••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
1

••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011
2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
2

these have similar features to that of mainframe. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. SUPER COMPUTER. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. ALU and control unit. TANDY. PDP series and data general series. While the software is programs. which make up the visible computer. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. Micro Computer. MINI COMPUTER. It is the micro-processor in a computer. 3. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. it consists of main storage. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. In this system. It is sometimes said. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. 4. However. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM. namely. PC. The hardware. the hardware is the physical component or devices. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . AMSTAD etc. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. Typical example are DEC.

.

which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. operating systems. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. Joystick etc. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software.g. Hard disk drive (HDD). Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. Must be of high performance 3. Sound card. It must be available when needed 4 . It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. database management system. Examples are Computer keyboard. Example are MS DOS. printers. System software 2. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Mouse. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. language translators. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. iii. There are two main types of software 1. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. E. These include. System unit ii. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. Main memory or RAM. Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD). Mother board. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). Cooling fan. plotter etc. Fax modem (in latest PCs). UNIX MS Windows etc. Power supply unit (PSU). Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. the system unit houses a number of system components.

.

Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. Dust. satellite or private line. It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. 6. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Provide fire extinguishers. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. There are two major types of computer networks. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. uninterruptible power supply. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. such as the public telephone services. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. usage and other technical details 7. 3. 2. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network.

.

homes and institutions or organi ations. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. mouse. i L If your computer supports multiple users. example shown below. this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. keyboard. such as your monitor and printer. used mainly in large businesses. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. Turn on the main power on the system unit. the programs you use. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. without your even being aware of it. Follow these steps: 1. Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. 4. which looks something like the example shown below. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM. And it does all that in the background. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. often abbreviated OS. starting Windows XP is a simple task.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. the hard disk. is the large area of the screen. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. And without your having to know how it does it. proper. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). and Linux and UNIX. 6 . The desktop. such as in building. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . Some of the other operating systems DOS. 5. Just click your user name (or Guest. 3. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity.

.

you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. the Quick Launch toolbar. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. in turn.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. Document icon: Represents a document. The Start button 7 . typically this is something you can change and print. Each icon. represents some program you can run. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. or Web site. folder. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. or some location on your computer where things are stored. and the Notifications area. To open an icon. document.

.

3. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. and then instantly restarts it. Click the Start button. To log off. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. 8 . Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. follow these steps: 1. This is not good. 2. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. Nothing is saved. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. 2. Also known as rebooting. no power is consumed while the computer is off. The Start menu is divided into two sections. Click the Start button. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. you can just log off. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. and want to leave it on for them. Click the Log Off button that appears.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. so that it consumes little or no electricity. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. follow these steps: 1. Logging Off. 3. To shut down the computer altogether. If you share computer with others. or put it to sleep so to speak. but does not save current settings. and restarting will be from scratch.

.

These tools are common to most windows. Double clicking. 9 . An arrow. Shift clicking. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. to display the contents of menus. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. Clicking. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. 7. Selection.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. the first thing to do is to open the menus. 6. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. To use the mouse. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. Basic mouse movements 1. POINTING. each time you press the mouse button.shaped pointer moves across the screen. and then click a mouse button. 5. Pressing. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. 2. you make a selection. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. 4. Dragging. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse.

.

To move up or down a little bit at a time. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. 11. or remove toolbars from. To see the options for a particular window. the taskbar. To resi e an item within the toolbar. up. drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars.´ That is. try widening it first. right. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. To move more quickly than that. drag it back into the taskbar. doubleclick its title bar. as mentioned. or down. 2. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3.´ 4. drag the slider box through the slider bar. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. and appears ³pushed in. right-click its taskbar button. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. To rearrange items in the toolbar. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. 16. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. 7. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. 15. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. If it won¶t go. 12. Remember. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. 17. To move a window to some new location on the screen. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen. drag the window by its title bar. Alternatively. 13. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. 9. click the up. no other windows overlap the active window 6. 14. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). 10 . click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!). 8. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. To add toolbars to. Scroll bars Scroll bars. 10. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. drag its dots to the left.

.

) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. Check box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. Preview box. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. or type a number in the box. Each tab groups a related set of options. A checked box means the option is selected. and then click the option you want. Click in the box. Text box. Click the list arrow to display a list of options. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. Button. You can usually select only one. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number.) opens another dialog box. just click the Folders button on the toolbar. If your mouse has a wheel. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. To open the Folders list. Click a tab to display its options. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . List box. Click an option button to select it. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. Option buttons. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. a cleared box means it s not. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs.. Click the box to turn on or off the option. (I say may be able to. Spin box. It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. and then type the requested information. A button name followed by an ellipsis (..

.

Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. 4. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. From the shortcut menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. To display all open windows in equal si es. Open multiple windows on the desktop 2.

.

Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . which is why most businesses have adopted it. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. One method is from the Start button. it s also very easy to use. or even write a complicated. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. You can create a simple letter to a friend. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. you can double -click it to quickly access Word.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003.

.

Click on a menu selection. If you look closely. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars. such as saving or opening. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. and options that relate to files. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. 14 ." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment. are grouped together. you'll see the options available under that menu. centre. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. by default. Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus. the Alignment buttons (left.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. and right) are grouped together. Right click anywhere in the document screen. 1. e For example.right-click to open a shortcut menu. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters.

.

1. which is usually at the top of the screen. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. 3. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. The description of that feature will appear 2. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. Release the mouse button. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. The toolbar will remain in the new position. The requested action will be performed. 15 . TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Click on a toolbar button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3.

.

1.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . Press the enter key. you'll need to move the insertion point around.) to the next line for you. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. my computer training programme have commence. The program automatically moves down (word wrap. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. It marks the location where text will appear when you type.   Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy.

.

To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Here is how to: Inserting. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. in the document window. Just type them in. Or want to change some of the text in the document. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Selecting. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard. Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. Inserting Text 17 . Down. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Right. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key.

.

Select All. copy. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. press Ctrl+A or choose Edit. 18 . When text is selected (called highlighted). it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. Selecting Text Before you can move. you must first select the text you want to edit. or change the formatting of text. delete. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document.

.

Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. TIP 19 . Be aware. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. click once anywhere in the document. after highlighting your text. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. if you type "SPringtime. however. that if you save your document. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. TIP To deselect text. however. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. or any amount of selected text. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. 4. The option will be selected 5. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. Click on a case option. Click on OK." You can apply a text case change to a word. or title case. use Word's Undo feature. Click on the undo button. or reverse a recently taken action. Also. 1. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. press the F3 key. Each time you press F3. lower." If." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME).•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. a phrase. For example. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point. if you close the document. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. when you reopen it. word. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. delete text you just typed.

.

The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Select the text you want to copy. 1. When you undoa previous step. then bolded the text. If you undo the Change Case action. With Cut and Paste. to cut text. 1.•• Optionally. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed. 1. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. choose Undo from the Edit menu. Click on the Paste button. then underlined the text. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . Click on the Redo button. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. Word will reverse the previous undo action. imagine you changed the case of some text. to paste text. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. For example. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. holds it. Word deletes the selected text. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. Click on the action you want to undo. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. 2. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. 2. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. 3. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. use the Redo feature. The text will be highlighted. Click on the copy button. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. and then places it into a new location. Optionally. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard.

.

Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. and after that. 21 . Those names are temporary names. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Click on the Paste button. to copy text. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. Click the mouse where you want to place the text. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. and so forth. Fortunately. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. to help protect you against such a catastrophe.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. However. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. then Document3.

.

The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder. The original document will remain. Word is still active and ready to work for you. and then choose Save As. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. When you close a document. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. click on File. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. and a new copy will be created with the name you specified. 22 . you should close it. you are only putting the document away²not the program.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it.

.

allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . be sure to save the file again. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used. If you make any changes. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document.

.

Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others. Click on Print Preview. such as margins. you won't be able to edit it. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. In Print Preview. you will only be able to see the document. Printing with the Print Button 24 . you may want to preview it on the screen.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. b. The Print Preview window will open. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. will look in the printed document.

.

or just specific pages. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. or if you want to change which printer is being used. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear. t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. you must display the Prin dialog box. 25 . Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document.

.

click on the Margins tab. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. bottom. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. 4. Bottom. Left. and right margins. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. Click on File. or right margin setting. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. Click on Page Setup. 5. 26 . after you've completed the entire document. The File menu will appear. bottom. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. 2. left. left. or at any time in between.

.

but you cannot make a page longer. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. for example. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. 1. The blinking insertion point will appear. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read. Click on Page Setup. Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. 1. 27 . 2. Click on Insert. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. A dropdown menu will appear. The Insert menu will appear 3. Click on File. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. Click on Break. The File menu will appear 2.

.

Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. Word comes with extra fonts. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. Like line spacing. and Ctrl+5 for 1. right. You can also justify your text. or centre. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. 28 . Ctrl+2 for double spacing.5 line spacing. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine.

.

You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. Ctrl+I for italic. Therefore. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. 29 . or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. Applying Bold. add impact by adding some colour. and Ctrl+U for underline. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. italic.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. Font sizes are measured in points. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. Italic.

.

4. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. Click on a symbol. such as a title page of a document. it may be available in a different font. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. The text will appear in the selected colour. You can also add a border around an entire page. The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click on Insert.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. check marks. The symbol will appear selected 7. stars. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text. 30 . paragraph. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. or airplanes. phrase. Click on a font. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area.

.

Word continues the list using the same format. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. Word will continue the list with the same character. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. hyphen. Press the spacebar or Tab key. Note that when you use the asterisk key. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. Click on Tools. word will convert it to a round. Type a number. 2. The text will display in the document 4. 1. a period. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. filled-in-bullet. 1. Click on AutoCorrect Options. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. then a closing parenthesis. you can easily turn off the feature. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. or a hyphen. or dash. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . Type the text for the first item on your list. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. Click on OK. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. type an asterisk. The tools menu will appear. instead of typing a number at the first item. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets.

.

1. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. The blinking insertion point will appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. The insert menu will appear 3. 1. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number. Click on picture. Again. If you'r not already e using one of these views. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. The text will be highlighted. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on Go. 2. The list will change to bulleted. Click on insert. it's easy to change it. The list will be highlighted. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. OR 3. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. Click on clip Art. 4. The clip Art task pane will open 5. The picture menu will appear. 1. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. The list will change to numbered. Select the list of items you want to modify. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. 2.

.

1. Click on insert. Click on picture. The blinking insertion point will appear. or other type of artwork. The picture submenu will appear 3. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. Click on WordArt. "Your Text Here. a drawing. whether it's a photograph. The insert picture dialogue box will open. skewed. Click on OK. The insert menu will appear 2. The selection will have a box around it 5. Click on a WordArt style. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open. . scanned image. Click on insert. Click on picture. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. The picture menu will appear 4. rotated. containing predefined styles 4. You can create shadowed. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text." 33 . Click on from file. A placeholder in the Text box will say. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. 1. and stretched text. The insert menu will appear 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document.

.

The view menu will appear 2. Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. Click on Toolbars. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. 34 . A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar. Click on Drawing. Click on View. 1.

.

•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. You can insert it from a menu selection. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. Click on Table. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. Click on Insert. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. 1. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. Click on the diagram type you want to use. 1. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on OK. The table will be created 35 . Click on OK. The number will display 5. The number will be displayed 6. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. and you're ready to go. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. or draw it manually. The Table menu will appear 2. Click on Table. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. The Insert submenu will appear 3. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. create it from the toolbar. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. A sample diagram will appear in your document. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows.

.

Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Shift+Tab key. 1. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. 36 . The insertion point will move down to the next row. To use the mouse. Down Arrow key. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. The blinking insertion point will appear. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. Type some text. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. simply click in the cell you want to work with. 1. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. The insertion point will move up a row. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. As you enter text in the cells. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. The column width will change. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. the text automatically wraps to the next line. The table grid will appear in the document. Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want. Up Arrow key. 2. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3.

.

A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. The create new tab will come to the front 5. The insert menu will appear. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click on Insert. For example. 1. 1. Select the data. and row labels of your table. Just follow the same procedure. The table menu will appear 3. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. column heads. Click on Object. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. Click on OK. 1. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. Click on Table. Click on Rows Above. The delete submenu will appear 4. Click on Table. The data will be highlighted. The insert submenu will appear 4. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Click anywhere in the document. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. Click on Insert. Click in the last Cell of the last row. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. Click on Rows. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. The current column will be deleted OR 5. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. The selection will be highlighted 6. 3. The Table. 2. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. Click on Delete. OR Click on Rows Below. 37 . The Object dialogue box will open 4.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The Table menu will appear 3. 1. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. Press the tab key. Click on Columns.

.

try them out on some of the other Office programs. Click on View. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. Time. Type some text. a header prints at the top of every page. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. The footer box will appear 5. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. Type and format some text. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. or even pictures. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. dates. 1. Headers and footers can contain text. when you print the document. The View menu will appear 2. Click on Header and Footer 3. Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. and a footer prints at the bottom.

.

••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .

.

the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. dates and times. and numbers.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Point to All Programs. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003. The values can be in form of text. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. and then point to Microsoft Office.

.

•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name. A blank workbook is opened." and so on). Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 ." "Book2. Click the File menu. Click the Close button on the task pane. 2. and then click New. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. 3. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. Click Blank Workbook. Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1.

.

If you want to save the file in another folder. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. Type' (an apostrophe). or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. Enter a Number as a Text 1. Press Enter. 42 . or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Press Enter. 2. 4. Click the cell where you want to enter a label. Type your text. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. click the Save In list arrow. 3. Type a number value. Type the file name for the new workbook name. 2. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. 2. punctuation. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. and numbers 3. 3. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. spaces. 4.

.

always quit Excel before turning off your computer. click No to ignore any changes. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. Select a Contiguous Range 1. If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. use them in a formula. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. and then click Exit. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. 2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. you can quit the program. Click the File menu. 3. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range. you can close it. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. or click Cancel to cancel the save. or click the File menu. and then click Close.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. When you're finished using Excel. 3. 43 . or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. edit or move it. To protect your files. 2. Excel is still running. Close a Workbook 1. 2.

.

•• —– ” 2010/2011 3.M. Type a value. Press and hold Ctrl. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. Click the cell where you want to enter a value. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. 4. When a range is selected. Enter a Date or Time 1. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. To select more. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. 2. click the Number tab. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. To enter a time. 2. Press Enter. followed by a colon (:). or click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the Format menu. 4. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. Press Enter. 2. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. 3. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. Click Date. 3. 3. 2. followed by a space. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. 3. followed by the minute. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. and then click Cells. day. If necessary. and then release the mouse button. To enter a date. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. 44 . or P.M. while the additional cells are selected.

.

or press Delete. 2. 3. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. Select the cell or range you want to clear.•• 5. Enter the starting value to be repeated. End. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. Edit Cell Contents 1. 45 . —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. 4. The insertion point appears in the cell. Right click the cell or range. Double-click the cell you want to edit. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. Click OK. 2. Click the date or time format. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. If necessary. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign). 4. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. 2. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. 6. 3. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. and then type new characters as needed. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. use the Home. The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready.

.

Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. Click All. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. 3. 2. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. If you don't want to paste this selection. 5. 3. 2. called a marquee. 3. available for further pasting. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 2. 4. 4. and then point to Clear. Click the Edit menu. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. and Comments 1. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. press Esc to remove the marquee. 3. 4. until you replace it with another selection. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. The data remains on the Clipboard. press Esc to remove the marquee. If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. Click OK. Click the Edit menu.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. 6. Select the cell or range you want to clear. shows the size of the selection. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. Click to select the Transpose check box. and then click Paste Special. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. 46 . 6. and then click Paste Special. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Formatting. Click the Edit menu. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. Drag the selection to the new location. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Select the cells that you want to switch. 2. 5. 5. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 2. 3. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. 4.

.

Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. not calculate. y Entire Row to delete the entire row.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. 3. 5. and then click Cells. Click the Edit menu. Enter an arithmetic operator. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. Click the option you want. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). 2. Click OK. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. y Entire Column to delete the entire column. 4. and then click Delete. 4. Select the cell or range you want to delete. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. 2. 6. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. Insert a Cell 1. Delete a Cell 1. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. the information you type. 4. Type = (an equal sign). Click the Insert menu. Enter the first argument. 47 . Click OK. When you delete a cell. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Enter the next argument. 3. 3. 2. Excel will display. Click the option you want.

.

3. Click the type of calculation you want. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Click the View tab. Click the Tools menu. and then click Options. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). 48 . 2. 3. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Display Formulas in Cells 1. Click OK. or press Enter. Calculate a Range Automatically 1. 4. 2. Click to select the Formulas check box.

.

Enter a Function 1. Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. 3. Click the function you want to use. For example. to insert the AVERAGE function. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). Press Enter to accept the range selected. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. 49 . Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. type the name of the function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Type = (an equal sign). or press Enter. Click the cell where you want to enter the function.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. or press Enter. type =AVERAGE(. 2.

.

Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. and then click Columns or Rows. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. drag to select more columns or rows. 4.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. To insert multiple rows. 5. Click the Insert menu. 50 . and then click Column Width or Row Height. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete. 3. Click the Edit menu. Click OK. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). To insert a row. and then click Columns or Rows. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. and then click Delete. 2. 2. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. If you want. Type a new column width or row height in points. Click the Insert menu. drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. 2.

.

When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. or bubble chart. 6. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. Click Next to continue. Select the data range you want to chart. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. patterns become more apparent. Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. You can click Finish at any time. graphical representation of numerical data. A chart. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. line. 2. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. surface. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. 51 . Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. 4. Click a chart type. rather than on a new sheet. also called a graph. 2. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. pie. click Back or Forward. Click a chart sub-type. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. 5. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. the chart is called an embedded object.

.

y Data Table tab. 11. and then click Next to continue. x-axis. Click a chart options tab. 8. y Legend tab. 9. 13. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. Select the labels you want for the data. Select the axes you want to display for the data. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Click Finish. Select options to display a legend and its location. Click to add a table to the chart. Preview the options. y Data Labels tab. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. 12. Titles tab. 52 . 10. y Gridlines tab. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. Click Next to continue.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. y Axes tab. Verify the data range. Type titles for the chart.

.

53 . Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button. Drag the slice away from the pie. Release the mouse button.

.

Type the text you want for the title of the chart. 9. 8. and then click Chart Options. f you want a second line for the x.or y-axis. and then type the text. and then type the text. press Tab. press Tab. Click the Chart menu. press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. 3. Preview the title(s) you are adding.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. 4. To add a title for the y-axis. 7. 5. and then type the title text. Click OK 54 . 6. 2. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. Click the Titles tab. To add a title for the x-axis.

.

5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. and then click Page Break. 3. or click a button to insert built-in header information. Click OK. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. click the row where you want to insert a page break. 6. 9. and then click Normal. Select the text you want to format. Click OK 10. click the Font button. Click the Margins tab. make font changes. 5. Click OK. 2. or Right Section text boxes. 2. 4. 3. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. Click the File menu. click Custom Header. 4. 7. click the View menu. Change a Header or Footer 1. Bottom. Type information in the Left. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Click the Header/Footer tab. Excel will use the default font. Click the File menu. When you're done. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. 3. Change the Margin Settings 1. Click the Portrait (8. Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. unless you change it. Centre. and then click Page Setup.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. and then click Page Setup. 2. 3. Click the File menu. 2. and then click Page Setup.5 inches) option to select page orientation. 5. Click OK. 55 . To insert a horizontal page break. Centre. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. 2. Left. To insert a vertical page break. 4. and then click Page Break Preview. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Click OK. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. and then click OK. Click the Top. Click the View menu. 8. Change Page Orientation 1. Click the Insert menu. or Right Section text boxes. Click the Page tab. Type the information in the Left. click Custom Footer. Arial.

.

and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 4. 4. Click OK. 56 . Click the Sheet tab. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. 2. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 2. and then click Page Setup. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. 2. Set the Print Area 1. Select the range of cells you want to print. Click the Sheet tab. 3. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. Click the File menu. and then point to Print Area. Type the range you want to print. select the cells you want to print. Click the File menu. Click the File menu. select the row or column with the mouse. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles. Click Set Print Area. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. 3. Or click the Collapse Dialog button.

.

6. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. Click the File menu. and then click Print. click the Name list arrow. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. and then click the printer you want to use. 2. If necessary. Click Clear Print Area. Click OK. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. 5. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. 2. and then point to Print Area. Click the File menu. the selected worksheets. 57 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful