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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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namely. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. Typical example are DEC. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. It is the micro-processor in a computer. It is sometimes said. However. the hardware is the physical component or devices. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. While the software is programs. which make up the visible computer. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. The hardware. it consists of main storage. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . PC. PDP series and data general series. TANDY.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. ALU and control unit. AMSTAD etc. In this system. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. MINI COMPUTER. these have similar features to that of mainframe. 3. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. Micro Computer. SUPER COMPUTER. 4.

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System unit ii. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. language translators. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Power supply unit (PSU). Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. System software 2. There are two main types of software 1. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. the system unit houses a number of system components. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. It must be available when needed 4 . Examples are Computer keyboard. operating systems. Joystick etc. printers. Fax modem (in latest PCs).g. Main memory or RAM. These include.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. database management system. E. Hard disk drive (HDD). plotter etc. Cooling fan. UNIX MS Windows etc. Mother board. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Sound card. Example are MS DOS. Mouse. Must be of high performance 3. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. iii.

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Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Dust. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. satellite or private line. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. uninterruptible power supply. usage and other technical details 7. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. Provide fire extinguishers.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. 3. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. 6. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. There are two major types of computer networks. 2. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. such as the public telephone services.

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3. The desktop. without your even being aware of it. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. used mainly in large businesses. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. which looks something like the example shown below. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. such as in building. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. homes and institutions or organi ations. such as your monitor and printer. 6 . And it does all that in the background. the hard disk. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). the programs you use. And without your having to know how it does it. 5. example shown below. is the large area of the screen. 4. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. Follow these steps: 1. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. starting Windows XP is a simple task. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. often abbreviated OS. i L If your computer supports multiple users. proper. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. mouse. and Linux and UNIX.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. Just click your user name (or Guest. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . LAN permits the movement of data between computers. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. Some of the other operating systems DOS. keyboard. Turn on the main power on the system unit.

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T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. To open an icon. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. or some location on your computer where things are stored. and the Notifications area. folder. represents some program you can run.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. The Start button 7 . Each icon. the Quick Launch toolbar. or Web site.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. in turn. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. document. typically this is something you can change and print. Document icon: Represents a document. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program.

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Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. This is not good. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. you can just log off. and want to leave it on for them. Nothing is saved. so that it consumes little or no electricity. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. Click the Start button. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. no power is consumed while the computer is off. 3. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. 8 . or put it to sleep so to speak. Also known as rebooting. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. Click the Log Off button that appears. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. 2. but does not save current settings. To shut down the computer altogether. follow these steps: 1. and then instantly restarts it. The Start menu is divided into two sections. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. If you share computer with others. follow these steps: 1. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. To log off. Logging Off. 3. Click the Start button. and restarting will be from scratch. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state.

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Pressing. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. and then click a mouse button. Selection. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. 2.These tools are common to most windows. Clicking. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. Dragging. 7. POINTING. 4. you make a selection. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. to display the contents of menus. Shift clicking. Double clicking. each time you press the mouse button. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. Basic mouse movements 1.shaped pointer moves across the screen. 5. the first thing to do is to open the menus. To use the mouse. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. 6. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. 9 . This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. An arrow.

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as mentioned. 12. To see the options for a particular window. To move a window to some new location on the screen. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. the taskbar. Remember. right-click its taskbar button. drag it back into the taskbar. right. drag its dots to the left. 7. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. 9. 2.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. 15.´ That is. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. To move up or down a little bit at a time. 13. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. 10 . If it won¶t go. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. 17. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. or down. To rearrange items in the toolbar. To resi e an item within the toolbar. 16. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. 8. up. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. try widening it first. or remove toolbars from. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. drag the window by its title bar. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. Alternatively. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. To add toolbars to. click the up. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). Scroll bars Scroll bars. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. To move more quickly than that. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. drag the slider box through the slider bar. and appears ³pushed in. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. 14. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 10. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. 11. doubleclick its title bar. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen.´ 4. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. no other windows overlap the active window 6. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active.

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Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Preview box. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. Click the box to turn on or off the option. Button. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. and then click the option you want. If your mouse has a wheel. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. You can usually select only one. Check box. List box. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. or type a number in the box. Click a button to perform a specific action or command.. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. a cleared box means it s not. Click in the box. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. just click the Folders button on the toolbar..) opens another dialog box. (I say may be able to. A checked box means the option is selected. To open the Folders list. and then type the requested information. Each tab groups a related set of options. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Click an option button to select it. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. Option buttons. Click a tab to display its options.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Spin box. Text box. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar.

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4. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. From the shortcut menu. To display all open windows in equal si es. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. which is why most businesses have adopted it. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . part of the Microsoft Office Suite. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. One method is from the Start button. You can create a simple letter to a friend. it s also very easy to use. or even write a complicated. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program.

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The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. by default. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. the Alignment buttons (left." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. and right) are grouped together. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. Right click anywhere in the document screen. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. and options that relate to files. If you look closely. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. 14 . such as saving or opening. 1. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. centre.right-click to open a shortcut menu. e For example. Click on a menu selection. are grouped together. you'll see the options available under that menu. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen.

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The toolbar will remain in the new position. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. which is usually at the top of the screen. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Click on a toolbar button. 1. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. The requested action will be performed. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. The description of that feature will appear 2. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Release the mouse button. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. 15 . Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item.

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) to the next line for you. my computer training programme have commence. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. It marks the location where text will appear when you type.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Press the enter key. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. you'll need to move the insertion point around. 1. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 .

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Inserting Text 17 . Right. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. Or want to change some of the text in the document. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Just type them in. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. in the document window.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Here is how to: Inserting. Selecting. Down. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document.

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You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. or change the formatting of text. 18 . press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. you must first select the text you want to edit.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. Selecting Text Before you can move. copy. delete. Select All. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. When text is selected (called highlighted).

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press the F3 key. Each time you press F3. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. after highlighting your text. Also. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. if you type "SPringtime. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. however." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime." If. The option will be selected 5. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. Click on OK. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. or reverse a recently taken action. Click on a case option. when you reopen it. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). For example. however. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. or any amount of selected text. Be aware. word. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. or title case. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. a phrase. 1. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. click once anywhere in the document. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. if you close the document. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. TIP 19 . 4. that if you save your document. delete text you just typed. lower. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. Click on the undo button." You can apply a text case change to a word. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. use Word's Undo feature. TIP To deselect text.

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to cut text. Word deletes the selected text. 1. Click on the Redo button. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. Select the text you want to copy. to paste text. For example. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. 2. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. then bolded the text. 2. 1. Optionally. When you undoa previous step. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Click on the Paste button. and then places it into a new location. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken.•• Optionally. imagine you changed the case of some text. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. The text will be highlighted. holds it. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. With Cut and Paste. then underlined the text. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. use the Redo feature. Click on the action you want to undo. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Word will reverse the previous undo action. Click on the copy button. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. choose Undo from the Edit menu. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. If you undo the Change Case action. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. 1. 3.

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Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. to copy text. then Document3. However. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. Click on the Paste button. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. and so forth. Fortunately. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. and after that. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Those names are temporary names. 21 . The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally.

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you are only putting the document away²not the program. and then choose Save As. When you close a document. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. 22 . The original document will remain. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. Word is still active and ready to work for you.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. you should close it. click on File.

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Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. If you make any changes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . be sure to save the file again. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document.

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In Print Preview. b. you won't be able to edit it. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. Click on Print Preview. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. The Print Preview window will open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. will look in the printed document. Printing with the Print Button 24 . you may want to preview it on the screen. such as margins. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. you will only be able to see the document. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. or if you want to change which printer is being used. 25 . you must display the Prin dialog box. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. or just specific pages.

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3. 26 . left. or right margin setting. Click on File. and right margins. Bottom. bottom. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. bottom. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. click on the Margins tab. The File menu will appear. 5. 2. Left. after you've completed the entire document. 4. or at any time in between. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. left. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. Click on Page Setup.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top.

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The File menu will appear 2. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. Click on Page Setup. The blinking insertion point will appear. for example. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. Click on Insert. 2. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. 1. 1. Click on File. 27 . The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. A dropdown menu will appear. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. The Insert menu will appear 3. but you cannot make a page longer.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. Click on Break.

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alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. You can also justify your text. or centre. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. Word comes with extra fonts. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. Like line spacing. and Ctrl+5 for 1. right. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look.5 line spacing. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. 28 .

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and Ctrl+U for underline. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. Therefore. Font sizes are measured in points. Applying Bold. Ctrl+I for italic. italic. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. add impact by adding some colour. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. 29 . a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Italic.

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30 . 4. Click on Insert. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. The text will appear in the selected colour. Click on a font.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. or airplanes. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. The symbol will appear selected 7. You can also add a border around an entire page. Click on a symbol. stars. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. it may be available in a different font. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. paragraph. such as a title page of a document. check marks. phrase. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols.

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hyphen. or a hyphen. Type the text for the first item on your list. Word will continue the list with the same character. word will convert it to a round. Press the spacebar or Tab key. 1. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. Word continues the list using the same format. a period. Click on AutoCorrect Options. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. Note that when you use the asterisk key. filled-in-bullet. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. you can easily turn off the feature. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Click on Tools. then a closing parenthesis. type an asterisk. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. instead of typing a number at the first item. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. Click on OK.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . The tools menu will appear. The text will display in the document 4. or dash. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. 1. 2. Type a number.

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Again. Click on picture.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. 1. 1. 1. The picture menu will appear. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . 2. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. The list will change to bulleted. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Click on clip Art. 4. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. it's easy to change it. Click on Go. Click on insert. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. The text will be highlighted. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. Select the list of items you want to modify. If you'r not already e using one of these views. The list will be highlighted. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The list will change to numbered. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. 2. The blinking insertion point will appear. The insert menu will appear 3. OR 3.

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The insert menu will appear 3. Click on insert. Click on a WordArt style. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. The selection will have a box around it 5. . containing predefined styles 4. The picture menu will appear 4. Click on insert. "Your Text Here. or other type of artwork. The insert menu will appear 2. scanned image. The insert picture dialogue box will open. whether it's a photograph. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on OK. Click on from file. Click on picture. You can create shadowed. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. skewed. Click on WordArt. Click on picture. 1. rotated. a drawing. and stretched text. 1. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document." 33 . The picture submenu will appear 3.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. The view menu will appear 2. Click on View. 34 . A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. Click on Drawing. 1. Click on Toolbars. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function.

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You can insert it from a menu selection. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. 1. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. The table will be created 35 . The Table menu will appear 2. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. Click on Table. The Insert submenu will appear 3. and you're ready to go. Click on the diagram type you want to use. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. The number will be displayed 6. The number will display 5. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. Click on Table. Click on Insert. Click on OK.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. create it from the toolbar. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. 1. or draw it manually. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Click on OK. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table.

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Shift+Tab key. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. 1. 36 . Down Arrow key. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The table grid will appear in the document. the text automatically wraps to the next line. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. 2. The column width will change. As you enter text in the cells. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. simply click in the cell you want to work with. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. Type some text. Up Arrow key. The insertion point will move up a row. To use the mouse. 1. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. The blinking insertion point will appear. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column.

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be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The data will be highlighted. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. Click on OK. For example. Click in the last Cell of the last row. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Click on Delete. 1. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. Click on Table. The selection will be highlighted 6. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Object. The Table. 3. 37 . 2. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. The table menu will appear 3. Click on Insert. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. Just follow the same procedure.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The Table menu will appear 3. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. 1. The insert menu will appear. Click on Table. OR Click on Rows Below. 1. Click on Rows Above. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Click on Insert. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click on Rows. Press the tab key. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click anywhere in the document. and row labels of your table. Select the data. column heads. The delete submenu will appear 4. The Object dialogue box will open 4. Click on Columns. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. 1. The insert submenu will appear 4.

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Type and format some text. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. The View menu will appear 2. The footer box will appear 5. Headers and footers can contain text. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. when you print the document. a header prints at the top of every page. Type some text. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. dates. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. try them out on some of the other Office programs. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. and a footer prints at the bottom. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. or even pictures.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Click on Header and Footer 3. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Click on View. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. 1. Time. Your type will appear in the Header box 4.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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and numbers. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. The values can be in form of text. and then point to Microsoft Office. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. dates and times. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . Point to All Programs. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. 2. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . A blank workbook is opened. and then click New. Click the File menu. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. 3. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. Click the Close button on the task pane." and so on). the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. Click Blank Workbook." "Book2.

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3. 3. 2. and numbers 3. 2. 42 . spaces. Type the file name for the new workbook name. Type a number value.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Press Enter. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. 4. punctuation. click the Save In list arrow. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. 4. 2. Type your text. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. If you want to save the file in another folder. Enter a Number as a Text 1. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Press Enter. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Type' (an apostrophe).

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Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. and then click Exit. 3. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. and then click Close. 2. To protect your files. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Select a Contiguous Range 1. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). 3. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Click the File menu. or click the File menu.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. 2. When you're finished using Excel. or click Cancel to cancel the save. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. use them in a formula. Excel is still running. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. Close a Workbook 1. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. 43 . edit or move it. you can quit the program. 2. you can close it. click No to ignore any changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it.

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M. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. To enter a time. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. Enter a Date or Time 1. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. followed by a colon (:). or click the Enter button on the formula bar. When a range is selected. followed by a space. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. To select more. Type a value. and then release the mouse button. 44 . or P. Click Date. Click the Format menu. 3. 3. 4. 2. and then click Cells. 2. To enter a date. followed by the minute. Press Enter. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. 3. day. If necessary. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3.M. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. Press and hold Ctrl. 2. click the Number tab. 3. while the additional cells are selected. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. 2. Press Enter. 4.

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Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. 6. Click OK. 45 . The insertion point appears in the cell. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. 3. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit.•• 5. End. 2. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. or press Delete. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. Double-click the cell you want to edit. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. Enter the starting value to be repeated. and then type new characters as needed. If necessary. Click the date or time format. Right click the cell or range. 3. 4. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 4. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. use the Home. 2. Edit Cell Contents 1. 2.

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Click the Edit menu. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 2. 2. and Comments 1. Drag the selection to the new location. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Click the Edit menu. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. 5. 3. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 5. shows the size of the selection. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Formatting. 46 . Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. 4. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. 4. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 2. 2. called a marquee. press Esc to remove the marquee. If you don't want to paste this selection.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 3. and then click Paste Special. Click OK. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. 4. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. press Esc to remove the marquee. The data remains on the Clipboard. Click All. 3. and then point to Clear. 5. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Edit menu. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Select the cells that you want to switch. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 3. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. 3. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 6. 2. available for further pasting. 4. Click to select the Transpose check box. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. until you replace it with another selection. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 6. and then click Paste Special.

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Click the Insert menu. Delete a Cell 1. 4. Click OK. 4. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). y Entire Column to delete the entire column. Excel will display. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Insert a Cell 1. 3. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. When you delete a cell. Click the option you want. 2. Select the cell or range you want to delete. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 6. Enter an arithmetic operator. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. 4. 5. the information you type. 2. Enter the first argument. and then click Delete. 3. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. 3. not calculate. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. Click the option you want. Click OK. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. Type = (an equal sign). Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. and then click Cells. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. Enter the next argument. Click the Edit menu. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. 47 . blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier.

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right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. 2. Click to select the Formulas check box. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Click OK. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. Click the type of calculation you want. Click the Tools menu. 2. 4. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Display Formulas in Cells 1. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. or press Enter. Click the View tab. 3. and then click Options. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. 48 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. 3.

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Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. For example. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. or press Enter. Enter a Function 1. type =AVERAGE(. 3. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. to insert the AVERAGE function. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Type = (an equal sign). Click the Enter button on the formula bar. 49 . type the name of the function. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Click the function you want to use. Press Enter to accept the range selected.

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click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. 5. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. 2. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Click the Insert menu. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. If you want. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. 2. and then click Delete. 50 . Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. Click the Edit menu. and then click Columns or Rows. Click OK. Type a new column width or row height in points. drag to select more columns or rows. To insert multiple rows. 4. Click the Insert menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. and then click Columns or Rows. To insert a row. 2. and then click Column Width or Row Height. 3. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s).

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Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. patterns become more apparent. pie. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. 6. 2. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. 5. also called a graph. 4. line. A chart. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Click Next to continue. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. 51 . 2. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. the chart is called an embedded object. You can click Finish at any time. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. click Back or Forward. rather than on a new sheet. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. Select the data range you want to chart. Click a chart sub-type. 3. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. or bubble chart. surface. Click a chart type. graphical representation of numerical data. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height.

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Select the labels you want for the data. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. y Data Labels tab. Type titles for the chart. 12. and then click Next to continue. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. 8. y Gridlines tab. y Axes tab. Verify the data range. 52 . Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. Click to add a table to the chart. Select the axes you want to display for the data. 11. Preview the options. 13. Click a chart options tab. y Legend tab. Select options to display a legend and its location. Click Finish. Titles tab. y Data Table tab. Click Next to continue. 10. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. 9. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. x-axis.

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Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Drag the slice away from the pie.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. Release the mouse button. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. 53 .

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4. Click the Chart menu. 8. Preview the title(s) you are adding.or y-axis. and then type the title text. f you want a second line for the x. press Tab. 5. Click OK 54 . 3. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. To add a title for the y-axis. and then type the text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. press Tab. and then type the text. 7. and then click Chart Options. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 2. Click the Titles tab. To add a title for the x-axis. 9. 6.

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Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. click the Font button. make font changes. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. and then click Page Setup. 7. 2. 2. Click the Top. Bottom. click the column where you want to insert a page break. and then click Page Setup. 5. and then click Page Break Preview. Click OK. click the View menu. and then click Page Break. 2. 4. Click OK. Arial. or click a button to insert built-in header information.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Change the Margin Settings 1. Click OK. When you're done. Click the File menu. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. 3. unless you change it. and then click OK. Excel will use the default font. 6. Click the File menu. Centre.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. 4. Centre. or Right Section text boxes. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 2. 3. Change a Header or Footer 1. To insert a vertical page break. delete the text and codes in the text boxes.5 inches) option to select page orientation. Type information in the Left. Click the Margins tab. To insert a horizontal page break. 3. 9. If you don't want a header to appear at all. and then click Normal. 4. or Right Section text boxes. Left. click Custom Footer. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. Click the Header/Footer tab. 55 . Click the File menu. Click the View menu. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Type the information in the Left. Select the text you want to format. 5. Click the Portrait (8. 8. Click the Page tab. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. 2. and then click Page Setup. Click OK 10. 3. Click OK. Change Page Orientation 1. Click the Insert menu. click Custom Header.

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and then click Page Setup. select the row or column with the mouse. Click the File menu. Click the Sheet tab. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. 3. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. 4. Click the Sheet tab.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. and then point to Print Area. Click Set Print Area. select the cells you want to print. 56 . Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. 3. Set the Print Area 1. Click OK. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Select the range of cells you want to print. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Click the File menu. 2. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 3. Click the File menu. Type the range you want to print. 2. 4. 2.

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2. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. the selected worksheets. Click the File menu. If necessary. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. and then click Print. Click Clear Print Area.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 57 . 5. click the Name list arrow. and then click the printer you want to use. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. Click OK. 2. 6. Click the File menu. and then point to Print Area.

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