ff

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

ff

© All Rights Reserved

- Multi Linear Algebra PDF
- Tensor Vector Books
- Music & Algebra
- ChE441 Conversion
- maths-2007.rtf
- LAlecture01(5)
- Hisnul Muslim
- Samvida 1 2011 Rule Book
- The Kalman Decomposition.pdf
- Lecture Notes in Lie Groups.pdf
- Math HL Book.pdf
- Abstract Algebra Theory and Applications 442p Book
- Sensitivity Analysis of Transportation Problems
- [James R. Kirkwood] an Introduction to Analysis(BookFi)
- Notes on Lie Groups
- HW8
- Ch3_FourTrans&DeltaFns
- HDG
- IM Chapter2 7e
- docslide.us_year-11-igsce-extended-math-paper-41-june-2010-solutions-1295520081-phpapp01.pdf

You are on page 1of 18

9 1994 Springer-Verlag London Limited Mathematics of Control,

Signals, and Systems

Distributions with Applications to Trajectory

Generation for Nonholonomic Systems*

R i c h a r d M. M u r r a y t

Abstract. This paper develops a constructive method for finding a nilpotent basis

for a special class of smooth nonholonomic distributions. The main tool is the use

of the Goursat normal form theorem which arises in the study of exterior differen-

tial systems. The results are applied to the problem of finding a set of nilpotent

input vector fields for a nonholonomic control system, which can then be used to

construct explicit trajectories to drive the system between any two points. A

kinematic model of a rolling penny is used to illustrate this approach. The methods

presented here extend previous work using the "chained form" and cast that work

into a coordinate-free setting.

Key words. Nilpotent vector fields, Nonholonomic control systems, Trajectory

generation.

1. Introduction

cal systems with n o n h o l o n o m i c constraints. C o n s i d e r the p r o b l e m of steering a

m e c h a n i c a l system whose c o n f i g u r a t i o n space is a s m o o t h (C ~ n - d i m e n s i o n a l

m a n i f o l d M from an initial c o n f i g u r a t i o n x ~ to a final c o n f i g u r a t i o n x 1, subject to

a set of i n d e p e n d e n t k i n e m a t i c c o n s t r a i n t s h a v i n g the form

(o)j(x), 2 ) = 0, j = 1 , . . . , k. (1)

system to be zero in certain directions. W e a s s u m e the cots are s m o o t h a n d linearly

i n d e p e n d e n t over the ring o f s m o o t h functions. Such constraints can arise when two

surfaces roll a g a i n s t each other, such as the rolling between a wheel a n d the r o a d ,

o r in s p a c e - b a s e d systems where the t o t a l a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m of the system is

c o n s e r v e d ( a l t h o u g h strictly s p e a k i n g this l a t t e r case is n o t a "constraint," it can be

t r e a t e d with the same set of tools).

* Date received: 9 February, 1993. Date revised: 13 March 1994. This research was supported in part

by a grant from the Powell Foundation.

t Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Califor-

nia 91125, U.S.A. murray@indra.caltech.edu.

58

Nilpotent Basesfor a Class of Nonintegrable Distributions 59

problem. Let A be a distribution of dimension m = n - k which is annihilated by

the constraints. We represent this distribution with respect to a local basis of vector

fields:

A = span{g I, g2, ..-, gin}, gi(x) ~ TxM. (2)

In coordinates the constraint one-forms can be written as a k x n matrix and the

gi's are a basis for the fight null space of this matrix. The path-planning problem

can then be restated as that of finding an input function, u(t) ~ E", such that the

control system

are also smooth and linearly independent. We restrict the analysis to a local

coordinate chart on M.

The conditions for the existence of a path between two configurations is given by

Chow's theorem. We let [f, g] be the Lie bracket between two vector fields,

ef

[f, 9] = ~ f - ~x o'

and define the involutive closure of a distribution A as the closure of A under Lie

bracketing. Chow's theorem asserts that if the involutive closure of the distribution

associated with (3) spans T~M at each configuration, the system can be steered

between any two configurations. It is not apparent how the path can be explicitly

constructed: the trajectory-generation problem is to construct explicitly paths be-

tween two points which everywhere satisfy the constraints.

A set of kinematic constraints is holonomic if the constraints restrict the motion

of the system to a submanifold of dimension n - k. In this case the constraints on

the system can be rewritten as an algebraic constraint on the configuration variables

x. The constraints are nonholonomic if they do not constrain the system to lie on a

submanifold of the same dimension as the input space. In particular, we are most

interested in constraints which are maximally nonholonomic: any point in the config-

uration space can be reached. This is equivalent to saying that the corresponding

control system is controllable. If the constraints are not maximally nonholonomic,

the system can still be analyzed by restricting the initial and final configurations to

lie on the same leaf of the foliation generated by the distribution. A control system

which has the form given in (3) is called a nonholonomic control system.

The general problem of finding a feasible trajectory for a nonholonomic system

is difficult. For certain application areas--such as mobile robotics--fast, efficient

algorithms are required and one is often willing to sacrifice conditions such as

optimality if the tradeoff is finding a reasonable path in an efficient fashion (see

[ L J T M ] for a review of nonholonomic motion planning in this context). Motivated

in part by these applications, there have been recent efforts to understand and

exploit the structure of nonholonomic systems using tools from differential geomet-

ric control theory. In particular, the use of nilpotent vector fields has appeared

60 R.M. Murray

repeatedly in the work of Lafferriere and Sussmann [LS2], Jacob I-J1], [J2], and

the author [MS].

We recall the definition of a nilpotent basis for a distribution. Let adI 9 = [-f, 9]

and define ad} 9 = If, ad}-1 9]. Given a basis of vector fields {91, ..., 9m}, the basis

is nilpotent if an integer k exists such that all Lie products ad~, 9j = 0 for all i, j =

1, ..., m. The integer k is called the order of nilpotency. The advantage of using a

nilpotent basis to represent a distribution is that certain computations are greatly

simplified since high-order brackets are identically zero.

Recently a very elegant and general motion-planning method for nilpotent sys-

tems has been developed by Lafferriere and Sussmann [LS2]. One of the main tools

in their method is the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula, which describes the

composition of flows of vector fields as a single flow,

(~ X1 0 (~ X2 = (~ XI +X2+(I/2)[XI'X2]+''',

The method consists of first converting a desired motion into a flow of the form

~OCtlXI'+Ot2X2+at3[XI,Xz]"[" ...

Hall basis for the Lie algebra generated by {X~}, to choose piecewise constant inputs

that achieve this flow. If the system is nilpotent, the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff

formula has a finite number of terms and it can be shown that the process terminates.

The connection between the flow coordinates c~and the original coordinates for the

problem is made using a product expansion for the Chen series [$2], which allows

c~to be computed by simple integration. A similar approach has been used by Jacob

[Jll, [J2] using a different choice of basis for the Lie algebra, namely a Lyndon basis.

Somewhat related to these approaches, our own work has focused on the use of

specific choices of coordinates such that the control system can be explicitly inte-

grated by quadratures. The basic technique is to search for a feedback transforma-

tion which puts the system into a special nilpotent form (called chained form), and

then use sinusoids at integrally related frequencies to drive the system between states

[MS] (the use of integrally related sinusoids is motivated by the work of Brockett

[B]). In the case of two-input systems, constructive sufficient conditions for the

existence of a nilpotent basis for the associated distribution were given in [MS]. In

this paper we extend that work to give a simple rank condition which guarantees

the existence of a nilpotent basis for two-dimensional distribution and show how

the resulting basis can be applied to solve the trajectory generation problem.

The general problem of finding a nilpotent basis for a distribution has been

studied by Hermes et al. I'HLS]. They present a set of necessary conditions for the

existence of a local nilpotent basis and give two sets of sufficient conditions, one

based on solving a partial differential equation and the other based on Darboux's

theorem. The result presented here also relies on solving a partial differential

equation, but the existence of a solution is guaranteed by the rank condition.

This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a rank test for determining

if a nonholonomie distribution admits a nilpotent basis. We concentrate on the

two-input case and present a constructive procedure for finding such a basis. Section

Nilpotent Basesfor a Class of Nonintegrable Distributions 61

above. We use as an example the case of a rolling penny [BRM]. Finally, we discuss

the implications of these results to other problems and describe areas of future work.

In this section we present a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for a two-input

nonholonomic control system to have a nilpotent basis of a certain special form.

The conditions lead to a constructive method of finding a feedback transformation

which converts the nonholonomic system into a nilpotent, nonholonomic system.

This extends the work initiated in [MS] by giving a set of necessary and sufficient

conditions for the existence of a feedback transformation which converts a system

into chained form.

The proofs in this paper make extensive use of tools from the theory of exterior

differential systems. We present a brief overview of the relevant concepts here. A

detailed description can be found in the monograph by Bryant et al. [BCGt].

Let M be a manifold of dimension n with cotangent bundle T ' M ; let f~P(M)

denote the set of smooth exterior p-forms on M. Define f~*(M) as the set of smooth

exterior differential forms of all orders on a manifold M, f~*(M) = @~P(M). An

exterior differential system is given by an ideal J c f~*(M) that is closed under

exterior differentiation.

A Pfaffian system is an exterior differential system which is generated by a set of

linearly independent one-forms

I = {~z1. . . . . c~s}.

The exterior derivative induces a mapping ~: I ~ f~g(M)/I:

= f da + g dfl modI

= fS(a) + Oh(r).

It follows that the kernel of 5 is a subbundle of f~(M) (i.e., at each point p s M, the

kernel of 6 is a linear subspace of T ' M ) . We call this subbundle I (1), the first derived

system of I:

I m = ker 6 = {2 ~ I : d 2 m o d I = 0}.

We represent 1 (1) using a basis of one-forms and hence I ~ is a Pfaffian system.

62 R.M. Murray

Since I (~) is itself a Pfaffian system, we can continue this construction and generate

a filtration

If the dimension of each I (i) is constant, then this construction terminates for some

finite integer N. In this case we call (4) the derived flag of I and N the derived

length.

The derived flag describes the integrability properties of the algebraic ideal

generated by I. If I is completely integrable, then by Frobenius's theorem we have

I (1) = I (~ i.e., the length of the derived flag is zero. In fact, I (N) is always integrable

since by definition dI (s) m o d I (m - 0. I (m is the largest integrable subsystem con-

tained in I. Thus if I (m is not zero, then independent functions hi, ..., hr exist such

that {dh~} c {I}. In the context of control theory, this means that the system is not

controllable since algebraic functions exist which provide foliation of the state space

and it is impossible to move from one leaf of the foliation to another. The converse

of this controllability result is provided by Chow's theorem [C]:

Theorem 1 (Chow). Let I = {~1 . . . . . ct'} represent a set of constraints and assume

that the derived fla 9 of the system exists. Then a path x(t) between any two points

satisfyin9 cd(x)2 = 0 for all i exists if and only if an N exists such that I (m = O.

The main results of this section are a direct consequence of the following theorem,

whose proof can be found on pp. 54-57 of [BCG*].

I = {~1,..., ~s} be a collection of smooth, linearly independent one-forms defined on

U. I f a one-form 7z ~ 0 rood I exists such that

(5)

d~ ~ r 0 m o d I,

These are precisely the vector fields which appear in the two-input, single-chained

form described in [MS]. We say that a nonholonomic system with vector fields as

in (6) is in chained form.

Nilpotent Bases for a Class of Nonintegrable Distributions 63

fields 9~ and 92- Define two filtrations:

E o = A, Fo~A,

E 2 = E 1 + [El, E l i , F2 =F, + EL, Fo], (7)

Under the assumption that each distribution is constant rank, the filtrations have

finite length (possibly different).

The filtration {F~} is the one which usually appears in the context of nonlinear

controllability and feedback linearization. In particular, Fz consists of all brackets

up to order i. The distribution Ei also contains all brackets of order i, but may

contain additional Lie products of higher order. This is due to the recursive

construction of E~, as opposed to the iterative construction of Fv The filtration El

is precisely the sequence of distributions which is perpendicular to the derived flag

of I = A•

dim E i = dim F~ = i + 2, i = 0 . . . . . n -- 2,

a local basis {ex, ..., e~} and a one-form rc exist such that the Goursat congruences

(5) are satisfied for the differential system I = A •

The proof of this result is based on a suggestion by W. Sluis. The fact that a count

of the dimensions of the derived systems I (~ (or equivalently the filtration {E~}) is

not sufficient to guarantee equivalence to the Goursat normal form has been pointed

out by Giaro et al. [ G K R ] , who constructed a counterexample in five dimensions.

They also note that if dim El = i + 2, then the Goursat conditions (5) hold on

an open dense set. F o r the applications considered here, the stronger result of

Theorem 3 is needed. The proof relies on the following lemma.

one-forms 2 i exist such that 2 i mod I =~ 0 and

d~ ~-=)? ^ a 2 m o d a 1,

d~ 2 = 2 2 A a 3 m o d ~ l , a2,

(8)

dcd -~ -= 2 ~-~ A a s mod a ~, ..., ~-~,

d~ ~ ~ 0 rood L

64 R.M. Murray

i(o = {~, . . . . , ~s-,}.

Since {ai} is adapted to the derived flag, we have immediately that the congruences

(8) are satisfied and da i ~ 0 rood ~1 . . . . . a/. F o r later use, we also note that any

transformation of the form

j<i

also satisfies the congruences (8) with ~i = (a//ai+l)2/. It follows from the definition

of {E/} that ,s-i(E~) = 0 for j < i and that, for any X, Y ~ Ei,

= - - g ~ - ; ( [ X , Y]).

have the same dimension we must have Fz = Ev This in turn implies that

and hence every Z e E~+I such that Z r E / h a s the form Z = W + IX, Y] for some

IV,, X r Y ~ E0. Thus some such X, Y with Z = IX, Y] ~ Ei exists and

d ~ - i ( X , Y) = - ~ - i ( Z ) # O.

dcd-~(X, Y) = (;t s-~ A a~-i+l)(X, Y)

= ;.~-,(x)~-,+~(y) _ ~-i(y)~-/+~(x)

= O,

n = ,P-~, then (8) has the desired form d o w n to i = s - 1 and = is determined

rood el, ..., ~ . We n o w proceed by induction. Assume

doci = Tr ~i+1 mod ~i, ..., ~i

da ~-~ - 2 i-~ /, ~ mod ~ i , . . . , ~ - i

(d2o~ i - 1 ) A O~i -~ 0 ~-- . + . ) / - 1 A 7~ A ~i A a i+1 m o d a 1. . . . . a i-1

and hence

2 i-I = an + bo~ i -4- c ~ I+1 rood ~ , ..., ~/-1.

Nilpotent Bases for a Class of Nonintegrable Distributions 65

= azc + ba ~ + ce i+I.

Furthermore, we obtain

To explore the need for the assumption on the dimension of Fi, we further examine

the relationship

= a n + bO~i + CO~i+1.

W i t h o u t loss of generality we can take b = 0 since it does not affect the congruences

at this level. If we do n o t require )J -1 rood I ~ 0, then we c a n n o t define ~ as before.

There are two possibilities: a = 0 or a = 0 at a point. It turns out that a = 0 leads

to a contradiction. To show this, we assume that c = 1 by scaling the cd's appropri-

ately, and hence we have

We apply the s t a n d a r d trick: take the exterior derivative and analyze the resulting

relationships. T a k i n g the exterior derivative

where the additional term accounts for the possibility of adding a d5 ~-1 term due

to the congruence. N o w take the wedge p r o d u c t with 5 ~+1 to obtain

but this contradicts the fact that dcd +1 ~ 0 rood ~ , . . . , a~+1 and hence a ~ 0.

Thus the only possibility is that a = 0 at a point (or on a submanifold), but not

in a neighborhood. The extra assumptions on the dimension of the iterative filtra-

tion {Fg} ensure that this does n o t happen. This is illustrated in the following

example, which is similar to that constructed by G i a r o e t al. [ G K R ] .

g' = + + +

a

gz - a x 2

66 R.M. Murray

The filtrations corresponding to this distribution are defined in terms of the brackets

a 0

- x4--, ad2~ ga - x3 , ad2~ gl = O,

ado~ g2 OX3 OX5 63X4 t~X5

0 a

ad~, gz = - 2 x 2 ~ - , [ado, g2, ad 2, 92] = 2 = - - .

UX 5 OX 5

The filtrations {E,} and {F~} match for i = 0, 1, 2. At the next level we have

F3 = F2 + {adgl 92},

E3 = F2 + {ado3, g2, [adgl g2, ad~l g2]}-

The filtration (Ei}, which is perpendicular to the derived flag, has constant dimen-

sion (2, 3, 4, 5) but the distribution F 3 looses rank on the submanifold x 2 = 0. Hence

a basis and a one-form ~ such that the Goursat congruences are satisfied do not

exist. This shows the nature of the obstruction that can occur when the dimension

count is correct only for the Goursat filtration {E~}.

The Goursat normal form can be used to give conditions under which a system is

feedback transformable to a system in chain form. The following proposition follows

immediately by application of Theorems 2 and 3.

chained form (6) exists if and only if

dim E i = dim Fi = i + 2, i = 0 . . . . . n - 2.

Thus, the class of two-input systems which can be converted into chained form

(with a single chain) is completely characterized by an algebraic test. It is interesting

to note that although chained systems are not generic, they occur frequently in

applications. F o r example, all two-input, regular nonholonomic systems in three

and four dimensions are locally feedback equivalent to a system in chained form.

This follows from Darboux's theorem and Engel's theorem, respectively, and is a

special case of the results presented above (see pp. 50-51 of [ B C G t] for a proof of

Engel's theorem). These special cases have also been pointed out by Hermes [H].

Examples of systems which can be converted into chained form include a disk roiling

on a plane (rolling penny) [BRM], a kinematic model for a car [MS], and a

kinematic car towing N trailers [S 1].

The results of Proposition 5 provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence

of a nilpotent basis for a two-dimensional distribution. The conditions are obviously

not necessary since a distribution might admit a nilpotent basis even though the

growth conditions in Proposition 5 are not satisfied. One simple example is

a ~ O

gl = ~ + Xz~x3 4- X3~X4,

a

g2 ----

~ q'- X 3 ~ ,

Nilpotent Bases for a Class of Nonintegrable Distributions 67

/

Fig. 1. Penny rolling on a plane.

which has a derived flag with dimensions (3, 2, 0) and hence dim E, = dim F i ~ i + 2.

Even if we restrict the growth of the distribution so that dim Fi = i + 2 the condi-

tions are only sufficient, as the following vector fields show:

0 0 0 0 ~6

a

g2 - - OX 2-

For this distribution the filtration {Fi) grows at the proper rate, but E4 does not

satisfy the dimension count.

One disadvantage of using Proposition 5 is the need to find an explicit change

of coordinates which puts the system into chained form. Even in relatively low-

dimensional cases, the computations can become extremely complex.

a plane, as shown in Fig. 1. Let x e ~4 denote the configuration of the penny, with

(xl, x2) being the location of the penny on the plane, x 3 the angle that the penny

makes with a fixed line on the plane, and x4 the angle of a fixed line on the penny

with respect to the vertical. We take the radius of the penny as 1. The constraints

for the penny are that it roll in the direction it is pointing, with no slipping:

Lljrc~

~2 = sin x 3 d x 1 - cos x 3 d x 2. (lO)

Converting this to a control system gives

22 =|sinx3|

23 [ 0 |Ul + u 2. (11)

24

F o r this choice of vector fields, ul corresponds to the forward velocity of the penny

and u2 corresponds to the angular velocity of the penny about the plane's normal.

A simple calculation shows that

ad~ g2 = - a d ~ g 2

68 R,M, Murray

and hence these vector fields are not nilpotent. However, Proposition 5 can be used

to find a change of input which makes the system nilpotent.

The first step is to compute the derived flag for the exterior differential system.

The exterior derivatives of el and c~; are given by

de 1 = - s i n x 3 d x 3 A d x l + cos x 3 d x 3 A d x 2, (12)

de 2 = cos x 3 d x 3 A dx 1 + sin x 3 d x 3 A d x 2. (13)

It is easy to check that the following relationships hold:

d a 1 /x ~1 = _ d x 1 /x d x z /x d x 3 + cos x 3 d x 2 /x d x 3 /x d x 3

- sin x 3 d x 1 A d x ~ A d x a ,

d a 1 A cd A C~2 = 0 ,

I m) = {cd, ~2},

i<1) = {~1 ), (14)

V~'= {0}.

The dimension of the derived flag is (2, 1, 0), implying that the system is completely

controllable. Furthermore, it is easy to check that the conditions of Theorem 3 are

satisfied and hence the system admits a nilpotent basis.

Next, we search for a one-form 7r which satisfies the G o u r s a t congruences. Since

this system is low-dimensional, the algebra needed to find zc is straightforward.

Define a 3 and ~* so as to complete the basis:

cc3 = cos x 3 d x , + sin x 3 d x 2,

OC4 = d x 3.

rc must satisfy

dod = - c d / x 7z m o d ~1. (15)

Setting n = 23c~3 + 24 a4, (15) gives

differential equations (see pp. 54-55 of [BCG*]), the following change of coordi-

nates is used to put the system into Goursat normal form:

21 ~-- X 3 ,

g2 = - - X 1 COS X 3 - - X 2 S i n X 3 ,

z,, = x 1 c o s x 3 + x 2 sinx 3- x 4.

Nilpotent Bases for a Class of Nonintegrable Distributions 69

~i = dz 4 _ za dzt,

cd = - ( d z 3 - z 2 dz,)

and this is easily converted to a Goursat basis by negating ct2. Let ~ represent the

chained vector fields in Goursat coordinates; in the original coordinates these vector

fields have the form

g,(x) = \ ~ x J (h(o(x)),

the nilpotent control system has the form

--COSX3~

x*

22 = [ - s i n xa(x 2 COSlX3 -- xl sin X3) /

I1 23

X4 L --(X 2 COS Xa -- X1 sin x3) '

]

vl +

Here v2 corresponds to the negative of the angular velocity of the penny about the

v2. (16)

plane's normal and v, is a linear combination of v2 and the forward velocity of the

penny.

Partial extensions of the results presented above to systems with m o r e than two

inputs are available using the recent work of Gardner and Shadwick [GS]. Gardner

and Shadwick have proposed an algorithm for M I M O feedback linearization which

uses an extension of the Goursat theorem presented above.

let I = {@, ..., ~]~:j = 1. . . . . m - 1} be a collection of smooth, linearly independent

one-forms defined on U. Let I (I~ denote the j t h derived system of I. I f a single, exact

one-form n v~ 0 rood I exists such that, for all j,

d~j = _~j+i /~ n rood I (~'-0, i = 1. . . . . sj -- 1,

(17)

d~t]J ~ 0 mod I,

then a set of coordinates x exists such that

I = (dx~+2 - x~.+, d x , . . . . ,dx~ - x~ dx,: j = 1 , . . . , m - 1}.

a a ~

01- - -Z+ + .-- + xJn-1 ~o x nJ' gj+l = ~x~' j = 1..... m- 1. (18)

These vector fields are a special case of the multi-input chained form vector fields

described in [MS].

70 R.M. Murray

The exterior differential system Ij = {@, ..., e/} is called the jth tower of the

complete system. Theorem 6 is considerably more restrictive than the original

Goursat theorem since it requires a very limited coupling between the different

towers. This is enforced by the independence of the mod operations in Theorem 6

and the use of a s i n g l e one-form 7~which connects the towers. In the case of M I M O

feedback linearization, n becomes dt, the differential of time.

In the two-input case Theorem 3 was used to show that the Goursat conditions

could always be satisfied if a certain dimension count was satisfied. This is not true

when more than two inputs are present, since the growth of control Lie algebra can

be much more complex.

An example of a system with more than two inputs is the "fire-truck" example

presented in [BTS].

The results of the previous section can be used to generate a feedback transforma-

tion which renders a nonholonomic control system nilpotent. Recent work by

Lafferriere and Sussmann [LS2] and Jacob [J1], [J2] has given insights into how

to generate trajectories for nilpotent control systems. We review those results here

and combine them with some of the steering methods presented in [MS] to obtain

a technique for trajectory generation for chained systems. The methods presented

here do not rely on finding the coordinate transformation which inputs the system

explicitly into chained form, but only on the input transformation which renders

the system nilpotent.

Following the results of the previous section, we consider control systems of the

form

gl,

span T , , M , n = 1 + n2 + " " + n,,, at each point x ~ U, and all other Lie products

between the vector fields are identically zero. These are precisely the class of systems

which are generated by the chained-form theorems of the previous section and hence

constructive, sufficient conditions for finding a change of basis (precompensator)

which renders the system nilpotent are available.

To steer nilpotent, nonhotonomic control systems with a chained structure, we

use exponential coordinates. Let (0[ represent the flow along a vector field f for h

units of time. If f i s smooth and everywhere nonzero, q~[ exists for h sufficiently

small and (p[: •" ~ R is a diffeomorphism of the state space onto itself. The flow

Nilpotent Bases for a Class of NonintegrableDistributions 71

Now let {BI . . . . , Br} be a Hall basis of order k generated by the symbols 9i- We let

bi denote a basis element Bi which has'been evaluated on the vector fields 91, .--, gin.

Concatenating the flows of the Bi we obtain a map ~: h ~ x,

9 (h) = ~b,h . . . . ~b.h~(xO). (19)

the case that r = n. By an abuse of terminology, we call h the exponential coordinates

adapted to the basis {Bi} (even though 9 is not necessarily injective).

Our goal is to find an h 1 such that x 1 = ~(h 1) and then solve the problem in h

coordinates. This entails finding a u such that the original system is steered to the

desired h coordinates. The power of this approach is that we never have to solve

explicitly for the mapping (I). It suffices to consider the differential equation which

h must satisfy and solve the problem in that context. Computationally, this can be

done in such a way as to require nothing more than simple integration and the

solution of algebraic (typically polynomial) equations. The foundations of this

technique can be found in the work of Sussmann [LS2], [S2] and have been used

in much the same form as given here in the recent work of Jacob [J2]. We present

only the case where the Lie algebra generated by 91 and 92 has the-chained structure

derived in the previous section, although the general case follows in essentially the

same way.

To compute the value h(1) which corresponds to the desired final state of the

original system, we make use of the "extended system" defined by Lafferriere and

Sussmann:

2 = bl(x)vl + b2(x)v2 + " " + br(x)v,. (20)

By assumption, the vector fields b l , . . . , br are full rank. Given any path x(t), we can

solve for some v(t) which satisfies (20). This corresponds to choosing how to project

the velocity of the system onto the Hall basis elements; ifr = n this choice is unique,

otherwise not.

We can find the exponential coordinates corresponding to this motion by differ-

entiating (19). This yields a set of differential equations for hl, as follows:

h2 ~ V2~

h4 = 2gh2vl

2 -ff h2va + v4,

(n - 2)!

72 R.M. Murray

A complete derivation of these equations can be found in [$2]. Since v(t) is known,

this equation can be integrated to find h(1).

The task is now to find a feasible path which steers the system to the same point

in exponential coordinates. Since every feasible path corresponds to one in which

vj = 0, j > m, the problem reduces to finding v~, ..., v,, which steers (21) from

h(0) = 0 to h(1) = h ~. The simple form of (21) allows us to choose v(t) as a para-

metrized function (e.g., a Fourier or Taylor series in t), integrate the differential

equation to obtain a parametrized final state, and equate the final state to the desired

state. For Fourier and Taylor series parametrizations of the inputs, the final solution

can be reduced to finding the roots of a polynomial. We illustrate this in an example

below.

The system (21) can be shown to be diffeomorphic to a system in chained form

[TMW]. Hence, the choice of v(t) can be transformed into the problem of solving

the trajectory-generation problem for a system in chained form. Specific algorithms

for steering systems in chained form are presented in [MS].

The algorithm outlined here can be extended to the case of an arbitrary nilpotent

Lie algebra instead of the special chained form used here. In this case we again

proceed by using exponential coordinates and solving a polynomial control prob-

lem relative to that basis. The general case is discussed in [J2], [LS1], and [LS2].

Example 3. Consider again the rolling penny from the previous example. Let

x ~ (0, 0, 0, 0) be the initial configuration and let x 1 = (1, 2, -re/2, zr/4) be the

desired final configuration. Motion between x ~ and x 1 consists of a net translation

in the x and y directions, combined with a 90 ~ rotation of the penny relative to a

fixed line on the plane and a 45 ~ rotation of a fixed line on the penny with respect

to the vertical. We assume that system is nilpotent, as in (16).

We begin by constructing the exponential coordinates corresponding to x 1. Since

the Hall basis evaluated on the system vector fields has exactly four nonzero

elements, the extended system is uniquely defined as

Y: = g l v l + 9217,2 -b (adg 1 g2)/)3 "q- (ad~l g2)v4.

Choosing x ( t) = x ~ + t(x I - x ~ we can solve for v(t) and integrate (21) to determine

the exponential coordinates corresponding to x 1. Performing this calculation yields

h 1 ~ ( - 1.57, 1, - 3.57, 2.59).

We now construct an input which steers the system in exponential coordinates

from h ~ to h 1. Using the ideas developed in [MS], we choose

v 1 = a o sin rot + al sin 27ct,

(22)

v2 = b0 sin 7rt + bl cos 2~t,

which can be integrated symbolically (from the origin) to obtain

2

hi(l) = - a o ,

7Z

(23)

h2(1) = 2b0,

Nilpotent Bases for a Class of Nonintegrable Distributions 73

x2 xl

0 , , , , , I , , , I

1

x2

-i -! ,

i I . . . . I , , . , I

1 2 -1 I , , , I , . . . . . . . . . . . I

xl

x3

vl

-2.0 , , , I , , , l

X4

v2

-1

-20 I , , , I , , , I , , 9 I , , , I , , , I

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1-0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0,6 0.~ 1.0

time time

Fig. 2. Motion of a rolling penny from x ~ = (0, 0, 0, 0) to x ~ = (2, 1, n/2, n/4). The upper left figure

shows the trajectory of the penny on the plane; the remaining plots show the states and inputs as a

function of time.

8

h3(1) = ~aobo + 3 ~ a l b o "+ l~--~2a2bo - ~_~albl,

h(1) = h 1 (obtained using Mathematica) is given by

vt = - 2 . 4 6 7 sin :~r -- 2.273 sin 2rot,

(24)

v2 = 1.571 sin nt - 12.73 cos 2nt.

4. Conclusions

In this paper w e have presented a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for

converting a two-input, n o n h o l o n o m i c control system into a special canonical form.

This result also gives constructive sufficient conditions for finding a nitpotent basis

74 R.M. Murray

control system with a nilpotent basis was also given.

Further research is needed to achieve an understanding of the conditions under

which a nonholonomic system with more than two inputs can be made nilpotent

by use of a nonlinear precompensator. The extended Goursat normal form theorem

used by Gardner and Shadwick gives one criterion but there are many other

possibilities. As an example, all systems which are in chained form (in its full

generality, as described in [MS]) are nilpotent, but 0nly a very special subset

satisfies the extended G_oursat normal form conditions. They correspond to systems

in which controllability is "generated" by a single vector field (which plays the dual

role of the one-form re).

As noted by Jacob [J21 path-planning techniques based on exponential coordi-

nates generated by a nilpotent basis do not necessarily rely on the system having

no drift vector field. Formally, the same techniques can be applied to systems of the

form

Yc = f ( x ) + gl(x)ul + ' " + gm(x)um

if the vector fields are nilpotent. However, the polynomial equations that result from

choosing a symbolic set of inputs as in Example 3 become much more difficult to

solve. Also, the problem of finding a nilpotent basis for a nonlinear control system

which is only affine in the inputs is considerably more difficult, since the drift vector

field f cannot be scaled. It is interesting to note that the Brunovsky canonical form

used in feedback linearization is nilpotent, and hence the MIMO linearization

conditions are sufficient conditions for finding a nilpotent basis for a nonlinear

system which is affine in the inputs.

the Fields Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Ontario, Canada, for many fruitful

conversations on the use of exterior differential systems for studying chained sys-

tems and for pointing out the connections between the Goursat normal form and

chained systems. In addition, Sameer Jalnapurkar and Michiel van Nieuwstadt

provided invaluable assistance in debugging the proof for Theorem 3 and the

anonymous reviewers provided many valuable comments that helped improve the

quality of the paper.

References

holonomic dynamic systems. I EEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 37(11):1746-1757,

1992.

[B] R. W. Brockett. Control theory and singular Riemannian geometry. In P. J. Hilton and G. S.

Young, editors, New Directions in Applied Mathematics, pages 11-27. Springer-Verlag, New

York, 1981.

[BCG ~] R. L. Bryant, S. S. Chern, R. B. Gardner, H. L. Goldschmidt, and P_ A. Griffiths. Exterior

Differential Systems. Springer-Verlag, 1991.

[BTS] L. Bushnell, D. Tilbury, and S. Sastry. Steering three-input chained form nonholonomic

systems using sinusoids. Proceedings of the European Control Conference, pages 1432-1437,1993.

Nilpotent Bases for a Class of Nonintegrable Distributions 75

[c] W.-L. Chow, Uber systeme yon linearen partiellen differentialgleichungen erster ordnung.

M athematische Annalen, 117:98-105, 1940-194i.

[GS] R. B. Gardner and W. F. Shadwick. The GS algorithm for exact linearization to Brunovsky

normal form. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 37(2):224-230, 1992.

[GKR] A Giaro, A. Kumpera, and C. Ruiz. Sur la lecture correcte d'un r6sultat d'l~li Cartan. Comptes

Rendus des S~ances de l'Acaddmie des Sciences, S~rie A, 287:241-244, 1978.

[HI H. Hermes. Distributions and the Lie algebras their bases can generate. Proceedings of the

American Mathematical Society, 106(2):555-565, 1989.

[HLS] H. Hermes, A. Lundell, and D. Sullivan. Nilpotent bases for distributions and control systems.

Journal of Differential Equations, 55:385-400, 1984.

[J1] G. Jacob. Lyndon discretization and exact motion planning. Proceedings of the European

Control Conference, 1991.

[J2] G. Jacob. Motion planning by piecewise constant or polynomial inputs. Proceedings of the

IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems Design (NOLCOS), pages 628-633, 1992.

[LSl] G. Lafferriere and H. J. Sussmann. Motion Planning for Controllable Systems Without Drift:

A Preliminary Report. Technical Report SYCON-90-04, Rutgers Center for Systems and

Control, 1990.

[LS2] G. Lafferriere and H. J. Sussmann. Motion planning for controllable systems without drift.

Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pages 1148-

1153, 1991.

[LJTM] J.-P. Laumond, P. Jacobs, M. Taix, and R. M. Murray. A motion planner for nonholonomic

mobile robots. 1EEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, to appear.

[MS] R. M. Murray and S. S. Sastry. Nonholonomic motion planning: Steering using sinusoids.

IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 38(5):700-716, 1993.

[Sl] O. J. Sordalen. Conversion of the kinematics of a car with N trailers into a chained form.

Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pages 382-387,

1993.

[S2] H. J. Sussmann. A product expansion for the Chen series. In C. Byrnes and A. Lindquist,

editors, Theory and Applications of Nonlinear Control Systems, pages 323-335. North-Holland,

Amsterdam, 1986.

[TMW] A. Teel, R. M. Murray, and G. Walsh. Nonholonomic control systems: From steering

to stabilization with sinusoids. Proceedings of the 1EEE Control and Decision Conference,

pages 1603-1609, 1992.

- Multi Linear Algebra PDFUploaded byImraans
- Tensor Vector BooksUploaded byAshutosh Vishwa Bandhu
- Music & AlgebraUploaded byYban Ryko
- ChE441 ConversionUploaded bydavidfcq
- maths-2007.rtfUploaded bydraj1875977
- LAlecture01(5)Uploaded byJoe Di Napoli
- Hisnul MuslimUploaded byMuhammadSalman
- Samvida 1 2011 Rule BookUploaded byKunal Suryavanshi
- The Kalman Decomposition.pdfUploaded byJose H. Vivas
- Lecture Notes in Lie Groups.pdfUploaded byHoang Bao Tran Tan
- Math HL Book.pdfUploaded byEduardo Nagel
- Abstract Algebra Theory and Applications 442p BookUploaded byNikolaos Kouiroukidis
- Sensitivity Analysis of Transportation ProblemsUploaded bypedros
- [James R. Kirkwood] an Introduction to Analysis(BookFi)Uploaded byjuan carlos
- Notes on Lie GroupsUploaded bysasi_manjaz
- HW8Uploaded byVanessa Gotta Vergara
- Ch3_FourTrans&DeltaFnsUploaded bydfbmnk
- HDGUploaded byAmod
- IM Chapter2 7eUploaded bymzious
- docslide.us_year-11-igsce-extended-math-paper-41-june-2010-solutions-1295520081-phpapp01.pdfUploaded byEngy Maher
- Homework 1 SolutionsUploaded bychellebodnar
- De TransformationUploaded byMuzamil Shah
- AA Affine SpacesUploaded byxerenus
- FiniteUploaded byKariem Mohamed Ragab Hamed
- ADMISSIBILITY IN ANALYTIC NUMBER THEORYUploaded byPablo Amarildo Ortega Carvajal
- 00500446.pdfUploaded byRafaelN79
- Lecture 4 Electron Spin IUploaded byJohn Bird
- dfafUploaded byWorse To Worst Satittamajitra
- Forecasting Theory and PracticeUploaded bytorinomg
- rootirredUploaded byAriel Lancaster

- 01391010.pdfUploaded byAmino file
- sdfsdfshsfUploaded byAmino file
- morinaga2014_2Uploaded byAmino file
- alouges2010_4Uploaded byAmino file
- Kyushu Mechanic Entrance ExamUploaded byAmino file
- Bernoulli EquationUploaded byPradip Gupta
- f07Uploaded byHimanshu Mishra
- Lecture c2 c3Uploaded byAmino file
- 10.1109@cdc.1994.411344Uploaded byAmino file
- Control of Position a main poUploaded byAmino file
- 10.1007_BF00375605Uploaded byAmino file
- li1990Uploaded byAmino file
- qqq2rUploaded byAmino file
- As Me JournalUploaded byAmino file
- 280633967 George F Simmons Differential Equations With Applications and Historical Notes 2nd Edition McGraw Hill 1991Uploaded byAmino file
- 03_Procedure of MEXT ScholarshipUploaded byAmino file
- KIkuUploaded byAmino file
- li2008.pdfUploaded byAmino file
- f13Uploaded byAmino file
- 10.2307@27642248Uploaded byAmino file
- Presentation SpheretalUploaded byAmino file
- Nonholonomic formUploaded byAmino file
- Mirz3Uploaded byAmino file
- Mirza junUploaded byAmino file
- 06 2016 MEXT Scholarship Univ RecommendationUploaded byAmino file
- lsefse ffUploaded byAmino file
- Analysis of Surfactant Laden LiquidLiquid DispersionUploaded byAmino file

- fluent_udfsUploaded bys_c_saha
- Problems encoutered in oil refineriesUploaded byMarion Alyssa Japitana
- Why is the Tension in the String of a Massless Pulley Equal_ - QuoraUploaded byAbhiyan Paudel
- MWE CODEUploaded byna
- External LPS.pdfUploaded byAndri Abdillah
- Kernel Optimization - TuningUploaded byYoungjin Yun
- Predicted vs Actual Energy Performance of Non Domestic BuildingsUploaded byAlexandr Rosca
- Machine Learning With Python - The BasicsUploaded bycoelho.alv4544
- GLONASS1Uploaded bymasangkay
- CourseMaterial-20101105Uploaded byvalkird33
- Architectural Environment Simulator for Architecture StudentsUploaded byJohn Evans
- 166396-2016-specimen-paper-1Uploaded byharshanauoc
- Draw Out Type SwitchgearUploaded bymallavsc
- Ppt Tekpang Kelompok 9Uploaded byNabila Hana Dhia
- Mahr Linear Bush Bearing Stroke Bearing CompleteUploaded byjames<XIII
- Sect 11a P Welding DocumUploaded byAnonymous 4e7GNjzGW
- IMS_netSPUploaded byBraulio Araya
- StiffnessUploaded byEric Villenas
- An Explication of the de Hebdomadibus of Boethius in the Light of St. Thomas's CommentaryUploaded byPredrag Milidrag
- Watts Radiant HeatWeave Space ManualUploaded byPexheat.com
- chemistry reference tableUploaded byapi-255978375
- lesson plan-valdez-8th-math week 15 5Uploaded byapi-431340065
- Shape Grammar in Contemporary Architectural Theory and DesignUploaded byOlivera Dulic
- Stream Control Transmission Protocol SCTPUploaded byAnonymous g6KREj
- GG2 Manual 2017Uploaded byuighuig
- An on-line Distributed Induction Motor Monitoring SystemUploaded byKhadarbaba Shaik
- Affect of Slats and FlapsUploaded bydeepsoul
- Mitsubishi Mr Slim Error CodesUploaded byMohammed Sayeeduddin
- minerals-08-00071-v3Uploaded byStajic Milan
- Hydrometallurgical Technologies OUTOTECUploaded byIvan Broggi