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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. Typical example are DEC. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. namely. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. which make up the visible computer. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. PC. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. However. PDP series and data general series. It is sometimes said. While the software is programs. these have similar features to that of mainframe. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. MINI COMPUTER. 4. the hardware is the physical component or devices. TANDY. In this system.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. AMSTAD etc. it consists of main storage. SUPER COMPUTER. ALU and control unit. It is the micro-processor in a computer. The hardware. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. 3. Micro Computer.

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Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. E. operating systems. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). database management system.g. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). Sound card. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Mother board. Hard disk drive (HDD). Main memory or RAM. Mouse. plotter etc. Power supply unit (PSU). BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. Joystick etc. UNIX MS Windows etc. There are two main types of software 1. System unit ii. the system unit houses a number of system components. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma].••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. Example are MS DOS. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. Examples are Computer keyboard. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. iii. language translators. System software 2. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. printers. Fax modem (in latest PCs). These include. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. It must be available when needed 4 . The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Cooling fan. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. Must be of high performance 3. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task.

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Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. such as the public telephone services. usage and other technical details 7. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. Dust. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. There are two major types of computer networks. Provide fire extinguishers. 3. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. uninterruptible power supply. satellite or private line. 6. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. 2. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system.

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the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. the hard disk. example shown below. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. The desktop. i L If your computer supports multiple users. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . often abbreviated OS. without your even being aware of it. Turn on the main power on the system unit. Just click your user name (or Guest. 5. And without your having to know how it does it. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. which looks something like the example shown below. keyboard. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. such as your monitor and printer. mouse. starting Windows XP is a simple task. 4. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. used mainly in large businesses. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. the programs you use. and Linux and UNIX. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). homes and institutions or organi ations. such as in building. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. Follow these steps: 1. Some of the other operating systems DOS. 6 . Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. is the large area of the screen. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. 3. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. And it does all that in the background. proper. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware.

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The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. typically this is something you can change and print. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. Each icon. represents some program you can run. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. or some location on your computer where things are stored.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. The Start button 7 . To open an icon. the Quick Launch toolbar. document. in turn. Document icon: Represents a document. or Web site. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. folder. and the Notifications area.

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and then instantly restarts it. To shut down the computer altogether. Click the Log Off button that appears. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. you can just log off. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Nothing is saved. no power is consumed while the computer is off. follow these steps: 1. follow these steps: 1. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. and want to leave it on for them. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. 2. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Click the Start button. or put it to sleep so to speak. The Start menu is divided into two sections. and restarting will be from scratch. If you share computer with others. 2. but does not save current settings. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. Logging Off. 3. Also known as rebooting. 3. This is not good. Click the Start button. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. 8 . To log off. so that it consumes little or no electricity.

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2. 6. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. the first thing to do is to open the menus. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. Dragging. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. POINTING. 5. To use the mouse. you make a selection. 7. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. 4. An arrow. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. Pressing. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. Double clicking.shaped pointer moves across the screen. each time you press the mouse button. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. Basic mouse movements 1. 9 . and then click a mouse button. Selection. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. to display the contents of menus.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently.These tools are common to most windows. Shift clicking. Clicking.

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To move more quickly than that. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. 9.´ 4. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. drag the slider box through the slider bar. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. or down. To resi e an item within the toolbar. and appears ³pushed in. drag it back into the taskbar. right-click its taskbar button. doubleclick its title bar. 13. no other windows overlap the active window 6. Remember.´ That is. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. To add toolbars to. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). right. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. or remove toolbars from. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. To rearrange items in the toolbar. 2. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. the taskbar. 12. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. 15. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). To see the options for a particular window. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). up. To move up or down a little bit at a time. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. Scroll bars Scroll bars. 8. click the up.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. drag the window by its title bar. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. drag its dots to the left. 10 . 10.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. To move a window to some new location on the screen. 7. as mentioned. Alternatively. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. 16. 17. 11. try widening it first. If it won¶t go. 14.

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. To open the Folders list. and then click the option you want. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. (I say may be able to. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. and then type the requested information. Click the box to turn on or off the option. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. Click a button to perform a specific action or command.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Button. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . You can usually select only one. Preview box.) opens another dialog box. Option buttons. Spin box. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Each tab groups a related set of options.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Check box. a cleared box means it s not. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. or type a number in the box.. If your mouse has a wheel. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. A checked box means the option is selected. Click in the box. Text box. List box. Click an option button to select it. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Click a tab to display its options. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs.

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right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . From the shortcut menu. 4. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. To display all open windows in equal si es.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1.

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Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. You can create a simple letter to a friend. or even write a complicated. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. which is why most businesses have adopted it. One method is from the Start button. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. it s also very easy to use. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done.

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A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. Click on a menu selection. 14 . A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. you'll see the options available under that menu. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. 1. the Alignment buttons (left.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment.right-click to open a shortcut menu. and options that relate to files. If you look closely. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. by default. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. centre. e For example. are grouped together. such as saving or opening. and right) are grouped together. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. Right click anywhere in the document screen.

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The description of that feature will appear 2. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. The requested action will be performed. which is usually at the top of the screen. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. Release the mouse button. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. 15 . Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Click on a toolbar button. 1. 3. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1.

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Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. you'll need to move the insertion point around. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy.) to the next line for you. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. my computer training programme have commence. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . Press the enter key.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. 1.

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in the document window. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Down. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Right. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Inserting Text 17 . a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Just type them in. Or want to change some of the text in the document. Selecting. Here is how to: Inserting.

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Selecting Text Before you can move. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. 18 . You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. you must first select the text you want to edit. When text is selected (called highlighted). delete. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. Select All. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. or change the formatting of text. copy.

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the case of the selected text will change to either upper. press the F3 key. 1. Click on the undo button." You can apply a text case change to a word. or title case. lower. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. however. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include." If." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. Click on a case option. word. 4. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. after highlighting your text. Also. or reverse a recently taken action. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). TIP 19 . you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Each time you press F3. when you reopen it. if you type "SPringtime. click once anywhere in the document. however. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. delete text you just typed. if you close the document. Click on OK. Be aware. TIP To deselect text. or any amount of selected text. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. a phrase. For example. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. The option will be selected 5. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. use Word's Undo feature. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. that if you save your document.

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Word deletes the selected text. If you undo the Change Case action. use the Redo feature.•• Optionally. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. 2. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. 1. 3. 1. choose Undo from the Edit menu. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. With Cut and Paste. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. Select the text you want to copy. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. Optionally. Word will reverse the previous undo action. then underlined the text. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. holds it. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Click on the Paste button. When you undoa previous step. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. For example. 2. Click on the Redo button. Click on the copy button. and then places it into a new location. then bolded the text. to cut text. imagine you changed the case of some text. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Click on the action you want to undo. The text will be highlighted. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . to paste text.

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it only takes a second to lose hours of work. then Document3. Fortunately. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. 21 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. However. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. to copy text. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. and after that. Click on the Paste button. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Those names are temporary names. and so forth. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. to help protect you against such a catastrophe.

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TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. you should close it. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. When you close a document. The original document will remain. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. and then choose Save As. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. 22 . Word is still active and ready to work for you. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. you are only putting the document away²not the program. click on File.

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Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. be sure to save the file again. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. If you make any changes.

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Printing with the Print Button 24 . In Print Preview. such as margins.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. you will only be able to see the document. b. The Print Preview window will open. will look in the printed document. you won't be able to edit it. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. Click on Print Preview. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. you may want to preview it on the screen. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings.

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or if you want to change which printer is being used. or just specific pages. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. you must display the Prin dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. 25 . Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document.

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Bottom. The File menu will appear. left. Click on File. click on the Margins tab. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. left. bottom. Left. 3. 26 . Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. after you've completed the entire document. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. 2. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. 4. or right margin setting.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. Click on Page Setup. bottom. and right margins. 5. or at any time in between. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top.

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1. for example.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. Click on File. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. Click on Insert. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. 1. Click on Break. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. A dropdown menu will appear. but you cannot make a page longer. 27 . Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. The Insert menu will appear 3. 2. The File menu will appear 2. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on Page Setup. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document.

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right. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. You can also justify your text. and Ctrl+5 for 1. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. Word comes with extra fonts. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. Like line spacing. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine.5 line spacing. 28 . or centre.

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a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. Therefore. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. add impact by adding some colour. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. Italic. italic. 29 . Applying Bold. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. and Ctrl+U for underline. Ctrl+I for italic. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Font sizes are measured in points. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically.

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it may be available in a different font. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. The text will appear in the selected colour. The symbol will appear selected 7. Click on a symbol. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. stars. or airplanes. phrase. such as a title page of a document. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. 4. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. Click on Insert. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. Click on a font. paragraph. You can also add a border around an entire page. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. check marks. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. 30 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 4.

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type an asterisk. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Note that when you use the asterisk key. or a hyphen. then a closing parenthesis. or dash. you can easily turn off the feature. Word will continue the list with the same character. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. preceding it with a bullet character or a number.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. 1. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Word continues the list using the same format. instead of typing a number at the first item. Type the text for the first item on your list. Click on AutoCorrect Options. The text will display in the document 4. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. a period. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. The tools menu will appear. Click on Tools. word will convert it to a round. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . 2. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. Click on OK. Type a number. hyphen. filled-in-bullet. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. 1.

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The insert menu will appear 3. The list will change to bulleted. The list will change to numbered. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on Go. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. OR 3. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Click on insert.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Click on picture. Select the list of items you want to modify. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . 1. If you'r not already e using one of these views. 2. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. 4. The text will be highlighted. The picture menu will appear. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Click on clip Art. Again. 1. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. The list will be highlighted. The clip Art task pane will open 5. it's easy to change it. 1. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. 2. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image.

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" 33 . The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. The insert picture dialogue box will open. The picture submenu will appear 3. The blinking insertion point will appear. or other type of artwork. The picture menu will appear 4. The selection will have a box around it 5. skewed. "Your Text Here. and stretched text. Click on insert. The insert menu will appear 2. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. rotated. Click on WordArt. scanned image.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. You can create shadowed. Click on a WordArt style. Click on picture. The insert menu will appear 3. Click on from file. Click on OK. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. whether it's a photograph. Click on picture. A placeholder in the Text box will say. 1. 1. a drawing. containing predefined styles 4. . as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. Click on insert. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Click on Drawing. 1. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. Click on Toolbars. 34 . Click on View. The view menu will appear 2.

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The Table menu will appear 2. Click on OK. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. The Insert submenu will appear 3. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. create it from the toolbar. Click on Table. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. The table will be created 35 . The number will be displayed 6. Click on the diagram type you want to use. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. Click on Table. 1. Click on OK. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. Click on Insert. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. The number will display 5. or draw it manually. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. You can insert it from a menu selection.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. and you're ready to go. 1. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box.

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1. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. As you enter text in the cells. The column width will change. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. To use the mouse. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Down Arrow key. simply click in the cell you want to work with. the text automatically wraps to the next line. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. 1. The table grid will appear in the document. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. Up Arrow key. The insertion point will move up a row. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. 36 . Shift+Tab key. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. The blinking insertion point will appear. Type some text. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. 2.

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Select the data. Click on Rows Above. Click on Delete. Click on Table. The create new tab will come to the front 5. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Just follow the same procedure.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click on Object. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. The Object dialogue box will open 4. For example. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. Click on Rows. Click in the last Cell of the last row. The insert menu will appear. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The current column will be deleted OR 5. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. The data will be highlighted. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Insert. OR Click on Rows Below. column heads. Click on Columns. 37 . 1. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. Click anywhere in the document. Click on OK. The selection will be highlighted 6. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The Table menu will appear 3. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. 2. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. The table menu will appear 3. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. 1. The Table. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. 3. Press the tab key. and row labels of your table. 1. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click on Table. Click on Insert. The delete submenu will appear 4.

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Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. dates. Time. a header prints at the top of every page. Click on Header and Footer 3. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Click on View. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. try them out on some of the other Office programs.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Type and format some text. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. The footer box will appear 5. and a footer prints at the bottom. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. 1. Type some text. Headers and footers can contain text. The View menu will appear 2. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. or even pictures. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . when you print the document.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. and numbers. dates and times. Point to All Programs. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. and then point to Microsoft Office. The values can be in form of text. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel.

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and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. and then click New. Click the Close button on the task pane. Click Blank Workbook." and so on). Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. 3. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. Click the File menu. 2. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running." "Book2. A blank workbook is opened. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel.

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and numbers 3. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. 3. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Press Enter. Type a number value. If you want to save the file in another folder. punctuation. click the Save In list arrow. 4. 42 . Type' (an apostrophe). ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. 2. 3. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type your text. 2. Enter a Number as a Text 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. spaces. 4. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Type the file name for the new workbook name. 2. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Press Enter.

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or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. and then click Close. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. 2. Select a Contiguous Range 1. To protect your files. edit or move it. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. or click Cancel to cancel the save. you can quit the program. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. click No to ignore any changes. or click the File menu. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. and then click Exit. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Click the File menu.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. you can close it. When you're finished using Excel. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. use them in a formula. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. 43 . the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. 3. Excel is still running. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. 2. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. 2. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. Close a Workbook 1. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it.

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type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. Click Date. 44 . Press Enter. followed by a space. 2.M. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. click the Number tab.M. Press Enter. When a range is selected. while the additional cells are selected. 2. Type a value. 3. Enter a Date or Time 1. and then release the mouse button. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. To enter a date. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. or P. Press and hold Ctrl. 3. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. Click the Format menu. 3. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. 4. 2. If necessary. To select more. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. 2. and then click Cells. 4. day. followed by the minute. followed by a colon (:). the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. To enter a time. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A.

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4. Click the date or time format. 2. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. 3. If necessary. 6. The insertion point appears in the cell. End. or press Delete. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. Edit Cell Contents 1. 2. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Double-click the cell you want to edit. Click OK. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). 3. 45 . 2. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Select the cell or range you want to clear. and then type new characters as needed. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. use the Home. Right click the cell or range. 4. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. Enter the starting value to be repeated.•• 5.

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and then point to Clear. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 5. Select the cell or range you want to clear. available for further pasting. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 46 . called a marquee. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. and then click Paste Special. Click the Edit menu. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 5. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 2. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. shows the size of the selection. 4. 3. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Click to select the Transpose check box. 3. 4. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Paste Data with Special Results 1. 2. 2. 2. The data remains on the Clipboard. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 5. Click All. and then click Paste Special. until you replace it with another selection. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. If you don't want to paste this selection. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 6. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 3. 4. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Select the cells that you want to switch. press Esc to remove the marquee. 3. Formatting.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Click the Edit menu. Click the Edit menu. and Comments 1. 4. 2. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 6. Drag the selection to the new location. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. press Esc to remove the marquee. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. 3. Click OK.

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not calculate. 2. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. Enter the first argument. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. 2. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Click the option you want. Enter an arithmetic operator. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Type = (an equal sign). 3. 2. Select the cell or range you want to delete. 4. Enter the next argument. 4. 3. Delete a Cell 1. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. 3. When you delete a cell. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 6. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. Insert a Cell 1. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. Click the Insert menu. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. and then click Cells. Click OK. the information you type. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 5. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Click the Edit menu. Click the option you want. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. 47 . Click OK. and then click Delete. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. Excel will display.

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Display Formulas in Cells 1. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). 48 . or press Enter. Click OK. 3. Click to select the Formulas check box. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Click the View tab. 2. Click the Tools menu. 3. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. and then click Options. 2. Calculate a Range Automatically 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 4. Click the type of calculation you want.

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Type = (an equal sign).•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. 3. Click the function you want to use. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Enter a Function 1. Press Enter to accept the range selected. For example. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. 49 . Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. type =AVERAGE(. or press Enter. to insert the AVERAGE function. 2. type the name of the function. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar.

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To insert multiple rows. drag to select more columns or rows. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Click OK. and then click Columns or Rows. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. 2. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. Click the Insert menu. Click the Insert menu. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. 50 . 3. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. To insert a row. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. Type a new column width or row height in points. 2. 5. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Click the Edit menu. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. and then click Columns or Rows. and then click Column Width or Row Height. and then click Delete. If you want. 2.

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Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. A chart. 2. the chart is called an embedded object. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. or bubble chart. rather than on a new sheet. also called a graph. graphical representation of numerical data. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. line. Click a chart type. 6. Select the data range you want to chart. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. You can click Finish at any time. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Click a chart sub-type. click Back or Forward. 3. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. surface. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. 4. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. Click Next to continue. 5. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. 2. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. patterns become more apparent. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. pie. 51 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1.

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8. x-axis. Titles tab. Click Next to continue. Click a chart options tab. y Data Table tab. Select options to display a legend and its location. y Data Labels tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Select the axes you want to display for the data. Preview the options. 13. Type titles for the chart. Click to add a table to the chart. 9. Verify the data range. y Gridlines tab. Select the labels you want for the data. y Legend tab. 52 . and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. and then click Next to continue. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. 10. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. 12. 11. Click Finish. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. y Axes tab.

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Release the mouse button. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag the slice away from the pie. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. 53 .

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press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. press Tab. 9. and then click Chart Options. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. Preview the title(s) you are adding. and then type the text. Click OK 54 . Type the text you want for the title of the chart. Click the Chart menu. 3. press Tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. To add a title for the x-axis. 2. 5. f you want a second line for the x. and then type the title text. To add a title for the y-axis. and then type the text. 6. 8. 7. 4.or y-axis. Click the Titles tab.

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or Right Section text boxes. 4. To insert a horizontal page break. click the View menu. Click the Portrait (8. Click the Top. 4. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Bottom. 3. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. and then click Page Setup. Arial. click the row where you want to insert a page break. Type the information in the Left. Click the Header/Footer tab. 55 . make font changes. When you're done.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. 2. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. 6. Click OK. 8. Change the Margin Settings 1. 3. 7. unless you change it. 3. Click OK. Click the File menu.5 inches) option to select page orientation. If you don't want a header to appear at all. and then click Normal. and then click Page Break Preview. 2. click the Font button. Click the Margins tab. Click the Page tab. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. 5. and then click Page Break. Click the Insert menu. or click a button to insert built-in header information. 9. Click the File menu. Click OK. 4. 2. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. Excel will use the default font. Click the View menu. To insert a vertical page break. and then click OK. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. and then click Page Setup. Change Page Orientation 1. 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. Click OK. click Custom Footer. Centre. Click OK 10. 3. Click the File menu. or Right Section text boxes. Type information in the Left. click Custom Header. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. Left. and then click Page Setup. Select the text you want to format. Centre. Change a Header or Footer 1. 2. 5.

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select the row or column with the mouse. 3. 2. Click OK. Click OK. Select the range of cells you want to print. and then click Page Setup. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. Click the File menu. 56 . and then point to Print Area. Click Set Print Area. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click the File menu. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Click the Sheet tab. Type the range you want to print. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 3. 2. 2. select the cells you want to print. Set the Print Area 1. 4. 3. 4. Click the Sheet tab.

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Click the File menu. 2. If necessary. 2. click the Name list arrow. Click the File menu. 57 . Click OK. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. 6. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. the selected worksheets. and then click Print.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. 5. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. Click Clear Print Area. and then click the printer you want to use. and then point to Print Area. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want.

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