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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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MINI COMPUTER. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. these have similar features to that of mainframe. ALU and control unit. However. It is the micro-processor in a computer. TANDY. Micro Computer. it consists of main storage. PDP series and data general series. The hardware. It is sometimes said. SUPER COMPUTER. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. which make up the visible computer. While the software is programs. AMSTAD etc. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. namely. PC. 4. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . the hardware is the physical component or devices. Typical example are DEC. In this system. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. 3.

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operating systems. database management system. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. plotter etc. UNIX MS Windows etc. System software 2. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. iii. Mother board.g. Hard disk drive (HDD). Example are MS DOS. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. These include. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. Cooling fan. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. E. Power supply unit (PSU). Battery pack (CMOS batteries).••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. language translators. Fax modem (in latest PCs). Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. System unit ii. Main memory or RAM. Must be of high performance 3. There are two main types of software 1. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Mouse. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. printers. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. the system unit houses a number of system components. Sound card. Joystick etc. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. It must be available when needed 4 . Examples are Computer keyboard. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma].

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2. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. such as the public telephone services. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. There are two major types of computer networks. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. satellite or private line. Dust. usage and other technical details 7. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. uninterruptible power supply. 6. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Provide fire extinguishers. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. 3. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials.

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and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. such as your monitor and printer. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. 4. and Linux and UNIX. Just click your user name (or Guest. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. 3. Turn on the main power on the system unit. If your computer has a floppy disk drive.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. And it does all that in the background. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. keyboard. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). i L If your computer supports multiple users. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. mouse. 6 . 5. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. example shown below. Some of the other operating systems DOS. without your even being aware of it. the programs you use. which looks something like the example shown below. is the large area of the screen. starting Windows XP is a simple task. Follow these steps: 1. The desktop. often abbreviated OS. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. used mainly in large businesses. homes and institutions or organi ations. such as in building. the hard disk. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. proper. And without your having to know how it does it.

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document. in turn.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. represents some program you can run. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. The Start button 7 . the Quick Launch toolbar. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. or Web site. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. Document icon: Represents a document. typically this is something you can change and print. To open an icon. or some location on your computer where things are stored. and the Notifications area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. folder. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. Each icon.

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follow these steps: 1. you can just log off. Nothing is saved. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. To shut down the computer altogether. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. follow these steps: 1. To log off. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. This is not good. Click the Start button. Also known as rebooting. If you share computer with others. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Click the Start button. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. and restarting will be from scratch. 3. 3. no power is consumed while the computer is off. and then instantly restarts it. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Logging Off. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. 8 . Click the Log Off button that appears. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. The Start menu is divided into two sections. but does not save current settings. 2. 2. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. and want to leave it on for them. or put it to sleep so to speak.

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each time you press the mouse button. POINTING. Pressing. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. Basic mouse movements 1. An arrow. To use the mouse. you make a selection.shaped pointer moves across the screen. and then click a mouse button. 2. 6. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. Shift clicking.These tools are common to most windows. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. Double clicking. Selection. Clicking. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. the first thing to do is to open the menus. Dragging. 9 . It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. 7. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. 5. to display the contents of menus.

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To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). Remember.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. 13. 17. Scroll bars Scroll bars. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. right-click its taskbar button. drag it back into the taskbar. drag its dots to the left. and appears ³pushed in. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). 8. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. To move more quickly than that. To see the options for a particular window. 10. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. 14. no other windows overlap the active window 6. 9. To rearrange items in the toolbar. drag the window by its title bar.´ That is. 16. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. right. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. click the up. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. To add toolbars to. as mentioned. the taskbar. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. To move a window to some new location on the screen. up. drag the slider box through the slider bar. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. doubleclick its title bar. or down. 12. Alternatively. 11. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. 7. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently.´ 4. or remove toolbars from. If it won¶t go. 10 . click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. To move up or down a little bit at a time. To resi e an item within the toolbar. try widening it first. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. 15. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. 2. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop.

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and then click the option you want. Spin box. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. and then type the requested information. Click an option button to select it. Option buttons. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Preview box. Button... Check box. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. (I say may be able to. To open the Folders list. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. You can usually select only one.) opens another dialog box.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. List box. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. Click in the box. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. a cleared box means it s not. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. or type a number in the box. A checked box means the option is selected. Each tab groups a related set of options. If your mouse has a wheel. Click the box to turn on or off the option. Click a tab to display its options. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. Text box. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 .

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Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. 4. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . To display all open windows in equal si es. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. From the shortcut menu.

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which is why most businesses have adopted it. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. One method is from the Start button. You can create a simple letter to a friend. or even write a complicated. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. it s also very easy to use.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. you can double -click it to quickly access Word.

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right-click to open a shortcut menu. Right click anywhere in the document screen. such as saving or opening. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. are grouped together." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. e For example. 14 . Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. centre. by default. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. the Alignment buttons (left. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. If you look closely. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. 1. you'll see the options available under that menu. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. Click on a menu selection. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. and right) are grouped together. and options that relate to files.

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press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. Click on a toolbar button. 15 . Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Release the mouse button. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. The description of that feature will appear 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. The toolbar will remain in the new position. 1. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. The requested action will be performed. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. which is usually at the top of the screen. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. 3.

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Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. my computer training programme have commence.) to the next line for you. 1.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . Press the enter key. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. you'll need to move the insertion point around.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2.

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and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Right. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Inserting Text 17 . Just type them in. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. Selecting. in the document window. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Down. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Here is how to: Inserting. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Or want to change some of the text in the document. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key.

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18 . you must first select the text you want to edit. or change the formatting of text. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. copy. Select All. Selecting Text Before you can move. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. delete. When text is selected (called highlighted).•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing.

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if you close the document." You can apply a text case change to a word. or reverse a recently taken action. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. that if you save your document. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. if you type "SPringtime. delete text you just typed. or any amount of selected text. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. however. however. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. when you reopen it. after highlighting your text. For example.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. 1. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. use Word's Undo feature. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. TIP To deselect text. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. Also. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. word." If. The option will be selected 5. Be aware. a phrase. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. Click on a case option. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Click on OK. click once anywhere in the document. press the F3 key. or title case. Click on the undo button. TIP 19 . and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. Each time you press F3. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. 4. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. lower.

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Click on the Paste button. 1. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. then underlined the text.•• Optionally. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. Click on the copy button. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Click on the Redo button. and then places it into a new location. When you undoa previous step. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. holds it. If you undo the Change Case action. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. use the Redo feature. then bolded the text. imagine you changed the case of some text. 3. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Word will reverse the previous undo action. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. 2. to cut text. 1. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. The text will be highlighted. Word deletes the selected text. to paste text. Select the text you want to copy. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. 2. 1. For example. With Cut and Paste. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. choose Undo from the Edit menu. Optionally. Click on the action you want to undo.

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and so forth. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. then Document3. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. 21 . you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. However. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Those names are temporary names. and after that. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. to copy text. Click on the Paste button. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. it only takes a second to lose hours of work.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. Fortunately.

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Word is still active and ready to work for you. and then choose Save As. The original document will remain. you should close it. click on File.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. When you close a document. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. you are only putting the document away²not the program. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. 22 .

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If you make any changes. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. be sure to save the file again. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .

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Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. The Print Preview window will open. In Print Preview. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. b. you will only be able to see the document. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. such as margins. you may want to preview it on the screen. Printing with the Print Button 24 . Click on Print Preview. will look in the printed document. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. you won't be able to edit it. Using Print Preview Before you print your document.

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or if you want to change which printer is being used. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. you must display the Prin dialog box. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. 25 . or just specific pages.

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Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. click on the Margins tab. 26 . Left. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. 3. or at any time in between. Bottom. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. or right margin setting. left. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. Click on Page Setup. 2. bottom.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. 4. Click on File. left. The File menu will appear. and right margins. after you've completed the entire document. bottom. 5.

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Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. The File menu will appear 2. Click on Page Setup. Click on Break. for example. A dropdown menu will appear. but you cannot make a page longer. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. Click on Insert.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. The Insert menu will appear 3. Click on File. 1. 2. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. 27 . You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1.

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Like line spacing. and Ctrl+5 for 1. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. You can align paragraphs of text to the left.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. Word comes with extra fonts. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. You can also justify your text. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. 28 . Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. right. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. or centre.5 line spacing.

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and Ctrl+U for underline. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Italic. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. Font sizes are measured in points. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. Therefore. Ctrl+I for italic. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. add impact by adding some colour. 29 . Applying Bold. italic. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall.

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Click on Insert. such as a title page of a document. The symbol will appear selected 7. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. Click on a font. it may be available in a different font. The text will appear in the selected colour. phrase. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. 4. stars. or airplanes. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. paragraph. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. check marks. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. 30 . Click on a symbol. You can also add a border around an entire page.

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a period.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. hyphen. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. Click on AutoCorrect Options. 2. Word will continue the list with the same character. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . 1. type an asterisk. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. Type a number. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. The tools menu will appear. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. then a closing parenthesis. instead of typing a number at the first item. you can easily turn off the feature. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. filled-in-bullet. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. The text will display in the document 4. or dash. Type the text for the first item on your list. Word continues the list using the same format. Click on OK. or a hyphen. Click on Tools. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Note that when you use the asterisk key. 1. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. word will convert it to a round. Press the spacebar or Tab key.

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Click on Go. Select the list of items you want to modify. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. The text will be highlighted. Again. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Click on picture. 1. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . it's easy to change it. If you'r not already e using one of these views. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. 1. 2. The list will be highlighted.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Click on insert. 4. OR 3. The list will change to numbered. Click on clip Art. The blinking insertion point will appear. The list will change to bulleted. The insert menu will appear 3. 1. The picture menu will appear. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. 2. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted.

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You can create shadowed. containing predefined styles 4. Click on from file. Click on insert. Click on picture. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click on OK. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. The picture submenu will appear 3. 1. Click on picture. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. "Your Text Here. rotated. whether it's a photograph. Click on WordArt. The selection will have a box around it 5. The insert menu will appear 2. The insert menu will appear 3. The insert picture dialogue box will open." 33 . 1. Click on insert. a drawing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. Click on a WordArt style. The blinking insertion point will appear. skewed. and stretched text. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. . The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. or other type of artwork. The picture menu will appear 4. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. scanned image.

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A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. 34 . Click on Toolbars. 1. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Click on View. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. The view menu will appear 2. Click on Drawing.

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The Table menu will appear 2. The Insert submenu will appear 3. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. 1. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. A sample diagram will appear in your document. create it from the toolbar. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. The table will be created 35 . You can insert it from a menu selection. Click on OK. Click on the diagram type you want to use.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. Click on Table. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. 1. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. and you're ready to go. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Click on OK. or draw it manually. The number will be displayed 6. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. The number will display 5. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. Click on Insert. Click on Table. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram.

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and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. 36 . The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. As you enter text in the cells. The insertion point will move up a row. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. The column width will change. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. To use the mouse. The table grid will appear in the document. Down Arrow key. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. the text automatically wraps to the next line. 1. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. Type some text. 2. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Up Arrow key. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. Shift+Tab key. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. 1. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want.

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Click on OK. Click on Rows. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Object. The insert submenu will appear 4. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Table. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. The insert menu will appear. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Columns. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. The Table. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Click on Table. column heads. Press the tab key. 3. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. For example. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The table menu will appear 3. The Object dialogue box will open 4. 37 . The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. Click anywhere in the document. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. Select the data. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click on Insert. Click on Rows Above. 1. The selection will be highlighted 6. Click in the last Cell of the last row. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click on Insert. and row labels of your table. 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. Just follow the same procedure. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The current column will be deleted OR 5. The data will be highlighted. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. 1. Click on Delete. The Table menu will appear 3. The delete submenu will appear 4. 2.

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1. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. The View menu will appear 2. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. try them out on some of the other Office programs. or even pictures. a header prints at the top of every page. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. when you print the document. Type some text. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Type and format some text. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. Headers and footers can contain text. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Click on Header and Footer 3. dates. The footer box will appear 5. Click on View. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Time. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. and a footer prints at the bottom. Word will insert a field for the current date and time.

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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .

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Point to All Programs. and numbers. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. The values can be in form of text. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. dates and times. and then point to Microsoft Office. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel.

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Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1." and so on). 2. Click the Close button on the task pane." "Book2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. 3. Click the File menu. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. and then click New. A blank workbook is opened. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . Click Blank Workbook.

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spaces. 2. Type the file name for the new workbook name. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 3. If you want to save the file in another folder. Type a number value. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. and numbers 3. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. 2. 42 . Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Type' (an apostrophe). Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. 4. Press Enter. 3. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. Type your text. 4. punctuation. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. click the Save In list arrow.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. 2. Press Enter.

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you can quit the program. and then click Exit. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. 2. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. Close a Workbook 1. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. Click the File menu. Select a Contiguous Range 1. Excel is still running. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. and then click Close. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). When you're finished using Excel. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. or click the File menu. use them in a formula. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. click No to ignore any changes. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. you can close it. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. 2. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. 2. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. To protect your files. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. edit or move it. 3. 3. or click Cancel to cancel the save.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. 43 . Click Yes to save any workbook changes.

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2. 44 . If necessary. To select more. Click Date. 3. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. 2. followed by a space. Click the Format menu. Type a value.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 2. Press Enter. 3. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. and then release the mouse button. 3. 3. and then click Cells. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. followed by the minute. day. or P. To enter a time. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. Press Enter. 4. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. Enter a Date or Time 1. 2. followed by a colon (:). and year in a cell or on the formula bar. or click the Enter button on the formula bar.M. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. To enter a date.M. Press and hold Ctrl. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. 4. while the additional cells are selected. click the Number tab. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. When a range is selected.

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The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 2. 4. and then type new characters as needed. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). or press Delete. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Double-click the cell you want to edit.•• 5. If necessary. 45 . —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. 2. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. The insertion point appears in the cell. 6. Right click the cell or range. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. 2. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. Click OK. End. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Enter the starting value to be repeated. Edit Cell Contents 1. 3. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. use the Home. 4. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. Click the date or time format. 3. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu.

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Click the Edit menu. 4. and Comments 1. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 3. Drag the selection to the new location. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. The data remains on the Clipboard. 5. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 4. 2. and then click Paste Special. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 4. 4. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. 3. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. 3. press Esc to remove the marquee. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. called a marquee. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 46 . Click the Edit menu. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. and then click Paste Special. 5. 3. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 2. shows the size of the selection. Click All. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 2. 3. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Click to select the Transpose check box. press Esc to remove the marquee. 2. 6. until you replace it with another selection. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. If you don't want to paste this selection. 5. Select the cells that you want to switch. Formatting. Select the cell or range you want to clear. available for further pasting. 2. Click the Edit menu. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. and then point to Clear. Click OK. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. 6. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy.

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y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Enter the first argument. 3. 4. 4. 2. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. 6. Insert a Cell 1. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Click the Insert menu. 3. When you delete a cell. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. not calculate. Delete a Cell 1. Click the option you want. Enter an arithmetic operator. Excel will display. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. Click OK. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. the information you type. 2. Click OK. and then click Delete. 47 . 4. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 5. Enter the next argument. Click the Edit menu. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. 3. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. 2. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Type = (an equal sign). and then click Cells. Select the cell or range you want to delete. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. Click the option you want.

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Click to select the Formulas check box. Click OK. 2. Click the type of calculation you want. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. 3. and then click Options. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. 48 . Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 2. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). 4. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Click the Tools menu. or press Enter. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. 3. Display Formulas in Cells 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Click the View tab.

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For example. Type = (an equal sign). Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. 49 . Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Press Enter to accept the range selected. or press Enter. Enter a Function 1. type the name of the function. Click the function you want to use. 2. type =AVERAGE(. to insert the AVERAGE function. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. 3. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. or press Enter.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell where you want to enter the function.

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Click the Edit menu. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 2. 2. and then click Columns or Rows. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. and then click Column Width or Row Height. Type a new column width or row height in points. To insert multiple rows. 5. 50 . Click the Insert menu. Click the Insert menu. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. To insert a row. 2. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. If you want. and then click Columns or Rows. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. 4. 3. drag to select more columns or rows. and then click Delete. Click OK.

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Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. Select the data range you want to chart. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Click a chart sub-type. click Back or Forward. graphical representation of numerical data. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. A chart. 2. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. 4. also called a graph. surface. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. the chart is called an embedded object. You can click Finish at any time. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. pie. Click a chart type. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. 2. patterns become more apparent. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. 51 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. 6. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. or bubble chart. Click Next to continue. rather than on a new sheet. line. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. 3. 5. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet.

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12. Select the axes you want to display for the data. 9. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. Click Finish. x-axis. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Select the labels you want for the data. y Gridlines tab. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Verify the data range. 13. y Data Table tab. 8. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Preview the options. 11. Titles tab. Click a chart options tab. Select options to display a legend and its location. Click to add a table to the chart. y Axes tab. and then click Next to continue. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. y Data Labels tab. 52 . Type titles for the chart. Click Next to continue. 10. y Legend tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7.

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Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. Drag the slice away from the pie. 53 . Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Release the mouse button. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie.

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or y-axis. 7. and then type the text. and then type the title text. To add a title for the x-axis. 5. 8. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. Preview the title(s) you are adding. press Tab. Click the Chart menu. Click OK 54 . 3. 2. Click the Titles tab. 9. f you want a second line for the x. To add a title for the y-axis. 6. and then type the text. and then click Chart Options.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. press Tab. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 4.

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Click the View menu. 8. 3. 55 . Click OK. 6. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. 5. make font changes. 3. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. click Custom Footer.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. click the row where you want to insert a page break. or Right Section text boxes. Change the Margin Settings 1. When you're done. 2. click the Font button. To insert a vertical page break. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. Change Page Orientation 1. To insert a horizontal page break. Centre. Excel will use the default font. 4. or Right Section text boxes. Click the File menu. Select the text you want to format. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Click the Portrait (8. and then click Page Break. Click OK. and then click Page Setup. Type information in the Left. click the View menu. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Click the Margins tab. Change a Header or Footer 1. and then click Page Setup.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. 2. and then click OK. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Click the Page tab. Left. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Arial. Click the File menu. 3. Click OK 10. 4. and then click Page Break Preview. Click OK. 2. and then click Normal. Click the Insert menu.5 inches) option to select page orientation. Click the Header/Footer tab. 4. Bottom. click Custom Header. 2. unless you change it. or click a button to insert built-in header information. 9. Click the Top. Type the information in the Left. 2. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. 5. Centre. Click OK. 7. 3. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location.

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3. Set the Print Area 1. Click OK. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. and then click Page Setup. 4. Click OK. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. Click the File menu. Select the range of cells you want to print. 4. 3. and then click Page Setup. Click Set Print Area. Click the File menu. select the cells you want to print. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click the Sheet tab. 56 . 3. 2. and then point to Print Area. select the row or column with the mouse. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click the Sheet tab. Click the File menu. Type the range you want to print. 2.

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If necessary. 6. 57 . 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. click the Name list arrow. 2. Click OK. and then point to Print Area. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. 2. 5. Click the File menu. the selected worksheets. Click the File menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. Click Clear Print Area. and then click Print. and then click the printer you want to use. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects.

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