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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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the hardware is the physical component or devices. Typical example are DEC. which make up the visible computer. The hardware. In this system. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. It is sometimes said. AMSTAD etc. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. PC. 3. TANDY. MINI COMPUTER. ALU and control unit. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. these have similar features to that of mainframe. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . PDP series and data general series. However. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. 4. While the software is programs. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. SUPER COMPUTER. it consists of main storage. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. It is the micro-processor in a computer. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. Micro Computer. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. namely. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2.

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Battery pack (CMOS batteries). Examples are Computer keyboard. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. E. iii. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Mother board. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Joystick etc. plotter etc. Must be of high performance 3. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma].g. System unit ii. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. database management system. System software 2. UNIX MS Windows etc. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. Power supply unit (PSU). Cooling fan. language translators. Mouse. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. It must be available when needed 4 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. These include. There are two main types of software 1. printers. Example are MS DOS. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. Fax modem (in latest PCs). Main memory or RAM. operating systems. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. Hard disk drive (HDD). It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Sound card. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). the system unit houses a number of system components.

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The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Provide fire extinguishers. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. uninterruptible power supply. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. 3. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. 2. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. satellite or private line. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. 6. usage and other technical details 7. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. There are two major types of computer networks. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. Dust.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. such as the public telephone services. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. computer systems must be handled with clean hands.

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starting Windows XP is a simple task. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. used mainly in large businesses. Turn on the main power on the system unit. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. and Linux and UNIX. And without your having to know how it does it. without your even being aware of it. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. 4. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. is the large area of the screen. the programs you use. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. And it does all that in the background. 6 . check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. 3. which looks something like the example shown below. keyboard. 5. such as your monitor and printer. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. Follow these steps: 1. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). homes and institutions or organi ations. Some of the other operating systems DOS. example shown below. Just click your user name (or Guest. mouse. proper. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. often abbreviated OS. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. The desktop. i L If your computer supports multiple users.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. the hard disk. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. such as in building.

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The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. To open an icon. document. and the Notifications area. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. Document icon: Represents a document. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. or some location on your computer where things are stored. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. or Web site. represents some program you can run. The Start button 7 . folder. the Quick Launch toolbar. in turn. typically this is something you can change and print. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. Each icon.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop.

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Logging Off. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Also known as rebooting. Click the Start button. but does not save current settings. so that it consumes little or no electricity.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. 2. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. To shut down the computer altogether. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. Click the Log Off button that appears. The Start menu is divided into two sections. If you share computer with others. 2. Nothing is saved. and want to leave it on for them. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. Click the Start button. follow these steps: 1. and then instantly restarts it. you can just log off. or put it to sleep so to speak. and restarting will be from scratch. 8 . no power is consumed while the computer is off. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. To log off. 3. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. This is not good. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. 3. follow these steps: 1.

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this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. each time you press the mouse button.shaped pointer moves across the screen. An arrow. Clicking. and then click a mouse button. Double clicking. Shift clicking. 4. 7. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. POINTING. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. Pressing. you make a selection. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. 5. 2. Dragging. Basic mouse movements 1. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. to display the contents of menus.These tools are common to most windows. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. To use the mouse. 9 . Selection. the first thing to do is to open the menus. 6. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button.

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enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. Remember. 10. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. drag the slider box through the slider bar. 10 . Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. drag its dots to the left.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. To move a window to some new location on the screen. To move more quickly than that. 8. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. or remove toolbars from.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. To resi e an item within the toolbar. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. up. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. Scroll bars Scroll bars. or down. click the up. drag the window by its title bar. right-click its taskbar button. no other windows overlap the active window 6. doubleclick its title bar. 16. 15. To move up or down a little bit at a time. To see the options for a particular window.´ 4. 7. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. drag it back into the taskbar. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. 12. 13. 2. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). 14.´ That is. as mentioned. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. If it won¶t go. and appears ³pushed in. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. 11. right. To add toolbars to. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. Alternatively. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. 9. try widening it first. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). 17. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. the taskbar. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. To rearrange items in the toolbar. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right.

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and then click the option you want.. Spin box. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. Button. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. (I say may be able to. List box. Click in the box. Each tab groups a related set of options. If your mouse has a wheel. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Click the box to turn on or off the option. and then type the requested information. Click a tab to display its options. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Text box. To open the Folders list. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. A checked box means the option is selected. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer.) opens another dialog box.. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. a cleared box means it s not. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. Check box. Option buttons. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Click an option button to select it. Preview box. or type a number in the box. just click the Folders button on the toolbar.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. You can usually select only one. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list.

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Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. To display all open windows in equal si es. From the shortcut menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . 4. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2.

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produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . One method is from the Start button. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. You can create a simple letter to a friend. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. it s also very easy to use. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. which is why most businesses have adopted it. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. or even write a complicated. part of the Microsoft Office Suite.

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you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. are grouped together. Right click anywhere in the document screen. by default. centre.right-click to open a shortcut menu. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. If you look closely. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Click on a menu selection. e For example. and right) are grouped together. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. the Alignment buttons (left. 1. you'll see the options available under that menu. 14 . such as saving or opening. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. and options that relate to files.

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Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. 15 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Click on a toolbar button. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. 1. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. 3. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. The requested action will be performed. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. Release the mouse button. The description of that feature will appear 2. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. The toolbar will remain in the new position. which is usually at the top of the screen.

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I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. Press the enter key. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. my computer training programme have commence. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. The program automatically moves down (word wrap.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. 1. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. you'll need to move the insertion point around.) to the next line for you.

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Inserting Text 17 . OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Down. Here is how to: Inserting. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Selecting. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Just type them in. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. in the document window. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. Right. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Or want to change some of the text in the document. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G.

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you must first select the text you want to edit. 18 . just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. Select All. When text is selected (called highlighted). it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. delete. copy. Selecting Text Before you can move. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. or change the formatting of text.

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Be aware. click once anywhere in the document." You can apply a text case change to a word. Click on OK. or any amount of selected text. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime." If.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. For example. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. or reverse a recently taken action. Also. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. The option will be selected 5. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. delete text you just typed. Click on the undo button. that if you save your document. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). or title case. if you type "SPringtime. press the F3 key. TIP 19 . Click on a case option. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. however. when you reopen it. a phrase. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. 4. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. word. TIP To deselect text. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. 1. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. Each time you press F3. if you close the document. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. use Word's Undo feature. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. after highlighting your text. however. lower. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include.

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holds it. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. 1. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. to paste text. If you undo the Change Case action. Select the text you want to copy.•• Optionally. Click on the Paste button. to cut text. 3. 2. Click on the action you want to undo. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. then bolded the text. 1. Click on the Redo button. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. Word will reverse the previous undo action. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. For example. Optionally. When you undoa previous step. With Cut and Paste. then underlined the text. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. imagine you changed the case of some text. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Word deletes the selected text. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. and then places it into a new location. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. use the Redo feature. choose Undo from the Edit menu. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. The text will be highlighted. 1. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Click on the copy button. 2.

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However. then Document3. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. 21 . so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. and after that. to help protect you against such a catastrophe.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Fortunately. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. and so forth. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. Those names are temporary names. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Click on the Paste button. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. to copy text.

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Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. 22 . The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. The original document will remain. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. When you close a document. and then choose Save As. you should close it. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. Word is still active and ready to work for you. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. you are only putting the document away²not the program.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. click on File. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified.

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Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. be sure to save the file again. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. If you make any changes. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it.

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The Print Preview window will open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. such as margins. Printing with the Print Button 24 . will look in the printed document. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. b. you may want to preview it on the screen. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. In Print Preview. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. you will only be able to see the document. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. Click on Print Preview. you won't be able to edit it.

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Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. 25 . Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. you must display the Prin dialog box. or just specific pages. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. or if you want to change which printer is being used. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box.

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bottom. after you've completed the entire document. left. 4. 2. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. Click on File. The File menu will appear. or right margin setting. Left. 3. Click on Page Setup. and right margins. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. Bottom. 5. left. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. or at any time in between. click on the Margins tab. 26 . bottom. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top.

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1. Click on Insert. but you cannot make a page longer. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. 1. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. 2. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. The Insert menu will appear 3. for example.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. Click on File. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. A dropdown menu will appear. Click on Page Setup. 27 . The File menu will appear 2. Click on Break. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. The blinking insertion point will appear.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing.5 line spacing. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. Like line spacing. right. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. 28 . and Ctrl+5 for 1. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. or centre. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Word comes with extra fonts. You can also justify your text. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge.

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TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Applying Bold. Italic. Therefore.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Font sizes are measured in points. Ctrl+I for italic. italic. 29 . a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. and Ctrl+U for underline. add impact by adding some colour. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text.

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such as a title page of a document. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. The symbol will appear selected 7. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. Click on a font. You can also add a border around an entire page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. or airplanes. Click on Insert. stars. 4. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. 30 . The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. paragraph. check marks. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. Click on a symbol. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. phrase. it may be available in a different font. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. The text will appear in the selected colour.

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Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. The tools menu will appear. The text will display in the document 4. word will convert it to a round. type an asterisk. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Click on OK. then a closing parenthesis. 1. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. 1. Type a number. Note that when you use the asterisk key. Click on Tools. a period. Press the spacebar or Tab key. instead of typing a number at the first item. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. or dash. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. Click on AutoCorrect Options.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. or a hyphen. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. 2. Word continues the list using the same format. filled-in-bullet. Type the text for the first item on your list. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. hyphen. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . Word will continue the list with the same character. you can easily turn off the feature.

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Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The list will change to numbered. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. If you'r not already e using one of these views. 1. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . The insert menu will appear 3. Select the list of items you want to modify. it's easy to change it. 1. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. 2. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. OR 3. The picture menu will appear. The list will be highlighted. 2. 4. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Click on picture. Click on Go. Click on clip Art. The text will be highlighted. Click on insert. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Again. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. The clip Art task pane will open 5. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. The list will change to bulleted. The blinking insertion point will appear. 1. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering.

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The insert picture dialogue box will open. Click on insert. 1. and stretched text. rotated. The insert menu will appear 3. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click on picture. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on a WordArt style. skewed. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. The selection will have a box around it 5. Click on from file. 1. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. whether it's a photograph. Click on OK. "Your Text Here.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. . You can create shadowed." 33 . or other type of artwork. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. Click on WordArt. The picture submenu will appear 3. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. scanned image. a drawing. containing predefined styles 4. The picture menu will appear 4. Click on insert. Click on picture. The insert menu will appear 2.

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Click on Drawing. The view menu will appear 2. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. Click on View. 1. 34 . The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. Click on Toolbars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar.

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or draw it manually. The table will be created 35 . The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. The number will display 5. The number will be displayed 6. 1. The Insert submenu will appear 3. and you're ready to go. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. Click on Insert.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. The Table menu will appear 2. Click on the diagram type you want to use. Click on Table. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. Click on OK. You can insert it from a menu selection. Click on OK. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. Click on Table. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. 1. create it from the toolbar. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally.

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the text automatically wraps to the next line. Shift+Tab key. 1. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Type some text. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. Down Arrow key. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. To use the mouse. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. As you enter text in the cells. The insertion point will move up a row. The table grid will appear in the document. The column width will change. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. The insertion point will move down to the next row. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. simply click in the cell you want to work with. The blinking insertion point will appear. 2. Up Arrow key. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. 36 . 1. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want.

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The data will be highlighted. Select the data. 37 . The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Just follow the same procedure. 2. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Rows. 3. The Table. 1. Click on Table. The insert menu will appear. and row labels of your table. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Press the tab key. Click anywhere in the document. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. The selection will be highlighted 6. The delete submenu will appear 4. column heads. Click on Columns. 1. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. Click on Table. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click in the last Cell of the last row. The Object dialogue box will open 4. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Insert. 1. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. For example. 1. Click on Delete.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The table menu will appear 3. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. The insert submenu will appear 4. Click on OK. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click on Insert. Click on Object. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. Click on Rows Above. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. If necessary click on the Create New tab. The Table menu will appear 3.

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Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. or even pictures. Click on Header and Footer 3. 1. The View menu will appear 2. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . try them out on some of the other Office programs. Type some text. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Click on View. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Headers and footers can contain text. Type and format some text. dates. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. a header prints at the top of every page. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. when you print the document. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. The footer box will appear 5. Time. and a footer prints at the bottom. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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and then point to Microsoft Office. dates and times. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Point to All Programs. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . and numbers.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. The values can be in form of text. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws.

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and then click New.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. A blank workbook is opened. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. Click the Close button on the task pane. Click Blank Workbook. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. 3. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. 2. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it." and so on). Click the File menu." "Book2. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1.

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Press Enter. Type a number value. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Type the file name for the new workbook name. punctuation. If you want to save the file in another folder. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. 2. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Type' (an apostrophe). Type your text. 2. and numbers 3.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. 4. 3. 3. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. spaces. click the Save In list arrow. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. 2. 4. Press Enter. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. 42 .

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always quit Excel before turning off your computer. you can quit the program. Select a Contiguous Range 1. or click Cancel to cancel the save. When you're finished using Excel. Excel is still running. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. use them in a formula. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. 3. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. you can close it. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Close a Workbook 1. Click the File menu. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. To protect your files. 2. 43 . and then click Exit. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. click No to ignore any changes. 2. edit or move it. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. 2. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). 3. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. and then click Close. or click the File menu.

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Press Enter. 2. 3. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. 3. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. 44 . Press and hold Ctrl. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. 2. Enter a Date or Time 1. while the additional cells are selected. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. followed by a space. 4. To enter a time. 3. 3. 4. followed by a colon (:). 2. To enter a date. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. To select more. click the Number tab. Type a value. Click Date.M. If necessary. followed by the minute. 2. and then click Cells. day.M. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. When a range is selected. Press Enter. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. or P. Click the Format menu. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. and then release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. and year in a cell or on the formula bar.

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Click OK. The insertion point appears in the cell. Right click the cell or range. Enter the starting value to be repeated. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. 2. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. End. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. 6. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. and then type new characters as needed. or press Delete. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. 4. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated.•• 5. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). Click the date or time format. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. Double-click the cell you want to edit. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 2. use the Home. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 3. 3. 4. Edit Cell Contents 1. If necessary. 2. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. 45 .

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Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Click the Edit menu. Formatting. called a marquee. and then click Paste Special. Select the cell or range you want to clear. 2. Paste Data with Special Results 1. 2.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. 3. 3. 2. 4. 5. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. 5. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. 4. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. Click to select the Transpose check box. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. shows the size of the selection. 3. 4. and then point to Clear. 2. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. and Comments 1. 6. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Select the cells that you want to switch. Click All. and then click Paste Special. The data remains on the Clipboard. 5. until you replace it with another selection. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. available for further pasting. Drag the selection to the new location. 46 . Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. press Esc to remove the marquee. 3. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. 3. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 4. 6. Click the Edit menu. Click OK. Click the Edit menu. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. If you don't want to paste this selection. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. press Esc to remove the marquee. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 2. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar.

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4. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. Enter an arithmetic operator. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. 2. not calculate. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Select the cell or range you want to delete. 5. 6. 2. and then click Delete. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. 47 . and then click Cells. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. When you delete a cell. Enter the next argument. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. Type = (an equal sign). Enter the first argument. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Click the option you want. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. Click the Insert menu. Click the option you want. Click OK. 4. Excel will display. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. 3. 3. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. the information you type. 3. Click OK. Insert a Cell 1. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. 2. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. 4. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. Delete a Cell 1. Click the Edit menu.

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Click to select the Formulas check box. 2. Click OK. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. Click the Tools menu. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. the formula itself appears on the formula bar).•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Click the type of calculation you want. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. or press Enter. 48 . Display Formulas in Cells 1. and then click Options. Click the View tab. 3. 2. 4. 3. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=.

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2. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. 3. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the function you want to use. to insert the AVERAGE function. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). For example. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type = (an equal sign). Press Enter to accept the range selected. type =AVERAGE(. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. Enter a Function 1. or press Enter.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. 49 . type the name of the function. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar.

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click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. and then click Columns or Rows. 2. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. Click the Insert menu. 5. Click the Edit menu. 2. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. If you want.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. To insert multiple rows. Click the Insert menu. Type a new column width or row height in points. 4. Click OK. 50 . Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. 2. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. and then click Column Width or Row Height. and then click Delete. drag to select more columns or rows. and then click Columns or Rows. 3. To insert a row.

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Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. the chart is called an embedded object. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. Select the data range you want to chart. click Back or Forward. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. 51 . pie. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. 2. 4. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. rather than on a new sheet. Click a chart type. also called a graph. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. or bubble chart. A chart. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Click Next to continue. 2. surface. 6.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. You can click Finish at any time. Click a chart sub-type. graphical representation of numerical data. 5. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. line. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. 3. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. patterns become more apparent.

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Preview the options.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. y Data Labels tab. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Click a chart options tab. 8. Titles tab. Click to add a table to the chart. Click Finish. Select the labels you want for the data. Click Next to continue. y Legend tab. y Gridlines tab. y Axes tab. Select options to display a legend and its location. and then click Next to continue. 9. 11. Verify the data range. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. x-axis. y Data Table tab. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. 10. 12. 13. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Type titles for the chart. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Select the axes you want to display for the data. 52 .

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Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. 53 . Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Release the mouse button. Drag the slice away from the pie.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Release the mouse button.

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7. and then type the text.or y-axis. 4. 8. To add a title for the x-axis. 5. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. and then click Chart Options. 2. 3. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. Click the Chart menu. 6. Click the Titles tab. f you want a second line for the x. and then type the text. Preview the title(s) you are adding. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. To add a title for the y-axis. and then type the title text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. 9. press Tab. Click OK 54 . press Tab.

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Click the Top. Arial. Click the Page tab. Click the File menu.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Click the Margins tab. Click the Header/Footer tab. or Right Section text boxes. To insert a horizontal page break. To insert a vertical page break. or Right Section text boxes. 5. Click OK. unless you change it. Type the information in the Left. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins.5 inches) option to select page orientation. click Custom Footer. 2. Change the Margin Settings 1. 6. click the View menu. Change a Header or Footer 1.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. and then click OK. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. 4. 8. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Click OK. 2. Click the Portrait (8. Select the text you want to format. 4. 55 . If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Left. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. and then click Normal. 7. 2. 4. Click OK. 3. Centre. Excel will use the default font. Click the Insert menu. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. and then click Page Setup. 3. and then click Page Break Preview. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Click OK 10. Type information in the Left. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. 3. 2. click Custom Header. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 9. and then click Page Setup. Centre. When you're done. click the Font button. Bottom. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Click the File menu. Click OK. click the column where you want to insert a page break. 3. Change Page Orientation 1. 2. 5. make font changes. Click the View menu. Click the File menu. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. and then click Page Setup. and then click Page Break.

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4. Click the File menu. and then click Page Setup. Click the Sheet tab. Click OK. select the row or column with the mouse.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. select the cells you want to print. Click OK. Set the Print Area 1. 3. 2. 3. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 2. Type the range you want to print. 3. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. 2. and then click Page Setup. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Click the File menu. and then point to Print Area. 4. 56 . Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Click Set Print Area. Select the range of cells you want to print. Click the Sheet tab. Click the File menu.

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2. Click the File menu. and then click the printer you want to use. 2. Click OK. Click the File menu. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 6.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. If necessary. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. and then point to Print Area. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. click the Name list arrow. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. Click Clear Print Area. 57 . the selected worksheets. 5. and then click Print. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want.

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