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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. It is sometimes said. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. PC. PDP series and data general series. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. 3.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. SUPER COMPUTER. It is the micro-processor in a computer. ALU and control unit. Typical example are DEC. TANDY. In this system. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . While the software is programs. it consists of main storage. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. these have similar features to that of mainframe. However. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. MINI COMPUTER. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. The hardware. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. which make up the visible computer. namely. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. the hardware is the physical component or devices. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. AMSTAD etc. Micro Computer. 4. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers.

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THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs.g. System software 2. Joystick etc. Cooling fan. iii. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Main memory or RAM.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. Mouse. E. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. UNIX MS Windows etc. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Fax modem (in latest PCs). the system unit houses a number of system components. System unit ii. operating systems. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. Power supply unit (PSU). It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. Examples are Computer keyboard. These include. printers. There are two main types of software 1. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. It must be available when needed 4 . examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Must be of high performance 3. Hard disk drive (HDD). Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. plotter etc. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. Mother board. database management system. Sound card. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. language translators. Example are MS DOS. Battery pack (CMOS batteries).

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Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. 6. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. Provide fire extinguishers. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). uninterruptible power supply. usage and other technical details 7. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Dust. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. such as the public telephone services. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. 2. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. 3. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. There are two major types of computer networks. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. satellite or private line.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5.

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used mainly in large businesses. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. mouse. Some of the other operating systems DOS. Just click your user name (or Guest. such as your monitor and printer. the programs you use. often abbreviated OS. homes and institutions or organi ations. the hard disk. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. The desktop. and Linux and UNIX. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. i L If your computer supports multiple users. 6 . 4. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. keyboard. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. starting Windows XP is a simple task. And without your having to know how it does it. example shown below. which looks something like the example shown below. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. Follow these steps: 1. without your even being aware of it. such as in building. proper. 5. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). 3. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . And it does all that in the background. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. Turn on the main power on the system unit. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. is the large area of the screen.

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T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. or some location on your computer where things are stored. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. or Web site.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. Each icon. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. document. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. in turn. folder. represents some program you can run.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. To open an icon. and the Notifications area. The Start button 7 . the Quick Launch toolbar. Document icon: Represents a document. typically this is something you can change and print.

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The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and then instantly restarts it. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. follow these steps: 1. you can just log off. The Start menu is divided into two sections. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. but does not save current settings. To shut down the computer altogether. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Click the Log Off button that appears. or put it to sleep so to speak. 3. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. 8 . To log off. no power is consumed while the computer is off. so that it consumes little or no electricity.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. Nothing is saved. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Also known as rebooting. If you share computer with others. Click the Start button. 2. and restarting will be from scratch. 2. and want to leave it on for them. Click the Start button. 3. Logging Off. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. follow these steps: 1. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. This is not good.

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you make a selection. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. and then click a mouse button. Selection. to display the contents of menus. 4. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. Clicking. 2. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. 7. 5. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. Double clicking.shaped pointer moves across the screen. the first thing to do is to open the menus. Dragging. To use the mouse. POINTING.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. Pressing. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. Basic mouse movements 1.These tools are common to most windows. each time you press the mouse button. Shift clicking. 6. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. An arrow. 9 . The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse.

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To rearrange items in the toolbar. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. no other windows overlap the active window 6.´ That is. up. try widening it first. 11. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. If it won¶t go. 7. the taskbar. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. Alternatively.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). To move up or down a little bit at a time.´ 4.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars. 15. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. 16. To move a window to some new location on the screen. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). To see the options for a particular window. or down. Scroll bars Scroll bars. 10. drag its dots to the left. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. drag the window by its title bar. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. 10 . or remove toolbars from. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. and appears ³pushed in. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. 13. To resi e an item within the toolbar. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. drag it back into the taskbar. 2. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. right-click its taskbar button. 17. as mentioned. click the up. drag the slider box through the slider bar. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. Remember. 14. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. 9. 8. right. To move more quickly than that. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. doubleclick its title bar. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. To add toolbars to. 12.

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Option buttons. Preview box. Click the list arrow to display a list of options.) opens another dialog box.. Check box. Click a tab to display its options. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. If your mouse has a wheel. Click a button to perform a specific action or command.. or type a number in the box. Click the box to turn on or off the option. A checked box means the option is selected. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. and then click the option you want. Spin box. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. List box. (I say may be able to. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . and then type the requested information. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. Text box. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. You can usually select only one. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. Each tab groups a related set of options.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. To open the Folders list. Button. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Click an option button to select it. a cleared box means it s not. Click in the box.

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right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . From the shortcut menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. 4. To display all open windows in equal si es.

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One method is from the Start button. it s also very easy to use. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. You can create a simple letter to a friend. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. you can double -click it to quickly access Word. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. or even write a complicated. which is why most businesses have adopted it. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . part of the Microsoft Office Suite. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program.

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A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. by default. Right click anywhere in the document screen. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. 1. 14 . If you look closely. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. such as saving or opening. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. Click on a menu selection. e For example." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment.right-click to open a shortcut menu. you'll see the options available under that menu. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. are grouped together. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. and options that relate to files. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. centre. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. and right) are grouped together. the Alignment buttons (left.

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Release the mouse button. The toolbar will remain in the new position. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. The description of that feature will appear 2. 15 . TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. 1. The requested action will be performed. 3. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. which is usually at the top of the screen. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. Click on a toolbar button. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3.

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It marks the location where text will appear when you type. you'll need to move the insertion point around. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. 1. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that.) to the next line for you.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. my computer training programme have commence. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. Press the enter key. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3.

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You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. Just type them in. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. Selecting. in the document window. Right. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Down. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Inserting Text 17 . Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. Or want to change some of the text in the document. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Here is how to: Inserting.

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When text is selected (called highlighted). 18 . press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. delete. Selecting Text Before you can move.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document. Select All. or change the formatting of text. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. you must first select the text you want to edit. copy. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing.

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TIP 19 . that if you save your document. however. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. Be aware." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. TIP To deselect text. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. when you reopen it. use Word's Undo feature. Click on OK. or reverse a recently taken action. word. click once anywhere in the document. Also. if you close the document. 4. or any amount of selected text. Click on a case option. if you type "SPringtime. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). Each time you press F3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. The option will be selected 5. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. delete text you just typed." If. a phrase. press the F3 key. For example. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. 1. Click on the undo button. or title case. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. however. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. after highlighting your text." You can apply a text case change to a word. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. lower.

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Word will reverse the previous undo action. imagine you changed the case of some text. Select the text you want to copy. then bolded the text. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. to cut text. 1. and then places it into a new location. 2. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. 1. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. For example. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . 2. 1. to paste text.•• Optionally. choose Undo from the Edit menu. use the Redo feature. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. then underlined the text. Click on the Paste button. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Click on the action you want to undo. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. Click on the Redo button. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. Click on the copy button. When you undoa previous step. With Cut and Paste. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Optionally. Word deletes the selected text. If you undo the Change Case action. The text will be highlighted. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. 3. holds it.

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to copy text. However. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. and so forth. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. and after that. Those names are temporary names.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. to help protect you against such a catastrophe. then Document3. Fortunately. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Click on the Paste button. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. 21 . Word names the next blank document you create Document2. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally.

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The original document will remain. When you close a document. 22 . and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. you are only putting the document away²not the program. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. click on File. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. and then choose Save As.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. you should close it. Word is still active and ready to work for you. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use.

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Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. be sure to save the file again. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . If you make any changes. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box.

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TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. The Print Preview window will open. you may want to preview it on the screen. b. you will only be able to see the document. Printing with the Print Button 24 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. In Print Preview. you won't be able to edit it. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. will look in the printed document. Click on Print Preview. such as margins. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. or just specific pages. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. you must display the Prin dialog box. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. or if you want to change which printer is being used. 25 .

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bottom. and right margins. 26 . Left.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. 4. The File menu will appear. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. Bottom. 2. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. left. left. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. Click on File. or at any time in between. bottom. after you've completed the entire document. Click on Page Setup. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. 3. or right margin setting. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. 5. click on the Margins tab.

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The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. 1. 2. 27 . for example. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. Click on Page Setup. The File menu will appear 2. Click on Insert. but you cannot make a page longer. A dropdown menu will appear. Click on File. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. 1. The Insert menu will appear 3. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. Click on Break.

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Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Word comes with extra fonts. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. 28 .5 line spacing. Ctrl+2 for double spacing. right. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine. Like line spacing. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. or centre. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. and Ctrl+5 for 1. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. You can also justify your text.

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Applying Bold. italic.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. and Ctrl+U for underline. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. add impact by adding some colour. Font sizes are measured in points. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Therefore. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. 29 . or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. Ctrl+I for italic. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. Italic.

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The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. You can also add a border around an entire page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. Click on a font. phrase. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. such as a title page of a document. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. check marks. stars. The symbol will appear selected 7. Click on Insert. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. 30 . Click on a symbol. or airplanes. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. paragraph. The text will appear in the selected colour. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. it may be available in a different font. 4.

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or a hyphen. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . 2. hyphen. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. a period. Type the text for the first item on your list. or dash. Word continues the list using the same format. Click on AutoCorrect Options. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. Word will continue the list with the same character. Click on OK. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. then a closing parenthesis. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. filled-in-bullet. The tools menu will appear. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Type a number.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. The text will display in the document 4. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. instead of typing a number at the first item. 1. type an asterisk. Note that when you use the asterisk key. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. 1. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. Click on Tools. word will convert it to a round. you can easily turn off the feature.

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Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. The list will be highlighted. The blinking insertion point will appear. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. 1. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. 2. 1. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on Go. you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. The list will change to numbered. OR 3. The list will change to bulleted. Click on picture. it's easy to change it. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. 1. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. The clip Art task pane will open 5. Click on insert. 2. The text will be highlighted. Again. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . If you'r not already e using one of these views. Select the list of items you want to modify. The insert menu will appear 3. The picture menu will appear. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. 4. Click on clip Art.

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scanned image. The picture submenu will appear 3. and stretched text. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. or other type of artwork. a drawing. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. "Your Text Here. You can create shadowed. A placeholder in the Text box will say. The blinking insertion point will appear. Click on picture. Click on WordArt." 33 . Click on insert. . The selection will have a box around it 5. The insert menu will appear 3. The insert menu will appear 2. The insert picture dialogue box will open. 1. containing predefined styles 4. rotated. Click on OK. skewed. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. The picture menu will appear 4. Click on insert. Click on picture. whether it's a photograph. Click on a WordArt style. 1. Click on from file. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image.

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Click on Drawing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. 34 . Click on View. A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. The view menu will appear 2. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. Click on Toolbars. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. 1.

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click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. The number will display 5. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. The table will be created 35 . Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. Click on OK. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. The Table menu will appear 2. You can insert it from a menu selection. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. Click on OK. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. Click on Table. 1. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. The Insert submenu will appear 3. Click on the diagram type you want to use. Click on Insert. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Table. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. 1. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. The number will be displayed 6. or draw it manually. and you're ready to go. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. create it from the toolbar. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally.

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Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. To use the mouse. The table grid will appear in the document. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. Type some text. Down Arrow key. The insertion point will move down to the next row. Shift+Tab key. simply click in the cell you want to work with. The insertion point will move up a row. As you enter text in the cells. 1. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. The column width will change. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. Up Arrow key. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. 2. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. 36 . Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. the text automatically wraps to the next line. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want.

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Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. OR Click on Rows Below. The delete submenu will appear 4. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Click on Insert. 37 . 3. column heads. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The selection will be highlighted 6. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click anywhere in the document. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. The current column will be deleted OR 5. and row labels of your table. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Click on Rows. The Table. For example. The table menu will appear 3. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. Click on Table. The insert submenu will appear 4. Press the tab key. Click on OK. Select the data. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. 1. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. The Table menu will appear 3. 1. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. 2. 1. The insert menu will appear. Click on Rows Above. 1. Click on Insert. Click on Columns. Click in the last Cell of the last row. The Object dialogue box will open 4. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. The data will be highlighted. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Just follow the same procedure. Click on Object.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. Click on Delete. Click on Table. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table.

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Your type will appear in the Header box 4. 1. Headers and footers can contain text. Click on Header and Footer 3. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. The footer box will appear 5. Time. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. dates. Type some text. or even pictures. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. Click on View. when you print the document. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. a header prints at the top of every page.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. try them out on some of the other Office programs. and a footer prints at the bottom. Type and format some text. The View menu will appear 2.

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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .

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The values can be in form of text. Point to All Programs. dates and times. and then point to Microsoft Office. and numbers. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws.

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numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name." "Book2. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. 3. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. 2. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1." and so on). Click Blank Workbook. A blank workbook is opened. Click the File menu. Click the Close button on the task pane. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. and then click New.

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¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. Type your text. 4. punctuation. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. or click the Enter button on the formula bar.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Type the file name for the new workbook name. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. 2. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. spaces. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. 2. Press Enter. 4. Type a number value. click the Save In list arrow. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Type' (an apostrophe). Press Enter. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. and numbers 3. 3. 2. 3. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. If you want to save the file in another folder. 42 . A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters.

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Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. Close a Workbook 1. 2. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. 3. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. and then click Exit. or click the File menu. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. 2. 3. and then click Close. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). When you're finished using Excel. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. or click Cancel to cancel the save. To protect your files. 43 . a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. Excel is still running. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. edit or move it. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. you can quit the program. Click the File menu. 2. click No to ignore any changes. Select a Contiguous Range 1. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. you can close it. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. use them in a formula.

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•• —– ” 2010/2011 3.M. followed by a space. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type a value. 3. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. 2. Press and hold Ctrl. 3. 44 .M. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. Click the Format menu. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. and then click Cells. click the Number tab. Enter a Date or Time 1. Press Enter. 4. Press Enter. 4. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. To enter a date. If necessary. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. 3. and then release the mouse button. 2. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. When a range is selected. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. 3. To select more. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. day. or P. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. while the additional cells are selected. followed by a colon (:). Click Date. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. followed by the minute. To enter a time. 2.

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Edit Cell Contents 1. If necessary. 6. Click the date or time format. 3. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. 4. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. Click OK. use the Home.•• 5. Right click the cell or range. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. The insertion point appears in the cell. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Double-click the cell you want to edit. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 2. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. 2. and then type new characters as needed. 45 . 2. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. Enter the starting value to be repeated. 4. 3. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). End. or press Delete.

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Paste Data with Special Results 1. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. and Comments 1. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the Edit menu. 4. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. If you don't want to paste this selection. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. press Esc to remove the marquee. 2. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Click OK. 2. 6. 2. 5. Select the cell or range you want to clear. Click to select the Transpose check box. until you replace it with another selection. 2. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. 5. Formatting. Click the Edit menu. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. and then point to Clear. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. 3. shows the size of the selection. 3. available for further pasting. 6. 3. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Click All. 3. 4. and then click Paste Special. and then click Paste Special. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. 2. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. 4. 3. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Select the cells that you want to switch. The data remains on the Clipboard. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. press Esc to remove the marquee. 5. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 46 . 4. Click the Edit menu. Drag the selection to the new location. called a marquee.

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y Entire Row to delete the entire row. Insert a Cell 1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Select the cell or range you want to delete. Enter an arithmetic operator. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. 2. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 4. Click OK. Click the option you want. Click the Insert menu. 2. 4. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. Click OK. and then click Cells. Enter the next argument. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. 3. Excel will display. 5. 47 . When you delete a cell. the information you type. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Enter the first argument. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. Type = (an equal sign). Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 3. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. 2. and then click Delete. Click the option you want. Click the Edit menu. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. 4. 3. Delete a Cell 1. 6. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. not calculate.

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2. Click the type of calculation you want. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. 3. 3. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 48 . y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. Click the View tab. 2. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click to select the Formulas check box. 4. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. Click the Tools menu. and then click Options. Display Formulas in Cells 1. Click OK. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. or press Enter.

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49 . to insert the AVERAGE function. Press Enter to accept the range selected. For example. 2. Click the function you want to use. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. type =AVERAGE(. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. type the name of the function. Type = (an equal sign). Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. 3. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. Enter a Function 1. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar.

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Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. and then click Columns or Rows. To insert a row. 2. 3. 4. Click OK. and then click Column Width or Row Height. To insert multiple rows. drag to select more columns or rows. 5. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Click the Insert menu. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Type a new column width or row height in points. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. and then click Columns or Rows.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. 50 . Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. 2. 2. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. Click the Edit menu. Click the Insert menu. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. If you want. and then click Delete.

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Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. 4. A chart. 2. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. also called a graph. the chart is called an embedded object. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. 5. Select the data range you want to chart. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. line. 3. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. Click a chart sub-type. 51 . When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Click Next to continue. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. surface. rather than on a new sheet. graphical representation of numerical data. 6. click Back or Forward. pie. You can click Finish at any time. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. 2. patterns become more apparent. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Click a chart type. or bubble chart.

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Select the axes you want to display for the data. 52 . Click a chart options tab. Click Finish. Select the labels you want for the data. and then click Next to continue. 8. Type titles for the chart. Preview the options. y Axes tab. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. Titles tab. Select options to display a legend and its location. Click to add a table to the chart. y Legend tab. x-axis. 13. 11. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. 10. Click Next to continue. Verify the data range.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. y Data Labels tab. 9. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. y Data Table tab. y Gridlines tab. 12. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns.

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Release the mouse button. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Release the mouse button. 53 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Drag the slice away from the pie. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.

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5. Click the Chart menu. 2. Click the Titles tab. To add a title for the y-axis. 4. and then click Chart Options. and then type the title text. Click OK 54 . To add a title for the x-axis. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 6. Preview the title(s) you are adding. 3. 7. and then type the text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. 8.or y-axis. f you want a second line for the x. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. press Tab. 9. press Tab. and then type the text.

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3. 3. Click OK. 4. and then click Page Break. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. 9. Excel will use the default font. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. Click OK. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Change Page Orientation 1. Click the Margins tab. 4. click Custom Footer. or Right Section text boxes. 2. Select the text you want to format. Type the information in the Left. click the column where you want to insert a page break. click the View menu. To insert a horizontal page break. 3. Click the Header/Footer tab. and then click Page Setup. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. 4. Click the Page tab. Arial. 5. and then click Page Break Preview. Change a Header or Footer 1. click Custom Header. Left. 3. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. click the row where you want to insert a page break. Click the Portrait (8. 5. make font changes. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. 6. Change the Margin Settings 1. Type information in the Left. Click the Top. 8. Centre. 2. and then click Page Setup. and then click OK. Centre. 2. 2. Click OK 10. or click a button to insert built-in header information.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Click the Insert menu. When you're done. Click OK. Click OK. To insert a vertical page break.5 inches) option to select page orientation. 7. click the Font button. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. Click the File menu. Click the File menu. and then click Page Setup. Click the File menu. and then click Normal. 55 . Bottom. or Right Section text boxes. unless you change it. Click the View menu. 2. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want.

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3. 3. Click the File menu. Click OK.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. 3. and then click Page Setup. 4. Click the File menu. Click the File menu. select the row or column with the mouse. select the cells you want to print. Click OK. Type the range you want to print. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. and then click Page Setup. Click the Sheet tab. 2. Select the range of cells you want to print. 56 . and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Click the Sheet tab. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 2. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 4. and then point to Print Area. Set the Print Area 1. 2. Click Set Print Area.

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Click the File menu. 2. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects. and then point to Print Area. 57 . and then click the printer you want to use. the selected worksheets. 5. Click OK. 6. If necessary. 2. click the Name list arrow. Click Clear Print Area. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. and then click Print.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. Click the File menu. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want.

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