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Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

An improved vertical-axis water-current

turbine incorporating a channelling device
Fernando Ponta*, Gautam Shankar Dutt
ISEP Group, Electrotechnical Department, School of Engineering, University of Buenos Aires, Paseo
Colon 850, 1064 Capital Federal, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Received 25 November 1998; accepted 24 February 1999


Water-Current Turbines (WCTs) are non-polluting electricity generation plants that

harness the kinetic energy of natural water courses, using several kinds of rotors. At the
School of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires, researchers are developing a WCT
whose particular characteristics improve technical and economic performance. A
channelling device, integrated into the ¯otation system, is used to modify ¯ow conditions in
the neighbourhood of the rotor. This system was developed from theoretical modelling and
small-scale model testing in a hydrodynamic test canal. The principal advantages of this
kind of machine include reduced need for ®xed civil works, ease of transport and relocation
and autonomous, self-regulated operation, and it is expected to be a low-cost and long-
lifetime system. # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Water-Current Turbine; Vertical-axis

1. Introduction

Micro-hydro power plants are normally installed at locations where a static

head of water exists. But, in plains rivers, traditional solutions imply large ¯ooded
areas per unit power output and correspondingly large investments in civil works.
Moreover, the interruption of the natural dynamics of the water course disturbs

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +343-0891/1177 Int. 361/174; fax: +345-7262.

E-mail address: isep@tron.® (F. Ponta).

0960-1481/00/$ - see front matter # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 9 6 0 - 1 4 8 1 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 6 5 - 8
224 F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

the ecosystem. By comparison, Water-Current Turbines (WCTs) are plants that

are ®xed to a structure on the riverside or on ¯oating pontoons and use the
kinetic energy of the river current to generate electricity. These devices are easy to
transport and relocate. They have enough ¯exibility to provide the desired power
output by summing modules of 20 to 50 kW, according to project requirements
and water course characteristics. WCTs only need minor civil works for anchorage
or mooring, reducing initial investments.
WCT electricity generation is intended for rural use, at sites remote from
existing electricity grids. It is a useful tool for improving the quality of life of
people in these locations and for stimulating local economies.
Experiments on the use of WCTs for electricity generation and water pumping
for irrigation have been carried out in several countries:
1. The University of Los Andes (BogotaÂ, Columbia) and the German company
Dornier Systems, built a prototype consisting of a boat with a water wheel set
on its stern. It was tested on the Magdalena river and destroyed by tropical
storms. The project was discontinued.
2. The Renewable Energy Centre of Tacna (Peru) has built the `Bomba de Rio'. It
consists of a water wheel set on the riverside. It was used to generate electricity for
irrigation purposes.
3. The Nova Energy System (St Lawrence River, Canada) and the Intermediate
Technology Development Group (ITDG) designed a twin tubular 5-m pontoon
machine with a straight bladed Darrieus rotor propelled by river current. The
output power was 0.5 kW at a ¯ow speed of 1 m/s. The `In-Stream Turbine, Low-
Cost Prototype' generates mechanical energy for water pumping, applied to
irrigation of a 0.4 ha plantation in Juba (Sudan, Africa) on the White Nile. This
prototype was tested for about 7000 h [1].
4. S. A. Rutten's (Herstal, Belgium) `Hydrolienne' project consists of a twin
tubular 6-m pontoon ¯oating turbine, with a straight bladed water wheel 4 m
in diameter and 4.5 m wide. It provides 15 kW at a ¯ow speed of 3.6 m/s. It
was tested in Kole (Zaire, Africa) [3].
5. Canadian National Research Council Hydraulics, Energy, Mines and
Resources, Canada designed a machined called TOR 5, that consists of a
straight bladed Darrieus rotor set on a retractable metallic frame at the stern of
a 5.5-m length boat hull, with an installed capacity of 5 kW [2].
6. Alternative Way (Nimbin, Australia), developed and commercialised the `Tyson
Turbine'. It is a horizontal axis rotor with a submerged 908 transmission mech-
anism that powers a generator. All the equipment is supported on pontoons [4].

2. Conceptual statement of the new design

At the School of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires, we are developing

a WCT called `Self-Regulated Vertical-Axis Hydroturbine' introducing conceptual
innovations in order to improve the technical and economic performance compared
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Fig. 1. Perspective view of the FI-UBA vertical-axis water-current turbine.

to other WCTs. Our purpose is to obtain an autonomous, self-regulated, low-cost

and long-lifetime device. The principal innovation is the introduction of a
channelling device integrated into the ¯otation system. This is the ®rst WCT design
that attempts channelling the river current to improve performance.
The proposed design consists of two pontoons set side-by side (see Fig. 1), with
a vertical axis Darrieus rotor set between them. The interior of the pontoons is
shaped in such a way as to form a variable section open channel that helps to
increase ¯ow speed in the neighbourhood of the rotor.
The introduction of a channelling device as a ®xed element permits the power
output of a rotor of speci®c size to be ampli®ed, or the same power output to be
obtained from a smaller rotor. Reduction of the size of moving parts simpli®es the
design process and reduces the initial cost of the unit.
Local speed ¯ow increment in the neighbourhood of the rotor produces two e€ects:
1. A smaller turbine size implies a reduction of the rotor tip radius, that is, at equal
¯ow speed, an increase in the rotor angular velocity for the same tip speed ratio1 l0.

Tip speed ratio l0 is a non-dimensional parameter equal to the ratio of rotor tip speed to local ¯ow
speed. There exists a value of l0, depending on the rotor geometry that maximises energy conversion
performance. Usually, one looks for the rotor to operate near the optimum value of l0.
226 F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

2. Given that the velocity in the neighbourhood of the rotor is higher than the
free stream velocity of the river, for a constant l0, the rotor revolves faster.
These two e€ects together produce a signi®cant increment in the rotational speed
of the turbine, which is of great importance as explained below.
Since the turbine rotational speed must be geared up to reach 1500 rpm, the
typical operational speed of a four-pole synchronic electric generator, the ¯ow
speed increment produced by the channelling device would permit the low speed
gear box stages to be eliminated. These lower stages are the most expensive, as
they are the largest and strongest since they have to transmit the highest torques.
Eliminating them thus greatly reduces transmission system costs. Normally, one
would seek to reduce transmission system costs by using a multi-pole generator
which has a lower operating speed, but such equipment is heavier and non-
standard, making it more expensive. Moreover, this alternative only permits the
elimination of the higher stages of the gearbox, which are, the smallest and least
expensive. Thus, there would be less savings as compared to the use of a
channelling device, as proposed here.
The channelling device also acts as a ¯ow speed `ampli®er' with a high gain at
low river current velocities and with a progressive reduction of gain when the river
speed increases. Thus, the channelling device acts as a regulator, stabilising ¯ow
speed in the neighbourhood of the rotor. This regulation e€ect, could permit the
control system to be (totally or partially) eliminated, depending on the output
power, resulting in a self-regulated machine.
Moreover, as the output power depends on the cube of ¯ow velocity in the
neighbourhood of the rotor, small variations of ¯ow speed produce very
signi®cant ¯uctuations of generated power. Normally the electric generator is sized
for low and medium velocity ¯ow regimes, but without wastingÐas far as
possibleÐhigher velocity (and higher energy) periods. There are two design
options to choose from:
1. Size the electric generator for velocities which are slightly above average and
include hydrodynamic spoilers to limit output power, so as not to exceed the
electric generator capacity at high ¯ow speed.
2. Use a `phantom' load that consists of a series of resistors connected
progressively (by an electronic device) to dissipate the excess of electricity
generated at high ¯ow speed, keeping generation frequency constant.
The introduction of a channelling device would eliminate the need for these
devices. Moreover, the operation speed range of the machine would be extended,
signi®cantly improving the load factor.
We should also note that output power would be kept within a narrower range,
so that, generating the same amount of energy would require a smaller installed
power capacity, reducing investments in generating equipment.
Moreover, the total or partial absence of a control system implies a lower cost
per installed kW, because control is one of the main components of the total
initial investments as well as maintenance expenses.
F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241 227

Table 1
Summary of the advantages of a water-current turbine with channelling device compared to a classic

Classic WCT WCT with channelling device

Large size of moving parts (rotor). Concentration of power reduces the size of moving

The ¯otation system only ful®ls a structural The ¯otation system is part of the energy
function. conversion mechanism, which reduces plant size
and cost.

Ð Transmission system size and cost are reduced

thanks to an increase in rotor velocity due to its
smaller size and increased ¯ow velocity in the rotor
insertion zone.

The power output is strongly dependent on the The e€ect of self-regulation stabilises the ¯ow
free stream velocity, and requires the use of a velocity in the rotor insertion zone, eliminating the
control system. need for a control system.

The need to maintain acceptable rotor width± The width of the channelling device may increase
height ratio limits its cross section (and thereby the until the capture area reaches the value needed,
power output) since the height of the rotor is while in its interior the rotor width±height ratio
limited by the water course depth. remains acceptable.

Traditional WCTs su€er another disadvantage: as nominal output power

increases, the rotor swept area increases as well. However, since there is a rotor
height limit imposed by the depth of the water course, the radius of a vertical-axis
machine must increase. At equal tip speed, a larger radius reduces the rotational
speed, whose disadvantages have already been mentioned. This problem is also
resolved with the channelling device, since energy capture takes place over the
entire cross section of the machine. Thus, the width of the channelling device may
grow until the capture area reaches the value needed, while in its interior the rotor
width±height ratio remains acceptable.
Table 1 shows a summary of the advantages of a WCT with channelling device
compared to a classic WCT design.

3. Design and optimization of the channelling device

The behaviour of the channelling device depends on the geometry of the

hydrodynamic pro®le of the pontoons.
Internal channelling consists of three essential parts:
1. A nozzle which accelerates the ¯ow so that the velocity in the neighbourhood
228 F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

of the rotor is greater than the river current speed.

2. A straight channel that contains the rotor and maintains (as far as possible)
¯ow uniformity in the rotor zone.
3. A di€user that adjusts the ¯ow to the exhaust conditions after passing through
the rotor zone.
In a zone projected upstream of the bow, the ¯ow divides itself into a part that
¯ows between the pontoons (internal ¯ow) and that ¯ows outside (external ¯ow).
To control external ¯ow, we add two other parts to our analysis:
1. The bow, destined to better manage the ¯ow upstream of the nozzle inlet.
2. De¯ectors, intended for transfer energy from external ¯ow layers to the internal

Fig. 2. Four examples of hydrodynamic pro®les tested.

F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241 229

Fig. 3. Scale model test of a channelling device pro®le at the Hydrodynamic Test Canal.

ones, by creating a suction zone downstream of the machine which would

accelerate the internal ¯ow and compensate for the energy removed by the
Our initial design was based on results of a theoretical model of internal ¯ow (see
the Appendix). Subsequently, we implemented an experimental program with the
purpose of optimising channelling device performance. To this end, we built a
series of scale models with di€erent combinations of bows, de¯ectors, nozzles and
di€users (see some examples in Fig. 2). So far, we have built 24 models, each
identi®ed by an alphanumeric code. These models have been tested in the
Hydrodynamic Test Canal (HTC) of the Applied Mechanics Department of FI-
UBA2 (see Fig. 3).
Basically three kinds of tests were conducted:
1. Measurement of ¯ow speed at nozzle outlet in the rotor insertion zone.
2. Measurement of ¯ow depth at nozzle outlet and di€user inlet (see Fig. 4).

School of EngineeringÐUniversity of Buenos Aires.
230 F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

Fig. 4. Image of ¯ow through the di€user zone.

Fig. 5. Flow line visualisation by injection of a methylene blue solution.

F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241 231

Fig. 6. Flow speed in the rotor insertion zone as a function of river current speed, for di€erent pro®les
of the channelling device.

3. Flow line visualisation by injection of a methylene blue solution and

measurement of extreme ¯ow line (see Fig. 5).

4. Analysis of results

Experimental results con®rm the inherent advantages of using channelling

devices: the ¯ow speed in the neighbourhood of the rotor of tested pro®les
increases with respect to a classic WCT that lacks this device (see Fig. 6).
Moreover, the ¯ow speed in the neighbourhood of the rotor becomes more steady,
i.e., less dependent on river current speed.
Fig. 7 shows the same results as the percentage ¯ow speed increment in the
232 F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

Fig. 7. Percentage ¯ow speed increment in the rotor insertion zone with respect to river current speed,
for di€erent pro®les of the channelling device.

rotor zone with respect to river current speed. Through the development of a
series of pro®les we were able to increase the percentage ¯ow speed increment as
well as shift the peak increment towards the low-speed zone, which implies that
¯ow stabilisation occurs earlier.
As can be observed, the pro®le E1A6 presents the most interesting combination
of characteristics: high velocity gain at low and medium current speeds of the
river and an adequate attenuation at high river ¯ow speeds. Subsequently, we
continued working on evolutions of the E1A6 pro®le.
In Fig. 8 we show estimated power output as a function of river current speed,
for a classic WCT and a WCT provided with an E1A6 pro®le channelling device.
Calculations were realised for a 5-kW nominal power. For a classic WCT with
this output power, normally one would use a 10-kW electric generator and
`phantom' load device to dissipate excess power generated at high river current
speeds. At low speeds, the performance of the classic WCT decays notably. This is
F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241 233

Fig. 8. Comparison of output power curves between our water-current turbine and a classical one.

not the case for a E1A6-WCT because of the self-regulation e€ect produced by
the channelling device.

Appendix A

A.1. Theoretical model of internal ¯ow through a channelling device

A theoretical model was initially developed applying integral equations for the
conservation of mass and energy, plus a number of assumptions that were later
con®rmed experimentally.
We consider a control volume containing the ¯ow in the nozzle (see Fig. A1).
Our assumptions:
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Fig. A1. Plan view and elevation of control volume used to model ¯ow through a channelling device.

. Flow is laminar, inviscid, incompressible, stationary, adiabatic, isothermal and

one-dimensional (uniform velocity in every section).
. Hydrostatic pressure distribution.
. There is no mechanical work interchange with the surrounding medium.
We apply the integral equation for the conservation of mass:
… …
dW ‡ r…V  n† ds ˆ 0 …A1†
W @t S

where the integrals correspond to the control volume and its boundary surface,
respectively. With our assumptions, the equation simpli®es to:
V0 y0 b0 ˆ V1 y1 b1 ˆ Yyb ˆ Q …A2†

where: V0, y0, b0 are the velocity, depth and width of the ¯ow at the nozzle inlet,
respectively. V1, y1, b1 are the velocity, depth and width of ¯ow at the nozzle
outlet, respectively. V, y, b are the velocity, depth and width of ¯ow at any
section, respectively, and Q is the volumetric ¯ow rate.
Applying the integral equation for the conservation of energy:
…   … !
@ V2 V2 p
Qc ÿ W ˆ r ‡ u ‡ gy dW ‡ r ‡ u ‡ gy ‡ …V  n† ds …A3†
W @t 2 S 2 r
F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241 235

where, according to our assumptions, heat and mechanical work transfer terms
(Qc and W ) will disappear.
Considering hydrostatic pressure distribution, at the control volume inlet and
outlet, we have:

p0 ˆ rg… y0 ÿ y†; p1 ˆ rg… y1 ÿ y† …A4†

Substituting in Eq. (A3), integrating and simplifying, we have:

V 20 V2
‡ y0 ˆ 1 ‡ y1 …A5†
2g 2g

The open channel theory de®nes a parameter called `speci®c energy' E=(V 2/
2 g )+y. Expressing E in terms of volumetric ¯ow:

Eˆ ‡y …A6†
2gb2 y2

Fig. A2 shows the ¯ow depth as a function of speci®c energy; the curves
correspond to constant values of Q 2/2gb 2. For a given value of speci®c energy,
each curve provides two possible values of depth that satis®es Eq. (A6). As Q 2/

Fig. A2. Flow depth as a function of speci®c energy, E; the curves correspond to constant values of
Q 2/2gb 2. The dashed line corresponds to the cases where Fr = 1.
236 F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

2gb 2 increases, the curves shift towards the right. For any value of E, the
horizontal distance from the ordinate axis to the Q = 0 line (the 458 line)
represents the value of depth y, then, the distance from this line to the curve is the
value of speci®c kinetic energy V 2/2 g. For each curve there exists a value of
depth that corresponds to a minimum of the speci®c energy which can be
determined by di€erentiating and equating to zero:

dE Q2
ˆÿ 2 3 ‡1ˆ0 …A7†
dy gb y

yc ˆ …A8†

Substituting in Eq. (A6), we have:

Emin ˆ Ec ˆ 12 y ‡ y ˆ 32 y …A9†

Recalling Eq. (A2), we have:

V 2c ˆ ˆ gyc …A10†
b2 y2c

Thus, we see that the minimum value of speci®c energy corresponds to a Froude3
number equal to 1, that is the critical ¯ow condition4 We can study the nature of
¯ow in both branches of the curve (above and below the critical depth5) if we
replace in the expression for the Froude number, the results of Eq. (A10) and the
mass conservation condition: Q=Vcycb=Vyb.
p  3=2
V Vc yc gyc yc yc
Fr ˆ p ˆ p ˆ p ˆ …A11†
gy y gy y gy y

In the upper branch y > yc, so that Fr < 1: the ¯ow is subcritical. In the lower
branch y < yc, Fr > 1: the ¯ow is supercritical.
The depth and width of the nozzle inlet (b0 and y0) are ®xed by machine
geometry. Thus, for a certain value of river current speed V0, the volumetric ¯ow
rate Q is determined. Then, from Eq. (A6) we see that the speci®c energy at any
point of the nozzle is only a function of the depth and width at that point. On the

In rectangular section open channels, the Froude number is de®ned as: Fr ˆ …V= gh† where V is
the mean velocity in the cross section and y is the ¯ow depth.
Open channel ¯ows can be classi®ed according to the Froude number: Fr < 1 subcritical ¯ow;
Fr = 1 critical ¯ow; Fr > 1 supercritical ¯ow. This ¯ow behaviour is qualitatively analogous to subso-
nic, transonic and supersonic behaviour for compressible gas ¯ow, where classi®cation is made accord-
ing to the Mach number.
For a given value of Q 2/2gb 2, critical depth is the value of y when critical transition occurs.
F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241 237

other hand, from Eq. (A5) we have that the value of E remains constant along the
nozzle. Then, di€erentiating Eq. (A6) with respect to the longitudinal co-ordinate
x, we have:
dE Q2 dy…x† db…x† dy…x†
ˆÿ 3
b…x† ‡ y…x† ‡ ˆ0 …A12†
dx g…b…x†y…x†† dx dx dx

! !
dy Q2 db Q2
1ÿ 2 3 ˆ …A13†
dx gb y dx gb3 y2

Recalling that (Q 2/gb 2y 3)=(V 2/gy )=Fr 2, and substituting in (A13), we have:
dy db y Fr2
ˆ …A14†
dx dx b …1 ÿ Fr2 †

From Eq. (A14) we can observe that the free surface slope depends on the
local Froude number. For Fr < 1 a reduction in width lowers the surface
level, while an increase in width raises this level. For Fr > 1 the opposite
occurs. For Fr = 1, Eq. (A14) indicates that the water surface has an in®nite
slope, except if (db/dx )=0. Since the free surface cannot have an in®nite slope,
we conclude that the Froude number equals 1 only at a section where (db/
dx )=0.
To calculate ¯ow speed at the nozzle throat (that is the rotor zone), we operate
on Eqs. (A2) and (A5), and obtain:
V 21 V0 y0 V 20
‡ ÿ ‡ y0 ˆ 0 …A15†
2g V1 Kb 2g

where Kb is the non-dimensional width constriction ratio Kb=(b1/b0). After

choosing this constructive parameter, Eq. (A15) can then be solved using the
Newton±Raphson method, obtaining V1 as a function of V0.
This theoretical model for rectangular section open channels predicted that,
when river current speed increases, ¯ow speed in the nozzle throat increases to
satisfy the conservation equations, until critical transition conditions are reached.
After transition, the ¯ow adjusts itself to keep the Froude number in the nozzle
throat close to unity.
From this initial theoretical model we made a preliminary design of the
channelling device and built a 1:10 scale model. It was tested at our
Hydrodynamic Test Canal in order to verify our principal assumptions. The
results of these primary tests are summarised below:
1. Assumption of laminar ¯ow along the internal channel was con®rmed (observe
in Fig. A3 that ¯ow lines keep separate throughout).
2. Three pitot probes were installed at the nozzle throat at di€erent points of the
238 F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

Fig. A3. Con®rmation of the assumption of laminar ¯ow along the internal channel.

¯ow cross section; they show little variation around the mean. This result
con®rms our one-dimensional ¯ow assumption.
3. Through tracing ¯ow lines by injecting a methylene blue solution, we con®rmed
that there is a deviation of part of the ¯ow towards the exterior of the
pontoons (see the extreme ¯ow line deviation in Fig. 6). This means that there
exists a virtual b0 smaller than the constructive b0, at a point projected
upstream of the bow.
4. We con®rmed the existence of a change in ¯ow behaviour by critical transition
when the Froude number in the nozzle throat equals 1. The theoretical result
F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241 239

that the Froude number remains close to unity in the supercritical state was
also con®rmed, as can be seen in Fig. A4.
The phenomenon mentioned in item 3 above modi®es the width constriction ratio
Kb, which was an important parameter in the theoretical model used so far. This
phenomenon could explain certain observed di€erences between analytical
predictions and experimental results. The only practical way to eliminate these
di€erences is by introducing the new empirical values of Kb into the earlier
theoretical model. These new values were obtained from measurements made
using the ¯ow line tracer, which allows the identi®cation of the extreme ¯ow line
(which corresponds to the division between external and internal ¯ow). Then,
using a grid drawn on the plain bottom of the model, we could measure the
extreme line deviation with respect to the position that it originally occupied at a
point far enough upstream of the bow where ¯ow was quasi-uniform. In this way,
knowing the extreme line deviation, we could calculate virtual b0 and the new
value of Kb. However, the Kb ratio varies continuously with river current speed
making it dicult to introduce into the calculations. This problem was solved
using spline interpolations on a series of discrete measurements at regular intervals

Fig. A4. Froude number in the rotor insertion zone as a function of the river current speed, obtained
from hydrodynamic tests.
240 F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241

of velocity, and the results were introduced into the computational program of the
theoretical model.
The corrected-Kb model allows a prediction of the subcritical ¯ow behaviour.
To model supercritical ¯ow we applied the assumption (experimentally con®rmed,
see item 4) that the Froude number in the nozzle throat remains close to unity
during the supercritical state. We developed a new set of equations from the
integral equation for the conservation of energy [Eq. (A5)], plus an equation
arising from the unit Froude number condition:

V 21
Fr1 ˆ ˆ1 …A16†
y1 g

Combining both equations, we have:

2gy0 ‡ V 20
V1 ˆ …A17†

Fig. A5. Flow speed in the rotor insertion zone as a function of the river current speed, from the
theoretical and experimental bases.
F. Ponta, G. Shankar Dutt / Renewable Energy 20 (2000) 223±241 241

By including Eq. (A17) into our calculation procedure, we could extend the model
to supercritical ¯ow. This last model is valid from the transition point on. Below
this point, we used the corrected-Kb model, as already explained. Combining both
models, we obtain a new theoretical model valid over the entire range of
In Fig. A5, we can observe that the agreement between the theoretical and
experimental curves in the subcritical zone improves notably with respect to the
initial theoretical model. The same occurs in the supercritical zone. In the
transition zone signi®cant di€erences remain as might be expected since this zone
is at the edge of the validity range of each theoretical model.


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