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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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TANDY. PC.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. MINI COMPUTER. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. which make up the visible computer. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. Micro Computer. ALU and control unit. these have similar features to that of mainframe. AMSTAD etc. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. The hardware. 4. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. 3. namely. While the software is programs. Typical example are DEC. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. the hardware is the physical component or devices. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. SUPER COMPUTER. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . However. It is the micro-processor in a computer. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. it consists of main storage. It is sometimes said. In this system. PDP series and data general series.

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Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). language translators. Cooling fan. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Example are MS DOS. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. Must be of high performance 3. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. It must be available when needed 4 . System unit ii. Joystick etc. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. System software 2. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. UNIX MS Windows etc. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). Fax modem (in latest PCs). E. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. Mother board. Power supply unit (PSU). printers. iii. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Main memory or RAM. operating systems.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. database management system. Sound card. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. These include. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. the system unit houses a number of system components. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software.g. plotter etc. There are two main types of software 1. Examples are Computer keyboard. Mouse. Hard disk drive (HDD). Guideline for acquiring application software: 1.

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The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. Dust.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. 3. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . satellite or private line. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. Provide fire extinguishers. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. There are two major types of computer networks. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. 2. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). 6. such as the public telephone services. usage and other technical details 7. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. uninterruptible power supply. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window.

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3. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. Some of the other operating systems DOS. such as in building. keyboard. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. the hard disk. Turn on the main power on the system unit. example shown below. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . homes and institutions or organi ations. The desktop. often abbreviated OS. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. and Linux and UNIX. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. such as your monitor and printer. mouse. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. is the large area of the screen. i L If your computer supports multiple users. 6 . 5. Just click your user name (or Guest. Follow these steps: 1. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. the programs you use. without your even being aware of it. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. which looks something like the example shown below. And without your having to know how it does it. And it does all that in the background. used mainly in large businesses. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. proper. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. starting Windows XP is a simple task. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony.

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or some location on your computer where things are stored. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. or Web site. Each icon. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. and the Notifications area. typically this is something you can change and print. represents some program you can run. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. The Start button 7 . T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. the Quick Launch toolbar. Document icon: Represents a document. To open an icon. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. in turn. document. folder. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. follow these steps: 1. 2. but does not save current settings. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. 2. and restarting will be from scratch. no power is consumed while the computer is off. Click the Start button. Click the Log Off button that appears. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. and then instantly restarts it. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. Nothing is saved. 3. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. If you share computer with others. To log off. you can just log off. Also known as rebooting. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Logging Off. 3. The Start menu is divided into two sections. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. and want to leave it on for them. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Click the Start button. follow these steps: 1. or put it to sleep so to speak. To shut down the computer altogether. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. 8 . Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. This is not good.

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the first thing to do is to open the menus. 4. 9 . This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. 6. each time you press the mouse button. you make a selection. An arrow. and then click a mouse button. to display the contents of menus. Dragging. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. Clicking. Selection. 2. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession.These tools are common to most windows. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. Basic mouse movements 1. Shift clicking. 5. POINTING. Double clicking. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. 7.shaped pointer moves across the screen. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. Pressing. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. To use the mouse. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do.

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17. drag its dots to the left. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices.´ That is. 14. 10 . Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. To move more quickly than that. 11. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. 13. up. Alternatively. 10. and appears ³pushed in. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. 15. no other windows overlap the active window 6. Scroll bars Scroll bars. To add toolbars to. doubleclick its title bar. the taskbar. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). 2. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. drag it back into the taskbar. To move up or down a little bit at a time. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. 16.´ 4. If it won¶t go.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. right. right-click its taskbar button. as mentioned. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. or remove toolbars from. click the up. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. 7. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. To resi e an item within the toolbar. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. To see the options for a particular window. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). try widening it first. 9. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. or down. drag the slider box through the slider bar. drag the window by its title bar. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. 8. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. To rearrange items in the toolbar. To move a window to some new location on the screen. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. 12. Remember.

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or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. Click the box to turn on or off the option. a cleared box means it s not.. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. Click in the box. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. Each tab groups a related set of options.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. List box. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. You can usually select only one. A checked box means the option is selected. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. Check box. and then type the requested information. Click a tab to display its options. Spin box. Option buttons. Text box. Button. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. Preview box. or type a number in the box. To open the Folders list. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. Click an option button to select it..) opens another dialog box. (I say may be able to. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. If your mouse has a wheel. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. and then click the option you want.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel.

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4. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. To display all open windows in equal si es. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. From the shortcut menu. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion.

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TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. You can create a simple letter to a friend. it s also very easy to use. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . One method is from the Start button. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. or even write a complicated. which is why most businesses have adopted it. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done.

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Click on a menu selection. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. 14 . The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. by default. such as saving or opening. you'll see the options available under that menu. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. the Alignment buttons (left. e For example. Right click anywhere in the document screen. are grouped together. and right) are grouped together.right-click to open a shortcut menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. 1. If you look closely. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. centre. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. and options that relate to files. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection.

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3. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. The requested action will be performed. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. Release the mouse button. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Click on a toolbar button. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. 15 . which is usually at the top of the screen. The description of that feature will appear 2. 1.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Press the enter key. 1. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. It marks the location where text will appear when you type.) to the next line for you. you'll need to move the insertion point around. my computer training programme have commence. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary.

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You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. Here is how to: Inserting. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Inserting Text 17 . Just type them in. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. in the document window. Right. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Down. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Selecting.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Or want to change some of the text in the document.

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delete. copy. When text is selected (called highlighted). or change the formatting of text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. you must first select the text you want to edit. 18 . Selecting Text Before you can move. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. Select All. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document.

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TIP 19 . word. however. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. if you type "SPringtime. Be aware. Each time you press F3. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. TIP To deselect text." If. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. The option will be selected 5. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. Click on the undo button. or reverse a recently taken action." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. Click on a case option. lower. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. that if you save your document. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). For example. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. 4." You can apply a text case change to a word. however. after highlighting your text. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. a phrase. delete text you just typed. if you close the document. or title case. when you reopen it. 1. press the F3 key. Click on OK. or any amount of selected text. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. Also. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. use Word's Undo feature. click once anywhere in the document.

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2. imagine you changed the case of some text. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. use the Redo feature. 3. For example. Select the text you want to copy. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. then bolded the text. Click on the Redo button. and then places it into a new location. Word will reverse the previous undo action. 2. Click on the copy button. 1. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. 1. The text will be highlighted. to paste text. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. to cut text. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. 1. With Cut and Paste. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. choose Undo from the Edit menu. then underlined the text. When you undoa previous step. If you undo the Change Case action. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step.•• Optionally. Click on the action you want to undo. holds it. Click on the Paste button. Word deletes the selected text. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. Optionally. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text.

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a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. The blinking insertion point will appear 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. to copy text. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. 21 . so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. Fortunately. and after that. However. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. then Document3. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. and so forth. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. Those names are temporary names. Click on the Paste button. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. it only takes a second to lose hours of work.

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Word is still active and ready to work for you. and then choose Save As. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. The original document will remain. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. 22 . When you close a document. you are only putting the document away²not the program. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. click on File. you should close it.

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If you make any changes. be sure to save the file again. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used.

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such as margins. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. you will only be able to see the document. Printing with the Print Button 24 . TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. will look in the printed document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. b. Click on Print Preview. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. In Print Preview. you may want to preview it on the screen. The Print Preview window will open. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. you won't be able to edit it.

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t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. 25 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. or just specific pages. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. or if you want to change which printer is being used. you must display the Prin dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages.

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Click on Page Setup. The File menu will appear. and right margins. 2. 3. bottom.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. 5. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. or at any time in between. left. Left. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. Bottom. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. click on the Margins tab. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 26 . Click on File. or right margin setting. bottom. 4. after you've completed the entire document. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. left.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. for example. Click on Break. 1. The Insert menu will appear 3. Click on Insert. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. 2. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. 27 . A dropdown menu will appear. but you cannot make a page longer. Click on File. The File menu will appear 2. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. Click on Page Setup.

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Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. or centre.5 line spacing. Ctrl+2 for double spacing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. and Ctrl+5 for 1. You can also justify your text. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Like line spacing. right. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Word comes with extra fonts. 28 .

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or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Font sizes are measured in points. Ctrl+I for italic. italic. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. Italic. add impact by adding some colour. Applying Bold. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. 29 . and Ctrl+U for underline. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. Therefore. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute.

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You can also add a border around an entire page. check marks. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. Click on Insert. The text will appear in the selected colour. Click on a font. phrase. or airplanes. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. 4. The symbol will appear selected 7. paragraph. stars. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. Click on a symbol. 30 . The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. it may be available in a different font. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. such as a title page of a document. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text.

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Word continues the list using the same format. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Word will continue the list with the same character. hyphen. Click on Tools. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. 1. Click on AutoCorrect Options. or a hyphen. 2. word will convert it to a round.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. filled-in-bullet. Type the text for the first item on your list. 1. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . Type a number. instead of typing a number at the first item. Note that when you use the asterisk key. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. a period. Click on OK. or dash. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. then a closing parenthesis. you can easily turn off the feature. type an asterisk. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. The tools menu will appear. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. The text will display in the document 4.

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If you'r not already e using one of these views. The clip Art task pane will open 5. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on Go. The text will be highlighted. 2. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . Again. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. The insert menu will appear 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. 1. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The list will change to numbered. Click on clip Art. 1. The list will change to bulleted. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Click on picture. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. 4. OR 3. Click on insert. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. it's easy to change it. The list will be highlighted. Select the list of items you want to modify. The picture menu will appear. 1. 2.

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The insert menu will appear 3. or other type of artwork. The selection will have a box around it 5. Click on insert. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click on picture. Click on insert. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. skewed. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. 1. . The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. Click on from file. containing predefined styles 4. The picture menu will appear 4. The blinking insertion point will appear. The picture submenu will appear 3. and stretched text. You can create shadowed. Click on WordArt. The insert menu will appear 2. Click on picture. Click on OK. rotated. Click on a WordArt style." 33 . a drawing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. 1. "Your Text Here. whether it's a photograph. The insert picture dialogue box will open. scanned image.

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Click on Drawing. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. The view menu will appear 2. 34 . Click on Toolbars. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Click on View. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. 1.

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Click on Table. Click on Table. You can insert it from a menu selection. The Table menu will appear 2. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Click on Insert. and you're ready to go. or draw it manually. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. 1. The Insert submenu will appear 3. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. Click on OK. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. The number will display 5. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. create it from the toolbar. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. The number will be displayed 6. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. Click on the diagram type you want to use. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. 1. The table will be created 35 . Click on OK. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram.

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To use the mouse. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Type some text. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. the text automatically wraps to the next line. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. 1. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. 36 . if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. The insertion point will move up a row. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The blinking insertion point will appear. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. The table grid will appear in the document. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. Up Arrow key. The column width will change. As you enter text in the cells. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. simply click in the cell you want to work with. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Shift+Tab key. Down Arrow key.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. 1. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. 2. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key.

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The insert menu will appear. OR Click on Rows Below. If necessary click on the Create New tab. 1. Click anywhere in the document. Click on Insert.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. The Object dialogue box will open 4. The Table menu will appear 3. 2. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. column heads. Click on Object. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click on Rows. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Click on Delete. 1. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. The table menu will appear 3. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. The selection will be highlighted 6. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Press the tab key. Select the data. Click on Table. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The data will be highlighted. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Insert. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. 1. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. 3. 37 . Click on Columns. Click on Rows Above. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click on Table. 1. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. The Table. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. and row labels of your table. Just follow the same procedure. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. For example. Click in the last Cell of the last row. Click on OK. The create new tab will come to the front 5.

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a header prints at the top of every page. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. Time. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. when you print the document. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. Type some text. Headers and footers can contain text. dates. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. try them out on some of the other Office programs. or even pictures. The footer box will appear 5. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Click on View.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. and a footer prints at the bottom. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . 1. The View menu will appear 2. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. Type and format some text. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Click on Header and Footer 3.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. dates and times. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . The values can be in form of text. and numbers. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Point to All Programs. and then point to Microsoft Office.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. Click Blank Workbook. Click the File menu." and so on). and then click New. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. 3. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. Click the Close button on the task pane. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. A blank workbook is opened." "Book2. 2.

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4. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. and numbers 3.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. 4. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 3. Press Enter. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Type your text. 2. Type the file name for the new workbook name. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. 42 . Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Enter a Number as a Text 1. 3. punctuation. Press Enter. 2. Type' (an apostrophe). and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Type a number value. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. spaces. If you want to save the file in another folder. click the Save In list arrow.

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When you're finished using Excel. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. and then click Close. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. Excel is still running. To protect your files. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. you can quit the program. Close a Workbook 1. 2. 43 . 3. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. and then click Exit. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. or click the File menu. use them in a formula. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. or click Cancel to cancel the save. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Click the File menu. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. Select a Contiguous Range 1. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. 2. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. click No to ignore any changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. you can close it. edit or move it. 3. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it.

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Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. followed by a colon (:). and then click Cells. day. Click Date. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. To select more. or P. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. To enter a date. while the additional cells are selected. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. 2. Press and hold Ctrl. followed by a space. To enter a time.M. and then release the mouse button. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. 3. 4. Type a value. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. Press Enter. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. 2. 2. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. 4. 3. click the Number tab. If necessary. 3. Click the Format menu. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. When a range is selected. Enter a Date or Time 1. 44 . or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. Press Enter. followed by the minute.M.

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and then type new characters as needed. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1.•• 5. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Click OK. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. Right click the cell or range. If necessary. Click the date or time format. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. use the Home. End. 2. 2. Edit Cell Contents 1. 4. 3. Enter the starting value to be repeated. or press Delete. 4. 3. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Double-click the cell you want to edit. 6. 2. The insertion point appears in the cell. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 45 . Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit.

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2. 3. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Click OK. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Click to select the Transpose check box.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 5. 4. Paste Data with Special Results 1. 3. and then click Paste Special. Click the Edit menu. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 5. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 2. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. available for further pasting. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. called a marquee. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Drag the selection to the new location. 2. Formatting. until you replace it with another selection. 3. Click All. Click the Edit menu. 3. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. 2. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. and then click Paste Special. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. and then point to Clear. 4. 4. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Click the Edit menu. 3. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Select the cells that you want to switch. shows the size of the selection. 5. 6. The data remains on the Clipboard. 46 . 2. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 4. and Comments 1. press Esc to remove the marquee. press Esc to remove the marquee. 6. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. If you don't want to paste this selection.

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2. 5. not calculate. Enter the first argument. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. When you delete a cell. Click the Edit menu. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. Click OK. the information you type. Select the cell or range you want to delete. Type = (an equal sign). Excel will display. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 4. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. Click OK. 3. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. and then click Cells. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. Insert a Cell 1. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. 3. and then click Delete. Enter an arithmetic operator. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Click the Insert menu. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. 2. 2. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. Click the option you want. Click the option you want. Enter the next argument. 3. 6. Delete a Cell 1. 4. 47 . y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. 4. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1.

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Click OK. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 3. and then click Options. Display Formulas in Cells 1. 2. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 4. or press Enter. 2. 48 . Click the type of calculation you want. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Click the Tools menu. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click to select the Formulas check box. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Click the View tab.

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Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. 2. Enter a Function 1. For example. Type = (an equal sign). Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. to insert the AVERAGE function. type the name of the function. type =AVERAGE(. Press Enter to accept the range selected. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. or press Enter. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Click the function you want to use. 49 . and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Click the cell where you want to enter the function. or press Enter. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. 3. Click the Enter button on the formula bar.

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2. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Click the Insert menu. 3. To insert multiple rows. Click OK. 5. and then click Columns or Rows. Click the Edit menu. drag to select more columns or rows. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. and then click Columns or Rows. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. 4. If you want. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. To insert a row. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. and then click Column Width or Row Height. Click the Insert menu. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. 2. Type a new column width or row height in points. 50 . Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. and then click Delete. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert.

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You can click Finish at any time. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. pie. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. 2. Select the data range you want to chart. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. 3. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. Click a chart type. rather than on a new sheet. also called a graph. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. the chart is called an embedded object. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. 4. Click Next to continue. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. 2. 5. patterns become more apparent. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. 6. line. Click a chart sub-type. or bubble chart. 51 . When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. surface. click Back or Forward. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. A chart. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. graphical representation of numerical data. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar.

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10. y Legend tab. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Click Next to continue. y Data Labels tab. Click a chart options tab. 9. 52 . Type titles for the chart. Verify the data range. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Preview the options. y Axes tab. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. and then click Next to continue. 11. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. y Gridlines tab. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. 8. 13.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Titles tab. Click to add a table to the chart. Click Finish. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. x-axis. 12. y Data Table tab. Select the labels you want for the data. Select options to display a legend and its location.

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Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. 53 . Drag the slice away from the pie. Release the mouse button.

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and then type the title text. f you want a second line for the x.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. 5. and then type the text. To add a title for the y-axis. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. 4. and then click Chart Options. 6. 2. press Tab. Click OK 54 . 8. press Tab. Click the Titles tab. To add a title for the x-axis. 3. and then type the text. 7. 9. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. Preview the title(s) you are adding. Click the Chart menu.or y-axis. Type the text you want for the title of the chart.

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click the row where you want to insert a page break. 3. 3. 5. Click OK. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Click the Page tab. 3. Select the text you want to format. Click the Insert menu. Click the View menu. 3. click the View menu. and then click Page Break Preview. 6. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. click the Font button. Centre. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. Click OK 10. Arial. Change the Margin Settings 1. Click the Margins tab. 4. 5. 2. Click the File menu. click Custom Header. Type the information in the Left. Change a Header or Footer 1. To insert a horizontal page break. Click OK. make font changes. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Bottom. Excel will use the default font. 4. Left. and then click OK. 4. 7. 2.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. 2. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. 9. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Change Page Orientation 1. click Custom Footer. and then click Page Setup. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. and then click Page Setup.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. Click OK. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. 2. and then click Normal. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. Click the Top. and then click Page Break. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. Centre.5 inches) option to select page orientation. When you're done. 55 . or Right Section text boxes. click the column where you want to insert a page break. or Right Section text boxes. Type information in the Left. Click OK. Click the Header/Footer tab. Click the File menu. 8. To insert a vertical page break. unless you change it. Click the Portrait (8. 2.

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and then point to Print Area. Click the File menu. Click the File menu. Click Set Print Area. 56 . Click OK. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. 4. 2. Select the range of cells you want to print. Click the Sheet tab. 3. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. select the row or column with the mouse. Click the File menu. 2. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 2. 4. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Set the Print Area 1. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. and then click Page Setup. 3. Click the Sheet tab. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click OK. select the cells you want to print. and then click Page Setup. 3. Type the range you want to print.

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Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. Click OK. If necessary. and then click Print. 57 . Click the File menu. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. and then point to Print Area. and then click the printer you want to use. 2. Click Clear Print Area. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. click the Name list arrow. the selected worksheets. 6. 2. Click the File menu. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 5.

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