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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Simply put a computer is an electronic device which has the capability of accepting data as (input) in a prescribed form, apply a series of arithmetic and logical operation on data (processing) and produce the result of these operations an (output information) in a specified format to the users at a very fast speed under the control of some logical sequence of instruction called program. The definition above can be represented thus Incoming data
Input

Computer
Process

Information
Output

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER The need for efficient and accurate accounting has been with us from the beginning of civilized man. Originally, man used his fingers for counting, but as his needs become complex this method was soon replaced by a variety or increasingly more sophisticated device. The Abacus: The development of computer started as early as 500BC, with the introduction of counting device. The first of such device was the ABACUS developed by the ancient Greeks. Pascal Arithmrtics Machine: in 1642, the French man, Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculating machine that is mechanical adding and subtracting machine (calculator) which he used in his father¶s business account. Prof. Howard Aiken (1937): design the MARK 1 computer at Howard University in USA. It was in 1944 that the computer was actually implemented. It was actually a general purpose adding machine. Von Neuman: In 1949, John Von Neuman developed what is called the STORE PROGRAMME concept used by all of today¶s computers. Here programme is read into memory for processing. He suggested the binary as against the decimal numbering system adopted by the ENIAC. Data and instructions are now to be stored internally in the machine. Neuman processed Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). Philip Emeagwali: The "Unsung Hero" Behind the Internet "A father of the Internet". He developed the world's fastest computer, invented hyperball computer networks, and invented a new approach for designing supercomputers by observing and emulating patterns in nature. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER A typical electronic digital computer has the following characteristics: 1. Electronic in nature that is data are represented in form of electronic pulses, operation is electronic and the basic components are electronics e g. integrated circuit.
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2. High degree of accuracy when a computer is programmed correctly and when input is entered properly the accuracy of the output is virtually guaranteed. 3. High-speed computer carries out its operations at a very fast rate in the order of Name. 4. Consistency given the same set of input data the same result will always be produced. 5. Computer has ability to perform repetition operations without getting bored or tired. 6. Cost effectiveness computers perform task that would not otherwise be feasible or cost effective e g. ability of the developed country to embark on space program. Etc. 7. Automatic; once initiated it could operate on its own, without human intervention, under the control of stored sequences of instructions called program. 8. Durability and reliability given suitable environmental condition a computer can work for hours or days, weeks or months non-stop without getting tired. It does not go on leave nor does it go on strike. 9. Versatility computers have ability to perform different operation at the same time when connected with terminals. 10. Memory computers have very large storage capacities. Computers are capable of storing billions of items of data, fast access to such stored data is also guaranteed. It could store information on a very long-term basis. ROLES OF COMPUTER IN MODERN SOCIETY The above characteristics of a computer make it to be of great benefit to the society. Computer is now being used in almost every areas of society endeavours, notable areas of computer application are; 1. Electronic banking and services 2. Benefit to business 3. Legal assistance 4. Medical and health care 5. Mass media 6. Stock control OTHERS ARE IN: - weather forecasting - statistics - transportation/navigation - telecommunication and data communication - crime control - artificial intelligence and robotics - education science and research - organisation management - recreation activities Classification of Computer Based On Physical Size 1. MAIN FRAME; these are large and very expensive general-purpose computers. Examples include ICL 1900, and IBM 370 series.
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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 2. AMSTAD etc. which make up the visible computer. TANDY. The hardware. MINI COMPUTER. The CPU can be thought as the µbrain¶ of the computer. PERIPHERAL UNIT The peripherals are responsible for feeding data into the system and for collecting information from the systems. ALU and control unit. THE CPU ALU INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MEMORY THE PHERIPHERAL UNIT THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The (CPU) is responsible for all processing that takes place within the computer system. It is the soft ware that enables the hardware to be put into effective use. they generally have smaller physical size generate lower heat have small instruction set and less expensive than the mainframe. these are relatively small in size but have the memory and processing capacity of the large mainframe computer. While the software is programs. central processing unit (CPU) and the peripheral units. In this system. namely. It is the micro-processor in a computer. PDP series and data general series. the hardware is the physical component or devices. PC. these are much smaller and cheaper than either mainframe computers. which simply consist of a sequence of instructions needed to be performed to accomplish a task. it consists of main storage. Components of a Computer System A computer system can be divided into hardware and software. They are divided into two categories Input devices 3 . However. It is sometimes said. Hardware Configuration Computer hardware can be divided into two. It controls the transfer of data and information to and from other device and sub-systems. 4. µcomputer without a program is an electronic idiot¶ because it can do nothing constructive or profitable. these have similar features to that of mainframe. Typical example are DEC. 3. Micro Computer. SUPER COMPUTER. various integrated circuit and elements of computer are replaced by a single integrated circuit called a CHIP Example are the IBM.

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These include. There are two main types of software 1. the system unit houses a number of system components. database management system. It must be capable of improving the operating functions of the organization 2. Output devices These are the devices which translate the bytes and bites understood by the computer into a form we can understand. A program is a sequence of instruction needed to be performed to accomplish a task. BASIC MICROCOMPUTER HARDWERE ASSEMBLY Complete computer hardware consist of: i. Example are MS DOS. language translators. System unit ii. UNIX MS Windows etc. plotter etc. The central processing unit (CPU) (described above. Joystick etc.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 The input devices assist the user to transmit data and instruction to the CPU and memories for processing. examples are Monitors (Visual Display Units) [Cathode Ray Display or Liquid Cristal Display/Plasma]. Application software System software: These are programs that have direct effect on the control. Compact disk-ROM (CD-ROM) available in multimedia system. Hard disk drive (HDD). iii. Cooling fan. Monitor or visual display unit(VDU) and Keyboard System unit. performance and the ease of usage of the computer system. Guideline for acquiring application software: 1. which form an interface between the computer hardware and the computer user. operating systems (OS): a collection of program modules. Mouse. The software must be easy to use and ease in learning by the users 4. It must be available when needed 4 . Main memory or RAM. THE CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE Software is computer programs. Must be of high performance 3. Application software: these are programs design to solve user problems and are sometimes called application packages and they come either as custom application software or generic application software. printers. operating systems. Examples are Computer keyboard. Fax modem (in latest PCs). Floppy disk DRIVES(FDD).g. System software 2. Battery pack (CMOS batteries). E. Power supply unit (PSU). Mother board. It is the program that enables the computer hardware to be put to use. Sound card.

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••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 5. and power regulators and stabilizers should be provided 5. file backup copies of both programs and data file must be kept in separate location for easy recovering in case any disaster occur. Smoke and burning objects must be kept away from the computer room. High temperature: high temperature or heat can lead to melting of some of the components and result in system break down. Compatibility with other systems and user hardware THE COMPUTER ROOM ENVIRONMENT Computer systems must be protected from all kind of hazards such as: 1. 2. There must be provision for training particularly if it is a complex program 6. Unauthorized access: there must be security guard to monitor the movement of people entering the computer room so as to prevent unauthorized people from entering the computer room in other to avoid loss of equipments or files COMPUTER NETWORK This is the linking together of computers from different locations via some forms of communication network. The computer room must be provided with rug or carpets that will trap down dust. dirt and smoke: these particles can lead to a breakdown of the entire computer system. The window in a computer room should be covered with a dark curtain 4. such as the public telephone services. Dust. Solar energy: the computer system must be protected from direct sunlight from a window. uninterruptible power supply. after use the computer system must be covered with dust prove materials. usage and other technical details 7. 3. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) 5 . It is highly recommended that a computer room should have an air conditioner or fan and a good cross ventilation windowing. The application package must be well documented with guide (manuals) for installation. Provide fire extinguishers. computer systems must be handled with clean hands. Equipments such as standby power supply (generator). Users of this kind of arrangements can have access to more than one computer installation and could share some computer facilities or stored information peculiar to one centre. satellite or private line. There are two major types of computer networks. Fire outbreak: provision must be made for disasters such as fire outbreak and flooding. 6. Abnormal shut down: the computer room must be protected against power irregularities. User friendliness that is easy to use even by non-computer specialists 8.

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software and communication channels that connects devices in close proximity. Turn on all peripherals attached to your PC. Follow these steps: 1. you¶ll first come to the Welcome screen. the programs you use. and all that other stuff ² work in harmony. open the CDROM drive and remove any CD that might be in there. Starting Windows XP If Windows XP is already installed on your PC. keyboard. To ensure that your computer doesn¶t attempt to boot from a CD -ROM.•• —– ” 2010/2011 L t i i a syst of hardware. without your even being aware of it. If your computer has a floppy disk drive. which looks something like the example shown below. T T T T X i X Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system. such as your monitor and printer. One reason that an operating system is required on all computers is that it plays the important role of making all the things that make up a computer system ² the screen. Wait a minute or so for your computer to boot up (start itself and load Windows XP for you). Everything else you see on the screen is actually resting on top of this virtual desktop. used mainly in large businesses. 4. i L If your computer supports multiple users. is the large area of the screen. Just click your user name (or Guest. And it does all that in the background. And without your having to know how it does it. example shown below. the hard disk. and Linux and UNIX. the Mac OS used on Macintosh computers. LAN permits the movement of data between computers. check to make sure no disk is in that drive 2. and any other connected device that has its own on/off switch. if you don¶t have an account on this computer) to proceed. often abbreviated OS. T Once you get past the logon procedure you¶ll get to the Windows XP desktop like the . this covers a wide geographical area such as a Nation or even the whole world. Some of the other operating systems DOS. 3. homes and institutions or organi ations. mouse. 5. The desktop. 6 . Turn on the main power on the system unit. such as in building. starting Windows XP is a simple task. proper.

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Each icon. and the Notifications area. or Web site. Document icon: Represents a document. Becoming familiar with those names is a good idea. the Quick Launch toolbar. in turn. To open an icon. as you¶ll come across them constantly in your work with Windows XP. Shortcut icon: The little arrow in the lower-left corner of an icon identifies that icon as a shortcut to some program. The Start button 7 . represents some program you can run.The following list summari es the main types of icons you¶ll come across: Folder i on: Represents a folder. document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 This figure below shows the names of the various units that appear on the Windows desktop. or some location on your computer where things are stored. folder. a place on the computer where files are stored Program i on: Represents a program. T desktop i ons Each little picture on the desktop is an icon. you either click or double-click it depending on how your computer is currently configured. The taskbar The taskbar is the coloured strip along the bottom of the desktop and it contains the Start button. typically this is something you can change and print.

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Nothing is saved. To shut down the computer altogether. Click the Start button. Also known as rebooting. To log off. One of the most common mistakes when using a PC issimply to turn off the PC. Logging Off. Click the Start button. If you share computer with others. Click the Log Off button that appears. Restart: Briefly shuts off the computer. Click the Turn Off Computer button near the bottom of the menu. or put it to sleep so to speak. and restarting will be from scratch. 2. Turn Off: Turns the computer off. so that it consumes little or no electricity. Standby (i available): Puts the computer into a minimal power-consumption state.•• —– ” 2010/2011 The Start button is where you can start any program on your computer. Click the Log Off button near the bottom of the menu. and then instantly restarts it. 8 . no power is consumed while the computer is off. 3. 3. Shutting Down Your computer is not a TV. The right side provides access to frequently used folders. Choose one of the following options (as available): Hibernate: Saves everything on the screen and puts the computer into a minimal powerconsumption state. The left half of the menu provides access to frequently used programs. and icons that keep you posted as to the status of various programs or services running on your computer. you can just log off. but does not save current settings. The Noti ications area The Notifications area contains the clock. 2. follow these steps: 1. and want to leave it on for them. This is not good. follow these steps: 1. The Welcome screen shown back at the logon stage reappears. The Start menu is divided into two sections.

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Double clicking. the first thing to do is to open the menus. this is used to select icons scattered Window Tools Every window that you open on your desktop will have certain elements in common. All you do is to point to an ICON or a MENU on the screen. The pointer is controlled by moving the mouse. 6. To use the mouse. POINTING.•• —– ” 2010/2011 USING THE MOUSE The mouse is a hand-held pointing device that helps you use your software more easily and efficiently.shaped pointer moves across the screen. each time you press the mouse button.These tools are common to most windows. pressing a mouse button and holding it down while moving the mouse pointer. 9 . 4. you make a selection. pressing and releasing a button twice in rapid succession. It is a way of telling the computer what you want to work on before you tell it what you want to do. Clicking. this involves moving the pointer until the tip rest on a specific object or area on your screen. 2. Shift clicking. this is the pressing and the releasing of a mouse button 3. Pressing. This technique of opening or revealing the content of some options is called pressing I etc press and hold the mouse button. to display the contents of menus. hold it in your hand and move the mouse across a surface. Basic mouse movements 1. An arrow. Selection. Dragging. 5. and then click a mouse button. 7.

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try widening it first. To move more quickly than that. 12. To move up or down a little bit at a time. To see the options for a particular window. Click on any visible portion of the window that you want to make active. and appears ³pushed in. as mentioned. To si e a toolbar within the taskbar (such as the Quick Launch toolbar). 14. to drag something means to clock and hold and then drag the mouse button 3. 16. To move a window to some new location on the screen. drag the slider box through the slider bar. 10 . 17. doubleclick its title bar.or down-arrow button at the end of the taskbar. The active window is always at the ³top of the stack. Drop-down lists A drop-down list (also called a combo box) is a small control containing some text and a button with a little ³v´ shape or down-pointing arrow on it. or down. To resi e an item within the toolbar. drag its inner edge (the edge nearest the center of the screen) up or down. To add toolbars to. the taskbar. click the toolbar button for the window you want to make active (very handy if that window is completely covered by other windows on the desktop!).´ That is. 11. drag the dots at the edge of the toolbar out onto the desktop. 15. To turn a taskbar toolbar into a free-floating toolbar that you can place anywhere on the screen. If it won¶t go. The title bar for the active window is a little brighter than the title bars of the inactive windows 5. 9. up. Clicking the button a second time brings it back into view. right. enable you to scroll through lengthy lists of items. click the up. right-click its taskbar button. drag the neutral area to some other edge of the screen.´ 4. To si e the taskbar (to make it thinner or thicker). drag the dots nearest the Start button to the right. drag its dots to the left. To rearrange items in the toolbar. To put a floating toolbar back into the taskbar. You can minimi e an open window just by clicking its taskbar button. To expand a window to full-screen si e or to shrink it back to its original si e. 7. drag it back into the taskbar. 10. drag the window by its title bar. Remember. past any item that you want to put to the left of the current item. or remove toolbars from. 8. no other windows overlap the active window 6.•• TIPS —– ” 2010/2011 1. 13. Scroll bars Scroll bars. Alternatively. Clicking that down -pointing arrow opens a list of choices. dragthe dotted lines at the edge of the taskbar to the left or right. Then choose any toolbar to display or hide. The taskbar button for the active window is coloured a little differently. To move the taskbar to some other edge of the screen. 2. right-click its neutral area and choose Toolbars.

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It also provides a drop -down list of other commonly accessed locations on your computer. A checked box means the option is selected. (I say may be able to.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To jump to a specific part of the list. just click the Folders button on the toolbar.) Choose Dialog Box Options y y y y y y y y Tabs. If your mouse has a wheel. you may be able to scroll vertically by spinning the mousewheel. Option buttons. To open the Folders list. Text box. You ca jump to a new location by choosing it from the n dropdown list 11 . Each tab groups a related set of options. Click the list arrow to display a list of options.) opens another dialog box. You can usually select only one. Click the box to turn on or off the option. Spin box.. Check box. Click a tab to display its options. List box. A button name followed by an ellipsis (. Click an option button to select it. Preview box. click within the slider bar at about w here you want to position the slider box. visible beneath the Standard Buttons toolbar shows the nameof the location you¶re viewing at the moment. The Folders list and other bars The Folders list provides a quick and easy way to jump to specific areas of yourcomputer and to folders on your hard disk. and then click the option you want.. because the wheel doesn¶t work in all programs. a cleared box means it s not. Button. Click the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the number. Many dialog boxes show an image that reflects the options you select. Click a button to perform a specific action or command. Click in the box. or choose View Explorer Bar Toolbar from the menu The Address bar The Address bar. and then type the requested information. or type a number in the box.

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To display all open windows in equal si es.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Address bar Folders list Cascading and Tiling open Windows 1. From the shortcut menu. Point to a blank area on the taskbar and right-click to reveal the shortcut menu 3. right click the taskbar and choose Tile Hori ontally or Tile Vertically 12 . Open multiple windows on the desktop 2. choose cascade to display the windows in an orderly fashion. 4.

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Discovering the Word Screen: The following list illustrates a few elements that are standard to most Windows programs and specific to Word: 13 . it s also very easy to use. multiple page report containing graphics and tables with numerical data. You can create a simple letter to a friend.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Welcome to the world of Microsoft Word 003 This manual from ISSCAFE will help you use the many and varied features of one of Microsoft s most popular products²Microsoft Word 2003. Getting Started with Word Word is a powerful program. this manual and the practical hands-on guide you will receive from ISSCAFE professionals will equip you with the skills that you need to quickly and easily get the job done. or even write a complicated. Don't worry! You'll be creating your first document after just a couple of mouse clicks. One method is from the Start button. Microsoft Word is a powerful word-processing program that will take your documents far beyond what you can produce with a typewriter. produce a newsletter for a professional organi ation. TIP If you have a Microsoft Word icon on your Windows desktop. Starting Word There are a number of different methods to access the Word application. part of the Microsoft Office Suite. which is why most businesses have adopted it. you can double -click it to quickly access Word.

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Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus contain a limited number of commands. Click on a menu selection. centre. you'll see the options available under that menu. the Alignment buttons (left. such as saving or opening. If you look closely. The menu action will be performed TIP Press the Esc key or click anywhere outside the shortcut menu to closethe menu without making a selection Using Toolbars Along the top of the Word screen you see two different toolbars." When a menu option is greyed out it is unavailable at the moment.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Working with Menus As you click a menu choice. you can see that the toolbar buttons are grouped into relat d activities. Word includes more than 20 toolbars to assist you but. Right click anywhere in the document screen. are grouped together. Menu options becom greyed out when e they are not applicable to your current selection. The commands you see on a shortcut menu are relevant to what you're doing at the time you open the shortcut menu. Somemenus have submenus that list additional choices from which you can select. and right) are grouped together. A shortcut menu will appear on the screen 2. You'll learn how to use these buttons in later chapters. by default. and options that relate to files. only the Standard and Formatting toolbars are automatically displayed side -by-side along the top of the Word screen. A menu option that appears lighter in colour than the other options is said to be "greyed out. Toolbars are groups of small icons or buttons that help you access commonly used Word features without digging through the menus.right-click to open a shortcut menu. 14 . 1. e For example.

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which is usually at the top of the screen. The mouse pointer will change to arrowheads 3. Release the mouse button. Moving a Toolbar If a toolbar is not located in a favourable position for you to access it. Hiding a particular toolbar can be very helpful ifit is using up valuable screen space. 15 . The toolbar will remain in the new position. press and hold the mouse button over the toolbar title bar and drag the toolbar into the default position. 1. 3. Pause the mouse pointer over any toolbar item.•• —– ” 2010/2011 1. TIP To return a toolbar to its default position. Click on a toolbar button. The requested action will be performed. Position the mouse pointer at the far left side of any toolbar. The description of that feature will appear 2. Hiding and Displaying Toolbars You can hide or display any toolbar. you can easily move the toolbar into any position you like. Click on the Toolbar Options button²A set of additional toolbar button from which you can select will appear Separating Toolbars To separate the Standard and Formatting toolbars so that one is on top of the other.

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  Word's text wrap feature will move the insertion point down to the next line when necessary. you'll need to move the insertion point around. Type a small amount of text such as my name 2. You only press the Enter key to start a new paragraph. my computer training programme have commence. I believe that at ISSCAFE ACADEMY I will achieve that. It marks the location where text will appear when you type. Moving around the Screen To make changes to your document. The insertion point will move down to the next line 3. Youcan use several methods to move around the Word screen 16 . The program automatically moves down (word wrap. It has been my childhood dream to excel in computer technology. Press the enter key again this will create blank line 15-01-2012 Tahir Shopping Complex N3 Gamagira Road Anguan Sanusi Buss op Dear Mommy. Press the enter key.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Entering Text The small flashing vertical bar on your document screen is called theinsertion point.) to the next line for you. I am pleased to inform you that by the good grace of God. 1.

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and then enter the page number Editing Text You probably make a few mistakes in your document. in the document window. You'll still need to click the mouse wherever you would like to locate the insertion point. Selecting. Displaying text by using the scroll bars does not move the insertion point. and Deleting Text Editing text with Word is a breeze. Right. Inserting Text 17 . Word determines and sets any necessary paragraph formatting based on where you double-click the mouse. To delete words Just highlight them and press the Delete key. OR Using the Keyboard You can move around in a Word document by pressing the Up. Just type them in. Or want to change some of the text in the document. To Move Do This A word at a time Press Ctrl+Right Arrow or Ctrl+Left Arrow A paragraph at a time Press Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow A full screen up at a time Press the PageUp key A full screen down at a time Press the PageDown key To the beginning of a line Press the Home key To the end of a line Press the End key To the top of the document Press Ctrl+Home To the bottom of the document Press Ctrl+End To a specified page number Press Ctrl+G. Here is how to: Inserting. a vertical scroll bar and a hori ontal scroll bar. Down. or Left Arrow keys on the keyboard.•• —– ” 2010/2011 You can position the insertion point with the mouse and double -click where you would like to enter text. Using the Scroll Bars Word includes two scroll bars. The following table illustrates these shortcut keys. There are several shortcut keys designed to speed up the process of moving around in a Word document.

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delete. copy. You can select sequential or non-sequential text for editing. or change the formatting of text. Selecting Text Before you can move. Select All. you must first select the text you want to edit. just place the insertion point where you want to locate the new text and begin typing. When text is selected (called highlighted). it will appear as light type on a dark background on your screen²the reverse of unselected text. The following list shows different selection techni ues: TIP To select the entire document. 18 . press Ctrl+A or choose Edit.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you want to add new text to a document.

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after highlighting your text. you cannot undo changes made in the previous editing session. TIP To deselect text. you cannot use Undo to "unsave" it. click once anywhere in the document. hold down the Ctrl key and use the preceding selection techniques for each additional text block you want to include. Changing Text Case Word automatically corrects many text case errors. Deleting Text You can delete unwanted text one character. Also." Word automatically changes it to "Springtime. Click on the undo button. when you reopen it. if you close the document. the case of the selected text will change to either upper. Word will reverse the last action you took with the current document. or paragraph at a time and you can delete any combination of the above. Each time you press F3. a phrase. Click on OK. Be aware. you typed the entire word in all uppercase (SPRINGTIME). 1. lower. The text will change to the case you selected TIP Optionally. For example. Undoing the Previous Step You're always one mouse click away from reversing your previous action. and then decide you really don't want to make that change after all. or title case. you can quickly change it to "Springtime" or "springtime. however. Two common keys used to delete text are the Backspace and Delete keys. Pressing the Backspace key will delete one character at a time to the left of the insertion point." You can apply a text case change to a word. You can use Undo to restore text that you deleted. or any amount of selected text. word. Using Undo and Redo If you make a change. that if you save your document. Click on a case option. however. or reverse a recently taken action. pressing the Delete key will delete one character at a time to the right of the insertion point.•• —– ” 2010/2011 To select a nonsequential block of text. press the F3 key." If. 4. delete text you just typed. TIP 19 . use Word's Undo feature. The option will be selected 5. if you type "SPringtime.

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Word will reverse the previous undo action. The text is stored on the Windows clipboard 20 . For example. Moving Text The features used to move text from one place to another are called Cut and Paste. Click on the arrow next to the Undo button. choose Undo from the Edit menu. 2. 1. you also automatically undo any actions taken after that step. use the Redo feature. 3. holds it. press Ctrl+V or select Paste from the Edit menu. Moving and Copying Text Word provides a number of different methods with which you can move and copy text. Click on the action you want to undo. Copying Text Copying text will leave the selected text in its original location but also places a copy of it on the Windows Clipboard. The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. Undoing a Series of Actions Word actually keeps track of several steps you have recently taken. to cut text. If you undo the Change Case action. A list of the most recent actions will be dosplayed.•• Optionally. Click on the copy button. then underlined the text. When you undoa previous step. 1. Word will reverse the selected action as well as all actions listed above it. Word deletes the selected text. 2. then bolded the text. press Ctrl+X or select Cut from the Edit menu. Click on the Redo button. The text will be highlighted. With Cut and Paste. Select the text you want to copy. Word also reverses the bolding and u nderlining steps. imagine you changed the case of some text. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. Optionally. —– ” 2010/2011 Redoing the Previous Step If you undo an action and then decide you prefer the document the original way. and then places it into a new location. 1. Click on the Paste button. to paste text. Click the mouse where you want to place the text.

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The text is placed at the new location TIP Optionally. to copy text. and after that. 21 . to help protect you against such a catastrophe. a blank screen appears with the title Document1 in the Word title bar. Word has a built-in feature called AutoRecover. The blinking insertion point will appear 4. However. Those names are temporary names. Saving a Document If you don't save your document regularly. Click the mouse where you want to place the text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. it only takes a second to lose hours of work. press Ctrl+C or select Copy from the Edit menu. Saving a Document the First Time When you first open Word. you still need to save your document so that you can refer to it or make changes to it at some future time. Click on the Paste button. so you need to assign your documents names that help you associate them with their contents. then Document3. the name you assign it will appear in the Word title bar. Word asks for a name the first time you save a document. Fortunately. Word names the next blank document you create Document2. and so forth.

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you should close it. TIP If you want to save the document with a different name or in a different folder. Word replaces the document copy already saved on the disk with the newly revised document copy. you are only putting the document away²not the program. click on File. 22 . and a new copy will be created with the name you specified.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Resaving a Document You should resave your document as you make changes to it. A good practice is to save your document at least every ten minutes. The original document will remain. When you close a document. Closing a Document When you're finished working on a document. Word is still active and ready to work for you. Closing a document isthe equivalent of putting it away for later use. and then choose Save As. The Save As dialog box will prompt you for the new name or folder.

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be sure to save the file again. allowing you to quickly locate and open a document 23 . If you make any changes.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Opening an Existing Document Opening a document is putting a copy of that file into the computer's memory and onto your screen so that you can work on it. Displaying the Open Dialog Box Documents you have previously saved can be reopened on your screen through the Open dialog box. Word provides several different ways to open an existing document. Opening a Recently Used Document Both the File menu and the task pane list several of the documents you've recently used.

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Printing with the Print Button 24 . Click on Print Preview. b. you will only be able to see the document. you won't be able to edit it. TIP Press the Page Down or Page Up key on your keyboard to view other pages of the document. Using Print Preview Before you print your document. will look in the printed document. The Print Preview window will open. you may want to preview it on the screen. Previewing a document lets you see how the document layout settings. In Print Preview. such as margins. you may want make a hard copy of it to file away or to share with others.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Printing a Document When your document is complete. Click anywhere on the body of the document again to make the text smaller on the screen.

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t Many options are available from the Print dialog box. you must display the Prin dialog box. Printing from the Menu If you need to print multiple copies of the document. or just specific pages. 25 . or if you want to change which printer is being used. the fastest and easiest way to print is to use the Print button. including the following: Setting Margins Margins are the spaces between the edges of the paper and where the text actually begins to appear.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you need just one copy of the current document. Word allows you to set margins for any of the four sides of the document and also allows you to mix and match margins for different pages.

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left. left. Click on Page Setup. The page setup dialogue box will open If necessary. bottom. 2. click on the Margins tab. Click on File. and right margins. or right margin setting. The margins tab will be displayed Click on the up or down arrows to the right of the top. Setting Margins for the Entire Document You can set the document margins before you begin entering text into a document. Adjusting Margins for Part of a Document Word can apply different margin settings to selected sections of a document. and Right text boxes to increase or decrease the top. 4. after you've completed the entire document. bottom. or at any time in between. 5. The File menu will appear. Left. Bottom. 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Word sets the default margins to 1 on each of the top. 26 .

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Changing Document Orientation Use the Page Setup dialog box to change your document to be printed in landscape (along the long edge of the paper) orientation. or to make room for changes when writing a draft of a document. for example. The File menu will appear 2. A dropdown menu will appear. The Break dialogue box will open Changing Line Spacing Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between each line of text. Click the mouse in front of the text where you want the new page to begin. The Insert menu will appear 3. The page Setup dialogue box will open Inserting a Page Break You can break a page at a shorter position than Word chooses. 27 . 1. The blinking insertion point will appear. but you cannot make a page longer. 1. Click on the down arrow to the right of the Apply to drop-down list box. You might want to change line spacing when you want to make a document easier to read.•• —– ” 2010/2011 6. 2. Click on Break. Click on Insert. Click on Page Setup. Click on File.

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Ctrl+2 for double spacing. You can also justify your text. Word comes with extra fonts. Like line spacing. The name of the currently selected font and the font size of the text are displayed on the Font and Font Size drop-down lists on the toolbar. 28 . or centre. Choosing a Font Choose a font such as Times New Roman if you want the text to be modern and businesslike.5 line spacing. Aligning Text Alignment arranges the text to line up at one or both margins or centres it across the page. which means that the text will be evenly spaced across the page from the lef edge to the right t edge. alignment is usually applied to an entire paragraph or document.•• —– ” 2010/2011 TIP Shortcut keys for set line spacing are: Ctrl+1 for single spacing. right. You can align paragraphs of text to the left. and choose a font like Monotype Corsiva for a "handwritten" look. and Ctrl+5 for 1. Selecting a Font and Font Si e In addition to the fonts you already have on your machine.

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Applying Bold. Therefore. a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch. Font sizes are measured in points. add impact by adding some colour. or underline will call attention to particular parts of your text. You can easily access these choices with the Word toolbar. Applying Colour If you have a colour printer or you are going to share the document electronically. You can repeat the previous steps to remove the attribute. and Ctrl+U for underline. 29 . Ctrl+I for italic.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Choosing a Font Si e Each font can be used in different sizes. TIP Shortcut keys include Ctrl+B for bold. or Underline Applying formatting attributes like bold. Italic. a 72-point font is approximately 1 inch tall. italic.

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The symbol or character will be inserted into your document Adding Borders Use borders around a word. Click on the Font drop-down arrow. Click anywhere in the document to deselect the text.•• —– ” 2010/2011 4. The symbols available for that font will be displayed 6. A list of fonts will appear your font choices may vary from the ones displayed here 5. stars. Symbols include things like copyright or trademark symbols. or group of paragraphs to frame the text and call specific attention to the area. phrase. Inserting Special Characters or Symbols Word includes hundreds of special characters and symbols for you to include in your document. The symbol will appear selected 7. NOTE If you don't see the symbol you want. Click on Insert. Click on a font. You can also add a border around an entire page. check marks. or airplanes. such as a title page of a document. 30 . it may be available in a different font. Click on a symbol. The text will appear in the selected colour. paragraph. 4.

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instead of typing a number at the first item. Note that when you use the asterisk key. Type a number. Press the spacebar or Tab key. The tools menu will appear. you can easily turn off the feature. filled-in-bullet. The boarders and shading dialogue box will close Using AutoFormat to Create a List If you type the first list item. a period. word will stop automatically entering numbers Tip: To begin a bulleted list. Word will continue the list with the same character. Working with Bulleted or Numbered Lists 31 . The text will display in the document 4. word will convert it to a round. or a hyphen.•• —– ” 2010/2011 8. Turning Off AutoFormat If the AutoFormat As You Type feature is adding numbers or bullets when you don't want numbers or bullets. then a closing parenthesis. The number or punctuation will display in your document 2. 1. The AutoCorrect dialog box will open. Word continues the list using the same format. hyphen. Click on OK. type an asterisk. 2. Click on AutoCorrect Options. 1. Press the Enter key twice after the last item in your list. or dash. Press the Enter key word will assume you are typing to create a numbered list and will begin the next line with the next number 5. The insertion point will move accordingly 3. preceding it with a bullet character or a number. Type the text for the first item on your list. Click on Tools.

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1. Click on the Bullet button if the list is currently numbered. Click on Go. The text will be highlighted. The list will change to numbered. Inserting Clip Art Clip art pictures can be inserted into a document in any Word view. 2. If you'r not already e using one of these views. The insert menu will appear 3. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. Click on clip Art. The list will change to bulleted. OR 3. The blinking insertion point will appear. The picture menu will appear. The clip Art task pane will open 5. you can use the toolbar to quickly apply them to your list. 4. 1. it's easy to change it. 2. Switching between Bulleted and Numbered Lists If you created a bulleted list and later decide you'd prefer it to be numbered. although to view these visual elements you'll need to be in Print Layout or Web Layout view. Click on picture. Click on the numbering button if the list is currently bulleted. Word will automatically switch you into Print Layout view so that you can see your image. Select the list of items you want to modify.•• —– ” 2010/2011 If you've typed text without bullets or numbering. Again. The list will be highlighted. Word will search for clip art located on your hard drive 32 . you can use the toolbar to quickly complete the task. 1. Click on insert. Select the list of items you want to bullet or number.

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Click on a WordArt style. . Click on picture. The Edit WordArt Text dialogue box will open. Click on OK. Click on WordArt. 1. 1. containing predefined styles 4. Adding WordArt Adding WordArt to your document is simply a matter of selecting a predefined style and typing your text. A placeholder in the Text box will say. and stretched text. The picture menu will appear 4. Click on from file. The selection will have a box around it 5. or other type of artwork. skewed. The insert menu will appear 2. scanned image. Click the mouse pointer approximately where you want to insert your image. as well as text that have been fitted to predefined shapes. The WordArt gallery dialogue box will open.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting Personal Images You can easily insert your own artwork into a Word document. You can create shadowed. The insert menu will appear 3. Click on insert. Click on insert. The picture submenu will appear 3. whether it's a photograph. a drawing." 33 . "Your Text Here. The insert picture dialogue box will open. Click on picture. rotated. The blinking insertion point will appear.

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Each button on the Drawing toolbar corresponds to a tool that performs a specific function. The view menu will appear 2. Click on Drawing. 1. Click on View. 34 . A list of available toolbars will be displayed 3. The Drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of your screen Drawing AutoShapes Drawing an AutoShape is as easy as selecting a shape and then using your mouse to click and draw the shape in your document. Click on Toolbars.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Displaying the Drawing Toolbar Word provides the drawing tools through the Drawing toolbar.

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or draw it manually. The number will display 5. and you're ready to go. You can even type on your keyboard and Word will create a table from your typed text. you may want to add a diagram to further illustrate a point. Click on Table. Diagrams include organization charts or other charts that show a relationship between two or more entities. The table will be created 35 . The number will be displayed 6. The intersection of a column and row is called acell. Click on Table. Inserting a Table Using the Menu To create a simple table. Enter the number of columns in the Number of Columns text box. 1. Click on the diagram type you want to use. Creating a Simple Table A table is a grid of columns and rows. Enter the number of rows in the Number of Rows text box. Click on OK. The Table menu will appear 2. all you need to do is estimate the number of rows and columns that you want to start working with. A sample diagram will appear in your document. You can insert it from a menu selection. Click on the document where you want to insert the diagram. click on the Insert menu and select Diagram 3. create it from the toolbar. 1. A small blue box will surround the selected diagram type 4. Click on OK. The Insert submenu will appear 3.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating Relationship Diagrams When creating reports. A blinking insertion point will appear 2. Click on the Insert Diagram or Organizational Chart button OR Optionally. The Insert table dialogue box will open 4. You can insert a table in a number of different ways. Click on Insert.

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The insertion point will move to the cell to the left. Shift+Tab key. The column width will change. Click the mouse pointer in a cell. 1. The table grid will appear in the document. Place the mouse pointer over the border line of the column. Press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. As you enter text in the cells. Release the mouse button when the table is the size that you want.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Creating a Table Using the Toolbar A button is located on the Word standard toolbar to help you quickly create a table 3. Type some text. The insertion point will move to the cell to the right. A dotted line will indicate the new border line position 3. Entering Text Text is typed into the individual cells. Any text that was wrapped in the cell will adjust to fit the new column width. Changing Column Width Using the Mouse You can easily modify any column width by clicking and dragging the mouse. 36 . Release the mouse button when the column is at the width you want. The insertion point will move up a row. Down Arrow key. The blinking insertion point will appear. Use the following keys to move around the table with your keyboard: Tab key. Up Arrow key. and the cell and the row will expand vertically to hold it. 2. 1. if you have more characters than will fit horizontally. The text will display in a single cell You can use your keyboard or mouse to move around in a table. The insertion point will move down to the next row. You can enlarge or shrink the width of any column. the text automatically wraps to the next line. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow 2. To use the mouse. simply click in the cell you want to work with.

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1. Click on Insert. 1. Press the tab key. The insert menu will appear. Click in the row where you want to insert a new row. and row labels of your table. A datasheet with all of the data you selected will appear 7. 1. The Table menu will appear 3. The current row will be deleted Creating a Chart from a Table You can make a column chart from a table you've already created. Click on Table. 37 . Click on Rows Above. The datasheet will close and your word document will return with a chart inserted TIP When selecting data for your chart. Click anywhere in the document. The current column will be deleted OR 5. Click on Table. Click the mouse pointer in the row or column that you want to delete. Click on OK. Click on Insert. Click on Delete. The insert submenu will appear 4. The create new tab will come to the front 5. Deleting Rows or Columns Deleting a row will delete an entire row across a table while deleting a column will delete an entire column. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. Word also deletes any data in the deleted rows or columns. The table menu will appear 3. 1. OR Click on Rows Below. Click on Columns. The data will be highlighted. Click on Rows. including totals can distort the overall chart picture. If necessary click on the Create New tab. Click on Object. For example. Click on Microsoft Graph Chart. 3. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The new row will be inserted below the insertion point row Inserting a Column Again. Just follow the same procedure. The selection will be highlighted 6. Click in the last Cell of the last row.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Adding a Row to the End of a Table You can easily add a row to the bottom of the table you originally created. The delete submenu will appear 4. 2. The Object dialogue box will open 4. The new row will be inserted above the insertion point row 5. column heads. be careful not to include data that you don't want to chart. you can easily add a column between two existing columns or add one to the end of a set of existing columns. Select the data. The blinking insertion point will appear 2. The Table. A new row will automatically appear Inserting a Row between Existing Rows You might want to add a row at the beginning or in the middle of a table.

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The text will appear in the footer box Adding a Date. Time. Learning the Basic Shortcuts Trying to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts isn't as hard as you may think. The footer box will appear 5. To execute this command Do this Open a menu Press Alt then the menu's selection letter Select a menu command Press the menu item's selection letter Close a menu or dialog box Press Esc Show a shortcut menu Press Shift+F10 Use Help Press the F1 key Use the What's This? button Press Shift+F1 Create a new document Press Ctrl+N Open a different document Press Ctrl+O Switch between open documents Press Ctrl+F6 Save a document Press Ctrl+S Use the Save As command Press F12 Print preview a document Press Ctrl+F2 Print a document Press Ctrl+P Close a document Press Ctrl+W Exit Word Press Alt+F4 Highlight the character to the right of the Press Shift+Right Arrow cursor Highlight the character to the left of the Press Shift+Left Arrow cursor Highlight an entire word Press Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow 38 . Windows applications all share the same keyboard combinations to execute common commands. or Page Number When the Header or Footer box is open. Headers and footers can contain text. you can add the date and/or time to either the header or the footer. Click on the Switch Between Header and Footer button. Click on View.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting a Header or Footer As you'd expect. when you print the document. or even pictures. 1. try them out on some of the other Office programs. dates. Type and format some text. The Insert Page Number feature places the correct page number on each page. Once you get accustomed to using some of these keyboard shortcuts in Word. based on the computer's clock and calendar settings. Your type will appear in the Header box 4. The View menu will appear 2. Word will insert a field for the current date and time. Click on Header and Footer 3. a header prints at the top of every page. and a footer prints at the bottom. Type some text.

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5 line spacing Center a paragraph Left align a paragraph Right align a paragraph Justify a paragraph Left indent a paragraph Create a hanging indent Right indent a paragraph Remove paragraph formatting Change text case Change style Press Shift End Press Ctrl Shift Down Arrow Press Ctrl A Press Ctrl G Press Backspace Press Delete Press Ctrl Backspace Press Ctrl Delete Press Ctrl X Press Ctrl C Press Ctrl V Press F7 Press Ctrl F Press Shift F4 Press Ctrl H Press Ctrl Z Press Ctrl Y Press F2 Press Alt Shift D Press Ctrl K Press Ctrl Enter Press Ctrl D Press Ctrl B Press Ctrl I Press Ctrl U Press Ctrl Shift D Press Ctrl Spacebar Press Ctrl 1 Press Ctrl 2 Press Ctrl 5 Press Ctrl E Press Ctrl L Press Ctrl R Press Ctrl J Press Ctrl M Press Ctrl T Press Ctrl Shift M Press Ctrl Q Press Shift F3 Press Ctrl Shift S 39 .••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Highlight an entire line Highlight a paragraph Select an entire document Go to a specific page Delete the character to the left of the cursor Delete the character to the right of the cursor Delete the word to the left of the cursor Delete the word to the right of the cursor Cut selected text Make a copy of selected text Paste the copied text Spell check a document Find text in a document Repeat Find command Replace text in a document Undo an action Redo an action Move text Add a date field Add a hyperlink Insert a manual page break Change font attributes Make text bold Make text italic Make text underlined Make text double underlined Remove character formatting Single space a paragraph Double space a paragraph Set 1.

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dates and times. and numbers. A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in columns androws. Each value is stored in a cell Start Excel from the Start Menu Click the Start button on the taskbar. Click Microsoft Office Excel 2003.•• —– ” 2010/2011 INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003 This part of the manual is part of ISSCAFE hands-on beginners guide to working with spreadsheets using Excel. Point to All Programs. the Excel program window opens with a blank workbook ²ready for you to begin working 40 . The values can be in form of text. and then point to Microsoft Office. Viewing the Excel Window and Task Panes When you start Excel.

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Start a New Workbook from the Task Pane 1. Moving Around the Workbook Use the Mouse to Navigate y y y Another cell Another part of the worksheet Another worksheet 41 . 3. Click the File menu. Click the Close button on the task pane. You can also start a new workbook whenever Excel is running. 2. and then click New. Click Blank Workbook. Each new workbook displays a default name ("Book1." and so on)." "Book2. numbered according to how many new workbooks you have started during the work session until you save it with a more meaningful name.•• —– ” 2010/2011 When you start Excel. and you can start as many new workbooks as you want. the program window opens with a new workbook so that you can begin working in it. A blank workbook is opened.

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click the Save In list arrow. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. and then select the drive and folder in which you want to store the workbook file. ¢ ¡¢ Keys For Navi ati Press This Key Left arrow Right arrow Up arrow Enter Tab Shift Tab Page Up Page Down End arrow key Home Ctrl Home Ctrl End ¡ i a Worksheet To Move One cell to the left One cell to the right One cell up One cell down One cell to the right One cell to the left One screen up One screen down In the direction of the arrow key to the next cell containing data or to the last empty cell in current row or column To column A in the current row To cell A1 To the last cell in the worksheet containing data Down arrow One cell down Enter a Text 1. 2. Click the cell where you want to enter a number as a label. Press Enter. Type your text.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Use the Keyboard to Navigate Refer to the table for keyboard shortcuts for navigating around a worksheet. Type a number value. Click one of the icons on the Places bar (quick access to frequently used folders) to select a location to save the workbook file. If you want to save the file in another folder. Type' (an apostrophe). or click the Enter button on the formula bar. The apostrophe is a label prefix and does not appear on the worksheet. Type the file name for the new workbook name. 4. 4. Enter a Number as a Text 1. spaces. Press Enter. 2. 3. A text can include uppercase and lowercase letters. Save a Workbook for the First Time 1. and numbers 3. 3. Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. 42 . Click the cell where you want to enter a label. 2. punctuation.

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2. Close a Workbook 1. you can quit the program. Click the Close button on the Excel program window title bar. or click Cancel to cancel the save.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Exiting Excel After you finish working on a workbook. 3. Excel is still running. Closing a workbook makes more computer memory available for other processes. click No to close the workbook without saving any changes. and then click Close. you can close it. or click the File menu. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. or perform an action²you select the cell so it becomes the active cell. or perform any group action²you must first select the cells as a range. Click Yes to save any workbook changes. a dialog box opens asking if you want to save changes. or click the Close button on the worksheet window title bar. the Office Assistant asks if you want them saved. use them in a formula. To protect your files.To create a new default workbook Quit Excel 1. 2. Drag the mouse to the last cell you want to include in the range. 43 . When you're finished using Excel. Closing a workbook is different from quitting Excel: after you close a workbook. click No to ignore any changes. 2. Selecting Cells In order to work with a cell² to enter data in it. Click the File menu. A range can be contiguous (where selected cells are adjacent to each other) or non-contiguous (where the cells may be in different parts of the worksheet and are not adjacent to each other). If any files are open and you have made changes since last saving. 3. If you have made any changes to the workbook since last saving it. edit or move it. Select a Contiguous Range 1. or click Cancel to return to the workbook without closing it. always quit Excel before turning off your computer. and then click Exit. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time²to move or copy them. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range.

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2.•• —– ” 2010/2011 3. Press Enter. Type a value. Press and hold Ctrl. 4. click the Number tab. 3. or click the Enter button on the formula bar. and then click Cells. followed by a space. 3. Select a Non-contiguous Range 1. and ending with an "a" or a "p" to denote A. To select more. or click the Enter button on the formula bar Change Date or Time Format 1. 3. the top-left cell is surrounded by the cell pointer. To enter a date. 2. Click the cell that contains the date format you want to change. type the hour based on a 12-hour clock. 2.M. or P. type the date using a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the month. 3. day. while the additional cells are selected. Click Date. 44 . followed by a colon (:). Click the cell where you want to enter a value. To enter a time.M. and then release the mouse button. 4. Click the first cell you want to include in the range. If necessary. 2. Click the Format menu. and year in a cell or on the formula bar. When a range is selected. and then click the next cell or drag the pointer over the n group ext of cells you want in the range. repeat step 3 until all non-contiguous ranges are select Entering Values on a Worksheet Enter a Value 1. Press Enter. Drag the mouse to the last contiguous cell. Enter a Date or Time 1. followed by the minute.

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4. Drag the fill handle over the range in which you want the value rep eated. Select the cell or range you want to clear. or click the Esc button to cancel the edit. or press Delete. 6. The insertion point appears in the cell. Select the first cell in the range you want to fill. Click the Enter button on the formula bar to accept the edit. 45 . The status bar now displays Edit instead of Ready. 2. 4. use the Home. Position the pointer on the lower-right corner of the selected cell. Double-click the cell you want to edit. End. 2. Clear the Contents of a Cell 1. —– ” 2010/2011 Enter Repeating Data Using AutoFill 1. and then type new characters as needed. and arrow keys to position the insertion point within the cell contents. 2. Click OK. Enter the starting value to be repeated. 3. Edit Cell Contents 1. and then click Clear Contents on the shortcut menu. Use any combination of the Backspace and Delete keys to erase unwanted characters. Right click the cell or range. 3. Click the date or time format. The pointer changes to the fill handle (a black plus sign).•• 5. If necessary.

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6. Paste Data with Special Results 1. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. available for further pasting. 4. 3. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Select the cells that you want to switch. 3. and then release the mouse button and Ctrl. The data in the cells remains in its original location and an outline of the selected cells. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. 3. Move the mouse pointer to an edge of the selected cell or range until the pointer changes to an arrowhead. 2. 2. until you replace it with another selection. Formatting. 3. Press and hold the mouse button and Ctrl. 5. 46 . If you don't want to paste this selection anywhere else. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. Click All. Paste Cells from Rows to Columns or Columns to Rows 1. Click the top-left cell of where you want to paste the data. Select the cell or range you want to clear. and then click Paste Special. press Esc to remove the marquee. 2. Click the Edit menu. 5. 6. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. Click to select the Transpose check box. 2. 3. Click the first cell where you want to paste the data. press Esc to remove the marquee.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Clear Cell Contents. Click the Edit menu. Click OK. called a marquee. Drag the selection to the new location. 4. and then point to Clear. 5. shows the size of the selection. 4. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. If you don't want to paste this selection. Click the Edit menu. 4. and Comments 1. Copy Data Using the Windows Clipboard 1. 2. Select the cell or range that contains the data you want to copy. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. Copy Data Using Drag-and-Drop 1. The data remains on the Clipboard. Click the option buttons with the paste results and mathematical operations you want. and then click Paste Special.

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Excel removes the actual cell from the worksheet. y Entire Row to delete the entire row. 3. Click the Insert menu. Creating a Simple Formula Enter a Formula 1. Delete a Cell 1. Select the cell or range you want to delete. An argument can be a number or a cell reference. You can also delete cells if you find you don't need them. Click OK. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula. y Entire Row to move the entire row down one row. Inserting cells moves the remaining cells in the column or row in the direction of your choice and Excel adjusts any formulas so they refer to the correct cells. Enter an arithmetic operator. y Shift Cells Up to move the remaining cells up. y Shift Cells Left to move the remaining cells to the left. y Entire Column to delete the entire column.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Inserting and Deleting Cell Contents You can insert new. Click the option you want. 4. Excel will display. Type = (an equal sign). 3. the information you type. 3. If you do not begin a formula with an equal sign. and then click Delete. deleting cells shifts the remaining cells to the left or up²just the opposite of inserting cells. not calculate. Select the cell or cells where you want to insert the new cell(s). Click the cell where you want to enter a formula. y Entire Column to move entire column over one column. When you delete a cell. Click the option you want. Insert a Cell 1. blank cells anywhere on the worksheet in order to enter new data or data you forgot to enter earlier. y Shift Cells Down to move cells down one row. 6. 4. 2. Click OK. and then click Cells. Enter the next argument. 5. Enter the first argument. 4. 2. Click the Edit menu. y Shift Cells Right to move cells to the right one column. 47 . 2.

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Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell. or press Enter. right click anywhere on the status bar to open the AutoCalculate sub menu. and then click Options. Click to select the Formulas check box. 3. 2. If you want to change the type of calculation AutoCalculate performs. Click the type of calculation you want. Click the Tools menu. Display Formulas in Cells 1. Select the range of cells you want to calculate. 2. the formula itself appears on the formula bar). Calculate a Range Automatically 1. Click the View tab. 48 .•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. y The sum of the selected cells appears on the status bar next to SUM=. Click OK. 3. 4.

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Click the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Calculate Totals with AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. and then type ( (an opening parenthesis). type the name of the function. 3. Type = (an equal sign). Enter a Function 1. to insert the AVERAGE function. Click the function you want to use. or press Enter. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. type =AVERAGE(. 2. 49 . Calculate with Extended AutoSum Click the cell where you want to display the calculation. For example. Type the argument or select the cell or range you want to insert in the function. Click the Enter button on the formula bar. Click the AutoSum list arrow on the Standard toolbar. Excel will automatically add the closing parenthesis to complete the function. or press Enter. Click the cell where you want to enter the function. Press Enter to accept the range selected.

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If you want. 3. 4. Type a new column width or row height in points. drag to select more columns or rows. To insert a row. 2. To insert multiple rows. Right-click the selected column(s) or row(s). Click OK. 2. click the row immediately below the location of the row you want to insert. Drag to select the column header buttons for the number of columns you want to insert. Insert Multiple Columns or Rows 1. Click the Insert menu. and then click Delete. and then click Columns or Rows. and then click Column Width or Row Height. Click the column or row header button for the first column or row you want to adjust. Click to the right of the location of the new column you want to insert. 2. 50 . drag to select the row header buttons for the number of rows you want to insert. 5. Adjust Column Width or Row Height 1. Click the Edit menu. Click the Insert menu. Delete a Column or Row Select the column header button or row header button that you want to delete.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Insert a Column or Row 1. and then click Columns or Rows.

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Make sure you include the data you want to chart and the column and row labels in the range. Creating and Modifying Charts Microsoft Office Excel 2003 makes it easy to create and modify charts so that you can effectively present your information. is a visual representation of selected data in your worksheet. 2. Click a chart type. 6. Whether you turn numbers into a bar. graphical representation of numerical data. rather than on a new sheet. You can click Finish at any time. 51 . Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Select the data range you want to chart. click and drag the pointer to a new width or height. Position the mouse pointer on the right edge of the column header button or the bottom edge of the row header button for the column or row you want to change. Understanding Chart Terminology Creating a Chart A chart provides a visual. 4. Create a Chart Using the Chart Wi ard 1. pie. Click Next to continue. To move backward or forward in the Chart Wizard. the chart is called an embedded object. Excel simplifies the chart-making process with the Chart Wizard. surface. Click the Press And Hold To View Sample button to preview your selection. When the mouse pointer changes to a double -headed arrow. or bubble chart. You can then resize or move it just as you would any graphic object. also called a graph. line. patterns become more apparent. 2. When you choose to place the chart on an existing sheet. a series of dialog boxes that leads you through all the steps to create an effective chart on a new or an existing worksheet.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Adjust Column Width or Row Height Using the Mouse 1. The Chart Wizard expects to find this information and incorporates it in your chart. Click a chart sub-type. 3. A chart. 5. click Back or Forward.

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Titles tab. y Axes tab. 12. Click to add a table to the chart. and y-axis in the appropriate text boxes. y Data Labels tab. Verify the data range. Select options to display a legend and its location. 10. y Gridlines tab. Select the labels you want for the data. 9. Preview the options. Select the type of gridlines you want for the x-axis and y-axis. and then click Next to continue. Type titles for the chart. 13. 52 . Select the axes you want to display for the data. 11.•• —– ” 2010/2011 7. x-axis. Click Finish. and then select to plot the data series in rows or in columns. Click a chart options tab. 8. y Legend tab. Select to place the chart on a new sheet or as an embedded object. Click Next to continue. Drag the chart to a new location if necessary. y Data Table tab.

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Explode an Entire Pie Select a pie chart. Drag all pie slices away from the centre of the pie. Drag the slice away from the pie. 53 . Double-click to select the pie slice you want to explode. Release the mouse button.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Explode a Single Pie Slice Select a pie chart. Release the mouse button.

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and then type the text. press Tab. Select a chart to which you want to add a title or titles. and then click Chart Options. 9. Click the Chart menu. To add a title for the y-axis. f you want a second line for the x. 5. 8. Type the text you want for the title of the chart. Click the Titles tab. and then type the text. Click OK 54 . press Tab to move to the Second Category or Second Value box. 7. press Tab. To add a title for the x-axis.or y-axis. and then type the title text. Preview the title(s) you are adding. 2. 6.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Add a Title 1. 3. 4.

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2. click the column where you want to insert a page break. Drag a page break (a thick blue line) to a new location. To insert a horizontal page break. or Right Section text boxes. 2. Click the File menu. 2. 3. Click the Portrait (8. 7. If the Header box doesn't contain the information you want. Click the View menu. 5. 8. Left. 4. Click OK. Click the Margins tab. and then click Page Break Preview. and then click Page Break. If you don't want a header to appear at all. Centre. 55 . Select the Centre On Page check boxes to automatically centre your data. 3. and then click Page Setup. Click OK. or click a button to insert the built-in footer information. 5. Type information in the Left. Click the Top. delete the text and codes in the text boxes. Type the information in the Left. Click OK 10.5 x 11 inches) option (the default) or click the Landscape (11 x 8. Bottom. make font changes. and then click OK. Click the Page tab. 3. Click the File menu. 4. Click the Insert menu. or click a button to insert built-in header information. 4. Excel will use the default font.••…ƒˆ‡‘’—–‡”…ƒ†‡› 2010/2011 Insert a Page Break 1. and then click Normal. Select the text you want to format. click the row where you want to insert a page break. click the Font button. 2. 6. Change a Header or Footer 1. 9. Change the Margin Settings 1. 2. click the View menu. Centre. or Right Section text boxes. and then click Page Setup. Click OK.5 inches) option to select page orientation. 3. Change Page Orientation 1. When you're done. unless you change it. If the Footer box doesn't contain the information that you want. Click OK. and Right up or down arrows to adjust the margins. To insert a vertical page break. Click the File menu. click Custom Footer. Click the Header/Footer tab. and then click Page Setup. Arial. Preview and Move a Page Break 1. click Custom Header.

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Click OK. Click the File menu. 2. and then point to Print Area. 3. Click Set Print Area. select the cells you want to print. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. and then click Page Setup. Click the Sheet tab. Select the range of cells you want to print. and then click Page Setup. 4. select the row or column with the mouse. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. Or click the Collapse Dialog button. 2. Type the range you want to print. 2. 3. Click the Sheet tab. Click the File menu. 4. Print Row and Column Titles on Each Page 1. 3. Click the File menu.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Print Part of a Worksheet 1. and then click the Expand Dialog button to restore the dialog box. Set the Print Area 1. 56 . Click OK. Enter the number of the row or the letter of the column that contains the titles.

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If necessary. 6. 3 Select whether you want to print the entire document or only the pages you specify. Click Clear Print Area. Print All or Part of a Worksheet 1. 57 . and then point to Print Area. 4 Select whether you want to print the selected text or objects.•• —– ” 2010/2011 Clear the Print Area 1. Click OK. and then click the printer you want to use. Click the File menu. 2. Click the Number Of Copies up or down arrow to specify the number of copies you want. or all the worksheets in the workbook with data. 5. click the Name list arrow. the selected worksheets. and then click Print. Click the File menu. 2.

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