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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. The hardware. Micro Computer. It is sometimes said. the hardware is the physical component or devices. While the software is programs. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. 4. It is the micro-processor in a computer. it consists of main storage. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. which make up the visible computer. these have similar features to that of mainframe. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. PC. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. MINI COMPUTER.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. However. ALU and control unit. In this system. 3. namely. PDP series and data general series. SUPER COMPUTER. TANDY. Typical example are DEC. AMSTAD etc. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems.

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Example are MS DOS. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. printers. Must be of high performance 3. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. UNIX MS Windows etc. Mouse. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Fax modem (in latest PCs). It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. iii.g. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. the system unit houses a number of system components. E. Hard disk drive (HDD). language translators. Examples are Computer keyboard. Joystick etc. Sound card. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Cooling fan. It must be available when needed 4 . Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. plotter etc. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. These include. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Main memory or RAM. There are two main types of software 1. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Mother board. database management system. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. System software 2. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. System unit ii. Power supply unit (PSU). operating systems.

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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). There are two major types of computer networks. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. 3. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. usage and other technical details 7. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. uninterruptible power supply. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. 6. Provide fire extinguishers. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Dust. 2. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. such as the public telephone services. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. satellite or private line.

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5. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. Follow these steps: 1. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. starting Windows XP is a simple task. keyboard. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. is the large area of the screen. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. The desktop. 6 . homes and institutions or organi ations. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. such as your monitor and printer. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. Some of the other operating systems DOS. and Linux and UNIX. which looks something like the example shown below. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. 4. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). 3. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. Just click your user name (or Guest. And without your having to know how it does it. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. such as in building. mouse. often abbreviated OS. the programs you use. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . i L If your computer supports multiple users. proper.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. used mainly in large businesses. without your even being aware of it. And it does all that in the background. Turn on the main power on the system unit. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. the hard disk. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. example shown below.

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you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. Each icon.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. and the Notifications area. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. To open an icon. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. folder. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. or some location on your computer where things are stored. represents some program you can run. The Start button 7 . the Quick Launch toolbar. Document icon: Represents a document. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. typically this is something you can change and print. in turn. or Web site. document.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder.

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The right side provides access to frequently used folders. To shut down the computer altogether.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. follow these steps: 1. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. and restarting will be from scratch. or put it to sleep so to speak. If you share computer with others. 3. and then instantly restarts it. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. 2. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. follow these steps: 1. Nothing is saved. The Start menu is divided into two sections. no power is consumed while the computer is off. so that it consumes little or no electricity. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. 2. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. but does not save current settings. Click the Start button. Click the Start button. you can just log off. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. Also known as rebooting. 8 . This is not good. Logging Off. Click the Log Off button that appears. To log off. 3. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. and want to leave it on for them.

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5. Dragging. Basic mouse movements 1. 6. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. the first thing to do is to open the menus. each time you press the mouse button. Pressing. to display the contents of menus. 7.shaped pointer moves across the screen. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. and then click a mouse button. An arrow. you make a selection. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. Double clicking.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. Selection. Clicking. POINTING. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. 2. 9 . Shift clicking. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen.These tools are common to most windows. 4. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. To use the mouse.

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Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. 2. 7. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). To move a window to some new location on the screen. as mentioned. drag its dots to the left. 14. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. and appears ³pushed in. or down. 8. click the up. To move more quickly than that. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. 13. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. 10. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. If it won¶t go. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. 11. 10 . To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar.´ 4. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. drag the slider box through the slider bar. 16. no other windows overlap the active window 6. 17. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. Remember. Scroll bars Scroll bars. or remove toolbars from. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. drag it back into the taskbar. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. doubleclick its title bar. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. To move up or down a little bit at a time. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. To see the options for a particular window. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. To add toolbars to. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. try widening it first. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. drag the window by its title bar. 12. the taskbar. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). To resi e an item within the toolbar. 9. 15.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. Alternatively. To rearrange items in the toolbar. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently.´ That is. right. right-click its taskbar button. up.

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you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Text box. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. Click an option button to select it.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. Click a tab to display its options. Button. Click the box to turn on or off the option. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. Spin box. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer.) opens another dialog box. Click in the box. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Option buttons. a cleared box means it s not. Preview box. and then click the option you want. (I say may be able to. and then type the requested information. or type a number in the box. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Click a button to perform a specific action or command. List box. Check box. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. You can usually select only one. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment.. Each tab groups a related set of options. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box.. To open the Folders list. A checked box means the option is selected. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. If your mouse has a wheel.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . To display all open windows in equal si es. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. 4. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. From the shortcut menu.

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Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. or even write a complicated. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. which is why most businesses have adopted it. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. it s also very easy to use. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. One method is from the Start button. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. You can create a simple letter to a friend. you can double -click it to quickly access Word.

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right-click to open a shortcut menu. 14 . 1. centre. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Click on a menu selection. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. by default. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. are grouped together. such as saving or opening. If you look closely. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. the Alignment buttons (left. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. and right) are grouped together.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. Right click anywhere in the document screen. e For example. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. you'll see the options available under that menu. and options that relate to files.

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press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. The toolbar will remain in the new position. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Release the mouse button. which is usually at the top of the screen. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. 1. Click on a toolbar button. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. 15 . 3. The description of that feature will appear 2. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. The requested action will be performed.

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Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. 1. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. my computer training programme have commence. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . It marks the location where text will appear when you type. you'll need to move the insertion point around. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. The program automatically moves down (word wrap.) to the next line for you.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. Press the enter key.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Down. in the document window. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Here is how to: Inserting. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Right. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. Just type them in. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Inserting Text 17 . or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Selecting. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Or want to change some of the text in the document. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document.

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When text is selected (called highlighted). Selecting Text Before you can move. or change the formatting of text. delete. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. Select All. you must first select the text you want to edit. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. copy. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. 18 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document.

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" If. 1. however. or title case. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. TIP 19 ." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. The option will be selected 5. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. Click on OK. a phrase. when you reopen it. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. after highlighting your text. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Be aware. use Word's Undo feature. Click on the undo button. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). For example. 4. Each time you press F3. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. if you type "SPringtime. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. or any amount of selected text. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. delete text you just typed. if you close the document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. word. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. lower. however. or reverse a recently taken action. Also. click once anywhere in the document. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys." You can apply a text case change to a word. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. press the F3 key. TIP To deselect text. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. that if you save your document. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. Click on a case option.

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Click on the Redo button. to cut text. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps.•• Optionally. Click on the copy button. Word deletes the selected text. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. 2. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Click on the Paste button. Optionally. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. to paste text. imagine you changed the case of some text. Select the text you want to copy. 2. Word will reverse the previous undo action. When you undoa previous step. use the Redo feature. then bolded the text. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Click on the action you want to undo. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. and then places it into a new location. then underlined the text. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. If you undo the Change Case action. 1. choose Undo from the Edit menu. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. 1. 1. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. For example. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. The text will be highlighted. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . With Cut and Paste. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. 3. holds it. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard.

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to copy text. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. Fortunately. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. and after that. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. However. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Click on the Paste button. then Document3. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. 21 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. Those names are temporary names. and so forth.

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A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. Word is still active and ready to work for you. you should close it. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. The original document will remain. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. you are only putting the document away²not the program. When you close a document. 22 . Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. click on File. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. and then choose Save As.

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allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. If you make any changes. be sure to save the file again. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document.

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Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. such as margins. will look in the printed document. you will only be able to see the document. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. you won't be able to edit it. In Print Preview. Click on Print Preview. Printing with the Print Button 24 . you may want to preview it on the screen. b.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. The Print Preview window will open. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings.

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the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. 25 . you must display the Prin dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. or if you want to change which printer is being used. or just specific pages. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document.

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left. or at any time in between. Bottom. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 2. 26 . 3. The File menu will appear. 5. after you've completed the entire document. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. click on the Margins tab. Left.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. or right margin setting. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. bottom. left. 4. Click on Page Setup. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. Click on File. and right margins. bottom. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top.

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2. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. Click on Insert. The Insert menu will appear 3. 1. The File menu will appear 2. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. 27 . A dropdown menu will appear. Click on Page Setup. Click on Break. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. 1. for example. The blinking insertion point will appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. but you cannot make a page longer. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. Click on File.

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Ctrl+2 for double spacing. and Ctrl+5 for 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. or centre. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. You can also justify your text. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. 28 . Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. Like line spacing. right. Word comes with extra fonts. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine.5 line spacing. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look.

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add impact by adding some colour. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Font sizes are measured in points. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Italic. Therefore. and Ctrl+U for underline. 29 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. Applying Bold. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. italic. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. Ctrl+I for italic. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text.

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it may be available in a different font. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. phrase. You can also add a border around an entire page. paragraph. or airplanes. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. check marks. The symbol will appear selected 7. 4. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. The text will appear in the selected colour. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. such as a title page of a document. stars. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. Click on a font. 30 . Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. Click on a symbol. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. Click on Insert.

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Type a number. Type the text for the first item on your list. or a hyphen. 2. or dash. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. 1. then a closing parenthesis. a period. Word continues the list using the same format. Press the spacebar or Tab key. type an asterisk. you can easily turn off the feature. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Note that when you use the asterisk key. The text will display in the document 4. Word will continue the list with the same character. filled-in-bullet. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. instead of typing a number at the first item. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Click on OK.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . Click on Tools. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. Click on AutoCorrect Options. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. 1. The tools menu will appear. hyphen. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. word will convert it to a round.

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Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on insert. The list will change to numbered. OR 3. Click on picture. The text will be highlighted. The list will change to bulleted. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. The list will be highlighted. The blinking insertion point will appear. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Click on clip Art. The picture menu will appear. 1. Select the list of items you want to modify. 2. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. 1. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. 4. it's easy to change it. The insert menu will appear 3. If you'r not already e using one of these views. 2. Click on Go. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. 1. Again.

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The selection will have a box around it 5. containing predefined styles 4. You can create shadowed. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. rotated. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image." 33 . Click on insert. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. "Your Text Here. skewed.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. 1. scanned image. Click on WordArt. and stretched text. The insert picture dialogue box will open. Click on picture. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. Click on picture. 1. whether it's a photograph. Click on OK. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. a drawing. The picture submenu will appear 3. The picture menu will appear 4. . Click on a WordArt style. The insert menu will appear 2. The blinking insertion point will appear. The insert menu will appear 3. or other type of artwork. Click on insert. Click on from file.

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A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. Click on Drawing. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. 34 . Click on Toolbars. The view menu will appear 2. Click on View. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. 1.

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You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. You can insert it from a menu selection. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Click on Table. The Insert submenu will appear 3. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. and you're ready to go. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. 1. Click on OK. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. create it from the toolbar. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. Click on the diagram type you want to use.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. A sample diagram will appear in your document. The Table menu will appear 2. Click on Table. Click on OK. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Click on Insert. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. or draw it manually. The number will be displayed 6. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. The table will be created 35 . 1. The number will display 5.

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Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. As you enter text in the cells. Up Arrow key. the text automatically wraps to the next line. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. 1. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Type some text. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. Shift+Tab key. 2. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The blinking insertion point will appear. The table grid will appear in the document. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. The insertion point will move up a row. Down Arrow key. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. 1. The column width will change. 36 . A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. To use the mouse.

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Click on Rows Above. The Object dialogue box will open 4. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The delete submenu will appear 4. OR Click on Rows Below. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Press the tab key. Click on Columns. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. 2. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The selection will be highlighted 6. Click on Table. The Table menu will appear 3. 1. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click on Delete. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. 3. The data will be highlighted. Select the data. Click in the last Cell of the last row. The current column will be deleted OR 5. 1. 1. Click on Object. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. Just follow the same procedure. The Table. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. Click on OK. For example. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. Click on Table. Click on Insert. The table menu will appear 3. Click on Rows. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. Click anywhere in the document. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. 37 . The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. 1. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. If necessary click on the Create New tab. The create new tab will come to the front 5. column heads. The insert menu will appear. and row labels of your table. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. Click on Insert.

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Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. The View menu will appear 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Type some text. Headers and footers can contain text. dates. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. 1. Click on Header and Footer 3. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. when you print the document. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. Type and format some text. and a footer prints at the bottom. try them out on some of the other Office programs. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. or even pictures. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Click on View. The footer box will appear 5. Time. a header prints at the top of every page. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. The values can be in form of text. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . and numbers. Point to All Programs.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. and then point to Microsoft Office. dates and times.

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Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Click Blank Workbook. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. and then click New." "Book2. Click the File menu. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. 2. Click the Close button on the task pane. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. 3." and so on). A blank workbook is opened. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it.

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Press Enter. Type' (an apostrophe). If you want to save the file in another folder. 2. 4. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. and numbers 3. click the Save In list arrow. 4. spaces. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Type the file name for the new workbook name. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. 3. Press Enter. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. 2. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. punctuation. Type a number value. 3. 42 . Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Type your text. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Click the cell where you want to enter a label.

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a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. or click the File menu. you can close it. 43 . the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. Close a Workbook 1. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. To protect your files. 2. click No to ignore any changes. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. you can quit the program. When you're finished using Excel. 2. Select a Contiguous Range 1. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. Click the File menu. 3. 3. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. and then click Exit. Excel is still running. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. edit or move it. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. use them in a formula.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. and then click Close. or click Cancel to cancel the save. 2. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook.

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while the additional cells are selected. When a range is selected. Press Enter. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. Click the Format menu. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. followed by the minute. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month.M. followed by a colon (:). 2. 3. If necessary. To enter a date. 3. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. followed by a space. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. click the Number tab. 2. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. 4. To enter a time. Type a value. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. 2.M. Press and hold Ctrl. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. Press Enter. day. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click Date. or P. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. 3. Enter a Date or Time 1. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. To select more. 4. and then release the mouse button. 44 . and then click Cells.

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Enter the starting value to be repeated. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. 45 . 3.•• 5. 6. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. End. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Right click the cell or range. Click OK. or press Delete. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. 2. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. and then type new characters as needed. 2. Click the date or time format. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. 2. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Edit Cell Contents 1. Select the cell or range you want to clear. If necessary. 3. use the Home. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. 4. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. The insertion point appears in the cell. Double-click the cell you want to edit. 4.

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6. 2. 3. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. press Esc to remove the marquee. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 3. 46 . Formatting. Select the cells that you want to switch. available for further pasting. 4. The data remains on the Clipboard. 3. 2. called a marquee. If you don't want to paste this selection. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. 4. press Esc to remove the marquee. 6. Drag the selection to the new location. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Edit menu. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. 4. until you replace it with another selection. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 3. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. and then click Paste Special. and then point to Clear. Click the Edit menu. Click All. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 5. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 2. Click the Edit menu. and then click Paste Special. Click to select the Transpose check box. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. 5. Click OK. and Comments 1. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. 5. shows the size of the selection.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 2. 3. 2. 4.

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the information you type. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. 4. 5. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. 3. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. Excel will display. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. Type = (an equal sign). Click the option you want. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Click the Insert menu. Enter the first argument. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 3. Click the Edit menu. Click the option you want. Insert a Cell 1. When you delete a cell. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. 4. 2. Enter an arithmetic operator. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. not calculate. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Delete a Cell 1. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. and then click Delete. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 2. 2. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. Click OK. 6. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 3. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. and then click Cells. Enter the next argument. Select the cell or range you want to delete. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Click OK. 47 .

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y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Display Formulas in Cells 1. 3. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the Tools menu. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 2. Click OK. Click to select the Formulas check box. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. 48 . the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 2. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Click the View tab. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. and then click Options. or press Enter. 3. Click the type of calculation you want.

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to insert the AVERAGE function. or press Enter. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. 3. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. 49 . Press Enter to accept the range selected. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. or press Enter. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. Type = (an equal sign). Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. Enter a Function 1. For example. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. type =AVERAGE(. type the name of the function. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the function you want to use. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis).

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Type a new column width or row height in points. Click the Insert menu. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Click the Edit menu. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. and then click Delete. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. 5. and then click Columns or Rows. To insert multiple rows. and then click Columns or Rows.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. 50 . To insert a row. Click OK. and then click Column Width or Row Height. If you want. Click the Insert menu. 4. drag to select more columns or rows. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 2. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. 2. 3. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). 2.

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Select the data range you want to chart. patterns become more apparent. 2. You can click Finish at any time. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. Click a chart sub-type. A chart. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. 6. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. Click a chart type. also called a graph. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. pie. 51 . click Back or Forward. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. 3. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. or bubble chart. the chart is called an embedded object. graphical representation of numerical data. 4. 2. line.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. 5. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Click Next to continue. surface. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. rather than on a new sheet. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet.

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and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. x-axis. y Gridlines tab. y Legend tab. Select options to display a legend and its location. 9. Click to add a table to the chart. y Data Table tab. Select the labels you want for the data. 8. Titles tab. 12. Select the axes you want to display for the data. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. 52 . Type titles for the chart. 10. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Verify the data range. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. 11. y Axes tab. Click Next to continue. Click a chart options tab. Click Finish. Preview the options. 13. y Data Labels tab. and then click Next to continue. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object.

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Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag the slice away from the pie. Release the mouse button. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. 53 . Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie.

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Type the text you want for the title of the chart.or y-axis.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. 7. press Tab. Click OK 54 . 2. Click the Chart menu. press Tab. 3. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. To add a title for the y-axis. and then type the title text. 9. and then type the text. 5. and then click Chart Options. 8. To add a title for the x-axis. Click the Titles tab. 6. 4. and then type the text. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. f you want a second line for the x. Preview the title(s) you are adding.

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make font changes. 2. 55 . 5. or click a button to insert built-in header information.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. Change the Margin Settings 1. Change a Header or Footer 1. 2.5 inches) option to select page orientation. 7. and then click OK. To insert a vertical page break. 2. 2. Change Page Orientation 1. 4. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. or Right Section text boxes. Select the text you want to format. and then click Page Break. click the View menu. To insert a horizontal page break. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. or Right Section text boxes. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. 5. 6. Click the Margins tab. Centre. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. 3. 8. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Arial. 3. 3. Type information in the Left. Click OK. Click the Page tab. When you're done. Click the Insert menu. Left. Excel will use the default font. click the column where you want to insert a page break. 4. Click the File menu. Click the File menu. and then click Page Break Preview. 2. click Custom Footer. 3. Click the Header/Footer tab. Click the Portrait (8. Click the File menu. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. click the Font button. Centre. Bottom. Click OK. Click the Top. unless you change it. 9. click Custom Header.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. 4. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. click the row where you want to insert a page break. Type the information in the Left. Click OK 10. Click the View menu. and then click Normal. and then click Page Setup.

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and then click Page Setup. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 3. Select the range of cells you want to print. select the cells you want to print. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 2. Or click the Collapse Dialog button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. Click the Sheet tab. Click OK. Click OK. 3. 2. 2. select the row or column with the mouse. Click the Sheet tab. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. 3. Type the range you want to print. Click the File menu. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 4. 56 . and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. and then point to Print Area. Set the Print Area 1. and then click Page Setup. 4. Click Set Print Area. Click the File menu. Click the File menu.

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Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. click the Name list arrow. 6. Click the File menu. and then click Print. 2. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. If necessary. the selected worksheets. Click the File menu. 57 . and then point to Print Area. Click OK. 2. and then click the printer you want to use. 5. Click Clear Print Area. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data.