You are on page 1of 24




Socialization among today’s youth has evolved. Face-to-face communication has been

replaced with email, social networks and other online tools. The internet has provided

opportunities to enhance, create and rediscover social ties that make a difference in the lives of

mankind. As compared to traditional communications, the internet lowers constraints like cost

geography and time, and it basically supports the type of open information sharing which brings

people together. Everything is easy, fast, and can be achieved through one click.

Wikipedia defines social networking as “an online service, platform or site that focuses

on building and reflecting of social network or social relations among people who share interests

or activities.” Social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Friendster and the likes are

gaining popularity these days with its market among the students. Involvement to this sites has

become trendy and engaging. Studies show that engagement to social networking sites fosters

friendship, boosts self-confidence and promotes connection.

Social networking sites are now the focus of investigation by numerous social science

researchers and an increasing number of academic commentators because of their extensive

impact to personal and academic lives of students using them.

Asides from social networking sites, online gaming provides addictive means in which the

individual craves social interaction. Defined as, ‘ a game played over some form of computer

network,’ it can be in form of shooter games, real-time strategy games, browser games or

massively multiplayer online games. Online gaming is being patronized just as much as social

networking sites. It is a new world where time, space and distance are non-issues and cultural

barriers are broken down. There is a strong sense of community where friendships are made and

enemies are trashed.

The youth has become too attached to online gaming that it has become an addiction,

which makes it hard to step away.

The research aims to provide a connection between social networking and online gaming

to the academic performance of school age children from selected barangays in Lucena City.

The target population for the research was defined as the students who form the major

chunk of users of the internet in terms of social networking site and online gaming. This was done

to have better insight into the research as the target population was one of the most avid users

of the internet and is expected to provide exceptional responses. It is expected that

understanding the questionnaire would be easy for them as they are familiar with these and are

quite clear about the reasons they use it and for the various problems that they now face because

of the effects of addiction to social networking sites and gaming.


General Objective

The objective of the study is to determine the effect of social networking and

online gaming on the academic performance of school age children from

the selected barangays in Lucena City.

Specific Objective

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

i. What is the demographic profile of the students in terms of:

i. Age of Students

ii. Gender of Students

iii. Time Spent in Social Networking Sites

iv. Time Spent in Online Gaming

ii. Is there a significant difference between Social Networking Involvement and

Academic Performance of school age children from selected barangays in Lucena


iii. Is there a significant difference between Exposure to Online Gaming and

Academic Performance of school age children from selected barangays in Lucena


iv. Is there a significant difference between Social Networking Involvement and

Exposure to Online Gaming of school age children from selected barangays in

Lucena City?

v. Which among the two factors affect the student’s academic performance the


Scope and Limitations

The study is a descriptive study on the effect of social networking sites and online gaming

on the academic performance of nursing student’s studies. This study, however, does not attempt

to explain in-depth how these two factors affect a student’s scholastic rating.

The study will be conducted within a time frame of one semester to twenty school age

children from selected barangays in Lucena City. The underlying assumption is that the survey

conducted in limited area represents the general psyche of the users of the social networking site

and gaming.

The academic standing will be based on their grade on one subject alone. It shall not

consider the flexible grading system employed by instructors for evaluating student’s academic

performance based on general point average.

The study is limited to identifying the association of the two variables to academic

performance. It is set on natural environment and shall not in any way, attempt to influence the

behavior of its respondents. The level of engagement to social networking sites and online gaming

is set, but not explored. The potential explanatory factors for the students excessive indulgence in

social networking and online gaming is not examined, nor its reasons.

For purposes of limitation, the respondents are limited to twenty school age children

from selected barangays in Lucena City. Another limitation was the availability of respondents

since there are different schedules among different year levels. The researchers also apprehend the

cooperation of the respondents to answer the questionnaires truthfully and completely.

Definition of Terms

Social networking sites - are social network services that focus on building online communities of

people who share interests and/or activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and

activities of others.

Academic performance - refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or

accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers.

Online Games - games that are played through the internet.


Review of Related Studies

A. Social Networking

A study was conducted by Whittemore School of Business and Economics students

to determine the relationship between online social media usage and grades of college students.

Results shows that there is no correlation between the amount of time students spend using social

media and their grades. The most popular online network was Facebook with 96 percent of all

university students saying they use it on a typical day. Further, there was no correlation between

grades and the social media platform used. Almost the same number of heavy and light users of

both Facebook and YouTube received the same category of high and low grades. On a typical

weekend day, 41 per cent of students increase their usage of the social media networks, five percent

of those significantly increase. Majority of students use these networks for social reasons and


Don Tapscott, author of Grown Up Digital says in an article that ‘there is not a shred

evidence that Facebook is bad for young people. On the contrary, it is a wonderful thing that with

balance, helps them grow, helps their mental abilities develop and it should be encouraged.

Another study tells a different side. According to Arya Karprinski’s study of about 219

students, 148 Facebook users had a full grade point lower than those who do not have Facebook.

People that did not use Facebook reported that they study about 11-15 hours and those who had

Facebook only studies 1-5 hours per week. The Ohio report shows that students who used

Facebook had a significantly lower grade point average-the marking system used in US

universities-than those who did not use this site.

A team of researchers from Harvard and University of California, Los Angeles are

monitoring the Facebook profile of an entire class of students at one college. Their goal is to study

how personal tastes, habits and values affect the formation of social relationships and how social

relationships affect tastes, habits and values.

According to a research presented at the American Educational Research Association

2009 annual conference in San Diego, California, US, college students who use Internet social

networking sites study less and have lower grades.

S. Shyam Sundar, a professor and founder of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at

Penn State, has led students in several Facebook studies exploring identity. One involved the

creation of mock Facebook profiles. Researchers learned that while people perceive someone who

has a high number of friends as popular, attractive and self-confident, people who accumulate too

many friends (about 800) or more are seen as insecure.

In Hargittai’s study, he said no evidence was found that Facebook use correlates with lower

academic achievement. He further added that basic Facebook use simply does not have

generalizable consequences for grades. According to his study, the doubts about the use of social

networking sites vis-a-vis students are reminiscent to those cast on earlier new media, including

TV and motion pictures, and their effect on children. He emphasized however that if students are

spending excessive time on Facebook at the expense of studying, their academic performance may


Students are using social networking sites more than many school administrators may

realize. Despite the fact that most schools block access to such sites via school computers, 9-17

year olds spend as much time using the Internet for social activities as they spend watching

television-about 9 hours a week, according to a 2007 study by the Alexandria, VA-based NSBA.

The study of more than 1,200 students found that 96 % of those with online access had used social

networking technology-including text messaging- and 81 % said they had visited a social

networking website at least once within the 3 months before the study was conducted.

B. Online Gaming

In a study of the impact of online-game playing on life satisfaction of gamers on different

personality dimensions, Chen et al found that neuroticism in gamers had a negative influence on

life satisfaction. Neuroticism also has a significant negative influence on subjective well being in

teen gamers. A negative relationship between web surfing frequency and life satisfaction has also

been found.

In another study, Parker et al found that emotional intelligence was a strong-to-moderate

predictor of addiction-related behaviours like excessive Internet use, online gaming addiction and

online gambling problems.; youth with deficiencies in ability to read, express and elicit desired

emotions may be more prone to partake in online-addiction behaviours. Ko et al reached a similar

conclusion and found out that Internet addiction was related to problematic alcohol use in a sample

of Taiwanese high school students.

At the Syracuse University, Associate Professor of Psychology Joshua Smyth has

conducted one study to try to determine the negative and positive effects of gambling. He assigned

gamers to four groups: single-player console games, single- player PC games, single- player arcade

games and fantasy themed MMORPG. For the gamers of the MMORPG group, they reported a

much lower level of overall health and well-being than the other groups. They were also observed

to not be sleeping as well as they should and their quality and quantity of real-life socialization

and academic work saw a sharp decrease. It was theorized that MMORPGs were so complex, so

fantastical and alluring and so involved that the gamers reported they had “lost track of time while

playing, had gone to bed late and forgotten to eat.” After only a few days of such activity, all the

gamers of the MMORPG group showed a dramatic decrease in all areas of health.

From the same study, Prof. Smyth found that the MMORPG gamers group reported a much

greater enjoyment and sense of reward from the game. They also reported having a high interest

of going back to the game to play some more at a later time. One more surprising benefit found

was the rise in the gaining of new friends as compared with the single-player groups, and the level

of cohesion that often develops among players of MMORPGs.

However, although there are some positive effects that are possible from computer game

use there are mostly negative effects. Several professors conducted a research project to determine

the effect of gaming on academic performance. According to the Australians Journal of

Educational Technology: “Gaming Frequency and Academic Performance” individuals who spend

two or more hours playing games on a daily basis score lower in every subject than their non-

gaming counterparts. By spending a high percentage of time on video games there is not enough

time left to spend in studying for classes. The study found out that there was not a single positive

correlation between gaming and academic performance.

Review of Related Literature

A. How Social Network Sites Work

Social networking sites are web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public

or a semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users whom they share

a connection and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the

system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site.

For the past years, social networking has been very popular for people worldwide.

Social networking is a great form of entertainment. It allows users to meet new people, reconcile

with old friends, and find friends across the globe with the same interests.

The term “social network site” is used to describe this phenomenon, and is alternately

used with “social networking sites”. The term “networking” emphasizes relationship initiation,

often between strangers. On most sites, participants are not necessarily looking to meet new

people, rather they are primarily communicating with people who are already part of their extended

social network.

The main types of social networking services are those which contain category divisions,

(such as former classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages)

and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of these.

Facebook is widely used worldwide.

The backbone of social network sites consists of visible profiles that display an

articulated list of friends who are also users of the system. Profiles are unique pages where one

can type itself into being. After joining a site, an individual is asked to fill out forms containing a

series of questions. The profile is generated using the answers to these questions, which typically

include descriptors such as age, location, interests and an “about me” section. Most sites also

encourage users to upload a profile photo. Some sites allow users to enhance their profiles by

adding multimedia content or modifying their profile’s look and feel. Other, such as Facebook,

allow users to add modules or applications that enhance their profile.

The visibility of a profile varies by site and according to user discretion. By default,

profiles on Orkut or are crawled by search engines, making them visible to anyone,

regardless of whether or not the viewer has an account. Alternatively, sites like MySpace allow

users to choose whether they want their profile to be public of “Friends only”. Facebook takes a

different approach-by default, users who are part of the same network can view each other’s

profiles, unless a profile owner has decided to deny permission to those in their network. Structural

variations around visibility and access are one of the primary ways that social network sites

differentiate themselves from each other.

After joining a social network site, users are prompted to identify others in the system

in which they have a relationship. The label for these relationships differs depending on the site

popular terms include “Friends”, “Contacts” and “Fans”. Most social network sites require bi-

directional confirmation for friendship, but some do not. These one-directional ties are sometimes

labelled as “Fans” or “Followers” but many sites call these “Friends” as well. According to Boyd

(2006), the term “Friends” can be misleading, because the connection does not necessarily mean

friendship in the everyday vernacular sense, and the reasons people connect are varied.

The public display of connections is a crucial component of social network sites. The

Friend’s list contains links to each Friend’s profile, enabling viewers to traverse the network graph

by clicking through the Friends list. On most sites, the list of friends is visible to everyone who is

permitted to view the profile, although there are exceptions.

Most social network sites also provide a mechanism for users to leave messages on

their Friend’s profiles. This feature typically involves leaving “comments” although sites employ

various labels for this feature. In addition, social network sites often have a private messaging

feature similar to webmail. While both private messages and comments are popular on most of the

major social network sites, they are not universally available.

Beyond profiles, Friends, comments and private messaging, these sites vary greatly in their

features and user base. Some have photo-sharing or video sharing capabilities; others have built-

in blogging and instant messaging technology.

While social network sites are often designed to be widely accessible, many attract

homogenous populations initially, so it is not uncommon to find groups using sites to segregate

themselves by nationality, age, educational level, or other factors that typically segment society,

even if that was not the intention of the designers.

b. Social Network Sites have favorable effects

A favorable aspect of social networking sites is their ability to connect people of seemingly

different culture, background and living location despite the glaring distance in between,

promoting intercultural relations and stronger ties. It also increases the chance for single

individuals to find their potential partners and with such a vast array to choose from, nonetheless.

But even with these obvious advantages, there is still the looming threat of the misuse of these

websites. A pressing danger is those of internet sexual predators, who use these networking sites

to lure in potential victims, most of which are children ranging from nine to seventeen years old,

sometimes even younger.

Wikipedia reports that social networks are also being used by teachers and students as a

communication tool. Because many students are already using a wide-range of social networking

sites, teachers have begun to familiarize themselves with this trend and are now using it to their

advantage. Teachers and professors are doing everything from creating chat-room forums and

groups to extend classroom discussion to posting assignments, tests and quizzes, to assisting with

homework outside of the classroom setting. Social networks are also being used to foster teacher-

parent communication. These sites make it possible and more convenient for parents to ask

questions and voice concerns without having to meet face-to-face.

c. Social network sites have adverse effects

Dr. Himanshu Tyagi forwarded the idea that sites like Facebook and MySpace could be

harmful for the young people that frequent them. According to him, the problem is that when teens

begin to live their lives actively online, they may begin to put less value on their own “real” lives.

Social networking in the middle and high school and even college can become a detriment

to education. Attention and popularity is the most important for which most of them tend to misuse

social networking sites and use them for socializing and meeting new people instead of using it for

educational purposes. It tends to become a distraction to these kids; they tend to pay more attention

to these sites instead of the teachers.

Not only do social networking sites affect one’s academic performance negatively, they

are also causes of damage in a student’s chance of being successful in the future.

Tim Pychyl, an associate professor of psychology at Carleton University, says the problem

with using Facebook and other commercial social networking tools goes beyond the privacy

concerns. He argues that while discussion groups, chat, blogs, and email can be valuable tools in

the classroom, using commercial products such as Facebook and Twitter can lead to distraction

and procrastination. Because these social networking tools can be used to follow friends and

celebrities, view pictures, chat and play games, they can create problems in the classroom.

The National School Boards Association (USA) in partnership with research firm

Grunwald Associates LLC and the support of Microsoft, Newscorp and Verizon has just published

a data-rich survey dissecting social and education related activity patterns by American students.

In about 1 in 5 (22%) of all students surveyed, and about one in three tens (31 %) are

nonconformists, students who report breaking one or more online safety and behaviour rules, such

as using inappropriate language, posting inappropriate pictures, sharing personal information with

strangers of pretending to be someone they are not.

These nonconformists are significantly heavier users of social networking sites than other

students, participating in every single type of social networking activity surveyed (28 in all)

significantly more frequently than other students both at home and at school-which likely means

that they break school rules to do so.

B. Online Gaming

The existence of games as a source of interaction and individual stimulation have always

been linked to the technological availability of the time and place. With the transition to a

information-based society, computers and computer games have evolved from monstrous room-

sized computing machines to complex multi-use personal computers. Much has been improved

from the first computer in game in 1962 called the Space War to the MMOPRG (Massively

Multiplayer Role Playing Games) which was introduced in 1997 and is taking up everyone by

storm. In MMOPR, countless number of people can interact and work together to create a massive

virtual representation of reality. This increase in virtual worlds have been found out to instigate

social interaction and communication.

Online gaming provides emotional escape and relief from high intervals of stress and

social interaction. Since college students continue to actively meet an endless array of deadlines,

stress becomes an innate aspect of college life. With the simultaneous exposure of an intense social

atmosphere, many students are fearful to expose themselves as shy and vulnerable human beings.

The games allow people to protect themselves from the real world, both socially and emotionally,

while stimulating excitement. Thus, online gaming is a source of addiction.

It is important to stress that many people focus on the negative effects of these games and

fail to see the opportunity for learning and growth. According to Raise Smart Kids: “The Good

and Bad Effects of Video Games” there are several positive effects that come from spending time

playing video games. Most games do not teach kids math, history and other subjects, however,

they do provide students indirect opportunities to learn principles that can help them in their

academic pursuits. Certain types of video games can help train kids to follow instructions as well

as help them develop their problem solving and logical thought processes. These skills translate

directly to the classroom as students are asked by teachers to complete tasks and are presented

problems that require them to use logical problem solving skills. Kids can also learn inductive

reasoning and hypothesis testing.

Excessive computer game playing can wreck player’s academic performances, along with

exacting steep tolls on their personal relationships. Psychotherapist Hilarie Cash notes playing

computer games can cause the brain to increase the production of dopamine, a neurotransmitter

that stimulates pleasure. Excessive game playing conditions players to keep playing for the

dopamine rush, prompting these players to neglect all other aspects of their lives. Richard Ries, a

psychology professor at the University of Washington cautions that not enough studies have been

conducted on intensive playing to classify this behaviour as an addiction, noting the medical

profession tends to view excessive computer gaming as compulsive behaviour.

In a 2008 bulletin for the American Medical Association, Dr. Ronald M. Davis cited a

Swiss study which found that every hour children spent playing on computer games each day, the

risk of obesity doubled. In addition to the effects of prolonged sedentary activity, KidsHealth notes

many computer games require repeated motions from players that puts stress on joints, tendons

and muscles, increasing their risk for suffering reprtitive stress injuries such as carpal tunnel

syndrome and tendinitis. In their paper "Working with Gamers: Implications for Counselors,"

Gerra W. Perkins and her co-authors note that computers games' flashing images can trigger

epileptic seizures, even in players with no prior history of convulsions.

The effects of violent games on players' behavior remains a controversial topic among

researchers. Writing in "Review of General Psychology," Christopher J. Ferguson, Ph.D., noted

that despite initial concerns over violent computer games, researchers found children who grew up

with video gaming didn't exhibit increased aggression as a whole. Patrick Markey, Ph.D., cautions

that violent games tend to exacerbate aggressive tendencies in players with specific personality

traits. Using the Five-Factor Model of personality, Markey found that players who scored low in

agreeableness and conscientiousness, while registering high levels of neurosis, were likely to

exhibit increased aggression after playing games which rewarded violent behavior. Dr. L. Rowell

Huesmann of the University of Michigan postulates that violent computer games can affect

children more subtly, desensitizing them to violence over time and influencing them to believe

violence is an acceptable problem-solving method.

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games often require substantial time

commitments from players to develop alter egos and progress through open-ended game worlds.

Many players join guilds, collectives of players within a game, and the relationships players

develop online can take precedence over their real-world relationships and obligations. Cash notes

young players may devote themselves so much to playing they neglect coursework, sabotaging

their academic careers and job prospects.

C. Performance

On the point of academic performance or excellence, Tuckman (1975) said that performance

is used to label the observable manifestation of knowledge, skills, concepts, understanding and

ideas. Thereby, performance is the application of a learning product that at the end of the process

provides mastery. It is the acquisition of particular grades on examinations indicates candidates’

ability, mastery of the content, skills in applying learned knowledge to particular situations. A

student’s success is generally judged on examination performance. Wiseman (1961) added that

success on examinations is a crucial indicator that a student has benefited from a course of study.

In schools and other educational institutions, success is measured by academic

performance, or how well a student meets standards set out by local government and the institution

itself. As career competition grows ever fiercer in the working world, the importance of students

doing well in school has caught the attention of parents, legislators and government education

departments alike.

Therefore, when the term “low” is integrated with “academic performance”, it is the

inability to acquire particular grades on examinations that indicated the individual’s mastery of the

content, and skills in applying learned knowledge to specific circumstances.



Research Design

The research is a descriptive study to gauge the relationship between social networking

sites and online gaming to academic performance of school age children from selected barangays

in Lucena City? The study is interested to determine what is the effect of those two variables to

the grades of students. This study utilized standardized testing instrument, which was administered

to respondents. Statistical tool has been applied to check the dependency of one condition to the


Research Environment

This study was conducted at the selected barangays in Lucena City, these study was

conducted thru the help of the local goverment and good people of these selected barangays.

Research Instrument

A survey was developed containing three sections of closed response (e.g yes/no and

Likert-type scaling) and open-responsive items. Section 1 of the instrument asked respondents to

provide demographic information (e.g name, course, age, sex). Section 2 invited students to

provide academic information (GWA, number of hours spent studying, extracurricular activities).

Section 3 asked about computer and Internet usage (number of hours spent in the internet for social

network sites, and number of hours spent in the internet for computer games, social network sites

they visit, type of computer games they play). The fourth section solicited information related to

students’ perceptions of the impact of social network sites on their own academic achievement.

The fifth section gathered information on the students perceptions on the impact of online games

to their own academic achievement. The test was administered for 10 minutes. We also interviewed

the respondents as to specific questions in the survey.

Research Instrument Validation

Validity evidence for the instrument was provided by reviewing the questionnaire for the

following: (1) Clarity in wording, (2) relevance of the items, (3) use of standard English, (4)

absence of biased words and phrases, (5) formatting of items, and (6) clarity of the instructions

(Fowler, 2002). The team members used these guidelines to review the instrument. Based on their

comments, the instrument was revised prior to administration.

Research Locale

The study will be conducted at the selected barangays of Lucena City, with its concern on

the pre-school aged children from these selected barangays.


Twenty students from school age children from selected barangays in Lucena City will be

the respondents of the study. These respondents are composed of various individuals who differ in

age, sex, preferences, social status and the likes will be randomly chosen from the selected

barangays of Lucena City.

Data Gathering Procedure

Respondents were recruited by visiting selected barangays and asking for volunteers to

complete surveys in the 2nd semester of 2017-2018. Permission from instructors was obtained prior

to visiting the classes. The sampling method began as a convenience sample, which eventually

developed into snowball sampling as students began referring their friends who were willing to be

respondents of the study. A script to introduce the study, explain the consent process and recruit

respondents was followed. A description of the instructions was also included at the top of the

study, as well as an introduction of the group. The survey took approximately 15-20 minutes to

complete. Students completed and returned the survey at the time of recruitment.


Section I:

Name: ______________ Year Level/Section:_______

Age:________ Gender:___________

Section 2:

1. Please provide us with your General Weighted Average (GWA) for the 1st semester AY
2011-2012: _____________

2. How many hours do you spend studying in a day?

o 1 hour and below

o 2-4 hours

o 5 hours and beyond

3. What extracurricular activities are you engaged in?

o Theatre Arts (acting, singing, dancing)

o Literature-related (reading and writing)

o Sports

o Club participations


Section 3:

1. At an average, how many hours do you spend on social networking sites per day?

o 10 hours and beyond

o 5-9 hours

o 2-5 hours

o 1 hour and below

2. At an average, how many hours do you spend on online gaming per day?

o 10 hours and beyond

o 5-9 hours

o 2-5 hours

o 1 hour and below

3. Which social networking site do you visit frequently?

o Facebook

o Twitter

o Others ______

4. What kind of computer games do you subscribe to?

o Facebook games (Farmville, Cityville, Restaurant City, Sims Social etc)

o Massive Multiplayer Role Playing Games (Warcraft)

o First-person shooter games (Counterstrike)

o Adult/gambling/erotic games (Poker Online)

o Puzzle Games (Tetris)

o Racing games (Need for Speed, Gran Turismo)

Section 4:

1. Which do you do more?

o Surf the net for schoolwork

o Surf for entertainment

2. Do social networking sites affect your academic performance?

o Positively

o Negatively

3. Have you experienced circumstances where you attend to these social networking sites
when you are supposed to be studying?

o Yes

o No

4. Do you find it hard to concentrate on your schoolwork knowing that you can log in to
your Facebook account?

o Yes

o No

5. Compare your grades before you become engaged in social networking sites and after
you have become involved. Do you see a drop in your academic performance?

o Yes

o No

6. Do you think you are addicted to social networking sites?

o Yes

o No

7. Do you think your time for studying is reduced because of the time you spent for social
networking sites?

o Yes

o No

Section 5:

1. Which do you do more?

o Surf the net for schoolwork

o Play computer games

2. Does online games affect your academic performance?

o Positively

o Negatively

3. Have you experienced circumstances where you play computer games when you are
supposed to be studying?

o Yes

o No

4. Do you find it hard to concentrate on your schoolwork knowing that you can play
computer games?

o Yes

o No

5. Compare your grades before you become engaged in computer games and after you have
become involved. Do you see a drop in your academic performance?

o Yes

o No

6. Do you think you are addicted to computer games?

o Yes

o No

7. Do you think your time for studying is reduced because of the time you spent for online

o Yes

o No