit menu. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). To insert a row. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert.

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4. Click a chart type. pie. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. 51 . also called a graph. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. graphical representation of numerical data. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. You can click Finish at any time. rather than on a new sheet. 3. patterns become more apparent. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. the chart is called an embedded object. line. surface. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Click a chart sub-type. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. 2. 5.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. Select the data range you want to chart. or bubble chart. A chart. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. 6. Click Next to continue. 2. click Back or Forward. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart.

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Titles tab. 8. 52 . Click Finish. y Axes tab. Click Next to continue. 9. y Gridlines tab. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. Click to add a table to the chart. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. 12. Click a chart options tab. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. 11. 13. x-axis. y Legend tab. y Data Labels tab. y Data Table tab. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Select the labels you want for the data. and then click Next to continue. Verify the data range. Preview the options. Type titles for the chart. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 10. Select options to display a legend and its location. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis.

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53 . Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. Drag the slice away from the pie.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Release the mouse button.

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9.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. f you want a second line for the x. Click OK 54 .or y-axis. and then type the text. To add a title for the x-axis. 8. 6. Preview the title(s) you are adding. press Tab. 3. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 2. and then click Chart Options. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. 4. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. To add a title for the y-axis. 7. Click the Chart menu. Click the Titles tab. press Tab. 5. and then type the text. and then type the title text.

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Change a Header or Footer 1. 8. or Right Section text boxes. Click OK. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. Click OK. To insert a horizontal page break. 6. Click the Header/Footer tab. click the Font button. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. Centre. Click the File menu.5 inches) option to select page orientation. and then click Page Setup. Arial. Click OK 10. Click the Page tab. 9. 4. Click the File menu. click Custom Footer. 5. Select the text you want to format. Click OK. click Custom Header. click the View menu. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. and then click OK. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. unless you change it. 2. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Left. 7. When you're done. 3. make font changes. and then click Page Break. 3.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Click the Insert menu. 2. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. 4. Click the Portrait (8. and then click Normal. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. Change the Margin Settings 1. Click the Margins tab. and then click Page Setup. 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. and then click Page Setup. Click the Top. Centre. or Right Section text boxes. Click the View menu. Change Page Orientation 1. 3. 2. 2. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. Type information in the Left. To insert a vertical page break. Excel will use the default font. click the row where you want to insert a page break. If you don't want a header to appear at all. 3. 4. and then click Page Break Preview. or click a button to insert built-in header information. 55 . 5. Click OK. Click the File menu. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Bottom. Type the information in the Left.

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56 . 4. select the cells you want to print. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. select the row or column with the mouse. Click the File menu. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click the File menu. Click OK. Click the File menu. Set the Print Area 1. 2. 3. and then click Page Setup. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Type the range you want to print. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 3. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. 2. 4. Select the range of cells you want to print. Click Set Print Area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. and then point to Print Area. 2. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Click the Sheet tab. 3. Click OK. and then click Page Setup. Click the Sheet tab.

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Click the File menu. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. 5. Click OK. 57 . and then click the printer you want to use. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. the selected worksheets. Click Clear Print Area. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. 2. Click the File menu. and then point to Print Area. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. If necessary. 6. 2. and then click Print.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. click the Name list arrow.

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