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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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these have similar features to that of mainframe. While the software is programs. PDP series and data general series. PC. SUPER COMPUTER. The hardware. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. AMSTAD etc. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. Typical example are DEC. However. 4. namely. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. which make up the visible computer. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. ALU and control unit.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. It is sometimes said. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. the hardware is the physical component or devices. Micro Computer. TANDY. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. it consists of main storage. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. It is the micro-processor in a computer. In this system. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. 3. MINI COMPUTER.

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g. Power supply unit (PSU).••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). plotter etc. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Sound card. Cooling fan. These include. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Mother board. Hard disk drive (HDD). Examples are Computer keyboard. It must be available when needed 4 . Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. iii. Mouse. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. language translators. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. database management system. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Joystick etc. Example are MS DOS. UNIX MS Windows etc. operating systems. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Fax modem (in latest PCs). System unit ii. the system unit houses a number of system components. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. printers. There are two main types of software 1. Must be of high performance 3. Main memory or RAM. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. E. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. System software 2.

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High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). 2. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. Dust. satellite or private line. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. usage and other technical details 7. such as the public telephone services. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. 3. 6. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. uninterruptible power supply. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. There are two major types of computer networks. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. Provide fire extinguishers. computer systems must be handled with clean hands.

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and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. used mainly in large businesses. 6 . Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. such as in building. proper. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. which looks something like the example shown below. The desktop. 3. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. And without your having to know how it does it. Just click your user name (or Guest. Some of the other operating systems DOS. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. the programs you use. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. without your even being aware of it. Follow these steps: 1. starting Windows XP is a simple task. often abbreviated OS. mouse. 4. is the large area of the screen. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. And it does all that in the background. such as your monitor and printer. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. the hard disk. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. keyboard. 5. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. example shown below. Turn on the main power on the system unit. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . homes and institutions or organi ations. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. i L If your computer supports multiple users. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). and Linux and UNIX.

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The Start button 7 . To open an icon. in turn. and the Notifications area. document. typically this is something you can change and print. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. the Quick Launch toolbar. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. Document icon: Represents a document. or Web site. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. folder. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. represents some program you can run. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. Each icon. or some location on your computer where things are stored.

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2. The Start menu is divided into two sections. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. and want to leave it on for them. follow these steps: 1. This is not good. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. 2. Also known as rebooting. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Click the Start button. 3. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. To shut down the computer altogether. 3. no power is consumed while the computer is off. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. Nothing is saved. Click the Start button. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. 8 . so that it consumes little or no electricity. but does not save current settings. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. you can just log off. To log off. follow these steps: 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. and then instantly restarts it. and restarting will be from scratch. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. If you share computer with others. Click the Log Off button that appears. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. Logging Off. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. or put it to sleep so to speak.

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Shift clicking. 6. Selection. you make a selection.These tools are common to most windows. POINTING. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. 5. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. Pressing.shaped pointer moves across the screen. 4. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. To use the mouse. 2. Basic mouse movements 1. 9 . Clicking. the first thing to do is to open the menus. 7. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. Dragging. to display the contents of menus. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. Double clicking. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. each time you press the mouse button. An arrow.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. and then click a mouse button.

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To move more quickly than that. Alternatively. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). try widening it first. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. and appears ³pushed in. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. To move up or down a little bit at a time. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. drag the slider box through the slider bar.´ 4. 10. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. If it won¶t go. as mentioned. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker).´ That is. To move a window to some new location on the screen. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. or remove toolbars from. 9.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. up. 11. 16. Scroll bars Scroll bars. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. 7. drag it back into the taskbar. no other windows overlap the active window 6. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. the taskbar. To rearrange items in the toolbar. 2. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. 15. Remember. 17. doubleclick its title bar. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. 14. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. click the up. 8.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. right. To resi e an item within the toolbar. right-click its taskbar button. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. 10 . drag the window by its title bar. To see the options for a particular window. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. To add toolbars to. 12. 13. or down. drag its dots to the left.

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Button. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Spin box. Option buttons. To open the Folders list. If your mouse has a wheel. Preview box. or type a number in the box. Click a button to perform a specific action or command..•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Click in the box. You can usually select only one.) opens another dialog box. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. Click a tab to display its options. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. Text box. a cleared box means it s not.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. and then click the option you want. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. and then type the requested information. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. A checked box means the option is selected. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. Check box. (I say may be able to.. Each tab groups a related set of options. List box. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Click an option button to select it. Click the box to turn on or off the option. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs.

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To display all open windows in equal si es. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . 4. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. From the shortcut menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1.

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you can double -click it to quickly access Word. You can create a simple letter to a friend. which is why most businesses have adopted it. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . One method is from the Start button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. or even write a complicated. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. it s also very easy to use. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation.

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the Alignment buttons (left. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Click on a menu selection. are grouped together.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. 14 . centre. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. Right click anywhere in the document screen. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. If you look closely. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. and options that relate to files." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. such as saving or opening. and right) are grouped together. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. by default. you'll see the options available under that menu. 1. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but.right-click to open a shortcut menu. e For example.

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Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. The description of that feature will appear 2. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. 1. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. Release the mouse button. which is usually at the top of the screen. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. The toolbar will remain in the new position. 3. The requested action will be performed. 15 . Click on a toolbar button. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3.

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Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. my computer training programme have commence. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . you'll need to move the insertion point around.) to the next line for you. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. 1. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. Press the enter key. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology.

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OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Just type them in. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Right. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Selecting. Down. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Here is how to: Inserting. Or want to change some of the text in the document. Inserting Text 17 . in the document window. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document.

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just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. or change the formatting of text. delete. Selecting Text Before you can move. 18 . Select All. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. When text is selected (called highlighted). The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. copy. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. you must first select the text you want to edit.

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Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. if you type "SPringtime. Click on a case option." If. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. or title case. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. however. The option will be selected 5. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. however. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Also." You can apply a text case change to a word. word. that if you save your document. Be aware. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. lower.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. if you close the document. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. Each time you press F3. after highlighting your text. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. Click on OK. use Word's Undo feature. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. TIP To deselect text. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. or reverse a recently taken action. For example. 1. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. TIP 19 . Click on the undo button. click once anywhere in the document. delete text you just typed. 4. when you reopen it. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. a phrase. press the F3 key. or any amount of selected text.

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and then places it into a new location. The text will be highlighted. For example. to paste text.•• Optionally. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. Click on the action you want to undo. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. then bolded the text. to cut text. 3. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. imagine you changed the case of some text. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. Word will reverse the previous undo action. Click on the copy button. use the Redo feature. 2. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Select the text you want to copy. With Cut and Paste. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. holds it. then underlined the text. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. When you undoa previous step. choose Undo from the Edit menu. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. 1. 1. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. If you undo the Change Case action. Optionally. Word deletes the selected text. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. 1. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Click on the Paste button. 2. Click on the Redo button. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu.

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Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Those names are temporary names. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. and so forth. Click on the Paste button. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. and after that. then Document3. to copy text. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. However. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Fortunately. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. 21 . a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar.

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you should close it. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. click on File. 22 . When you close a document. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. you are only putting the document away²not the program. Word is still active and ready to work for you. The original document will remain. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. and then choose Save As. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document.

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allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. be sure to save the file again.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. If you make any changes. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box.

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will look in the printed document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. In Print Preview. Printing with the Print Button 24 . Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. b. you won't be able to edit it. such as margins. you will only be able to see the document. Click on Print Preview. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. you may want to preview it on the screen. The Print Preview window will open. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others.

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the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. or just specific pages. or if you want to change which printer is being used. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. 25 . t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. you must display the Prin dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document.

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bottom. Left. after you've completed the entire document. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. Click on Page Setup. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. Bottom. or at any time in between. 2. bottom. 5. click on the Margins tab. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. The File menu will appear. Click on File. 26 . 3. left. 4. or right margin setting. left. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. and right margins.

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but you cannot make a page longer. The Insert menu will appear 3. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. The blinking insertion point will appear. for example. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. 1. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. Click on Break.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. A dropdown menu will appear. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. The File menu will appear 2. Click on File. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. 27 . Click on Page Setup. 2. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. 1. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. Click on Insert.

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Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. or centre. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. Word comes with extra fonts. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. 28 . You can also justify your text.5 line spacing. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. right. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. and Ctrl+5 for 1. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. Like line spacing.

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Applying Bold. 29 . a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. Font sizes are measured in points. Ctrl+I for italic. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. italic. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Italic.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. and Ctrl+U for underline. Therefore. add impact by adding some colour. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute.

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Click on the Font drop-down arrow. 4. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. such as a title page of a document. or airplanes. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. 30 . Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. phrase. paragraph. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. stars. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. Click on Insert. it may be available in a different font. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. You can also add a border around an entire page. Click on a symbol. check marks. The text will appear in the selected colour. Click on a font. The symbol will appear selected 7.

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or dash. you can easily turn off the feature. Type a number. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. Click on Tools. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Word continues the list using the same format. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. type an asterisk. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. then a closing parenthesis. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. The text will display in the document 4. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. Type the text for the first item on your list. instead of typing a number at the first item. hyphen. Word will continue the list with the same character. filled-in-bullet. Click on OK. Note that when you use the asterisk key. 2. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . or a hyphen. a period. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. The tools menu will appear. 1. Click on AutoCorrect Options. word will convert it to a round. 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. The picture menu will appear. The insert menu will appear 3. 2. Select the list of items you want to modify. The text will be highlighted. it's easy to change it. 2. Again. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Click on insert. 4. The blinking insertion point will appear. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. If you'r not already e using one of these views. OR 3. The list will be highlighted. Click on Go. The clip Art task pane will open 5. The list will change to bulleted. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . 1. Click on picture. The list will change to numbered. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. 1. Click on clip Art. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. 1.

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Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. 1. Click on WordArt. Click on a WordArt style. 1. Click on insert. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on picture.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. The selection will have a box around it 5. skewed. and stretched text. or other type of artwork. . You can create shadowed. The insert menu will appear 2. whether it's a photograph. The picture menu will appear 4. containing predefined styles 4. "Your Text Here. Click on picture. scanned image. The insert menu will appear 3. A placeholder in the Text box will say. The insert picture dialogue box will open. rotated. Click on insert. The picture submenu will appear 3. Click on from file. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. a drawing. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open." 33 . Click on OK.

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Click on View. 1. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. The view menu will appear 2. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. 34 . Click on Toolbars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Click on Drawing. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3.

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1. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. The table will be created 35 . Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. The number will display 5. Click on Table. The Insert submenu will appear 3. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on the diagram type you want to use. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. Click on OK. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. Click on Table. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Click on OK. and you're ready to go. 1. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. create it from the toolbar. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. Click on Insert. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. You can insert it from a menu selection. or draw it manually. The Table menu will appear 2. The number will be displayed 6. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. You can insert a table in a number of different ways.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box.

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Type some text. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. 36 . As you enter text in the cells. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Shift+Tab key. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. The insertion point will move up a row. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Down Arrow key. The blinking insertion point will appear. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. The insertion point will move down to the next row. 2. the text automatically wraps to the next line. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. The column width will change. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. To use the mouse. 1. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. 1. The table grid will appear in the document. Up Arrow key. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2.

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The selection will be highlighted 6. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. 3. The Table. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Press the tab key. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. 1. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. The Object dialogue box will open 4. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. column heads. The Table menu will appear 3. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Click on Insert. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. For example. Click on Delete. Click in the last Cell of the last row. If necessary click on the Create New tab. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click on Object. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click on Rows. The data will be highlighted. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Click on Columns. 1. Click on Rows Above. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click on OK. 1. Select the data. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. Just follow the same procedure. Click anywhere in the document. 2. Click on Table. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. and row labels of your table. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. The insert menu will appear. 37 . The table menu will appear 3. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Table. 1. Click on Insert.

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The footer box will appear 5. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. dates. and a footer prints at the bottom. Click on View. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Headers and footers can contain text. when you print the document. Type and format some text. 1. try them out on some of the other Office programs. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. a header prints at the top of every page. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. Click on Header and Footer 3. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. or even pictures. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. The View menu will appear 2. Time. Type some text. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 .

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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Point to All Programs. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. and then point to Microsoft Office. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. The values can be in form of text. dates and times. and numbers.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel.

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You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 ." and so on). A blank workbook is opened. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. Click Blank Workbook. 2. and then click New. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. Click the Close button on the task pane. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. 3. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it." "Book2. Click the File menu.

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42 . Type' (an apostrophe). 2. 4. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. 3. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Type your text.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. punctuation. Type the file name for the new workbook name. spaces. 3. Enter a Number as a Text 1. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. Type a number value. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 2. Press Enter. 2. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Press Enter. 4. click the Save In list arrow. If you want to save the file in another folder. and numbers 3.

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Click the File menu. To protect your files. you can close it. use them in a formula. When you're finished using Excel. 2. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. 43 . always quit Excel before turning off your computer. and then click Exit. or click the File menu. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. edit or move it. and then click Close. you can quit the program. 3. Close a Workbook 1. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. or click Cancel to cancel the save.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. 3. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Select a Contiguous Range 1. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. 2. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Excel is still running. 2. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. click No to ignore any changes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook.

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repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. Press and hold Ctrl. When a range is selected. while the additional cells are selected. 3. 44 . and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. To select more. 2. followed by a space. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. To enter a date. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. followed by a colon (:). 4. or P. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. Type a value. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. day. 2. and then click Cells. 2. To enter a time. Press Enter.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. click the Number tab. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. 3. Click the Format menu.M.M. followed by the minute. If necessary. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. 3. Click Date. and then release the mouse button. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. Press Enter. 3. 4. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. 2. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. Enter a Date or Time 1.

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3. 2. 45 . Select the cell or range you want to clear. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. Double-click the cell you want to edit. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell.•• 5. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. 4. End. Edit Cell Contents 1. 3. Click OK. 6. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. or press Delete. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. The insertion point appears in the cell. 2. If necessary. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Right click the cell or range. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. and then type new characters as needed. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. 2. Click the date or time format. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. Enter the starting value to be repeated. 4. use the Home.

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If you don't want to paste this selection. 3. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 4. 6. 5. press Esc to remove the marquee. 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 3. Formatting. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. shows the size of the selection. 2. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 2. and Comments 1. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. 2. available for further pasting. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 6. Select the cell or range you want to clear. and then click Paste Special. and then point to Clear. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 3. 4. Click to select the Transpose check box. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Drag the selection to the new location. 46 . 5. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Click OK. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. 4. until you replace it with another selection. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 2. Click the Edit menu. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Edit menu. Select the cells that you want to switch. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Click the Edit menu. 5. 3. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Click All. press Esc to remove the marquee. 3. Paste Data with Special Results 1. called a marquee. 4. The data remains on the Clipboard. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. and then click Paste Special.

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3. Excel will display. Click the Edit menu. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. When you delete a cell. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. 4. Click the Insert menu. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Click OK. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. 3. 2. Enter the next argument. not calculate. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. 47 . 4. Insert a Cell 1. Delete a Cell 1. and then click Delete. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. Click the option you want. Select the cell or range you want to delete. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 3. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. 4. Click OK. Enter an arithmetic operator. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. 2. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. Enter the first argument. the information you type. Click the option you want. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. 2. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. 5. and then click Cells. Type = (an equal sign). deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. 6. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row.

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Click the View tab. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). 2. 48 . 2. Display Formulas in Cells 1. and then click Options. 3. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click to select the Formulas check box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Click the Tools menu. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. 4. Click the type of calculation you want. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Click OK. 3. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. or press Enter. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs.

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type the name of the function.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. 49 . Click the function you want to use. or press Enter. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Enter a Function 1. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). type =AVERAGE(. 3. For example. 2. or press Enter. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. to insert the AVERAGE function. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Press Enter to accept the range selected. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type = (an equal sign). Click the cell where you want to enter the function.

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Click OK. Click the Edit menu. and then click Column Width or Row Height. and then click Delete. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). 2. 3. 5. 50 . click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. drag to select more columns or rows. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. Type a new column width or row height in points. and then click Columns or Rows. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. To insert multiple rows. Click the Insert menu. To insert a row.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. If you want. Click the Insert menu. 2. 2. 4. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. and then click Columns or Rows.

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Click Next to continue. pie.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. A chart. You can click Finish at any time. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. Click a chart sub-type. the chart is called an embedded object. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. patterns become more apparent. 6. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. 3. rather than on a new sheet. Select the data range you want to chart. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. surface. line. 2. 2. 5. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. or bubble chart. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. click Back or Forward. also called a graph. graphical representation of numerical data. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. 51 . The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. Click a chart type. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. 4. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard.

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Select the labels you want for the data. y Legend tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 11. and then click Next to continue. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. 9. Preview the options. y Gridlines tab. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Select options to display a legend and its location. Verify the data range. y Data Table tab. Click Next to continue. 8. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. 10. Click Finish. y Axes tab. y Data Labels tab. Titles tab. 52 . 13. x-axis. Click to add a table to the chart. Type titles for the chart. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Click a chart options tab. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. 12.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. 53 . Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. Drag the slice away from the pie. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode.

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press Tab. 9. 4. To add a title for the y-axis. and then type the text. press Tab. Preview the title(s) you are adding. 3. Click OK 54 . press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. To add a title for the x-axis. 6. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. and then type the text. 8.or y-axis. Click the Chart menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. and then type the title text. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. f you want a second line for the x. and then click Chart Options. 7. 2. Click the Titles tab. 5.

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make font changes. Click the Page tab. 4. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. Click the View menu. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. Click OK 10. 5. click the Font button. Bottom.5 inches) option to select page orientation. 2. Left. Click the Header/Footer tab. Change a Header or Footer 1. Click the File menu. 3. Click the File menu. 5. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Select the text you want to format. and then click Page Setup. 8. Click OK. Type information in the Left. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Click OK. 55 . or click a button to insert built-in header information. 6. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. click Custom Header. 2. and then click Page Break Preview. Arial. and then click OK. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Click the File menu. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. Click OK. click Custom Footer. and then click Page Setup. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 4. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. and then click Page Break. 2. Click the Portrait (8. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. unless you change it. and then click Normal. Click the Top. When you're done.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Click the Insert menu. Type the information in the Left. 2. 3. Change Page Orientation 1. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. 3. 3. Click the Margins tab. 2. or Right Section text boxes. To insert a vertical page break. 7. click the View menu. 9. Centre. Centre.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. 4. Excel will use the default font. or Right Section text boxes. To insert a horizontal page break. Change the Margin Settings 1.

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Click the Sheet tab. 2. Click OK. 3. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 4. select the cells you want to print.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. and then point to Print Area. select the row or column with the mouse. Click the Sheet tab. Click OK. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 2. 2. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 56 . Click the File menu. Set the Print Area 1. Click Set Print Area. Type the range you want to print. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. and then click Page Setup. and then click Page Setup. 4. Click the File menu. Select the range of cells you want to print. 3. 3. Click the File menu.

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or all the worksheets in the workbook with data.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Click the File menu. 6. 2. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. Click the File menu. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. and then click the printer you want to use. 5. and then point to Print Area. If necessary. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. the selected worksheets. Click Clear Print Area. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. click the Name list arrow. Click OK. and then click Print. 57 . 2.

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