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181CTDCHA2 Chemical Thermodynamics 2A BET

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (FEBE)

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

181CTDCHA2: Chemical Thermodynamics 2A

TUTORIAL 1A

Assume g = 9.81 m s-2 unless otherwise stated. Use gc = 32.1740(lbm)(ft)(lbf)-1 (s)-2

1. What is the difference between pound-mass and pound-force?

2. Determine the mass and the weight of the air contained in a room whose dimensions are
6mx6mx8m. Assume the density of the air is 1.16 kg/m3.
[Ans: 334.1 kg, 3277 N]

3. A 150-lbm astronaut took his bathroom scale (a spring scale) and a beam scale
(compares masses) to the moon where the local gravity is g = 5.48 ft/s 2. Determine how
much he will weigh (a) on the spring scale and (b) on the beam scale.
[Ans: (a) 25.5 lbf; (b) 150 lbm]

4. At what absolute temperature do the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales give the
same numerical value? What is the value?
[Ans: -40]

5. Consider an alcohol and a mercury thermometer that read exactly 0°C at the ice point
and 100°C at the steam point. The distance between the two points is divided into 100
equal parts in both thermometers. Do you think these thermometers will give exactly the
same reading at a temperature of, say, 60°C? Explain.

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181CTDCHA2 Chemical Thermodynamics 2A BET

6. A tank is filled with oil whose density is  = 850 kg/m3. If the volume of the tank, V = 2
m3, determine the amount of mass m in the tank.
[Ans: 1700 kg]

7. Using unity conversion ratios, show that 1.00 lbm weighs 1.00 lbf on earth

8. What is the difference between gauge pressure and absolute pressure?

9. Someone claims that the absolute pressure in a liquid of constant density doubles when
the depth is doubled. Do you agree? Explain

10. A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. The fluid used has a specific
gravity of 0.85, and the manometer column height is 55 cm. If the local atmospheric
pressure is 96kPa, determine the absolute pressure within the tank.
[Ans: 100.6 kPa]

11. Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric reading is 740
mm Hg and the gravitational acceleration is g = 9.81 m/s2. Assume the temperature of
mercury to be 10oC, at which its density is 13 570 kg/m3.
[Ans: 98.5 kPa]

12. The piston of a vertical piston–cylinder device containing a gas has a mass of 60 kg and
a cross-sectional area of 0.04 m2. The local atmospheric pressure is 0.97bar, and the
gravitational acceleration is 9.81 m/s2. (a) Determine the pressure inside the cylinder. (b)
If some heat is transferred to the gas and its volume is doubled, do you expect the
pressure inside the cylinder to change?
[Ans: 1.12 bar]

13. The barometer of a mountain hiker reads 930 mbars at the beginning of a hiking trip and
780 mbars at the end. Neglecting the effect of altitude on local gravitational acceleration,
determine the vertical distance climbed. Assume an average air density of 1.20 kg/m3.
[Ans: 1274 m]

14. A gas is contained in a vertical, frictionless piston–cylinder device. The piston has a
mass of 4 kg and a cross-sectional area of 35 cm2. A compressed spring above the
piston exerts a force of 60 N on the piston. If the atmospheric pressure is 95 kPa,
determine the pressure inside the cylinder.

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181CTDCHA2 Chemical Thermodynamics 2A BET

[Ans: 123.4 kPa]

15. A gas is confined in a 0.47-m-diameter cylinder by a piston, on which rests a weight. The
mass of the piston and weight together is 150 kg. The local acceleration of gravity is
9.813 m s-2, and atmospheric pressure is 101.57 kPa. (a) What is the force in N exerted
on the gas by the atmosphere, the piston, and the weight, assuming no friction between
the piston and cylinder? (b) What is the pressure of the gas in kPa? (c) If the gas in the
cylinder is heated, it expands, pushing the piston and weight upward. If the piston and
weight are raised 0.83 m, what is the work done by the gas in kJ? What is the change in
potential energy of the piston and weight?
[Ans: (a) 1.909x104 N; (b) 110.054 kPa; (c) W = 15.848 kJ, Ep = 1.222kJ]

16. Verify that the SI unit of kinetic and potential energy is the Joule.

17. An automobile having a mass of 1250 kg is traveling at 40 m s-1. What is its kinetic
energy in kJ? How much work must be done to bring it to a stop?
[Ans: Ek = W = 1x103 J]

18. The motion of a steel ball in a hemispherical bowl of radius h is to be analysed. The ball
is initially held at the highest location at point A, and then it is released. Obtain relations
for the conservation of energy of the ball for the cases of frictionless and actual motions.

19. An escalator brings four people of total 300 kg, 25 m up in a building. Explain what
happens with respect to energy transfer and stored energy.

20. A hydraulic lift has a maximum fluid pressure of 500 kPa. What should the piston-
cylinder diameter be so it can lift a mass of 850 kg?
[Ans: 0.146 m]

21. What is the pressure at the bottom of a 5 m tall column of fluid with atmospheric
pressure 101 kPa on the top surface if the fluid is a) water at 20°C b) glycerine 25°C or
c) light oil. Density: glycerine = 1260 kg/m3; light oil = 910 kg/m3.

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181CTDCHA2 Chemical Thermodynamics 2A BET

[Ans: (a) 150.05 kPa (b) 162.8 kPa; (c) 145.6 kPa]

22. Can you carry 1 m3 of liquid water at room temperature on your shoulders?

23. You dive 5m down in the ocean. What is the absolute pressure there?
[Ans: 150.375 kPa]

24. The pressure at the bottom of a swimming pool is evenly distributed. Suppose we look at
a cast iron plate of 7272 kg lying on the ground with an area of 100 m 2. What is the
average pressure it exerts below that? Is it just as evenly distributed?
[Ans: 713.4 Pa]

25. A laboratory room keeps a vacuum of 0.1 kPa. What net force does that put on the door
of size 2m by 1m?
[Ans: 200 N]

26. What is the smallest temperature in Kelvins and degrees Celsius you can have?

27. A pressurised steel bottle is charged with 5kg of oxygen gas and 7kg of nitrogen gas.
How many kmoles are in the bottle? Molecular weight of O2 = 31.999 and N2 = 28.013.
[Ans: 0.406 kmol]

28. Measured data for pressure versus volume during the expansion of gases within the
cylinder of an internal combustion engine are given in the table below. Using data from
the table, complete the following. Determine a value of n such that the data are fit by an
equation of the form, PVn = constant.
Data point P (bar) V (cm3)
1 15 300
2 12 361
3 9 459
4 6 644
5 4 903
6 2 1608

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