SUBCOURSE AL0993

EDITION 5

ARMY AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES Subcourse No. AL0993 EDITION 5

US Army Aviation Logistics School Fort Eustis, Virginia Nineteen Credit Hours SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW Fulfilling the Army's need for engines of simple design that are easy to   operate   and   maintain,   the   gas   turbine   engine   is   used   in   all helicopters   of   Active   Army   and   Reserve   Components,   and   most   of   the fixed­wing aircraft to include the Light Air Cushioned Vehicle (LACV). We designed this subcourse to teach you theory and principles of the gas   turbine   engine   and   some   of   the   basic   army   aircraft   gas   turbine engines used in our aircraft today. There are no prerequisites for this subcourse. This subcourse reflects the doctrine which was current at the time it was prepared.  In your own work situation, always refer to the latest publications. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION:  You will describe the operation of major engine systems and assemblies;   describe   the   testing,   inspection,   and maintenance   of   engine   systems   and   assemblies;   and recognize various components. Given   information   about   the   gas   turbine   engine,   you will work at your own pace in an environment of your own choice, without supervision.

CONDITION:

STANDARD: To demonstrate competency of this task, you must achieve a minimum of 75% on the subcourse examination.

1

AL0993

LESSON 1 2 3 4

TITLE CREDIT HOURS Theory and Principles of Gas Turbine Engines......... 2 Major Engine Sections................................ 2 Systems and Accessories.............................. 2 Testing, Inspection, Maintenance, and Storage Procedures........................................... 2 5 Lycoming T53......................................... 2 6 Lycoming T55......................................... 2 7 Solar T62 Auxiliary Power Unit....................... 2 8 Allison T62, Pratt & Whitney T73 and T74,  and the General Electric T700........................ 2 Examination....................................................    3 TOTAL 19

LESSON 1 ASSIGNMENT SHEET LESSON 1.................Theory and Principles of Gas Turbine Engines. CREDIT HOURS.............2. TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 1.1­1.14. MATERIALS REQUIRED.......None. LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To   enable   you   to   describe   the   theory   of   a gas   turbine   engine   and   its   principles   of operation.

*** IMPORTANT NOTICE *** THE PASSING SCORE FOR ALL ACCP MATERIAL IS NOW 70%. PLEASE DISREGARD ALL REFERENCES TO THE 75% REQUIREMENT.

2

AL0993

Weight

True­False (Answer A for true or B for false.)

3 3 3

1. 2. 3.

In cold weather, gas turbine engines take a long time to warm up to operating temperatures. The Brayton cycle has the same four basic operations as the Otto cycle, but it performs them simultaneously. When air flows through a smaller section of a duct, it increases   in   velocity   and   decreases   in   pressure   and temperature. The   turbojet   aircraft   is   a   high­speed,   high­altitude one. The Army uses both turbojet and gas turbine engines. Cluster True­False (Each of the following groups of questions is related to the   statement   that   precedes   them.     Write   by   each question A for true or B for false.) FIRST GROUP Gas   turbine   engines   have   advantages   and   disadvantages. Evaluate   the   following   statements   according   to   the information in your text.

3 3

4. 5.

3

6.

The   power­to­weight   ratio   is   5.60   shp   per   pound   for   a typical reciprocating engine but only .67 shp per pound for a gas turbine engine. The   turbine   engine   has   fewer   moving   parts   than   the reciprocating engine. Foreign   object   damage   is   a   major   problem   for   a   gas turbine engine. A reciprocating engine uses less oil than a gas turbine. They cost a great deal more than reciprocating engines. They accelerate much faster than reciprocating engines.

3 3 3 3 3

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

3

Weight SECOND GROUP Which of the following statements about the operation of turbine engines are true and which false? 3 3 3 3 3 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Army turbine engines are of the free­power design. The ignition system in the combustor operates as long as the turbine engine does. About   25   percent   of   the   compressed   air   is   used   in combustion. Shaft horsepower is produced by the power turbine, not by the gas producer. Army helicopters have a special problem with thrust and use divergent ducts to overcome it. THIRD GROUP The following five questions refer to the theory of gas turbine   engines.     Which   of   them   are   true   and   which false? 3 3 17. 18. A   simple   turbojet   engine   has   one   rotating   unit   ­­   the compressor/turbine assembly. In   a   gas   turbine   engine,   the   gas   stream   energy   which remains after the energy for the engine cycle has been extracted drives another turbine. In a turbojet engine, 60 percent of the energy is used to   develop   thrust,   and   40   percent   is   used   to   maintain the engine cycle. A   turbojet   engine   maintains   top   efficiency   at   takeoff and at low cruising speed. The   functions   of   intake,   compression,   ignition, combustion, and exhaust all take place at the same time in a gas turbine engine.

3

19.

3 3

20. 21.

4

Weight FOURTH GROUP About   turboprop   and   turboshaft   engines,   which   of questions 22 through 26 are true and which false? 3 3 3 3 3 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. In Army aircraft, rotational shaft power is produced by the same turbine rotor that drives the compressor. They do not eject high­velocity gases to obtain thrust. A   free­power   turbine   allows   the   power   output   shaft   to turn at a constant speed. A free­power turbine is linked to the compressor turbine mechanically. The power producing capability is variable to take care of different loads on the power shaft. FIFTH GROUP Evaluate   the   following   five   questions   on   illustrating the principle of jet propulsion by a toy balloon. 2 2 2 2 2 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. If it is inflated and the stem is sealed, the pressure is equal on all internal surfaces. If   the   stem   is   released,   the   balloon   moves   in   a direction towards the open end. The jet of air coming from the opened end of an inflated balloon pushes against the outside air. A   convergent   nozzle   is   created   when   the   stem   of   the balloon is released. High internal pressure acting on the skin area opposite the stem is what moves the balloon.

5

Weight Matching In   questions   32   through   37,   match   the   statements   in column   I   with   the   laws   or   principles   of   physics   in column II by writing the proper letter by each question. Each item in column II may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

6

LESSON 2 ASSIGNMENT SHEET LESSON 2.................Major Engine Sections. TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 1.15­1.25. LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To teach you to distinguish between the five major sections of gas turbine engines. CREDIT HOURS.............2

Weight

True­False (Answer A for true or B for false.)

3 3

1. 2.

Helicopter   turboshaft   engines   develop   thrust   in   their exhaust ducts. In   an   engine   destination,   a   three­digit   dash   number means   that   the   engine   was   procured   after   the   new   Army procurement system went into effect. Engine   idling   is   one   of   the   two   most   severe   operating periods for combustion chambers. An  axial­centrifugal­flow  compressor is made  up  of two sets of axial­flow compressors and one centrifugal­flow compressor. When a number is placed after N, as is N2, it refers to a specific system in the gas turbine engine.

3 3

3. 4.

3

5.

7

AL0993

Weight Cluster True­False (Each of the following groups of questions is related to the   statement   that   precedes   them.     Write   by   each question A for true or B for false.) FIRST GROUP About   the   three   basic   compressors   used   in   gas   turbine engines, your text tells you that: 3 3 3 3 3 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. An axial­flow compressor is less susceptible to foreign­ object damage than a centrifugal­flow one. Dual compressors are mounted on the same shaft and turn at the same speed. The   centrifugal   impeller   in   the   axial­centrifugal­flow compressor decreases the air velocity. A centrifugal­flow compressor is made up of two rotors and a compressor manifold. A   series   of   alternating   rotor   and   stator   vane   stages makes up the axial­flow compressor. SECOND GROUP The turbine section of a gas turbine engine transforms energy   into   shaft   horsepower.     Which   of   these   five statements are true and which false about the different types of turbines? 2 2 2 2 2 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Axial­flow   turbines   are   less   expensive   and   easier   to manufacture than radial­flow turbines. A   single­rotor   turbine   has   its   power   developed   by   one rotor. All gas­turbine­power aircraft in the Army today use the axial­flow turbine. Axial­flow   turbines   are   invariably   the   single­rotor type. A   single­rotor   turbine   is   used   where   low   weight   and compactness are necessary.

8

Weight THIRD GROUP The   next   six   questions   about   compressor   construction tell you that: 2 2 2 2 2 2 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. A   centrifugal­flow   compressor   is   made   of   either   heat­ treated forged aluminum or of cast aluminum. All   manufacturers   use   the   split   compressor   case   for easier inspection. Shrouds are used on stator vanes to provide an air seal between rotating and stationary parts. In an axial­flow compressor, blades fit tightly in the turbine disk to reduce vibrational stress. In both the axial­ and centrifugal­flow compressors, the fit between the compressor and its case is important. In   a   centrifugal­flow   compressor,   the   rotor   may   be balanced   by   using   balancing   weights   in   the   hub   of   the compressor. FOURTH GROUP Evaluate   the   following   five   statements   about   engine model designations by marking an "X" under A for true or under B for false. 2 2 2 2 2 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. Each   engine   model   designation   begins   with   a   letter   or two letters. The   letters   TP   at   the   beginning   of   the   designation identify a turboprop engine. Even when a production model is changed, the dash number remains the same. The   letter   or   set   of   letters   following   the   assigned model number identifies the manufacturer. The   Air   Force   always   uses   even   numbers,   both   for   the assigned number and the dash number.

9

Weight FIFTH GROUP Which of the following five questions are true and which false   about   the   compressor   section   of   a   gas   turbine engine? 2 27. Compressor efficiency determines the power necessary to create the pressure for a given airflow and affects the temperature in the combustion chamber. The  highest  total air velocity  is at the  inlet  of the combustion section. The   highest   static   pressure   is   at   the   inlet   of   the diffuser. The   volume   of   air   pumped   by   the   compressor   is proportional to the rpm of the rotor. The   compressor   is   made   up   of   alternating   rotating   and stationary vane assemblies. SIXTH GROUP About turbine construction, your text tells you that: 2 2 2 2 2 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. A turbine rotor operates at high temperatures, at high speeds. A fir tree design is used in attaching the blades to the disk. A moment weight number is stamped on each rotor blade to preserve rotor balance when they are replaced. The fir tree blade design eliminates any need for rivets or other locking devices. Shrouding   is   used   in   turbines   subject   to   the   highest temperatures and highest speeds.

2 2 2 2

28. 29. 30. 31.

10

Weight Matching In   questions   37   through   41,   match   the   definitions   in column I with the terms or symbols they define in column II by writing the proper letter by each question.  Each item in column II may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

Multiple Choice (Each question in this group contains one and only one correct   answer.     Make   your   choices   by   circling   the proper letter for each question in the lesson book.  ) 2 42. Which   of   these   is   the   most   commonly   used   in   Army aircraft? A. B. C. D. 2 43. Annular reverse­flow combustion chamber. Can­annular combustion chamber. Can combustion chamber. Annular straight­flow combustion chamber.

Which of these is not part of a combustion chamber? A. B. Perforated inner liner. Stator vanes.

11

Weight C. D. 2 44. Casing. Fuel nozzles.

Which   statement   is   true   of   the   air   and   fuel   in   a combustor? A. B. C. D. The only place for air to flow into the combustor is through the first combustion air holes in the liner. The   combusted   gases   are   exhausted   directly   to   the air. A   ratio   of   15   parts   of   air   to   1   part   of   fuel   by weight is the correct mixture. Seventy­five   percent   of   the   compressor   air   is  used for burning.

2

45.

Which   of   these   is   true   of   the   annular   combustion chamber? A. B. C. D. It contains individual combustion chambers. It   has   an   adapter   through   which   compressor   air enters the individual chambers. Crossover tubes connect all liners. Combustion   takes   place   in   a   space   between   the combustor liner and the turbine shaft.

12

LESSON 3 ASSIGNMENT SHEET LESSON 3.................Systems and Accessories. TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 2.1­2.26. LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to recognize and describe the gas turbine engine fuel and oil systems and their components. CREDIT HOURS.............2

Weight

True­False (Answer A for true or B for false.)

2

1.

The   most   common   ignition   system   in   Army   gas   turbine engines   produces   high   tension   voltage   by   conventional induction coils. Fuel   is   invariable   conducted   between   the   parts   of   the system through flexible lines. Oil   is   cooled   in   some   gas   turbine   engines   by transferring the heat in the oil to the fuel flowing to the fuel nozzles. Because   the   burning   process   is   continuous   in   a   gas turbine   engine,   the   amount   of   cooling   air   is   greater than the amount of combustion air. The   pressurizing   and   drain   dump   valves   may   be   used   to prime the fuel control. The fuel pump may be built into the fuel control, or it may be a separate component.

2 2

2. 3.

2

4.

2 2

5. 6.

13

AL0993

Weight Cluster True­False (Each of the following groups of questions is related to the   statement   that   precedes   them.     Write   by   each question A for true or B for false.) FIRST GROUP Gas   turbine   engines   may   have   several   fuel   filters. Which   of   the   following   statements   about   them   are   true and which false? 2 2 7. 8. Usually  a  filter includes a relief valve to  open at a specified differential pressure. A   filter   made   of   stainless   steel   mesh   cloth   used   to filter   particles   larger   than   40   microns   is   called   a cylindrical screen filter. Filters   may   be   located   in   other   places   in   the   fuel system besides the main lines. A  paper  cartridge filter removes  particles larger than 100 microns. A   cylindrical   screen   filter   is   used   where   the   fuel pressure is high. SECOND GROUP The   text   tells   you   that   ignition   systems   are   of   three general   types.     Which   of   these   questions   on   them   are true and which false? 2 2 2 12. 13. 14. All gas turbine engines have two or more igniter plugs. The   high­energy   capacitor   type   of   ignition   system actually produces a small amount of energy. The annular­gap igniter plug electrode can operate at a cooler   temperature   than   that   of   the   constrained­gap plug. In   gas   turbine   engines,   ignition   takes   place   in microseconds.

2 2 2

9. 10. 11.

2

15.

14

Weight 2 2 16. 17. Electrodes  of  gas turbine igniters  and of conventional spark plugs can accommodate the same amount of energy. Severely   damaged   ignition   exciter   units   should   be handled   with   forceps   or   gloves   because   they   may   be radioactive. THIRD GROUP About lubrication systems for gas turbine engines, your text tells you that: 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Oil for gas turbine engines has a conventional petroleum base. In   most   turbine   engines,   the   oil   is   stored   separately from the engine. Pressure   developed   by   a   gear   pump   has   no   relation   to engine rpm. Oil   drawn   from   the   engine   by   scavenge   pumps   is discarded. A gerotor pump has a tooth missing in its inner toothed element. The   oil   tank   is   usually   made   of   welded   aluminum   or steel. The sole purpose of the lubrication system is to reduce friction. FOURTH GROUP Which   of   the   following   six   statements   about   the automatic and manual fuel control systems are true and which false? 2 2 2 25. 26. 27. The amount of fuel needed to run the engine varies with inlet air temperature and pressure. Automatic   fuel   control   is   provided   by   the   speed governor. The manual throttle control compensates for altitude and temperature.

15

Weight 2 2 28. 29. Most fuel controls in use today are hydromechanical. The   speed   governor   is   merely   a   spring   attached   to   the manual metering valve. FIFTH GROUP About   the   starting­fuel   system,   your   text   tells   you that: 2 2 2 2 2 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. All gas turbine engines have the same number of start­ fuel nozzles. The pilot turns on the start­fuel solenoid switch in the cockpit. The start fuel flows directly from the external line to the fuel nozzles. The   nozzles   spray   atomized   fuel   in   the   combustion chamber during starting. The   start   fuel   system   is   shut   off   when   the   engine   is running on the main fuel system. SIXTH GROUP On the subject of fuel nozzles, your text says that: 2 2 2 2 2 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. A   simplex   nozzle   can   provide   as   satisfactory   a   spray pattern as a duplex nozzle. All gas turbine engines use fuel nozzles. A duplex nozzle must have a fuel­flow divider. A fuel­flow divider separates the fuel into low and high pressure supplies. A spring­loaded valve is set to open at a specific fuel pressure; this is the fuel divider.

16

Weight SEVENTH GROUP Your   text   discusses   the   hydromechanical   type   of   fuel control.     Evaluate   the   next   five   statements   on   the subject. 2 2 2 2 40. 41. 42. 43. Fuel flow has no relation to exhaust gas temperature. Fuel control may be achieved by varying the orifice of the metering valve. As the engine accelerates and airflow through the engine increases, fuel flow is decreased. A   fuel   control   with   a   longer   acceleration   time   than would   be   used   for   a   reciprocating   engine   must   be   used because   engine   compressors   are   subject   to   surges   and stalls. One   of   the   factors   that   limits   engine   operation   is temperature of the compressor inlet. Matching In   questions   45   through   50,   match   the   statement   in column   I   with   the   instruments   to   which   they   apply   in column II by writing the proper letter by each question. Each item in column II may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

2

44.

17

Weight Column I 2 2 49. 50. Is a sensitive milli­ voltmeter. Registers engine and rotor rpm for rotary­ wing aircraft.

18

LESSON 4 ASSIGNMENT SHEET LESSON 4.................Testing,   Inspection,   Maintenance,   and Storage Procedures. TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 3.1­3.15. LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to describe the procedures for testing,   inspection,   maintenance,   and storage of aircraft gas turbine engines. CREDIT HOURS.............2

Weight

True­False (Answer A for true or B for false.)

2 2 2

1. 2. 3.

To find out what kind of metal is in used oil, the wave length of the light from burning it is measured. Troubleshooting charts to analyze, isolate, and correct engine malfunctions are found in the engine TM. In selecting a method for cleaning an engine, make sure that anodizing or dichromating is not removed from the surface. If   an   exhaust   gas   temperature   system   needs troubleshooting, a jetcal analyzer is used. The symbol "D" on a maintenance allocation chart means direct support maintenance. Special instructions are required at specific intervals between scheduled inspections. Maintenance   and   inspection   of   gas   turbine   engines   are appreciably   more   difficult   than   those   of   reciprocating engines.

2 2 2 2

4. 5. 6. 7.

19

AL0993

Weight Cluster True­False (Each of the following groups of questions is related to the   statement   that   precedes   them.     Write   by   each question A for true or B for false.) FIRST GROUP Various  safety  precautions must be  taken during engine maintenance   to   prevent   serious   injury,   illness,   or death.  Which of the following are among them? 2 2 2 2 2 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. These precautions are listed in the technical manual for the engine you are working on. Turbine exhaust gases are low enough in temperature and velocity that exhaust areas are not hazardous. Cadmium   plated   tools   are   permissible   for   use   on   gas turbine engines. Metals subject to high temperatures must not be marked with a lead pencil. If combustion chamber parts have been exposed to fuels containing tetraethyl lead, anyone handling them should wear gloves and a face mask. Lubricating oil requires no special precautions. SECOND GROUP Testing an engine is a necessity, both before it is sent to   the   user   and   after   it   is   in   use.     Evaluate   the following statements by marking them true or false. 2 2 14. 15. The engine manufacturer runs the engine in a test cell before it is shipped to the user. When an engine is run in a test cell, different demands are   placed   on   it   than   when   it   is   installed   on   an aircraft. Ambient   temperature   and   pressure   affect   the   weight   of the air entering the engine.

2

13.

2

16.

20

Weight 2 2 2 17. 18. 19. No   corrections   of   engine   problems   are   made   during testing. An   engine   may   also   be   tested   by   a   mobile   engine   test unit. If an engine fails a test run in a test cell, not only is   it   disassembled   and   checked   for   faults,   but   many previous engines are also. Engine   information   obtained   during   testing   does   not become a part of the engine record. THIRD GROUP About   cleaning   compressor   rotor   blades,   the   reference text tells you that: 3 3 21. 22. The   temperature­sensing   element   on   the   T53   engine   is cleaned with a spray of clean, fresh water. A steady increase in EGT during normal operation is one indication   that   the   compressor   rotor   blades   may   need cleaning. If   the   engine   has   been   operating   in   salt­air   areas, spraying   it   with   fresh   water   is   all   the   cleaning necessary. Always refer to the TM for the specific engine to find the exact procedure for cleaning it. The   T53   engine   does   not   have   to   be   run   after   it   is cleaned. The engine TM specifies a definite performance point at or below which the compressor blades must be cleaned. FOURTH GROUP These statements are on gas turbine engine overhaul and repair,   storage,   and   preservation.     Evaluate   them   by marking them true or false. 3 3 27. 28. An engine does not go into the flyable storage category until it has not been operated for six days. After  the  TBO for an  engine is established,  it  is not changed. 21

2

20.

3

23.

3 3 3

24. 25. 26.

Weight 3 3 3 3 29. 30. 31. 32. No special tools are needed to disassemble an engine. Permanent storage is a depot­level function. When disassembling or assembling an engine, instructions in the TM must be followed precisely. The degree of preservation of an engine is governed by the length of time it is expected to be in storage. FIFTH GROUP Which   of   the   following   statements   agree   with   the information on engine vibrations given in your text? 2 2 2 33. 34. 35. Forced   vibrations   are   invariably   caused   by   improper assembly of the components. In a gas turbine engine, imbalance of rotating parts is the main cause of vibrations. A   vibration   transducer   is   used   to   analyze   the   force generated   by   the   amount   of   imbalance   and   the   rotating speed. Imbalance is measured in mils. The Engine Vibration Test Data Sheet gives the figures for maximum permissible engine vibration. Externally   excited   vibrations   may   also   be   caused   by imbalance of rotating engine components. Matching In   questions   39   through   44,   match   the   statements   in column I with the cleaning method to which they apply in column II by writing the proper letter by each question. Each item in column II may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

2 2 2

36. 37. 38.

22

Weight

23

LESSON 5 ASSIGNMENT SHEET LESSON 5.................Lycoming T53. TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 4.1­4.23. LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To   enable   you   to   describe   the   operation   of the T53 engine and its sections, its models and   specifications,   and   its   major   engine systems and assemblies. CREDIT HOURS.............2

Weight

True­False (Answer A for true or B for false.)

2 2 2 2 2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The T53 gas turbine engine includes an annular­flow path for the air or hot gases. The function of the diffuser is to increase air pressure in the area. The electric torquemeter is used on the T53­L­13 engine. The T53­L­701 has a single­stage power turbine. Besides cooling internal engine components, the internal cooling system pressurizes the No. 1, 2, and 3 bearing seals. The   right   side   of   the   engine   is   determined   by   viewing the engine from the front.

2

6.

24

AL0993

Weight 2 2 7. 8. Varying the angle of the inlet guide vanes changes the N1 compressor speed. The  reduction  gearassembly in the  T53­L­701 is smaller than that in the T53­L­13. Cluster True­False (Each of the following groups of questions is related to the   statement   that   precedes   them.     Write   by   each question A for true or B for false.) FIRST GROUP In   the   discussion   on   the   inlet   housing   assembly,   your text tells you that: 3 3 3 3 3 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Split power gearing allows greater horsepower. Its sole purpose is to contain the components inclosed within it. The   aft   side   of   the   No.   1   main   bearing   is   completely sealed by a radial labyrinth seal. In the T53­L­701, power is transmitted to the propeller shaft by both the primary and secondary drive systems. In the T53­L­13 engine, the sun gear drives the output gearshaft directly. SECOND GROUP Airflow   through   the   engine   shows   how   a   gas   turbine engine works.   Which of the following statements about it are true and which false? 2 2 14. 15. When direction of airflow is reversed in the combustion area, air velocity and pressure increase. Vanes in the diffuser air passageway direct the air into the compressor section.

25

Weight 2 2 16. 17. In  the  combustion area, the  air is used  solely  to aid combustion. After   flowing   through   the   two­stage   power   system,   the gas passes through the exhaust diffuser passageway into the atmosphere. When air enters the combustion area, its flow direction is reversed. THIRD GROUP Which of these is true of an accessory drive assembly? 2 2 2 2 2 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. The   N1  accessory   drive   gearbox   assembly   is   mounted   on the upper left side of the gearbox housing. Both   the   N1  and  N2  assemblies  receive   their  drive   from the same kind of gear. The N1  has drive pads for the fuel control, the starter generator, and the gas producer tachometer generator. The N2  overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly is on the underside of the engine inlet housing. The fuel control overspeed governor is driven by the N2 assembly. FOURTH GROUP Evaluate the following statements about the torquemeter used on the L­13 model by marking them true or false. 3 3 3 24. 25. 26. Because   it   uses   engine   oil,   it   is   part   of   the lubrication system. Two   circular   plates   make   up   the   mechanical   portion   of the torquemeter. The stationary plate is attached to the reduction gear assembly.

2

18.

26

Weight 3 27. Air pressure does not affect torque indications in this particular   torquemeter   because   the   transmitter   cancels the air pressure effect. The stationary and movable plates are separated by steel balls. FIFTH GROUP Your   text   tells   you   which   of   the   following   about   the operation of gas turbine engines? 2 29. More   of   the   gas   energy   from   the   combustion   chamber   is used   by   the   power   turbines   than   by   the   gas   producer turbine. When N1  speed reaches 8 to 13 percent, main fuel flows into the combustion chamber. Combustion   gases   pass   through   the   gas   producer   nozzle assemblies   and   next   go   to   the   blades   of   the   power turbine rotor assemblies. The power turbine rotor assemblies are connected to the power shaft. The burning starting fuel ignites the main fuel in the combustion chamber after the fuel regulator valve opens. SIXTH GROUP The   compressor   assembly   is   made   up   of   five   axial compressor   rotor   disks   and   one   centrifugal   impeller, with their housings.   Evaluate the following statements about them.  2 2 34. 35. Roll pins and lock plates secure the compressor blades in dovetail slots in the rotor disks. Stators direct airflow to the following sets of rotating compressor blades; the fifth stator assembly has a row of   exit   guide   vanes   which   direct   airflow   to   the compressor impeller. Only one half of the compressor housing may be removed at one time because the housing is used for structural support.

3

28.

2 2

30. 31.

2 2

32. 33.

2

36.

27

Weight 2 2 2 37. 38. 39. Stainless steel inserts are put between some stator vane rows to increase air velocity. The  powershaft  is attached inside  the compressor rotor sleeve and rotates with it. Compressor bleed air flows through passages in the axial compressor housing. SEVENTH GROUP About the combustor assembly on the T53, your text tells you that: 2 2 2 40. 41. 42. It is located forward of the diffuser housing assembly. The turbine assembly includes the N1 assembly and the N2 assembly. The   combustion   chamber   drain   valve   remains   open throughout   engine   operation   and   closes   at   engine shutdown. No cooling air is needed in the exhaust diffuser. The combustion chamber housing is annular and is made of steel. The average temperature of the gas stream is measured in the turbine inlet area.

2 2 2

43. 44. 45.

28

LESSON 6 ASSIGNMENT SHEET LESSON 6.................Lycoming T55. TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 5.1­5.22. LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to recognize and describe the Lycoming T55 gas turbine engine. CREDIT HOURS.............2

Weight

True­False (Answer A for true or B for false.)

3

1.

The power turbine extracts velocity energy from the hot gases   and   transmits   mechanical   power   to   the   output shaft. In   figure   5.5,   station   No.   4   is   located   from   the beginning   of   the   centrifugal   compressor   to   the   air diffuser. A 3.75­gallon oil tank is contained in the inner housing of the inlet housing assembly. The L­11 model has a two­stage gas producing turbine. The right and left sides of the engine are determined by looking at the engine from the front.

3

2.

3 3 3

3. 4. 5.

29

AL0993

Weight Cluster True­False (Each of the following groups of questions is related to the   statement   that   precedes   them.     Write   by   each question A for true or B for false.) FIRST GROUP The T55­L­l1 engine fuel system includes: 3 3 3 3 3 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Fourteen  vaporizing  tubes instead of  28 dual atomizing nozzles. A fuel control unit is made up of the flow control and computer sections. Actuation   of   the   compressor   bleed   band   by   the   fuel control section. A cooler that uses fuel to cool engine oil. Main   and   start   fuel   manifolds   at   the   rear   of   the combustion chamber assembly. SECOND GROUP Which of the following statements about the sections of the T55­L­1l are true and which false? 3 3 3 11. 12. 13. The compressor has a seven­stage axial compressor. The   divergent   shape   of   the   diffuser   decreases   air pressure and increases velocity. The struts between the inner and outer air inlet housing are   hollow,   with   passages   for   oil   and   accessory   drive shafts. The combustor has 14 fuel nozzles in each one of its two main fuel manifolds. A variable inlet guide vane assembly is mounted in the front of the compressor housing.

3 3

14. 15.

30

Weight THIRD GROUP The   following   statements   are   about   various   systems   in the T55­L­l1 engine.  Evaluate them by marking them true or false. 2 2 2 16. 17. 18. The anti­icing system for the variable inlet guide vanes uses hot scavenge oil. Bearing   seals   are   pressurized   by   some   of   the   cooling air. The   purpose   of   an   interstage   air   bleed   system   is   to avoid compressor stalls and to increase compressor rotor acceleration. The   control   system   for   the   variable   inlet   guide   vanes schedules   their   positions   according   to   gas   producer speed and compressor inlet temperature. Several passages throughout the engine receive air from the main airflow to cool components. The torquemeter system gives a reading in the cockpit of percent of torque. FOURTH GROUP The   lubrication   system   in   the   T55   engine   has   the following characteristics. 2 2 2 2 2 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. All   oil   filters   can   be   changed   at   intermediate   level maintenance. The low­level warning switch in the cockpit signals when a 2­hour supply of usable oil remains. After  oil  leaves the main  oil pump, it  goes through a filter in the accessory gearbox. Chip detectors activate caution lights in the cockpit. The main oil pump is used entirely to maintain pressure in the oil system.

2

19.

2 2

20. 21.

31

Weight 2 27. The   entire   lubrication   system   is   contained   in   the engine. FIFTH GROUP Which of the following statements describe the T55 gas turbine engine? 2 2 2 2 2 2 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. The accessory drive section is part of the annular flow path. The speed of the power output shaft is the same as that of the power turbine. The airflow is reversed twice in the combustor section. In the combustor, the curl assembly reverses the airflow direction for the first time. The   swirl   cups   in   the   combustor   contain   dual­orifice, fuel­atomizing nozzles. The T55 engine has six sections. SIXTH GROUP In comparing the different models of the T55, you find that: 2 2 2 2 2 2 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. The normal shp for the L­l11 is the same as the military shp for the L­7C. The L­7's all have 28 dual­orifice fuel spray nozzles. The L­7B has the most accurate electric torquemeter. The L­1l model has a two­stage GP turbine. All models of the T55 have the same shaft horsepower. The CH­47C cannot use the T55­L­ll engine.

32

Weight Matching Match the specifications in column I with the model to which   they   apply   in   column   II   by   writing   the   proper letter by each question.  Each item in column II may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

33

LESSON 7 ASSIGNMENT SHEET LESSON 7.................Solar T62 Auxiliary Power Unit. TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 6.1­6.12. LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To   enable   you   to   describe   the   T62   APU,   how it operates, and its various components. CREDIT HOURS.............2

Weight

True­False (Answer A for true or B for false.)

3 3 3 3 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

An   hour   meter   attached   to   the   engine   records   the operating time of the engine. In   the   turbine   assembly,   the   shaft   is   supported   by   a forward ball bearing and an aft roller bearing. The OVSP light on the instrument panel goes on when the horsepower reading reaches 70 percent. Both models of the T62 invariably burn JP­4 gasoline. Lubrication   system   pressure   is   maintained   at   15   to   25 psi by a pressure relief valve.

34

AL0993

Weight Cluster True­False (Each of the following groups of questions is related to the   statement   that   precedes   them.     Write   by   each question A for true or B for false.) FIRST GROUP The   T62   electrical   system   supplies   power   for   the ignition   and   engine   electrical   accessories.     Evaluate the following statements by marking them true or false. 3 3 3 3 3 3 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The spark plug used for ignition operates all the time the engine is running. The   speed   switch   is   actually   two   switches   in   one housing. The   ignition   exciter   converts   input   current   to   an intermittent high­energy current. All current in the APU is dc. A   switch   shuts   the   engine   down   if   the   exhaust   is   too hot. The   tachometer   generator   and   the   speed   switch   are mounted on the accessory drive assembly. SECOND GROUP In a description of the T62 APU, you find the following information. 3 3 3 3 3 3 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. The T62 APU is an item of ground support equipment. It has its own hydraulic starter motor. Each model of the T62 has different temperature limits. The T62T­2A has a higher input speed than the T62T­16A. It develops approximately 70 shaft horsepower. Its   compressor   and   turbine   rotor   are   mounted   back­to­ back on a single shaft. 35

Weight THIRD GROUP Which   of   the   following   information   about   the   T62   fuel system is correct? 3 3 3 3 3 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. The flyweight assembly in the governor housing allows a small amount of fuel to flow at all times. For combustion, atomized fuel from the start fuel nozzle is ignited by the spark plug. As compressor pressure increases, so does fuel flow to the main fuel injectors. Fuel   flow   to   the   fuel   injectors   is   not   affected   by ambient air pressure. When   the   fuel   pressure   switch   opens,   it   actuates   the mechanism to start the engine. FOURTH GROUP About the operation of the T62, the reference text tells you that: 2 2 2 2 2 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. During starting, when the hydraulic starter rotates the compressor, air is drawn into the engine inlet. The start fuel solenoid valve is opened when the speed of the APU reaches 75%. Power   for   the   reduction   drive   assembly   comes   directly from the compressor. Fuel  from  the start fuel  nozzle is ignited  by a spark plug. Fuel   goes   into   the   combustor   through   six   vaporizer tubes. FIFTH GROUP If   any   of   the   APU   operating   limitations   are   exceeded, protective devices shut the APU down. 2 28. An overspeed switch is set at 110 percent.

36

Weight 2 2 2 2 2 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. When   the   instrument   panel   "Low   Oil   Press"   light   comes on, the pilot must switch off the APU immediately. Oil pressure must be more than 6 psi. If the APU shuts off, the cockpit control switch must be moved to the STOP position before restarting the engine. The overspeed switch shuts off the engine fuel flow. The   pilot   shuts   off   the   APU   when   the   instrument   panel OVSP light turns on. Matching Match   the   statement   in   column   I   with   the   assembly   to which   it   applies   in   column   II   by   writing   the   proper letter by each question.  Each item in column II may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

37

LESSON 8 ASSIGNMENT SHEET LESSON 8.................Allison   T63,   Pratt   &   Whitney   T73   and   T74, and General Electric T700. TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, chapters 7, 8, 9, and 10. LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To teach you to distinguish between the four aircraft engines mentioned in lesson title. CREDIT HOURS.............2 SUGGESTIONS..............Note   that   this   lesson   is   based   on   chapters 7­10.   It does not attempt to cover all the information about each engine.   You are not expected   to   study   the   material   thoroughly; however, it is included if you need it.

Weight

True­False (Answer A for true or B for false.)

3 3 3

1. 2. 3.

The T700­GE­700 is being developed for use in the heavy lift helicopter. The T63­A­700 engine is used on the CH­54 helicopter. On   the   T73,   the   torque   sensor   measures   the   amount   of power   transmitted   from   the   engine   to   the   main   rotor gearbox. Airflow in the T74 is straight through the engine, with no reverse turns.

3

4.

38

AL0993

Weight 3 3 5. 6. The T63 TOT thermocouple assembly is a harness with four probes. The exhaust duct is bolted to the free­turbine case in the T73 engine. Cluster True­False (Each of the following groups of questions is related to the   statement   that   precedes   them.     Write   by   each question A for true or B for false. FIRST GROUP Evaluate the following statements about the T63 systems by marking them true or false. 3 7. During start, acceleration, and stabilization at ground idle   rpm,   fuel   flow   is   metered   entirely   by   the   fuel control (N1). The lubrication system uses an oil mist on compressor, gas producer turbine, and power turbine rotor bearings. The   gas   producer   fuel   control   and   the   power   turbine governor are not connected to each other. The   air   bleed   system   is   controlled   by   a   valve   which begins   to   close   when   a   specific   pressure   ratio   is reached. Torsional   vibrations   in   helicopter   rotor   systems   are dampened by the check valve assembly and accumulator. In   the   lubrication   system,   a   check   valve   in   the   oil filter   outlet   passage   keeps   oil   in   the   tank   from draining into the engine. If   one   of   the   two   fuel   pumps   fails,   the   engine   shuts down. SECOND GROUP Among the details on the T74 engine, you find that: 3 14. The glow­plug ignition system is for quick starts at low ambient temperature.

3 3 3

8. 9. 10.

3 3

11. 12.

3

13.

39

Weight 3 3 3 3 15. 16. 17. 18. Both   pumps   in   the   scavenge   oil   system   are   externally mounted. The   heat   exchanger   uses   heat   from   the   oil   lubricating system to preheat the fuel in the engine fuel system. The   oil   tank   must   be   drained   before   changing   the   oil filter. One of the T74's turbines drives a compressor in the gas generator   section,   and   the   other   drives   a   reduction gearing. The reduction gearbox is at the front of the engine, and the accessory gearbox is at the rear of the engine. The   compressor   turns   in   a   clockwise   direction   and   the power   turbine   shaft   turns   in   a   counterclockwise direction. The fuel­air mixture in the combustion chamber liner is ignited by fourteen simplex nozzles. THIRD GROUP Basic to your knowledge of gas turbine engines should be enough information about the T73 systems to evaluate the following statements. 2 2 2 2 2 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. The   ignition   system   constitutes   the   entire   engine electrical system. Scavenge oil from the main bearings and gearbox empties into a common tube that returns it to the tank. Fuel goes from the fuel pump directly to the right and left fuel manifolds. An external tube on the left side of the engine carries hot anti­icing air forward to the compressor. All   pressure   oil   lines   in   the   lubrication   system   are internal.

3 3

19. 20.

3

21.

40

Weight FOURTH GROUP About the two T63 engines, the text tells you that: 3 27. The   lubrication   system   has   one   magnetic   chip   detector plug   in   the   accessory   gearbox   sump   and   one   in   the scavenge oil pressure line. The gas producer and power turbine gear trains are both contained in the accessory gearbox section. The T63­A­5A is the one used on the OH­58 helicopter. Both   the   power   turbine   and   the   gas   producer   turbine rotate at the same speed. The   T63   compressor   must   not   be   cleaned   with   ordinary cleaning   solvents,   because   they   would   dissolve   the plastic coating on the inside. FIFTH GROUP In the T73 engine: 2 2 2 2 2 2 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. The   main   pumping   element   raises   the   fuel   pressure   by approximately 20 psi. The gas producer rotor and the power turbine rotor turn in opposite directions. Stages   5   through   9   of   the   compressor   rotor   shroud   and vane assembly are housed in the diffuser case. The accessory drive gear is in the gas producer turbine rotor assembly. One   duplex   fuel   nozzle   matches   each   of   the   combustion chambers. High­pressure   air   for   anti­icing   and   fuel   heating   is bled off from the compressor inlet case.

3 3 3 3

28. 29. 30. 31.

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CONTENTS Paragraph INTRODUCTION................................... CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO GAS  TURBINE ENGINES.................. I. Theory of Gas Turbine Engines....................... II. Principles of Operation....... III. Major Engine Sections......... CHAPTER 2. SYSTEMS AND ACCESSORIES.......... I. Fuel Systems and Components.................... II. Lubrication Systems........... III. Ignition Systems and Engine Instrumentation........ CHAPTER CHAPTER 3. 4. TESTING, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE,  AND STORAGE PROCEDURES........... LYCOMING T53..................... I. Operational Description of the T53 Gas Turbine Engine.... II. Major Engine Systems and Assemblies................ CHAPTER 5. LYCOMING T55..................... I. Operational Description of the T55 Gas Turbine Engine........ 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.15 2.1 2.2 2.12 2.21 3.1 4.1 4.2 4.9 5.1 5.2 Page 1 3 3 12 21 46 46 58 62 68 89 89 99 146 146

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Paragraph Section II. Major Engine Sections and Systems................... CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER 6. 7. 8. 9. SOLAR T62 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT. . . ALLISON T63...................... PRATT AND WHITNEY T73............ PRATT AND WHITNEY T74............ I. Operational Characteristics and Description............... II. Major Engine Systems.......... CHAPTER 10. GENERAL ELECTRIC T700............ 5.8 6.1 7.1 8.1 9.1 9.2 9.13 10.1

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INTRODUCTION Aircraft designers have always been limited by the efficiency of the available powerplants.   Their constant plea has been for higher power,   less   weight,   lower   frontal   area,   better   cooling characteristics, and lower fuel consumption.  These requirements have been   met   to   a   certain   degree   by   the   designers   of   reciprocating engines, but the design of the piston engine has been carried to such a   point   that   to   obtain   further   increase   in   power,   more   cylinders would   have   to   be   added.     This   would   immediately   raise   more   complex problems,   which   must   be   solved   before   an   increase   in   power   can   be achieved. The   aircraft   designers'   pleas   have   been   answered   with   the development  of   the   gas   turbine  engine.    Since  the  end  of  World War II, progress in the gas turbine field has been rapid.  Development of improved materials, high temperature metals, and better fuels should expedite   further   progress   in   this   held.     The   gas   turbine   engine's greatest contribution to aviation is that it has lifted all previous limits that were imposed by the reciprocating engine. This text describes the operation, components, and systems of the gas   turbine   engine.     The   first   chapter   includes   an   introduction   to gas turbine engines.  Chapter 2 discusses the systems and accessories such   as   fuel,   oil,   and   electrical.     Chapter   3   covers   testing, inspection, maintenance, and storage procedures.   Chapters 4 through 10 describe in detail the gas turbine engines used in Army aircraft.

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO GAS TURBINE ENGINES 1.1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter introduces the theory and operating principles of gas turbine engines.  Gas turbine engines can be classified according to   the  type   of   compressor   used,  the  path  the  air  takes  through the engine, and how the power produced is extracted or used.  The chapter is limited to the fundamental concepts of the three major classes of turbine engines, each having the same principles of operation. Chapter 1 is divided into three sections; the first discusses the   theory   of   turbine   engines.     The   second   section   deals   with principles   of   operation,   and   section   III   covers   the   major   engine sections and their description. Section I.  Theory of Gas Turbine Engines 1.2. GENERAL

Section   I   covers   the   laws   of   physics   and   fundamentals pertaining to the theory of jet propulsion.   The gas turbine engines used to power  Army aircraft are turboshaft powerplants.   The energy produced drives the power shaft.  Energy is generated by burning the fuel­air mixture in the engine and accelerating the gas tremendously. These   high­velocity   gases   are   directed   through   turbine   wheels   which convert   the   axial   movement   of   the   gas   to   a   rotary   motion.     This rotary power is used to drive a powershaft, which drives a propeller or a rotor transmission. 1.3. LAWS OF MOTION

The   theory   of   gas   turbine   engines   is   based   on   the   laws   and principles of physics discussed in the subparagraphs that follow. Newton's   First   Law   of   Motion.     The   first   law   states   that   a body in a state of rest remains at rest, and a body in motion tends to   remain   in   motion   at   a   constant   speed   and   in   a   straight   line, unless acted upon by some external force.

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Newton's Second Law of Motion.  The second law states that an imbalance   of   forces   on   a   body   produces   or   tends   to   produce   an acceleration   in   the   direction   of   the   greater   force,   and   the acceleration   is   directly   proportional   to   the   force   and   inversely proportional to the mass of the body. Newton's Third Law of Motion.   The third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, and the two are directed along the same straight line. Bernoulli's   Principle.     This   principle   states   that   if   the velocity of a gas or liquid is increased its pressure will decrease. The   opposite   is   also   true.     If   the   velocity   of   a  gas   or   liquid  is decreased its pressure will increase.   This fact relates directly to the law of conservation of energy. Einstein's   Law   of   Conservation   of   Energy.     This   law   states that  the  amount   of   energy   in  the  universe  remains  constant.     It is not   possible   to   create   or   destroy   energy;   however,   it   may   be transformed. Boyle's   Law.     This   law   states   that   if   the   temperature   of   a confined   gas   is   not   changed,   the   pressure   will   increase   in   direct relationship to a decrease in volume.   The opposite is also true ­­ the   pressure   will   decrease   as   the   volume   is   increased.     A   simple demonstration of how this works may be made with a toy balloon.   If you squeeze the balloon, its volume is reduced, and the pressure of air inside the balloon is increased.  If you squeeze hard enough, the pressure will burst the balloon. Charles'  Law.   This law  states that  if a gas under  constant pressure   is   so   confined   that   it   may   expand,   an   increase   in   the temperature   will   cause   an   increase   in   volume.     If   you   hold   the inflated balloon over a stove, the increase in temperature will cause the air to expand and, if the heat is sufficiently great, the balloon will burst.   Thus, the heat of combustion expands the air available within the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine. Pressure and Velocity.  Air is normally thought of in relation to   its   temperature,   pressure,   and   volume.     Within   a   gas   turbine engine   the   air   is   put   into   motion   so   now   another   factor   must   be considered,   velocity.     Consider   a   constant   airflow   through   a   duct. As long as the duct cross­sectional area remains unchanged, air will continue   to   flow   at   the   same   rate   (disregard   frictional   loss).     If the cross­sectional area of the duct should become smaller (convergent

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area),   the   airflow   must   increase   velocity   if   it   is   to   continue   to flow   the   same   number   of   pounds   per   second   of   airflow   (Bernoulli's Principle).     In   order   to   obtain   the   necessary   velocity   energy   to accomplish this, the  air must give up some pressure and temperature energy   (law   of   conservation   of   energy).     The   net   result   of   flow through   this   restriction   would   be   a decrease in pressure and temperature and   an   increase   in   velocity.     The opposite would be true if air were to flow   from   a   smaller   into   a   larger duct   (divergent   area);   velocity would   then   decrease,   and   pressure and temperature would increase.  The throat of an automobile carburetor is a good   example   of   the   effect   of   airflow through   a   restriction   (venturi);   even   on   the hottest   day   the   center   portion   of the   carburetor   feels   cool. Convergent and divergent areas are   used   throughout   a   gas turbine   engine   to   control pressure   and   velocity   of   the air­gas   stream   as   it   flows through the engine. 1.4. THEORY OF JET PROPULSION The   principle   of   jet propulsion   can   be   illustrated   by a toy balloon.  When inflated and the stem is sealed, the pressure is   exerted   equally   on   all internal   surfaces.     Since   the force   of   this   internal   pressure is   balanced   there   will   be   no tendency for the balloon to move. If   the   stem   is   released the   balloon   will   move   in   a direction   away   from   the   escaping jet of air.   Although the flight of   the   balloon   may   appear erratic, it is at all

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times moving in a direction away from the open stem. The balloon moves because of an unbalanced condition existing within it.  The jet of air does not have to push against the outside atmosphere; it would function better in a vacuum.  When the stem area of the balloon is released, a convergent nozzle is created.   As the air flows through  this area, velocity is increased accompanied by a decrease in air pressure.  In addition, an area of skin against which the   internal   forces   had   been   pushing   is   removed.     On   the   opposite internal surface of the balloon, an equal area of skin still remains. The higher internal pressure acting on this area moves the balloon in a direction away from the open stem.  The flight of the balloon will be of short duration, though, because the air in the balloon is soon gone.     If   a   source   of   pressurized   air   were   provided,   it   would   be possible to sustain flight of the balloon. 1.5. THEORY OF THE GAS TURBINE ENGINE

If the  balloon  were converted into a length of pipe,  and at the forward end an air compressor designed with blades somewhat like a fan were installed, this could provide a means to replenish the air supply within the balloon.

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A source of power is now required to turn the compressor.  To extend   the   volume   of   air,   fuel   and   ignition   are   introduced   and combustion   takes   place.     This   greatly   expands   the   volume   of   gas available.

In the path of the now rapidly expanding gases, another fan or turbine can be placed.   As the gases pass through the blades of the turbine,  they   cause   it   to   rotate  at  high  speed.    By  connecting  the turbine to the compressor, we have a mechanical means to rotate the compressor to replenish  the air supply.   The gases still possessing energy   are   discharged   to   the   atmosphere   through   a   nozzle   that accelerates   the   gas   stream.     The   reaction   is   thrust   or   movement   of the   tube   away   from   the   escaping   gas   stream.     We   now   have   a   simple turbojet engine.

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The turbojet engine is a high­speed, high­altitude powerplant. The   Army,   at   present,   has   no   requirement   for   this   type   of   engine. Because it is simple and easy to operate and maintain, however, the Army does use the gas turbine engine.  The simple turbojet engine has primarily   one   rotating   unit,   the   compressor/turbine   assembly.     The turbine extracts from  the gas stream the energy necessary to rotate the compressor.    This furnishes the pressurized air to maintain the engine   cycle.     Burning   the   fuel­air   mixture   provides   the   stream   of hot expanding gas  from which approximately 60 percent of the energy is   extracted   to   maintain   the   engine   cycle.     Of   the   total   energy development, approximately 40 percent is available to develop useful thrust directly. If  we   had   ten   automobile  engines   that   would  equal   the   total shaft   horsepower   of   a   turbine   engine,   it   would   take   six   of   these engines to turn the compressor, and the other four would supply the power   to   propel   the   aircraft.     The   amount   of   energy   required   to rotate the compressor may at first seem too large; however, it should be   remembered   that   the   compressor   is   accelerating   a   heavy   mass (weight) of air towards the rear of the engine.  In order to produce the   gas   stream,   it   was   necessary   to   deliver   compressed   air   by   a mechanical means to a burner zone.   The compressor, being the first rotating unit, is referred to as the N1 system. With   a   requirement   for   an   engine   that   delivers   rotational shaft   power,   the   next   step   is   to   harness   the   remaining   gas   stream energy   with   another   turbine   (free   turbine).     By   connecting   the turbine   to   a   shaft,   rotational   power   can   be   delivered   to   drive   an aircraft  propeller,   a   helicopter  rotor  system,  a generator,  a  tank, an air cushion vehicle (ACV), or whatever is needed.  The power shaft can extend from the front, back, or from an external gearbox.  All of these   locations   are   in   use   on   various   types   of   Army   engines   at present. The following sketch shows a turboshaft engine with the power shaft   extended   out   the   front.     The   bottom   sketch   shows   the   same engine with the power shaft extending out the back. The   basic   portion   of   the   turbine   engine,   the   gas   producer, extracts   approximately   60   percent   of   the   gas   stream   energy (temperature/pressure)   to   sustain   the   engine   cycle.     To   develop rotational   shaft   power,   the   remaining   gas   stream   energy   must   drive another turbine.  In Army engines today, a power turbine that is free and   independent   of   the   gas   producer   system   accomplishes   this   task. The power turbine and shaft (N2 system) are not mechanically connected to the gas producer (N1 system).  It is a free turbine.  The 

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gas stream passing across the turbines is the only link between these two   systems.     The   free­turbine   engine   can   operate   over   wide   power ranges with a constant output­shaft speed.

In   operation,   the   gas   producer   (N1)   system   automatically varies its speed, thereby controlling the intensity of the gas stream in   relation   to   the   load   applied   to   the   power   (N2)   shaft.     This   is accomplished   by   a   fuel   metering   system   that   senses   engine requirements.  The free turbine design has revolutionized the methods of application of shaft turbine engines.   Why a shaft turbine?   Why is a perfectly good jet engine used to drive a propeller?  Because in the   speed   range   that   Army   aircraft   operate,   the   propeller   or helicopter   rotor   is   more   efficient.     With   a   turbojet   engine,   power (thrust)  produced   is   roughly  the  difference  between  the  velocity of the air entering the engine and the velocity of the air exiting from the   engine.     Efficiency   of   the   engine   (power   producer   versus   fuel consumed) increases with speed until it is 100 percent efficient when the forward

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speed of the engine is equal to the rearward speed of the jet.  It is this low efficiency at takeoff and at low cruising speed (i.e., 400 mph)   that   makes   the   turbojet   engine   unsuitable   for   use   in   Army aircraft.   The propeller does not lack efficiency at low speed; the reverse   is   true,   in   that   efficiency   falls   off   at   high   speed.     The result  is  to   harness   the   jet  engine's  gas  stream  energy  to  drive a propeller or helicopter rotor system, thereby taking advantage of the best features of both. Aircraft   reciprocating   engines   operate   on   the   four­stroke, five­event   principle.     Four   strokes   of   the   piston,   two   up   and   two down,   are   required   to   provide   one   power   impulse   to   the   crankshaft. Five   events   take   place   during   these   four   strokes:   the   intake, compression, ignition, power, and exhaust events.   These events must take  place  in   the   cylinder  in  the  sequence  given  for  the  engine to operate.

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Although   the   gas   turbine   engine   differs   radically   in construction   from   the   conventional   four­stroke,   five­event   cycle reciprocating   engine,   both   involve   the   same   basic   principle   of operation.     In   the   piston   (reciprocating)   engine,   the   functions   of intake, compression, ignition, combustion, and exhaust all take place in the same cylinder and, therefore, each must completely occupy the chamber during its respective part of the combustion cycle.   In the gas turbine engine,  a separate section is devoted to each function, and all functions are performed at the same time without interruption. 1.6. SUMMARY

The   theory   of   gas   turbine   engine   operation   is   based   on   the laws or principles of physics.   The principle of jet propulsion can be   illustrated   by   a   toy   balloon.    When  the  balloon  is  inflated and the stem is unsealed the balloon will move in a direction away from the escaping jet of air.   If the balloon is converted into a length of   pipe,   and   at   the   forward   end   an   air   compressor   is   installed   to supply air for combustion, and to expand the volume of air, fuel and ignition   are   introduced   and   combustion   takes   place.     Then,   in   the path   of   the   expanding   gases   a   turbine   rotor   is   installed.     As   the gases pass through  the turbine blades, the turbine rotor is rotated at   high   speed.     This   turbine   rotor   is   connected   to   the   compressor shaft, and we now have a means to rotate the compressor to replenish the   air   supply.     The   remaining   gases   are   discharged   to   the atmosphere.     The   reaction   of   these   gases   is   thrust,   or   movement   of the   tube   away   from   the   escaping   gases.     This   is   a   simple   turbojet engine.   At present the Army has no requirement for this high­speed, high­altitude   powerplant.     However,   if   we   install   another   turbine rotor   after   the   rotor   that   drives   the   compressor,   we   have   a turboshaft   engine   that   can   be   used   to   drive   a   transmission   in   a helicopter or a propeller on a fixed­wing aircraft.

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In the turbojet engine, approximately 60 percent of the energy is extracted to rotate the compressor, while the remaining 40 percent is used to develop thrust.   In the turboshaft engine, the remaining energy is used to drive a turbine rotor attached to a transmission or propeller.   On  a free­turbine engine, the gas stream passing across the   turbines   is   the   only   link between  the  two  turbine  rotors.    One turbine   drives   the   compressor   and   the   other   turbine   propels   the aircraft.  The free­turbine engine is used in Army aircraft. The gas turbine engine differs radically in construction from the   reciprocating   engine   in   that   the   turbine   engine   has   a   separate section   for   each   function,   while   in   the   reciprocating   engine   all functions are performed in the same cylinder. Section II.  Principles of Operation 1.7. GENERAL

This   section   covers   the   principles   of   turbine   engine operation.     The   three   classifications   of   turbine   engines   are turbojet, turboshaft, and ramjet.   The term "turbo" means "turbine." Therefore, a turboshaft engine is one which delivers power through a shaft. 1.8. OTTO AND BRAYTON CYCLES

There   is   an   element   of   similarity   to   both   the   reciprocating and   jet   engines,   but   the   thermodynamic   cycle   of   each   is   different from the other.  The reciprocating engine operates on the Otto cycle, a   constant   volume   cycle,   consisting   of   four   distinct   operations. These   operations   are   performed   intermittently   by   a   piston reciprocating in an  enclosed cylinder.   It is important to remember that the piston in a reciprocating engine delivers power only during one of its four strokes. The turbine engine operates on the Brayton cycle, a constant pressure cycle containing the same four basic operations as the Otto cycle, but accomplishing them simultaneously and continuously so that an uninterrupted flow of power from the engine results.   Figure 1.1 shows a graph display of the Otto and Brayton cycles. 1.9. BRAYTON CYCLE OF OPERATION

Ambient   air   is   drawn   into  the   inlet   section  by   the   rotating compressor.     The   compressor   forces   this   incoming   air   rearward   and delivers it to the combustion chamber at a higher pressure than the air had at the inlet.  The compressed air is then mixed with fuel that 12

is sprayed into the combustion chamber by the fuel nozzles.  The fuel and air mixture  is then ignited by electrical igniter plugs similar to spark plugs.  This ignition system is only in operation during the starting   sequence,   and   once   started,   combustion   is   continuous   and self­sustaining   as   long   as   the   engine   is   supplied   with   the   proper air­fuel   ratio.     Only   about   25   percent   of   the   air   is   used   for combustion.     The   remaining   air   is   used   for   internal   cooling   and pressurizing.

Figure 1.1.  Otto and Brayton Cycles. The   turbine   engines   in   the   Army   inventory   are   of   the   free­ power turbine design, as shown in figure 1.2.  In this engine, nearly two­thirds of the  energy produced by combustion is extracted  by the gas   producer   turbine   to   drive   the   compressor   rotor.     The   power turbine extracts the remaining energy and converts it to shaft

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horsepower   (shp),   which   is   used   to   drive   the   output   shaft   of   the engine.  The gas then exits the engine through the exhaust section to the atmosphere.    Army helicopters use a divergent duct to eliminate the   remaining   thrust.     The   various   kinds   of   exhaust   ducting   are discussed in detail with the engine using that particular ducting.

Figure 1.2.  Typical Free­Power Turboshaft Engine. 1.10. TURBOJET

The turbojet is the engine in most common use today in high­ speed,   high­altitude   aircraft,   not   in   Army   aircraft.     With   this engine,   air   is   drawn   in   by   a   compressor   which   raises   internal pressures  many   times   over   atmospheric  pressure.    The  compressed air then passes into a combustion chamber where it is mixed with fuel to be ignited and burned.  Burning the fuel­air mixture expands the gas, which is accelerated out the rear as a high­velocity jet­stream.   In the   turbine   section   of   the   engine,   the   hot   expanded   gas   rotates   a turbine   wheel   which   furnishes   power   to   keep   the   compressor   going. The   gas   turbine   engine   operates   on   the   principle   of   intake, compression, power, and exhaust, but unlike the reciprocating engine, these   events   are   continuous.    Approximately  two­thirds  of  the total energy   developed   within   the   combustion   chamber   is   absorbed   by   the turbine 14

wheel to sustain  operation of the compressor.   The remaining energy is discharged from the rear of the engine as a high velocity jet, the reaction to which is thrust or forward movement of the engine.   The turbojet is shown schematically in figure 1.3.

Figure 1.3.  Axial­Flow Turbojet Engine. 1.11. TURBOPROP ENGINE AND TURBOSHAFT ENGINE

The turboprop engine and turboshaft engines, shown in figures 1.4 and 1.5, are of the same basic type as the turbojet.  Instead of ejecting   high­velocity   exhaust   gases   to   obtain   thrust,   as   in   the turbojet, a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to   rotational   shaft   power.     A   propeller   or   helicopter   transmission can   be   connected   to   the   engine   through   reduction   gearing.     This energy   may   be   extracted   by   the   same   turbine   rotor   that   drives   the compressor, or it may be a free­power turbine which is independent of the compressor turbine and only linked to it by the expanding gases. The   free­power   turbine   is   the  type   used   in  Army   aircraft  to harness the energy of the gases and convert this energy to rotational shaft power.  This feature of having a free­power turbine enables the power   output   shaft   to   turn   at   a   constant   speed   while   the   power producing capability of  the engine can be varied to accommodate the increased loads applied  to the power output shaft.   Turbine engines may   be   further   divided   into   three   general   groups,   centrifugal­flow, axial­flow, and axial­centrifugal­flow, depending upon the type of

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compressor.   Figure 1.4 shows an axial­flow turboprop engine, figure 1.5   shows a   centrifugal­flow  turbojet  engine,  and  figure  1.5a  shows an axial­centrifugal­flow compressor.

Figure 1.4.  Axial­Flow Turboprop Engine.

Figure 1.5.  Centrifugal­Flow Turbojet Engine.

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Figure 1.5a.  Axial­Centrifugal­Flow Compressor. 17

1.12.

ADVANTAGES OF TURBINE ENGINES

Keeping in mind the basic theory of turbine engines, compare the   advantages   and   disadvantages   of   the   turbine   engine   with   the piston   or   reciprocating   engine.     The   advantages   are   covered   in   the subparagraphs   below,   and   disadvantages   are   discussed   in   paragraph 1.13. a. Power­to­weight   ratio.     Turbine   engines   have   a   higher power­to­weight ratio than reciprocating engines.  An example of this is the T55­L­l11.  It weighs approximately 650 pounds and delivers 3, 750 shaft horsepower.   The power­to­weight ratio for this engine is 5.60   shp   per   pound,   where   the   average   reciprocating   engine   has   a power­to­weight ratio of approximately .67 shp per pound. b. Less   maintenance.     Maintenance   per   hour   of   operation   is especially important in military operations.  Turbine engines require less maintenance per flying hour than reciprocating engines generally do.   As  an aircraft maintenance officer, this advantage will appeal to   you   because   of   a   greater   aircraft   availability   and   lower maintenance hour to flying hour ratio.   The turbine engine also has fewer   moving   parts   than   a   reciprocating   engine;   this   is   also   an advantage over the reciprocating engine. c. Less drag.   Because of the design, the turbine engine has a   smaller   frontal   area   than   the   reciprocating   engine.     A reciprocating   engine   requires   a   large   frontal   area   which   causes   a great   deal   of   drag   on   the   aircraft.     Turbine   engines   are   more streamlined   in   design,   causing   less   drag.     Figure   1.6   shows   one   of the two nacelles that contain reciprocating engines in the old CH­37 cargo helicopter.   Figure 1.7 shows the smaller frontal area of the turbine engines that power the CH­47 Chinook helicopter.   Because of this,   the   engine   nacelles   are   more   streamlined   in   design,   causing less drag. d. Cold   weather   starting.     The   turbine   engine   does   not require any oil dilution or preheating of the engine before starting. Also,   once   started,   the   reciprocating   engine   takes   a   long   time   to warm up to operating temperatures, whereas the turbine engine starts readily and is up to operating temperature immediately. e. Low oil consumption.   The turbine engine, in general, has a lower rate of oil consumption than the reciprocating engine.   The turbine engine does not require the oil reservoir capacity to be as large   as   the   reciprocating   engine's;   because   of   this,   a   weight   and economy factor is an additional advantage.

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Figure 1.6.  Reciprocating Engine Nacelles on CH­37.

Figure 1.7.  Turbine Engine Nacelles on CH­47. 1.13. DISADVANTAGES OF TURBINE ENGINES

Just   like   everything   else,   along   with   the   advantages   or   the good, we have to take the disadvantages or the bad.  This also holds true   with   the   turbine   engine.     The   disadvantages   of   the   turbine engine are discussed in the following subparagraphs. 19

a. Foreign object damage.  One of the major problems faced by the turbine engine is foreign object damage (FOD).  A turbine engine requires tremendous quantities of air.   This air is sucked into the engine   at   extremely   high   velocities,   and   it   will   draw   up   anything that   comes   near   the   inlet   area.     The   turbine   engines   used   in   Army aircraft are fitted  with filters around the engine inlet to prevent foreign objects from entering the engine and damaging the compressor vanes.   However, even with this precaution, FOD is still a menace to turbine engine operation, as shown in figure 1.8.

Figure 1.8.  Compressor Foreign Object Damage. b. High   temperatures.     In   the   combustion   chamber,   the temperature is raised to about 3, 500°  F. in the hottest part of the flame.   Because this temperature is above the melting point of most metals,   proper   cooling   and   flame   dilution   must   be   employed   at   all times to insure that the engine is not damaged. c. Slow   acceleration.     The   acceleration   rate   of   a   turbine engine   is   very   slow   in   comparison   with   that   of   a   reciprocating engine.     The   pilot   must   be   aware   of   the   time   lag   in   the   turbine engine  acceleration   between  the  instant  when  power  is  requested and when power is available. 20

d. High   fuel   consumption.     Turbine   engines   are   very uneconomical when it comes to the amount of fuel they consume.   The Lycoming   T53   turbine   engine,   for   instance,   uses   approximately   1.5 gallons per minute of fuel.  Compare it to a reciprocating engine of approximately   the   same   horsepower  which  has  a fuel  consumption  rate of 1 gallon per minute. e. Cost.   The initial cost of a turbine engine is very high when compared to the cost of a reciprocating engine.  For example the T53­L­13B engine costs about $63,000, and the cost of a reciprocating engine of approximately the same horsepower is $20,000. 1.14. SUMMARY

The two turbine engines commonly in use today are the turbojet and   turboshaft.     The   turbine   has   surpassed   the   piston   engine   in design   efficiency.     The   advantages   of   the   gas   turbine   are   a   high power­to­weight   ratio,   less   maintenance,   and   low   oil   consumption. Because   of   the   small   frontal   area,   turbines   have   less   aerodynamic drag.   The disadvantages are foreign object damage to the compressor vanes,  high   operating   temperatures,  and  high  fuel  consumption.    The turbine   also   has   a   slower   acceleration   rate.     Because   of   the   high operating   rpm,   all   rotating   parts   must   be   in   perfect   balance.     The cost   to   manufacture   a   turbine   is   much   higher   than   that   of   a reciprocating engine.  Aircraft designers have always been limited by the powerplants available for use on aircraft of new design.   Their constant   plea   has   been   for   higher   power,   less   weight,   and   a   more compact   design;   the   turbine   engine   has   been   the   answer   to   some,   if not all, of their pleas. Section III.  Major Engine Sections 1.15. GENERAL

Because   of   the   many   types   of   turbine   engines,   it   is   not possible to list all the major components and have the list apply to all engines.   Several components are common to most turbine engines, and   a   knowledge   of   these   will   be   helpful   in   developing   a   further understanding   of   aviation   gas   turbine   engines.     This   section discusses the major engine sections individually. 1.16. ENGINE TERMINOLOGY

Engine terminology must be explained at this point to enable you to understand the terms used in discussing gas­turbine­engine

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operating   theory   explained   in   this   course.     Directional   references are   shown   in   figure   1.9.     Table   I   shows   engine   symbols   and abbreviations commonly used.

Figure 1.9.  Directional References. a. Directional  references.   Front or forward ­­ cold end of engine.     Rear   or   aft   ­­   hot   end   of   engine.     Right   and   left   ­­ determined by viewing the engine from the rear.  Bottom ­­ determined by   the   location   of   the   combustor   drain   valve.     Top   ­­   directly opposite, or 180 degrees from the combustor drain valve. These   directional   references   hold   true   for   most   gas turbine   engines.     On   some   the   power   shaft   is   at   the   end   where   the exhaust   gas   is   expelled.     An   engine   of   this   design   is   the   T73 installed on the CH­54 flying crane. b. Engine   station   notation.     The   engine   is   divided   into stations   to   designate   temperature   (T)   or   pressure   (P)   measuring locations.     Figure   1.10   shows   a   T53­L­13,   labeling   the   engine stations.   Any time a number is placed after the letter T or P, it denotes a specific location in the engine. Example: The symbol T3, denotes the relative temperature at a specific location on the engine. 22

Table I.  Commonly Used Gas Turbine Engine Symbols and Abbreviations

c. Engine speed notation.  The rotational speed of the engine is represented by the capital letter N.  The first rotating mass, the gas producer has the symbol N1.  Any time a number is placed after the letter N it denotes a specific system on the gas turbine engine. 1.17. ENGINE MODEL DESIGNATIONS

Letter   designators   are   used   to   differentiate   the   jet­ propulsion   engines   from   reciprocating   engines.     A   letter­number combination identifies each type of the various gas turbine engines. The   J   series   designates   true   turbojet   engines;   the   T   designates turboprop or turboshaft engines; and the TF, turbofan engines. One of these letters or letter combinations begins each engine model   number,   each   part   of   which   has   a   special   significance.     For example, in the engine model number T53­L13, the T means turboshaft; the 53 is simply the number assigned to this model by the Air Force when   the   engine   was   accepted   or   used   experimentally.     The   Air Force/Army   designation   numbers   are   odd,   while   engines   developed originally for the Navy get even numbers.   The letter L is added by the manufacturer (in this case the Lycoming Division of

23

Figure 1.10.  Engine Stations.

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AVCO)   and   the   ­13   is   referred   to   as   the   "dash   number.”     These   are also   always   odd   numbers,   if   the   engine   was   developed   for   the   Air Force/Army.     The   dash   number   designates   the   particular   version   of this   model   engine.     When   a   production   model   is   improved   by   major modifications, the dash number is changed. In  the   past   the   Army  has   been   getting  their   engines   through the   Air   Force,   using   Air   Force   designators.     However,   now   the   Army has its own series of number designators.   The first engine procured under   the   new   system   was   the   T700­GE­700   engine.     The   next   engine developed   for   the   Army   will   be   the   T701­manufacturer's   code­three­ digit   dash   number.     The   engines   that   were   in   the   Army   inventory previous   to   this   new   designator   system   will   keep   their   present designators.   However, when these models are improved, they will get the   new   three­digit   number   for   a   dash   number.     For   example   the improved version of the T53­L­15 is the T53­L­701. 1.18. AIR INLET SECTION

The   amount   of   air   required   by   a   gas   turbine   engine   is approximately   ten   times   that   of   a   reciprocating   engine.     The   air inlet is generally  a large, smooth aluminum or magnesium duct which must be designed to conduct the air into the compressor with minimum turbulence and restriction.  The air inlet section may have a variety of   names   according   to   the   desire   of   the   manufacturer.     It   may   be called the front frame and accessory section, the air inlet assembly, the   front   bearing   support   and   shroud   assembly,   or   any   other   term descriptive of its function.   Usually, the outer shell of the front frame is joined to the center portion by braces that are often called struts.   The anti­icing system directs compressor discharge air into these struts.   The temperature of this air prevents the formation of ice that might prove damaging to the engine.  Anti­icing systems are discussed   further   in   the   chapter   covering   the   engines   they   may   be installed   on.     Figure   1.11   illustrates   the   variety   of   inlet   duct designs of Army aircraft.

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Figure 1.11.  Inlet Duct Variations. 26

1.19.

COMPRESSOR SECTION

The compressor is the section of the engine that produces an increase in air pressure.   It is made up of rotating and stationary vane assemblies.   The first stage compressor rotor blades accelerate the   air   rearward   into   the   first   stage   vane   assemblies.     The   first stage vane assemblies slow the air down and direct it into the second stage   compressor   rotor   blades.     The   second   stage   compressor   rotor blades   accelerate   the   air   rearward   into   the   second   stage   vane assemblies, and so  on through the compressor rotor blades and vanes until   air   enters   the   diffuser   section.     The   highest   total   air velocity is at the inlet of the diffuser.  As the air passes rearward through   the   diffuser,   the   velocity   of   the   air   decreases   and   the static   pressure   increases.     The   highest   static   pressure   is   at   the diffuser outlet. The compressor rotor may be thought of as an air pump.   The volume   of   air   pumped   by   the   compressor   rotor   is   basically proportional to the rotor rpm.  However, air density, the weight of a given volume of air, also varies this proportional relationship.  The weight per unit volume of air is affected by temperature, compressor air inlet pressure,  humidity, and ram air pressure*.   If compressor air   inlet   temperature   is   increased,   air   density   is   reduced.     If compressor air inlet pressure is increased, air density is increased. If   humidity   increases,   air   density   is   decreased.     Humidity,   by comparison  with   temperature,  and  pressure  changes,  has  a very  small effect   on   density.     With   increased   forward   speed,   ram   air   pressure increases and air temperature and pressure increase. The   following   is   an   example   of   how   air   density   affects compressor efficiency of the T62 gas turbine.  At 100 percent N1  rpm, the compressor rotor  pumps approximately 40.9 cubic feet of air per second.   At  standard day static sea level conditions, 59°  F outside air   temperature   and   29.92"   Hg   barometric   pressure,   with   0   percent relative   humidity   and   0   ram   air,   air   density   is   .07651   pound   per cubic foot.  Under these conditions, 40.9 cubic feet per second times .07651   pound   per   cubic   feet   equals   approximately   3.13   pounds   per second   air   flow   through   the   engine.     If   the   air   density   at   the compressor  inlet   is   less   than  on  a standard  day,  the  weight  of air flow   per   second   through   the   engine   is   less   than   3.13   pounds   per second.    If  N1  is  less than  100 percent  rpm on  a standard  day, the weight of air flow per second through the engine will be less than 3. 13 due to decreased volume flow at lower rpm.  Because of this, N1 rpm varies ________________ *ram air pressure ­ free stream air pressure provided by the forward motion of the engine. 27

with   the   power   output.     If   output   power   is   increased,   N1  rpm   will increase   and   vice   versa.     Thus,   the   weight   of   air   pumped   by   the compressor rotor is determined by rpm and air density. Compressor efficiency determines the power necessary to create the pressure rise of a given airflow, and it affects the temperature change which takes  place in the combustion chamber.   Therefore, the compressor is one of the most important components of the gas turbine engine because its  efficient operation is the key to overall engine performance.     The   following   subparagraphs   discuss   the   three   basic compressors   used   in   gas   turbine   engines:   the   centrifugal­flow,   the axial­flow,   and   axial­centrifugal­flow   compressors.     The   axial­ centrifugal­flow   compressor   is   a   combination   of   the   other   two   and operates with characteristics of both. a. Centrifugal­flow compressor.   Figure 1.12 shows the basic components   of   a   centrifugal­flow   compressor:   rotor,   stator,   and compressor manifold. As   the   impeller   (rotor) revolves   at   high   speed,   air   is drawn   into   the   blades   near   the center.     Centrifugal   force accelerates   this   air   and   causes it to move outward from the axis of rotation toward the rim of the rotor where it is forced through the   diffuser   section   at   high velocity and high kinetic energy. The pressure rise is produced by reducing the velocity of the air in   the   diffuser,   thereby converting   velocity   energy   to pressure energy.  The centrifugal compressor   is   capable   of   a relatively high compression ratio per   stage.     This   compressor   is not   used   on   larger   engines because of size and weight.

Figure 1.12. Typical Single­stage Centrifugal Compres­ sor

Because   of   the   high   tip   speed   problem   in   this   design,   the centrifugal compressor finds its greatest use on the smaller engines where   simplicity,   flexibility   of   operation,   and   ruggedness   are   the principal requirements rather than small frontal area and ability to handle high airflows and pressures with low loss of efficiency.

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b. Axial­flow compressor.  The air is compressed, as the name implies,   in   a   direction   parallel   to   the   axis   of   the   engine.     The compressor   is   made   of   a   series   of   rotating   airfoils   called   rotor blades,   and   a   stationary   set   of   airfoils   called   stator   vanes.     A stage   consists   of   two   rows   of   blades,   one   rotating   and   one stationary.     The   entire   compressor   is   made   up   of   a   series   of alternating rotor and stator vane stages as shown in figure 1.13.

Figure 1.13.  Axial­flow Compressor. Axial flow compressors have the advantage of being capable of very high compression ratios with relatively high efficiencies;  see figure 1.14.  Because of the small   frontal   area   created   by this   type   of   compressor,   it   is ideal   for   installation   on   high­ speed   aircraft.     Unfortunately, the   delicate   blading   and   close tolerances, especially toward the rear of the compressor where the blades   are   smaller   and   more numerous   per   stage,   make   this compressor   highly   susceptible   to foreign­object   damage.     Because of the close fits required

Figure 1.14. Compressor Efficien­ cies and Pressure Ratios.

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for efficient air­pumping and higher compression ratios, this type of compressor   is   very   complex   and   very   expensive   to   manufacture.     For these   reasons   the   axial­flow   design   finds   its   greatest   application where   required   efficiency   and   output   override   the   considerations   of cost,   simplicity,   and   flexibility   of   operation.     However,   due   to modern technology, the cost of the small axial­flow compressor, used in Army aircraft, is coming down. c. Axial­centrifugal­flow compressor.   The axial­centrifugal­ flow compressor, also called the dual compressor, is a combination of the two types, using the same operating characteristics.  Figure 1.15 shows the compressor used in the T53 turbine engine.  Most of the gas turbine   engines   used   in   Army   aircraft   are   of   the   dual   compressor design.     Usually   it   consists   of   a   five­   or   seven­stage   axial­flow compressor and one centrifugal­flow compressor.  The dual compressors are mounted on the same shaft and turn in the same direction and at the   same   speed.     The   centrifugal   compressor   is   mounted   aft   of   the axial   compressor.     The   axial   compressor   contains   numerous   air­foil­ shaped   blades   and   vanes   that   accomplish   the   task   of   moving   the   air mass into the combustor at an elevated pressure. As the air is drawn into the engine, its direction of flow is   changed   by   the   inlet   guide   vanes.     The   angle   of   entry   is established to ensure that the air flow onto the rotating compressor blades   is   within   the   stall­free   (angle   of   attack)   range.     Air pressure or velocity is not changed as a result of this action.   As the air passes from the trailing edge of the inlet guide vanes, its direction   of   flow   is   changed   due   to   the   rotational   effect   of   the compressor.     This   change   of   airflow   direction   is   similar   to   the action that takes place when a car is driven during a rain or snow storm.   The rain or snow falling in a vertical direction strikes the windshield at an angle due to the horizontal velocity of the car. In   conjunction   with   the  change  of   airflow  direction,  the velocity   of   the   air   is   increased.     Passing   through   the   rotating compressor blades, the velocity is decreased, and a gain in pressure is   obtained.     When   leaving   the   trailing   edge   of   the   compressor blades,   the   velocity   of   the   air   mass   is   again   increased   by   the rotational  effect   of   the   compressor.    The  angle  of  entry  on   to the stationary stator vanes results from this rotational effect as it did on the airflow onto the compressor. Passing   through   the   stationary   stator   vanes   the   air velocity   is   again   decreased   resulting   in   an   increase   in   pressure. The combined action of the rotor blades and stator vanes results in an

30

Figure 1.15.  Axial­Centrifugal­Flow Compressor. 31

increase   in   air   ­pressure;   combined   they   constitute   one   stage   of compression.   This  action continues through all stages of the axial compressor.     To   retain   this   pressure   buildup,   the   airflow   is delivered, stage by stage, into a continually narrowing airflow path. After passing from the last set of stator vanes the air mass passes through   exit   guide   vanes.     These   vanes   direct   the   air   onto   the centrifugal impeller. The centrifugal impeller increases the velocity of the air mass   as   it   moves   it   in   a   radial   direction.     The   axial­centrifugal­ flow compressor is discussed further in chapter 4. d. Compressor   stall.     Gas   turbine   engines   are   designed   to avoid the pressure conditions that allow engine surge to develop, but the possibility of surge still exists in engines that are improperly adjusted   or   have   been   abused.     Engine   surge   occurs   any   time   the combustion chamber pressure exceeds that in the diffuser, and  it is identified   by   a   popping   sound   which   is   issued   from   the   inlet. Because there is more than one cause for surge, the resultant sound can range from a single carburetor backfire pop to a machinegun sound. Engine surge is caused by a   stall   on   the   airfoil   surfaces of   the   rotating   blades   or stationary   vanes   of   the compressor.   The stall can occur on individual blades or vanes or, simultaneously,   on   groups   of them.  To understand how this can induce   engine   surge,   the   causes and   effects   of   stall   on   any airfoil must be examined. All  airfoils  are  designed to   provide   lift   by   producing   a lower   pressure   on   the   convex (suction)   side   of   the   airfoil than   on   the   concave   (pressure) side.     A   characteristic   of   any airfoil   is   that   lift   increases with   an   increasing   angle   of attack, but only up to a critical angle.     Beyond   this   critical angle   of   attack,   lift   falls   off rapidly.   This is due largely to the   separation   of   the   airflow from   the   suction   surface   of   the airfoil, as shown in the sketch. This phenomenon 32

is known as stall.   All pilots are familiar with this condition and its consequences as it applies to the wing of an aircraft.  The stall that takes place on the fixed or rotating blades of a compressor is the same as the stalling phenomenon of an aircraft wing. 1.20. COMPRESSOR CONSTRUCTION

Centrifugal­flow   compressors   are   usually   made   of   titanium. The diffuser is generally manufactured of a stainless steel alloy.  A close fit is important between the compressor and its case to obtain maximum   compressor   efficiency.     Correct   rotor   assembly   balancing   is essential for safe operation because of the high rpm.   Balancing the rotor can be  accomplished by removing metal from specified areas of the   compressor   or   by   using   balancing   weights   installed   in   holes   in the hub of the compressor.   On some engines where the compressor and turbine wheel are balanced as a unit, special bolts and nuts having slight variations in weight are used. Axial­flow   compressors   are   constructed   of   many   different materials,   depending   upon   the   load   and   temperature   under   which   the unit must operate.  The rotor blades are generally cast of stainless­ steel alloy.  Some manufacturers use mdybdenum coated titanium blades to dampen vibrations on some stages of rotor blades.   The clearance between the rotor blades and the outer case is most important.  Some companies coat the inner surface of the compressor case with a soft material that can be worn away by the blades as they expand because of   the   heat   generated   from   compressing   the   air.     This   type   of compressor   uses   the   "wear­fit"   method   to   form   its   own   clearance between the compressor case and the rotor blade tip. Methods of attaching the blade to the disk or hub vary between manufacturers,   with   the   majority   using   some   variation   of   the   dove­ tail   method   to   hold   the   rotor   blades   to   the   disk.     Various   other methods are used to anchor the blades in place.   Some blades do not have  a   tight   fit   in   the   disk,  but  rather  are  seated  by  centrifugal force   during   engine   operation.     By   allowing   the   blades   to   move, vibrational   stress   is   reduced   during   start   and   shutdown.     Stator vanes,   shown   in   figure   1.16,   can   be   either   solid   or   hollow construction, and are  connected together at their tips by a shroud. This shrouding serves two purposes.   First, it provides support, and second,   it   provides   the   necessary   air   seal   between   rotating   and stationary parts.  Most manufacturers use the split compressor cases, while some others favor a weldment, forming a continuous case.   The advantages of the split case lie in the fact that the compressor and stator   blades   are   readily   available   to   inspection.     The   one­piece case offers simplicity and strength because it is one piece; in most

33

instances,   it   is   a   principal   structural   part   of   the   engine   and   is usually made of cast aluminum, magnesium, or steel.  Figures 1.16 and 1.17 show shrouded compressor stators in both the split case and the one­piece case.

Figure 1.16.  Shrouded Compressor Stators.

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Figure 1.17.  One­Piece Compressor Case. 1.21. COMBUSTION SECTION

Today, three basic combustion chambers are in use.   They are the annular combustion chamber, the can type, and the combination of the   two   called   the   can­annular.     Variations   of   these   basic   systems are   used   in   a   number   of   engines.     The   three   systems   are   discussed individually in the following subparagraphs.   The most commonly used gas turbine engine in Army aircraft is the annular reverse­Row type. The   combustion   section   contains   the   combustion   chambers,   igniter plugs, and fuel nozzles or vaporizing tubes.  It is designed to burn a fuel­air mixture and deliver the combusted gases to the turbine at a   temperature   which   will   not   exceed   the   allowable   limit   at   the turbine inlet. Fuel is introduced at the front end of the burner in a highly atomized spray from the fuel nozzles.  Combustion air flows in around the   fuel  nozzle   and   mixes   with  the  fuel  to  form  a correct  fuel­air mixture.   This is called primary air and represents approximately 25 percent   of   total   air   taken   into   the   engine.     The   fuel­air   mixture which is to be burned is a ratio of 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel by weight.   The remaining 75 percent of the air is used to form an air   blanket   around   the   burning   gases   and   to   lower   the   temperature. This temperature may reach as high as 3500° F.  By using 75 percent of the air for  cooling, the temperature operating range can be brought down to about half, so the turbine section will not be destroyed by excessive heat.  The air used for burning is

35

called   primary   air­   and   that   for   cooling   is   secondary   air.     The secondary air is controlled and directed by holes and louvers in the combustion chamber liner. Igniter plugs function only during starting, being cut out of the   circuit   as   soon   as   combustion   is   self­supporting.     On   engine shutdown,   or,   if   the   engine   fails   to   start,   the   combustion   chamber drain   valve,   a   pressure­actuated   valve,   automatically   drains   any remaining unburned fuel from the combustion chamber.   All combustion chambers contain the same basic elements: a casing or outer shell, a perforated inner liner or flame tube, fuel nozzles, and some means of initial   ignition.     The   combustion   chamber   must   be   of   light construction   and   is   designed   to   burn   fuel   completely   in   a   high velocity   airstream.     The   combustion   chamber   liner   is   an   extremely critical engine part  because of the high temperatures of the flame. The   liner   is   usually   constructed   of   welded   high­nickel   steel.     The most severe operating periods in combustion chambers are encountered in   the   engine   idling   and   maximum   rpm   ranges.     Sustained   operation under these conditions must be avoided to prevent combustion chamber liner failure. a. The   annular­type   combustion   chamber  shown   in   figure   1.18 is used in engines of the axial­centrifugal­flow compressor de­

1. ANNULAR TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBER LINER 2. COMBUSTION CHAMBER HOUSING ASSEMBLY Figure 1.18.  Annular­type Combustion Chamber. 36

sign.  The annular combustion chamber permits building an engine of a small and compact design.  Instead of individual combustion chambers, the primary compressed air is introduced into an annular space formed by   a   chamber   liner   around   the   turbine   assembly.     A   space   is   left between   the   outer   liner   wall   and   the   combustion   chamber   housing   to permit   the   flow   of   secondary   cooling   air   from   the   compressor. Primary   air   is   mixed   with   the   fuel   for   combustion.     Secondary (cooling) air reduces  the temperature of the hot gases entering the turbine to the proper level by forming a blanket of cool air around these hot gases. The annular combustion chamber offers the advantages of a larger   combustion   volume   per   unit   of   exposed   area   and   material weight,   a   smaller   exposed   area   resulting   in   lower   pressure   losses through the unit, and less weight and complete pressure equalization. b. The   can­type combustion chamber is one made up of   individual   combustion chambers.     This   type   of combustion chamber is so arranged that   air   from   the   compressor enters   each   individual   chamber through   the   adapter.     Each individual chamber is composed of two   cylindrical   tubes,   the combustion   chamber   liner   and   the outer   combustion   chamber,   shown in figure 1.19.  Combustion takes place within the liner.   Airflow into   the   combustion   area   is controlled   by   small   louvers located in the inner dome, and by round holes and elongated louvers along   the   length   of   the   liner. Airflow   into   the   combustion   area is   controlled   by   small   louvers located in the inner dome, and by round   holes   elongated   louvers along the length of the liner.

Figure 1.19. Can­type Combustion Chamber (Cutaway).

Through these openings flows the air that is used in combustion and cooling.   This air also prevents carbon deposits from forming on the inside of the liner.   This is important, because carbon deposits can block critical air passages and disrupt airflow along the liner walls causing high metal temperatures and short burner life.

37

Ignition   is   accomplished   during  the  starting   cycle.     The igniter plug is located in the combustion liner adjacent to the start fuel   nozzle.     The   Army   can­type   engine   employs   a   single   can­type combustor. c. Can­annular   combustion   chamber.     This   combustion   chamber uses   characteristics   of   both   annular   and   can­type   combustion chambers.     The   can­annular   combustion   chamber   consists   of   an   outer shell,  with   a   number   of   individual   cylindrical   liners   mounted   about the engine axis as shown in figure 1.20.  The combustion chambers are completely  surrounded   by   the airflow  that  enters  the  liners  through various   holes   and   louvers.     This   air   is   mixed   with   fuel   which   has been   sprayed   under   pressure   from   the   fuel   nozzles.     The   fuel­air mixture   is   ignited   by   igniter   plugs,   and   the   flame   is   then   carried through   the   crossover   tubes   to   the   remaining   liners.     The   inner casing assembly is both a support and a heat shield; also, oil lines run through it.

Figure 1.20.  Can­Annular Combustion Chamber.

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1.22.

TURBINE SECTION

A   portion   of   the   kinetic   energy   of   the   expanding   gases   is extracted by the turbine section, and this energy is transformed into shaft   horsepower   which   is   used   to   drive   the   compressor   and accessories.  In turboprop and turboshaft engines, additional turbine rotors   are   designed   to   extract   all   of   the   energy   possible   from   the remaining gases to drive a powershaft. a. Types   of   turbines.     Gas   turbine   manufacturers   have concentrated   on   the   axial­flow   turbine   shown   in   figure   1.21.     This turbine   is   used   in   all   gas­turbine­powered   aircraft   in   the   Army today.     However,   some   manufacturers   are   building   engines   with   a radial inflow turbine, illustrated in figure 1.22.  The radial inflow turbine

Figure 1.21.  Axial­flow Turbine Rotor. has   the   advantage   of   ruggedness and   simplicity,   and   it   is relatively   inexpensive   and   easy to   manufacture   when   compared   to the   axial­flow   turbine.     The radial flow turbine is similar in design   and   construction   to   the centrifugal­flow   compressor described   in   paragraph   1.19a. Radial   turbine   wheels   used   for small Figure 1.22. Radial Inflow Turbine. 39

engines   are   well   suited   for   a   higher   range   of   specific   speeds   and work at relatively high efficiency. The axial­flow turbine consists of two main elements, a set of stationary   vanes   followed   by   a   turbine   rotor.     Axial­flow   turbines may be of the single­rotor or multiple­rotor type.  A stage consists of   two   main   components:   a   turbine   nozzle   and   a   turbine   rotor   or wheel,   as   shown   in   figure   1.21.     Turbine   blades   are   of   two   basic types,   the   impulse   and   the   reaction.     Modern   aircraft   gas   turbines use blades that have both impulse and reaction sections, as shown in figure 1.23.

Figure 1.23.  Impulse­Reaction Turbine Blade. The stationary part of the turbine assembly consists of a row of contoured vanes set at a predetermined angle to form a series of small nozzles which direct the gases onto the blades of the turbine rotor.     For   this   reason,   the   stationary   vane   assembly   is   usually called   the   turbine   nozzle,   and   the   vanes   are   called   nozzle   guide vanes. b. Single­rotor   turbine.     Some   gas   turbine   engines   use   a single­rotor   turbine,   with   the   power   developed   by   one   rotor.     This arrangement is used  on engines where low weight and compactness are necessary.    A   single­rotor,  single­stage  turbine  engine  is  shown in figure   1.24,   and   a   multiple­rotor,   multiple­stage   turbine   engine   is shown in figure 1.25. c. Multiple­rotor turbine.  In the multiple­rotor turbine the power   is   developed   by   two   or   more   rotors.     As   a   general   rule, multiple­rotor turbines increase the total power generated in a unit of   small   diameter.     Generally   the   turbines   used   in   Army   aircraft engines have multiple rotors.   Figure 1.26 illustrates a multistage, multiple­rotor turbine assembly. 40

Figure 1.24. Single­rotor, Single­stage Turbine.

Figure 1.25.

Multiple­rotor, Multiple­stage Turbine.

Figure 1.26.  Multirotor ­ Multistage Turbine. 1.23. TURBINE CONSTRUCTION

The turbine rotor is one of the most highly stressed parts in the engine.   It operates at a temperature of approximately 1,700°  F. Because of the high rotational speeds, over 40,000 rpm for the 41

smaller engines, the turbine rotor is under severe centrifugal loads. Consequently,   the   turbine   disk   is   made   of   specially   alloyed   steel, usually containing large percentages of chromium, nickel, and cobalt. The   turbine  rotor   assembly  is  made  of  two  main  parts,  the  disk and blades. Nozzle   vanes   may   be   either   cast   or   forged.     Some   vanes   are made  hollow   to   allow   cooling  air  to  flow  through  them.    All   nozzle assemblies  are   made   of   very  high­strength  steel  that  withstands  the direct impact of the hot gases flowing from the combustion chamber. The turbine blades are attached to the disk by using the "fir tree"   design,   shown   in   figure   1.27,   to   allow   for   expansion   between the   disk   and   the   blade   while   holding   the   blade   firmly   to   the   disk against   centrifugal   loads.     The   blade   is   kept   from   moving   axially either by rivets or special locking devices.   Turbine rotors are of the   open­tip   type   as   shown   in   figure   1.27,   or   the   shroud   type   as shown in figure 1.28.

Figure 1.27.

Turbine Wheel Open Tip.

Figure 1.28.  Turbine Blade “Fir Tree Root” Shroud.

The shroud acts to prevent gas losses over the blade tip and excessive  blade   vibrations.    Distortion  under  severe  loads  tends to twist the blade toward low pitch, and the shroud helps to reduce this tendency.     The   shrouded   blade   has   an   aerodynamic   advantage   in   that thinner   blades   can   be   used   with   the   support   of   the   shroud. Shrouding,   however,   requires   that   the   turbine   run   cooler   or   at reduced rpm because of the extra mass at the tip. Blades   are   forged   or  cast  from   alloy   steel  and   machined  and carefully   inspected   before   being   certified   for   use.     Manufacturers stamp a "moment weight" number on the blade to retain rotor

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balance when replacement is necessary.  Turbine blade maintenance and replacement are covered in chapter 3. 1.24. EXHAUST SECTION

The   hot   gases   are   exhausted   overboard   through   the   exhaust diffuser   section.     Internally,   this   section   supports   the   power turbine and aft portion of the powershaft.   The exhaust diffuser is composed   of   an   inner   and   outer   housing,   separated   by   hollow   struts across the exhaust passage.  The inner housing is capped by either a tailcone   or   a   cover   plate   which   provides   a   chamber   for   cooling   the powershaft bearing.    A typical exhaust diffuser section is shown in figure 1.29.

Figure 1.29.  Exhaust Diffuser Section. Turboshaft  engines  used in helicopters do not develop  thrust by use of the exhaust duct.   If thrust were developed by the engine exhaust gas, it  would be impossible to maintain a stationary hover; therefore,  helicopters   use   divergent  ducts.    These  ducts  reduce gas velocity and dissipate any thrust remaining in the exhaust gases.  On fixed   wing   aircraft,   the   exhaust   duct   may   be   the   convergent   type, which accelerates the remaining gases to produce thrust which adds 43

additional   shaft   horsepower   to   the   engine   rating.     The   combined thrust   and   shaft   horsepower   is   called   equivalent   shaft   horsepower (ESHP).

Figure 1.30.  Divergent Exhaust Duct. 1.25. SUMMARY

The   gas   turbine   engine   has   five   major   sections:   inlet, compressor,   combustion,   turbine,   and   exhaust.     Engine   terminology includes   directional   references,   engine   stations,   and   model designations. Gas turbine engine construction is not limited to one type of compressor.   The compressor may be either centrifugal or axial or a combination of the two.   Compressors are made in single or multiple stage assemblies. Three   basic   types   of   combustion   chambers   are   in   use:   the annular,   can,   or   a   combination   of   the   two   called   can­annular   or cannular. 44

Gas turbine engines may use either an axial­flow turbine or a radial­inflow   turbine.     The   turbine   section   may   have   a   single­   or multiple­stage   turbine.     The   hot   exhaust   gases   are   exhausted overboard   through   the   exhaust   section.     Exhaust   ducts   used   on helicopters are divergent.  The ducts used on fixed­wing aircraft may be of the convergent type.

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Chapter 2 SYSTEMS AND ACCESSORIES 2.1. INTRODUCTION

This   chapter   introduces   the   fundamental   systems   and accessories   of   the   gas   turbine   engine.     Each   one   of   these   systems must   be   present   to   have   an   operating   turbine   engine.     Section   I describes  the   fuel   system   and  related  components  that  are  necessary for proper fuel metering to the engine. The second section discusses the theory and components of the lubricating system.  Oil is the lifeblood of any engine.  If the oil supply to the bearings should cease, within a matter of seconds the lubricating   films   would   break   down   and   cause   scoring,   seizing,   and burning of the vital moving parts. The third section tells of the ignition system used in the gas turbine   engines   and   of   various   cockpit   instruments   used   to   measure engine performance. Section I.  Fuel Systems and Components 2.2. GENERAL

The fuel system consists of the fuel control, speed governors, fuel   pumps,   starting   fuel   nozzles,   main   fuel   system   flow   divider, main   fuel   manifold,   and   vaporizing   tubes   or   nozzles.     Fuel   is conducted between these  components by flexible or rigid lines.   The fuel   system   must   supply   clean,   accurately   metered   fuel   to   the combustion   chambers.     All   fuel   systems   have   basically   the   same components; how these specific units do their jobs differs radically from one engine  to another.   Some systems incorporate features that are not necessary to the metering of fuel, such as fuel and oil heat exchangers,   use   of   fuel   pressure   to   operate   variable   inlet   guide vanes,   and   compressor   bleed   mechanisms.     It   is   the   purpose   of   this section   to   illustrate   typical   fuel   systems   so   that   the   reader   may obtain some idea of the route of fuel and location of the components that make up the system.   Figure 2.1 shows a typical schematic of a gas turbine engine fuel system.

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Figure 2.1.  Fuel System Schematic Diagram. 47

2.3.

FUEL CONTROLS

The principles and operation of fuel controls used on current engines are discussed in this paragraph.   Depending upon the type of engine   and   the   performance   expected   of   it,   fuel   controls   may   range from   simple   valves   to   automatic   computing   controls   containing hundreds of intricate parts. Strictly   speaking,   a  pilot   of   a  gas­turbine­powered   aircraft does   not   directly   control   his   engine.     His   command   over   the   engine corresponds   to   that   of   the   captain   of   a   ship   who   obtains   engine response by relaying orders to an engineer below deck who, in turn, moves the throttle of the engine.  But before he moves the throttle, he   monitors   certain   operating   pressures,   temperatures,   and   rpm   that are not apparent to the captain.  The engineering officer then refers to a chart and computes a fuel flow or throttle change which will not allow the engine to exceed its operating limitations.   If you think of the pilot as the captain of the ship, then think of the automatic controls   as   the   engineer.     They,   too,   monitor   operating   pressures, temperatures,   and   rpm,   and   make   the   necessary   fuel   and   throttle adjustments. Fuel   controls   can   be   divided   into   two   basic   groups: hydromechanical,   and   electronic.     There   are   as   many   variations   in controls   as   there   are   engines.     Although   each   type   of   fuel   control has   its   particular   advantage,   most   controls   in   use   today   are hydromechanical.     Some   fuel   controls   are   extremely   complex   devices composed of speed governors, servo systems, valves, metering systems, and sensing pickups. This  section  limits discussion mainly to fuel control  theory of the hydromechanical type.   A schematic of one is shown in figure 2.2.     A   fuel   control   in   the   simplest   form   consists   of   a   plain metering   valve   to   regulate   fuel   flow   to   the   engine.     A hydromechanical   fuel   control   consists   of   the   following   main components, but it is not limited to only these. 1. Pump to pressurize fuel. 2. Governors to control rpm. 3. Relief valves to protect the control. 4. Manual control systems (emergency control system). 5. Fuel shutoff valve.

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Figure 2.2.  Hydromechanical Fuel Control Schematic. 49

Most   modern   fuel   control   units   meter   the   flow   of   fuel   by keeping the pressure  drop or difference across the metering valve a constant   value,   while   varying   the   orifice   of   the   metering   valve. Another way to control fuel is to keep the valve orifice a constant size and vary the pressure acting upon the fluid.  The operation of a gas   turbine   requires   that   a   number   of   variable   conditions   be   given careful   thought   to   provide   for   safe,   efficient   operation.     Among these   are   engine   rpm,   acceleration,   exhaust   gas   temperature   (egt), compressor   inlet   temperature,   compressor   discharge   pressure,   and throttle   or   power   control   setting.     All   these   conditions   affect   or are affected by fuel flow, which is increased only to the point where the limiting temperature  is reached.   As the engine accelerates and airflow through the engine increases, more fuel is added.  If turbine inlet   temperature   were   the   only   engine   limitation,   a   temperature pickup sensing this temperature could be used.   However, it is also necessary to avoid the operating range that would cause a compressor surge   and   stall.     Because   more   than   one   factor   limits   engine operation,   it   is   necessary   to   schedule   the   accelerating   fuel   in accordance   with   a   combination   of   these   factors.     Because   turbine engine   compressors   are   susceptible   to   surges   and   stalls,   a   control with   a   longer   acceleration   time   is   used   than   is   needed   for   a reciprocating   engine.     This   acceleration   time   is   known   as   a   "lag," and   the   pilot   must   be   aware   of   the   time   it   takes   the   engine   to accelerate   and   give   him   the   power   change   he   requires.     Compressor discharge   pressure   or   burner   pressure   is   commonly   used   as   the variable for these  controls, since they vary both with engine speed and inlet air temperature.   By evaluating these variable conditions, a fair indication of the amount of fuel which can be burned without exceeding engine limitations is obtained. Two   fuel   control   systems   are   discussed   in   the   following subparagraphs. a. Automatic control system.   The amount of fuel required to run the engine at rated rpm varies with the inlet air temperature and pressure.  For example, it requires less fuel to run the engine on a hot day than on a cold day.  To relieve the pilot of the necessity of resetting   the   power   lever   to   compensate   for   changes   in   outside   air temperature and pressure, a speed governor is used.   A simple speed governor   consists   of   flyweights   balanced   by   a   spring.     When   the engine   is   running   unloaded,   at   rated   speed,   the   metering   valve   is open only far enough to supply the small amount of fuel required.  If a load is applied to the engine, the speed decreases.  This decrease in rpm causes the flyweights to move in under the force of the spring tension and the fuel valve to open wider and admit more fuel.   With the   additional   fuel,   the   engine   picks   up   speed   again,   and,   as   the rated 50

speed is reached, the flyweights move the fuel valve in the closing direction until the proper steady­state fuel flow is reached. b. Manual   (emergency)   control   system.     When   the   governor control switch in the cockpit is moved from the automatic position to the manual (emergency), a valve is actuated in the fuel control, and fuel is redirected to the manual system metering valve.  The throttle in   a   helicopter   is   of   the   motorcycle   twist­grip   type.     When   the governor   is   in   the   automatic   position   the   throttle   is   rolled   full open   and   left   there,   with   the   fuel   control   making   all   fuel­flow changes   automatically.     If   the   automatic   fuel   control   fails,   the pilot switches to the emergency mode and takes manual control of the throttle, which is mechanically linked to the manual metering valve. The   manual   throttle   control   has   no   compensation   for   altitude   or temperature, and it has no protection against an engine overspeed. Keep   in   mind   that   so   far   the   discussion   has   been   on principles of operation, and any specific fuel control may differ. 2.4. FUEL PUMP

Main   fuel   pressure   pumps   for   gas   turbine   engines   generally have   one   or   two   gear­type,   positive­displacement,   high­pressure elements.     Each   of   these   elements   discharges   fuel   through   a   check valve   to  a   common   discharge  port.    Thus,  if  one  element  fails, the remaining   element   continues   to   supply   sufficient   fuel   for   engine operation.   On some engines, the fuel pump is built in to the fuel control.   However, on other engines the fuel pump may be a separate component. 2.5. STARTING­FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel flows through an external line from the fuel control to the starting­fuel solenoid.   During the starting sequence, the pilot actuates the start­fuel solenoid switch in the cockpit.  The solenoid actuates the valve to the open position, then fuel flows through an external line to the start­fuel manifold.  The start­fuel nozzles are attached to the  manifold; the number of nozzles varies according to engine design.  The nozzles introduce atomized fuel in the combustion chamber during the starting sequence.   After the engine has attained a specified speed, the main fuel starts to flow automatically.  After the engine is running on the main fuel system, the start fuel system is shut off.  A starting fuel system is shown in Figure 2.3.

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Figure 2.3.  Starting Fuel System. 2.6. MAIN FUEL SYSTEM

Main fuel is delivered from the fuel control to the main fuel manifold assembly by external lines.  The main fuel manifold delivers fuel to the fuel nozzles, which may be of the single or dual orifice injector   type,   designed   to   introduce   the   fuel   into   the   combustion chamber.   Some earlier engines use fuel vaporizer tubes in place of the more efficient fuel nozzles. 2.7. FUEL NOZZLES

On   most   gas   turbine   engines,   fuel   is   introduced   into   the combustion   chamber   through   a   fuel   nozzle   that   creates   a   highly atomized   and   accurately   shaped   spray   of   fuel   suitable   for   rapid mixing   and   combustion.     Most   engines   use   either   the   simplex   or   the duplex nozzle.  The exception to this is the Lycoming T53­L­11 engine which   uses  vaporizer   tubes  in  place  of  fuel  nozzles.    Each  type of nozzle is discussed in the following subparagraphs. 52

a. Simplex nozzle.   Figure 2.4 illustrates a typical simplex nozzle; as its name implies, it is simpler in design than the duplex nozzle.   Its big disadvantage lies in the fact that a single orifice cannot provide a satisfactory spray pattern with the changes in fuel pressure.

Figure 2.4.  Simplex Fuel Nozzle. b. Duplex   nozzle.     Because   the   fuel­flow   divider   and   the duplex   nozzle   work   hand   in   hand,   the   description   of   these   units   is combined.  The chief advantage of the duplex nozzle is its ability to provide   good   fuel   atomization   and   proper   spray   pattern   at   all   fuel pressures.   For the duplex nozzle to work, there must be a fuel­flow divider to separate the fuel into low (primary) and high (secondary) pressure supplies.  Single­entry duplex nozzles have an internal flow divider and require only a single fuel manifold, while, as shown in figure  2.5,   dual­entry   fuel  nozzles  require  a double  fuel  manifold. The flow divider, whether self­contained in each nozzle, or installed separately with the manifold, is usually a spring­loaded valve set to open  at  a   specific   fuel   pressure.    When  the  pressure  is  below this value,   the   flow   divider   directs   fuel   to   the   primary   manifold. Pressures   above   this   value   cause   the   valve   to   open   and   fuel   is allowed to flow in both manifolds.   A fuel flow divider is shown in figure 2.6. In   addition,   an   air   shroud   surrounding   the   nozzle,   as shown in figure 2.7, cools the nozzle tip and improves combustion by retarding   the   accumulation   of   carbon   deposits   on   the   face.     The shroud also helps to contain the flame in the center of the liner. 53

Figure 2.5.  Dual Entry Duplex Nozzle.

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Figure 2.6.  Fuel Flow Divider.

Figure 2.7.  Air Shroud. A   word   of   caution; extreme   care   must   be   taken   when cleaning or handling the nozzles, since   even   the   acid   on   the fingers may corrode and produce a spray   pattern   which   is   out   of tolerance. c. Vaporizing   tube. Engines such as the Lycoming T53­ L­11 use vaporizing tubes instead of   injector   nozzles.     The vaporizing   tube   is   a   T­shaped, ceramic­coated   pipe,   whose   exit faces   upstream   to   the   airflow. Figure   2.8   shows   a   vaporizing tube   that   is   used   on   the   T53­L­ ll. 2.8. FUEL FILTERS

Figure 2.8.  Vaporizing Tube.

Gas   turbine   engines   may have   several   fuel   filters installed   at   various   points throughout   the   systems,   one   fuel filter   before   the   fuel   pump   and one   on   the   high­pressure   side after   the   pump.     In   most   cases the filter includes a relief 

valve set to open at a specified differential pressure (PSID) between inlet   and   outlet   pressure.     This   gives   the   fuel   a   bypass   if   the filter becomes clogged from contamination. 

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More than one kind of filter is used on turbine engines.   A paper   cartridge   filter   is   usually   used   on   the   low­pressure   side   of the pump.   It uses a replaceable paper element, shown in figure 2.9, capable of filtering out particles larger than 100 microns, or about the diameter of human hair.

Figure 2.9.  Paper Cartridge Fuel Filter. A   cylindrical   screen filter   is   generally   used   where the   fuel   pressure   is   low.     The filter   is   constructed   of stainless   steel   wire   mesh   cloth and   is   capable   of   filtering   out particles larger than 40 microns. Such   a   filter,   shown   in   figure 2.10,   may   be   cleaned,   preferably ultrasonically, and reused. In   addition   to   the   main line   filters,   other   filtering elements   may   be   located   in   the fuel   tanks,   fuel   control,   fuel nozzles, and just about any other place fuel is routed. Figure 2.10. Cylindrical Screen Filter.

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2.9.

PRESSURIZING AND DRAIN DUMP VALVES

Until sufficient pressure is attained in the fuel control to compute   the   fuel   flow   schedules,   flow   to   the   main   fuel   nozzle   is prevented by the pressurizing and drain dump valve.  This valve also drains the fuel manifold at engine shutdown to prevent post­shutdown fires,   and   it   traps   fuel   in   the   upstream   portion   of   the   system   to keep the fuel control primed to permit faster starts. All manufacturers install a combustion chamber drain valve in the combustion section.  During normal engine operation this valve is closed.     The   drain   valve   is   located   at   the   lowest   part   of   the combustion   chamber.     When   the   combustion   pressure   in   the   chamber drops   below   a   specified   minimum,   usually   a   few   pounds   per   square inch, this valve opens and drains any fuel remaining after a false or aborted start.  The fuel drained from this valve is dumped overboard. 2.10. FUEL OIL­COOLER

Some turbine engines use a fuel oil­cooler or heat exchanger to   cool   the   lubricating   oil.     This   unit   is   discussed   under   the lubrication   system   because   its   prime   function   is   to   help   cool   the oil.  It consists of a cylindrical oil chamber surrounded by a jacket through which the fuel passes.   Heat from the oil is transferred to the   fuel   via   conduction*.     Figure   2.11   shows   a   typical   fuel   oil­ cooler.

Figure 2.11.  Fuel Oil­Cooler. ________________ *See glossary. 57

2.11.

SUMMARY

The fuel system must supply clean, accurately metered fuel to the   combustion   chamber.     Most   turbine   engine   fuel   systems   have   the same   components:   fuel   control,   pressure   pumps,   fuel   flow   divider, manifold,   and   atomizers.     There   are   two   types   of   fuel   controls: hydromechanical   and   electronic.     Engine­driven   fuel   pumps   are   high­ pressure,   positive­displacement,   gear   type   pumps,   and   the   fuel nozzles   are   either   simplex   or   duplex.     However,   some   engines   use vaporizer tubes in place of fuel nozzles.   Some gas turbine engines use a fuel oil­cooler to cool the oil. Section II.  Lubrication Systems 2.12. GENERAL

During   the   first   few   years   of   gas   turbine   experience, lightweight, petroleum­base oil was suitable for gas turbines as well as   other   types   of   engines.     Most   of   the   early   engines   used lubricating   oil   conforming   to   MIL­O­6081A,   Grade   1010.     Engines requiring  an   extremely   light  oil  were  operated  on  MIL­O­3519,  Grade 1005.     These   were   conventional   petroleum   oils   of   high   quality   and light weight which met the requirements of all the older engines. Because   of   the   continuous   demand   for   greater   power,   gas turbine engines have been designed to operate at higher temperatures and   pressure   ratios.     Some   gas   turbine   engine   oil   temperatures encountered  are   considerably  above  the  flash  point  of  the  petroleum oils.     Because   of   this,   a   high   temperature   lubricant   had   to   be developed.    The   oil   used   in all  Army  gas  turbine  engines  is  MIL­L­ 23699, or MIL­L­7808.  These are synthetic lubricants which have wide operating  ranges   and   load   carrying  capabilities.    The  MIL­L­7808 is used in engines operating below ­25° F.  OAT, and MIL­L­23699 is used when   temperatures   are   above   ­25°  F.     This   section   discusses   the various components that make up a typical lubricating system. 2.13. LUBRICATING SYSTEMS

Lubricating   systems   for   modern   gas­turbine   engines   are relatively simple in  design and operation, but their function is of vital   importance.     The   principal  purposes  of  the  lubricating  system are to clean, reduce friction, and to cool the bearing surfaces.  The main units of the typical system are the reservoir or oil tank, the pressure   pump,   scavenger   pumps,   filters,   oil   cooler,   and   spray   oil jets.  A schematic illustration of a gas turbine engine oil system is shown in figure 2.12.

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Figure 2.12.  Engine Oil System Schematic. 59

2.14.

OIL TANKS

Most gas turbine engines are of the dry­sump type, meaning the on is stored separately from the engine, or the tank may be attached to   a   structural   part   of   the   engine.     Usually   constructed   of   welded aluminum   or   steel,   it   can   contain   a   venting   system,   a   deaerator (baffles)   to   separate   air   from   the   oil.     Some   systems   use   an   oil level transmitter to indicate quantity, where others have a dipstick or visual sight gage. 2.15. PRESSURE PUMPS

Oil   pumps   for   turbine   engines   are   usually   of   the   positive­ displacement   gear   type,   with   a   relief   valve   to   prevent   excessive pressure.  A modified gear­type pump is called the "gerotor pump." The gear­type pump consists of a driving and driven gear.  The pump is driven from the engine accessory section and causes the oil to pass around the outside of the gears in pockets formed by the gear teeth and the pump casing.  The pressure developed is proportional to engine rpm up to the point where the pressure relief valve opens and limits the pressure output of the pump.  The   gerotor   pump   has   two moving   parts,   an   inner   toothed element   meshing   with   an   outer toothed   element.     The   inner element   has   one   less   tooth   than the outer, and the missing tooth provides   a   chamber   to   move   the fluid   from   the   intake   to   the discharge   port.     Both   elements are mounted eccentrically to each other,   the   inner   one   mounted   on the   shaft   and   the   outer   one meshed with it.  Figure 2.13 is a picture   of   the   gerotor   pump, showing   both   inner   and   outer toothed elements.

Figure 2.13.

Gerotor Booster Pump.

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2.16.

SCAVENGE PUMPS

Although   much   larger   in   total   capacity,   scavenge   pumps   are usually   constructed   in   the   same   manner   as   pressure   pumps.     Engines are generally provided with several scavenge pumps to drain oil from various   parts   of   the   engine.     Often   such   a   pump   shares   the   same housing as the pressure pump.   These pumps are used to draw the oil from the sumps at the bearings, accessory gearbox housings, and other drainage points and return the oil back to the tank. 2.17. FILTERS

Three   basic   oil   filters   or   strainers   are   made:   cartridge, screen­disk,   and   screen.     These   filters   are   the   same   design   as   the filters  used   in   the   fuel   system,  as  covered  in  paragraph  2.8.    The main   objective   of   a   filter   is   to   remove   all   foreign   particles   from the   lubricant   without   creating   excessive   back   pressure   against   the pumps.  Filters are usually provided with bypass valves to permit the flow of oil in case the filter becomes clogged. 2.18.  OIL COOLER Oil   coolers   for   aviation gas­turbine   engines   are   either simple   oil   radiators   with   air cooling   or   the   kind   that   uses fuel as the cooling medium.   The latter   type   of   unit   is   used   on the   Lycoming   T55   engine.     The fuel   oil­cooling   unit   is   a   heat exchanger   which   transfers   the heat   in   the   oil   to   the   fuel flowing   to   the   fuel   nozzles. Since   the   fuel   flow   through   the cooler   is   much   greater   than   the oil   flow,   the   fuel   is   able   to absorb   a   considerable   amount   of heat   from   the   oil,   thereby reducing   the   size   and   weight   of the cooler.   The fuel oil­cooler is   shown   in   figure   2.11   on   page 57.     An   air   cooler   is   shown   in figure 2.14.

Figure 2.14.  Air Oil Cooler. 2.19. SPRAY OIL JETS

The   lubrication   method   most   generally   used   is   known   as   a calibrated   system,   where   oil   is   specifically   controlled   by   a calibrated 61

orifice   which   provides   the   proper   oil   flow   at   all   engine   operating speeds.     The   oil   is   supplied   from   the   oil   pressure   pump   through tubing and internal passageways to the spray jets, where the oil is sprayed on the bearing surfaces. 2.20. SUMMARY

Gas turbine engine oil systems perform three major functions. They   clean   and   reduce   friction,   and   they   cool   and   dissipate   heat. They   also   clean   the   engine   interior   through   the   use   of   oil   filters and strainers.    Because much of the aircraft powerplant consists of moving   parts,   lubricants   are   needed   to   overcome   friction   caused   by one metal surface  sliding or rolling over another.   Friction causes heating   of   parts,   excessive   wearing,   and   useless   expenditure   of horsepower.  Lubricating systems used in gas turbine engines have oil tanks,   pressure   pumps,   scavenger   pumps,   filter,   oil   coolers,   and spray   oil jets.     The   system  most  widely  used  on  turbine  engines is the dry sump lubrication system which uses a separate or external oil tank, located near the engine. The two kinds of pumps are pressure pumps and scavenge pumps, the first to put oil into the system, and the second to collect oil from   the   system.     Filters   remove   foreign   matter   from   the   oil,   and either a fuel oil­cooler or an air cooler takes the heat out of it. Oil is sprayed on the bearing surface by spray jets. Section III.  Ignition Systems and Engine Instrumentation 2.21. GENERAL

Gas   turbine   ignition   systems   fall   into   three   general   types: first,   the   induction   type,   that   produces   high   tension   voltage   by conventional induction coils; second, the capacitor type that causes ignition   by   means   of   high   energy   and   very   high   temperature   sparks produced   by   a   condenser   discharge;   and   a   third   type   of   ignition system, not widely adopted, that uses a glow plug. Most ignition systems used on Army aircraft are of the high­ energy capacitor type.  This system has been accepted for gas turbine engines   because   it   produces   high   voltage   and   an   exceptionally   hot spark, and the high voltage covers a large area. The   tachometer   is   one   of   the   cockpit   instruments   described briefly in this  section.   Others are indicating systems for torque, engine oil pressure, engine oil temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel pressure.

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2.22.

IGNITION UNIT

Usually,   gas   turbine   engines   are   equipped   with   two   or   more igniter   plugs;   however,   the   smaller   engines   like   the   T63   have   only one   igniter   plug,   sometimes   called   the   spark   plug.     Igniter   plugs serve a purpose similar to the spark plug in a reciprocating engine, although   operation   of   the   ignition   system   and   the   igniter   plugs   is necessary only for  a short period during the engine starting cycle. On many installations, ignition is initiated simultaneously with the starter.  The ignition cycle takes place several times per second and continues to operate as long as the ignition switch is on. The term "high energy" is used in the section to describe the capacitor   type   of   ignition   system.     However,   the   amount   of   energy produced is very small.  The intense spark is obtained by expending a small amount of electric energy in a very short time.  Energy is the capacity for doing work.   It can be expressed as the product of the electrical power and time.  Gas turbine ignition systems are rated in joules.     The   joule   is   also   an   expression   of   electric   energy,   being equal to the amount of energy expended in one second by an electric current   of   one   ampere   through   a   resistance   of   one   ohm.     All   other factors   being   equal,   the   temperature   of   the   spark   is   determined   by the   power   level   reached.     A   high­temperature   spark   can   result   from increasing   the   energy   level,   or   by   shortening   the   duration   of   the spark.     Increasing   the   energy   level   requires   a   heavier,   more   bulky ignition unit, since the energy delivered to the spark plug is only about 30 to 40 percent of the total energy stored in the capacitor. Also the higher the current flow, the higher the erosion rate on the igniter   plug   electrodes.     Furthermore,   much   of   the   spark   would   be wasted, because ignition takes place in a matter of microseconds.  In a   capacitor   discharge   ignition   system,   most   of   the   total   energy available   to   the   igniter   plugs   is   dissipated   in   10   to   100 microseconds,   with   up   to   80, 000  watts  with  a spark  duration  of 50 microseconds.     Figure   2.15   shows   a   wiring   schematic   of   a   typical ignition unit. WARNING: When working around the ignition unit of the engine,   disconnect   the   input   lead   to   the ignition   exciter   unit.     Remove   the   igniter plugs from the combustion chamber and ground them   to   the   engine.     You   do   this   to dissipate   any   charge   that   might   be   left   in the exciter unit. Some   ignition   exciter   units   contain   a very   small   amount   of   radioactive   material (cesium­barium   137)   and   normally   require   no handling

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precautions.     However,   severely   damaged units   that   have   been   broken   open   must   be handled   with  forceps  or  gloves  and  disposed of in accordance with AR 755­15.

Figure 2.15.  Wiring Schematic of Typical Ignition Unit. 2.23. IGNITERS

Gas turbine igniters come in many sizes and shapes depending upon the duty they will be subjected to.  The electrodes of the plugs used with high­energy ignition systems must be able to accommodate a current   of   much   higher   energy   than   the   electrodes   of   conventional spark   plugs   are   capable   of   handling.     Although   the   high­energy current   causes   more   rapid   igniter­electrode   erosion   than   that encountered in reciprocating­engine spark plugs, this is not a major disadvantage, because of the relatively short time that the ignition system is in operation.   Most igniter plugs used in turbine engines are of the annular­gap type, shown in figure 2.16.

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Figure 2.16.

Annular Gap Igniter Plug.

The   annular­gap   igniter plug   protrudes   slightly   into   the combustion   chamber   liner   to provide   an   effective   spark. Another   type   of   igniter   is   the constrained­gap   plug   which   does not   closely   follow   the   face   of the   plug;   instead   it   tends   to jump   in   an   arc   which   carries   it beyond   the   face   of   the   chamber liner.     Because   the   constrained­ gap   plug   does   not   have   to protrude   into   the   liner,   the electrode   operates   at   a   cooler temperature   than   that   of   the annular­gap plug.

2.24.

INTERNAL COOLING SYSTEM

The  intense  heat  generated when combustion takes place means that   all   internal   combustion   engines   must   be   cooled   by   some   means. Air­cooled reciprocating engines are cooled by air passing over fins attached   to   the   cylinders.     Liquid­cooled   engines,   as   in   an automobile,   use   a   liquid   coolant   that   passes   through   jackets surrounding   the   cylinders.     In   a   reciprocating   engine,   combustion takes place only  during every fourth stroke of a four­cycle engine. However,   in   a   gas   turbine   engine,   where   the   burning   process   is continuous, nearly all  the cooling air must pass through the inside of   the   engine.     If   only   enough   air   were   admitted   to   the   engine   to provide combustion, internal temperatures would increase to more than 4,000°  F.   Because of this, the amount of air admitted to the engine is   in   excess   of   the   amount   required   for   combustion   only;   indeed, about  75 percent of the air is used for cooling and 25 percent for combustion.   This large surplus of air (secondary air) cools the hot expanding   gases   just   before   they   enter   the   turbines.     In   some engines, internal air is bled from the engine compressor section and is   vented   through   passages   to   the   bearings   and   other   parts   of   the engine.  This air is then vented into the exhaust stream. 2.25. ENGINE INSTRUMENTATION

Engine performance is monitored by instruments mounted on the instrument panel in the cockpit. a. Tachometer   system.     The   tachometer   gives   the   pilot   a continuous   indication   of   engine   rpm.     A   variety   of   systems   or   a combination of systems may be used on gas turbine engines.  Gas

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producer or gas generator tachometers, turbine and rotor tachometers, and   N1  and   N2  tachometers   are   some   of   the   tachometer   systems   used. The   system   may   consist   of   dual   indicators,   registering   rpm   for multiengine   aircraft,   registering   engine   and   rotor   rpm   for   rotary­ wing  aircraft,   or   engine   and propeller  rpm  for  fixed­wing  aircraft. A   typical   tachometer   indicator   is   driven   by   a   tachometer­generator. The   generator   supplies   power   at   a   frequency   proportional   to   the driven speed which drives the synchronous motors in the indicator. b. Torquemeter indicating system.   Sometimes called a torque pressure indicating system, the typical torquemeter indicating system is   a   pressure   indicator   for   continuous   readings   of   engine   output­ shaft torque.   It is powered by an electrical transmitter mounted on the engine inlet section. c. Engine   oil   pressure  indicating  system.   A typical  engine oil   pressure   indicating   system   gives   continuous   readings   of   engine oil pump pressure in psi to the indicator, by means of an electrical transmitter mounted on the engine inlet section.   The transmitter is connected   to   the   28­volt   ac   electrical   system,   and   by   a   hose   to   a pressure tap on the engine oil filter housing. d. Engine   oil   temperature   indicating   system.     In   a   typical engine   oil   temperature   indicating   system,   the   indicator   is electrically   connected   to   the   28­volt   dc   system.     An   electrical resistance  type   thermobulb   installed  in  the  engine  oil  pump  housing measures temperatures of the oil entering that unit.  The temperature readings are transmitted to the indicator in degrees centigrade. e. Exhaust gas temperature indicating system.   The indicator in   a   typical   exhaust   gas   temperature   indicating   system   operates   on electrical potential from an engine thermocouple harness with probes mounted   in   the   aft   section   of   the   engine   exhaust   diffuser.     The thermocouple is a  device which converts heat into electricity.   The exhaust   gas   temperature   indicator   (thermocouple   thermometer indicator)   is   actually   a   sensitive   millivoltmeter,   calibrated   in degrees   centigrade.     Its   D'Arsonval   movement   is   activated   by   an electrical   force   generated   by   its   related   thermocouple.     The indicator   circuit   is   entirely   independent   of   any   other   electrical power source, and includes a coil resistor which provides a means of systems calibration. f. Fuel pressure indicating system.   A typical fuel pressure indicating system gives continuous readings of fuel pressure(psi) in the main fuel supply line from the boost pumps in the tanks,

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by means of an electrical transmitter.   The transmitter is connected to a tap on the valve manifold where all the fuel supply lines join to   deliver   fuel   to   the   engine   through   the   fuel   control   inlet   hose. Electricity is supplied to the transmitter by the 28­volt ac system. 2.26. SUMMARY

The   three   types   of   ignition   systems   used   on   turbine   engines are induction, capacitor  discharge, and glow plug.   The most common ignition   system   used   on   Army   aircraft   is   the   capacitor   discharge. The   induction   and   capacitor   systems   use   a   spark   producing   plug   to ignite the fuel air mixture. Because of the high operating temperatures of turbine engines, an internal cooling system is used.   Cooling air forms a blanket of air around the combustion chamber. Instrumentation   consists   of   tachometers,   torquemeters,   and pressure and temperature gages for monitoring engine performance.

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Chapter 3 TESTING, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND STORAGE PROCEDURES 3.1. INTRODUCTION

The information in this chapter is important to you because of its   general   applicability   to   gas   turbine   engines.     The   information covers   the   procedures   used   in   testing,   inspecting,   maintaining,   and storing   gas   turbine   engines.     Specific   procedures   used   for   a particular   engine   must   be   those   given   in   the   technical   manual   (TM) covering that engine 3.2. THE TEST CELL

Before any engine is shipped to the user, the manufacturer or overhaul   facility   has   test­run   the   engine   in   a   test   cell   to   ensure quality   control.     The   test   cell   building   is   usually   constructed   of concrete and contains both the control room and engine room, although in some test cells only the control room is enclosed.  A typical test cell and a control room are shown in figure 3.1.  If an engine fails during   a   test   run   or   does   not   perform   to   the   standards   set   by   the manufacturer, that engine and a specified number of previous engines are disassembled to check for faults.

Figure 3.1.  Test Cell Control Room. Ground   operation,   or   testing   of   an   engine   may   also   be performed in the mobile engine test unit (METU).  The mobile trailer unit  contains   engine   testing  equipment  similar  to  that  available in an engine test  cell.   The mobile unit increases engine availability by   eliminating   most   of   the   need   to   return   engines   to   an   overhaul depot.

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Test­cell   instrumentation   usually   includes   temperature   and pressure gages to monitor engine performance.   The engine is run in the   test   cell   with   the   same   demands   placed   upon   it   as   if   it   were installed   in   an   aircraft.     The   performance   of   any   engine   is considerably   influenced   by   changes   in   ambient   temperature   and pressure,   because   of   the   way   these   conditions   affect   the   weight   of the air entering the engine.   To compare the performance of similar engines on different days, under different atmospheric conditions, a given   engine's   performance   must   be   corrected   to   the   standard   day condition of 29.92 inches of mercury and 59° F. During   the   initial   run   after   assembly,   or   after   extensive maintenance   or   overhaul,   engine   statistics   are   recorded   on   a   test log.  This log sheet remains with the engine historical records until such time as another data sheet is completed. During   testing,   any   problem   that   would   limit   the   engine's performance,  such   as   exhaust  gas  temperature,  torque,  fuel  flow, or maximum  speed,   is   corrected.    In  addition,  oil  temperature,  bearing scavenge­oil   temperature,   seal   leakage,   and   oil   consumption   must   be within  established   limits.    These  tests  are  usually  performed  under other than standard day conditions, and data will then be computed to a   standard  day   rating   by   using  the  charts  and  tables  in  the  engine manual.  This new information is entered on the engine test log sheet as   shown   in   figure   3.2   and   becomes   a   permanent   part   of   the   engine records. 3.3. VIBRATION EQUIPMENT

High­frequency   vibrations   must   be   detected   and   eliminated because   they   can   cause   mechanical   failure   and   extensive   engine damage.     This   paragraph   discusses   the   cause   of   vibrations   and   the equipment to analyze vibrations.  The main source of vibration in the gas turbine engine is the imbalance of rotating parts.   Imbalance is caused by an uneven distribution of weight and is measured in inch­ grams or inch­ounces.   An inch­gram is one gram of unbalanced weight concentrated  one   inch   from  the  center  of  a rotating  part.    When an unbalanced  part   is   rotated,  a force  is  generated.    This  force  is a product of the amount of imbalance and rotating speed. To analyze this force, a vibration transducer is used; this is a   miniature   generator.     When   attached   to   a   vibrating   object   it generates   an   electrical   signal   that   is   proportional   to   the   force being   analyzed.     The   signal   is   sent   to   a   meter   that   amplifies   the signal   so   it   can   be   conveniently   read.     The   meter   has   four   input channels   that   independently   accommodate   a   signal   from   a   transducer. The meter,  69

Figure 3.2.  Engine Test Log Sheet. 70

shown in figure 3.3, also has connections for an oscilloscope or an oscillograph   for   closer   examination.     Filters   are   available   to eliminate   low   frequency   vibrations   for   a   clearer   picture   of   the higher, more damaging vibration signals being studied.

Figure 3.3.  Vibration Meter. Gas   turbine   vibration   sources   fall   in   two   general classifications: forced vibration, and externally excited vibration. Forced   vibration   is   due   to   unbalanced   rotating   parts.     The uneven   weight   distribution   that   causes   the   imbalance   may   be   due   to manufacturing   methods,   or   improper   assembly   of   components   without regard for the balance in relation to other components.  Other engine imbalances may be the result of a bent shaft, or a distortion caused by temperature. Externally  excited  vibrations are caused by means other than an   imbalance   of   rotating   engine   components.     They   may   be   caused   by associated   accessories,   such   as   loose   engine   mounts   or   clamps, improperly   mounted   accessories,   engine­driven   transmissions,   or airframe structure members. An   engine   vibration   test   is   preferred   after   major   repair, removal,   or   replacement   of   any   rotating   part,   or   when   excessive engine   vibrations   are   suspected.     Vibration   pickups,   attached   to adapters mounted on the engine, transmit electrical impulses through

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cables to a vibration meter.  The vibration meter indicates the total amount of engine movement in mils, one mil being 1/1000 of an inch. Meter   indications   are   recorded   on   an   Engine   Vibration   Test   Data Sheet, shown in figure 3.4.   The recorded figures are compared with the   figures   shown   in   parentheses   on   the   data   sheet   for   maximum permissible engine vibration.  If these maximum figures are exceeded, the   cause   of   the   excessive   vibration   must   be   found   and   corrected before the engine can be accepted for flight. 3.4. JETCAL ANALYZER

To   check   the   exhaust   gas   temperature   (ECT)   system   when periodic maintenance inspections are required, or to troubleshoot the system if abnormally  high or low temperatures are noted, the jetcal analyzer shown in figure 3.5 is used. When checking the engine exhaust gas temperature (EGT)system, the   jetcal   is   used   to   heat   the   thermocouple   to   the   desired temperature without running the engine.  The portable jetcal analyzer is   equipped   with   a   handle   and   two   rubber   wheels   for   easy   movement. The   jetcal   operates   on   95   to   135   volts,   50   to   400   cycles   ac   power supply. 3.5. SCHEDULED AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS

Gas   turbine   engines   are   inspected   at   regular   intervals   ­­ scheduled.     The   inspection   requirements   are   stated   in   a   required order   to   assure   that   defects   are   discovered   and   corrected   before malfunctioning or serious trouble results.  A special inspection is required whenever any of the operating limitations have been exceeded.   Table II is a list of some of the conditions when a special inspection is required.  3.6. ARMY SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM (ASOAP)

In   the   ASOAP   program   samples   of   used   oil   containing microscopic metal particles are sent periodically to an oil analysis laboratory.   There the oil and its metal particles are burned by an electric or gas flame.  The wave length of the light emitted from the burning oil and metal particles is measured to determine the kind and quality   of   metal   in   the   oil.     The   identification   gives   advance warning of excessive wear on particular engine parts, thereby aiding in preventing inflight engine failures.

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Figure 3.4.  Engine Vibration Test Data Sheet. 3.7. ENGINE MAINTENANCE PRECAUTIONS

Personnel   performing   maintenance   on   gas   turbine   engines  must observe   the   precautions   stated   in   the   applicable   engine   manual. Disregarding these warnings and precautionary measures can result in serious   injury,   illness,   or   death.     The   following   subparagraphs discuss some of  the precautions that must be taken while performing engine maintenance. 73

Figure 3.5.  Jetcal Analyzer. a. Use   of   lubricating   oil.     Prolonged   contact   with lubricating oil may cause a skin rash.   Skin and clothing that come in   contact   with   lubricating   oil   must   be   thoroughly   washed immediately.     Saturated   clothing   should   be   removed   without   delay. Areas   in   which   lubricating   oil   is   used   must   be   ventilated   to   keep mist and fumes to a minimum.  Because lubricating oil can soften some paint,   oil   spilled   on   painted   surfaces   must   be   promptly   and thoroughly washed off. b. Cadmium   plated   tools.     Be   sure   tools   used   on   engine   are not cadmium plated.   The cadmium plating on tools chips off, and oil contaminated   with   cadmium   chips   can   cause   magnesium   parts   to deteriorate. c. Handling   of   parts.     When   handling   combustion   chamber internal parts that have been exposed to fuels containing tetraethyl lead compounds, be sure that the poisonous lead­oxide residue is not 74

TABLE II SPECIAL INSPECTION TABLE

inhaled   or   taken   into   the   body   through   cuts   or   other   external openings.     If   accidental   exposure   occurs,   flush   the   affected   area thoroughly   with   clear   water   and   obtain   immediate   medical   attention. Gloves   and   a   face   mask   should   be   worn   at   all   times   when   handling parts   contaminated   by   lead   oxide.     hi   addition   bearings   must   be handled with special care.   Gloves must be worn to prevent skin oil and acid from etching the bearing surface. d. Marking   on   high­temperature   materials.     Using   marking materials   such   as   a   common   lead   pencil   on   metals   subject   to   high temperatures   can   cause   the   metal   parts   to   crack.     Approved   marking materials are specified in the applicable engine manual.   Only these marking materials are authorized for use. e. Performing   maintenance   while   engine   is   operating. Maintenance personnel must use caution when performing maintenance on operating engines.    Because of the high temperature and velocity of the   exhaust   gases,   personnel   must   stay   clear   of   exhaust   areas. Turbine intake areas are also a hazard.  Large jet engines have been known   to  suck   men   into   the  engine.    The  smaller  turbine  engines in Army aircraft are capable of picking up small objects that 75

are   close   to   the   intake.     Anyone   working   around   turbine   engines should   remove   headgear   and   loose   articles   such   as   pens   and   pencils from   shirt   pockets.     Figure   3.6   shows   the   exhaust­blast   area   of   an OV­1 aircraft, to be avoided when the engine is running.

Figure 3.6.  Exhaust ­ Blast Area.

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3.8.

MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

It is important to see that the engine compartment is kept as clean   as   possible   because   the   high­velocity   airflow   through   the engine will draw any foreign objects into the compressor.   All loose parts, such as safety wire, cotter pin clippings, and nuts and bolts should   be   removed   immediately.     Tubing   and   lines   should   be   checked for security, nicks, chafing, dents, and leaks. Inspection and maintenance of gas­turbine engines are somewhat easier  than   those   of   reciprocating  engines  because  the  gas  turbines stay cleaner.   Besides, the first several stages of most compressors can be inspected for FOD by using a strong light.  Also, the last two turbine stages are readily opened for inspection of heat damage. The oil system is checked on the daily inspection for proper oil level.   However, when adding oil, different types should not be mixed.   In the past the Army has used MIL­L­7808 lubricating oil in turbine   engines.     Because   of   the   higher   operating   temperatures encountered   in   the   current   gas   turbine   engines,   a   new   oil   has   been developed.     Military   Specification   No.   MIL­L­23699   uses   a   new synthetic   base   and   new   additive   combination   to   cope   with   the   more severe   operating   conditions   and   higher   temperature   ratings.     When changing   from   MIL­L­7808   to   MIL­L­23699   lubricating   oil,   check   the engine TM for proper procedures. 3.9. CLEANING ENGINE ASSEMBLY

The exterior of the engine, and its attached components, can be cleaned with a suitable cleaning solvent, such as P­D­680.  If the solvent   is   sprayed   on   the   engine   with   compressed   air,   care   must   be taken   to   avoid   forcing   dirt,   solvent,   or   moisture   into   engine openings and electrical connections.  The primary purpose of cleaning is to remove contaminants that might conceal minor cracks and defects which if not detected could eventually lead to failure.  Under normal circumstances,   engine   components   are   cleaned   only   as   necessary   to perform   required   inspection   and   repair.     After   using   alternate   or emergency  fuels,   cleaning   internal  hot­end  parts  may  be  required to remove   lead   oxide   deposits.     These   deposits,   if   not   removed,   are detrimental   to   engine   life   and   performance.     The   choice   of   any particular cleaning agent or process depends upon the engine part to be cleaned and the contaminants to be removed.

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Take   particular   care   in   selecting   a   cleaning   method   to   ensure   that anodizing or dichromating is not removed from the surfaces.   Do not use   caustics   on   aluminum,   magnesium,   ceramic­coated,   aluminized, painted,   nitrated,   or   carbonized   parts.     In   most   cases   the   engine manual prescribes the  approved cleaning procedure to be used.   Most engine parts may be cleaned by using the following methods. a. Vapor degreasing.   Used only on unpainted metal parts or aluminum­painted   steel   parts,   vapor   degreasing   using   heated trichloroethylene,   type   II,   or   perchloroethylene,   specification   No. O­T­634, removes oil, grease, and sludge.  The hot vapor condenses on metal   surfaces,   liquefies,   and   carries   away   the   oil,   grease,   and sludge.   Parts may be flushed while held in the vapor.   To prevent corrosion, the parts should not be removed from solvent vapors until they have reached the temperature of the vapor. b. Solvent immersion.   In another cleaning method, the parts are   immersed   in   Carbon   Removing   Compound   MIL­C­19853,   to   remove carbon, gum, grease, and other surface contaminants.   This method is used on steel and stainless steel parts.  Parts with painted finishes should   not   be   cleaned   by   this   method,   because   the   carbon   cleaning compound attacks the paint. c. Vapor   blasting.     An   abrasive   method   used   to   clean combustor   parts,   vapor   blasting   must   not   be   used   on   ceramic, magnesium, painted, or aluminum surfaces.  Be sure that metal is not removed   during   cleaning   and   that   cooling   slots,   holes,   ridges,   and overlap areas do not become clogged with blasting grit. d. Dry­cleaning solvent.  All metal parts may be cleaned with dry­cleaning   solvent,   P­D­680   Type   I.     This   method   is   suitable   for removing   heavy   oil   and   grease   deposits   from   most   parts,   including flexible hoses and carbon seals.  Dry­cleaning solvent leaves an oily film that protects steel parts from corrosion for a short time.  3.10. CLEANING COMPRESSOR ROTOR BLADES

When  a  particular  engine's performance decreases to or below the   point   specified   in   the   applicable   TM,   and   the   EGT   increases steadily   during   normal   operation,   the   compressor   rotor   blades   need cleaning.     Compressor   rotor   blades   should   also   be   cleaned   whenever the engine has been operating in areas where the air is salt laden, or   when   the   engine   has   been   subjected   to   contamination   with   fire extinguishing   agent   residue   (chlorobromomethane   and   soda   ash). Cleaning   can   be   accomplished   while   the   engine   is   installed   in   the aircraft.

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Before   cleaning   any   engine   the   applicable   engine   technical manual   must   be   consulted   for   the   proper   procedures   to   follow.     On some engines, temperature and pressure lines must be disconnected and capped to prevent solvent and water from entering. The   following   is   the   preferred   method   for   cleaning   the compressor   on   the   T53­L­13.     Refer   to   figure   3.7   as   you   read   the following steps in the cleaning method. a. Remove airframe air intake components as necessary.

b. Remove the inlet air­temperature sensing element from the inlet housing. c. Disconnect   the   pressure   line   to   bleed   band   actuator   and cap the diffuser fitting with AN929­6 cap assembly. d. Block   off   the   customer   bleed   air   supply   at   the   customer airbleed port in the airbleed adapter assembly. e. While the engine is cold, rotate it with the starter and spray   one   quart   of   dry­cleaning   solvent   (P­D­680   Type   1)   evenly through all sections of the inlet housing.   Make sure both sides of the inlet guide vanes are covered with solvent. f. Stop motoring the engine and let it stand for at least one hour to permit the dry cleaning solvent to loosen dirt. g. Clean   the   inlet   guide   vanes   with   a   small,   round   fiber brush with a long handle. h. Start the engine and operate it at flight idle.

i. Spray   CLEAN   fresh   water   evenly   into   all   sections   of   the inlet housing at the rate of two gallons per minute for approximately two minutes.    To avoid freezing at ambient temperatures below 35°  F (1.5° C), use anti­detonating injection fluid or a mixture containing 40 percent methanol and 60 percent water in lieu of water. j. Allow   the   engine   to   run   for   2   to   5   minutes   to   dry   out; then shut the engine down. k. Inspect   the   inlet   guide   vanes   and   compressor   for cleanliness. l. Repeat the cleaning procedure if necessary.

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Figure 3.7.  Compressor Blade Cleaning. m. Reconnect the lines for normal operation.

n. Clean   the   temperature   sensing   element   with   dry­cleaning solvent and reinstall it.

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3.11.

OVERHAUL AND REPAIR

The   time   between   overhauls   (TBO)   varies   considerably   between different engines.  The TBO is established by the Army and the engine manufacturer   who   take   into   account   the   kind   of   operation   and   use expected   for   the   engine,   also   the   environment   it   will   be   operating in.     As   a   specific   model   engine   builds   up   operating   time,   it   is inspected for signs of wear and impending failure of parts.   If the engine is wearing well, the TBO is extended.   The large improvement of   TBO   has   been   accomplished   mainly   through   improvements   in   engine design,   metallurgy,   manufacturing,   overhaul,   inspection,   and maintenance   procedures.     The   use   to   which   the   engine   is   put   is especially   important   in   determining   the   TBO.     For   example,   if   the mission   the   aircraft   is   designed   for   calls   for   frequent   starts   and stops, or for power changes as in a helicopter, the resultant rapid temperature   changes   will   shorten   the   allowed   TBO.     The   following paragraphs cover disassembly, assembly, and repair procedures. a. Disassembly.   Engine disassembly can be accomplished on a vertical   or   horizontal   disassembly   stand   as   shown   in   figure   3.8. Some   engines   can   be   disassembled   either   horizontally   or   vertically, while others have to be done in only one position.  After the engine is   disassembled,   the   major   components   and   section   assembly   are mounted on individual stands.  To disassemble an engine, instructions in  the TM must be followed, and a large number of special tools is required.  A set of these tools may cost as much as the engine. b. Assembly.  Engine assembly also follows instruction in the TM;   it  is  done   on   the   same  stand  as  disassembly.    During  assembly, care must be taken to prevent dirt and other foreign materials from entering   the   engine.     The   procedures   and   use   of   special   tools   as outlined   in   the   maintenance   manual   must   be   followed   to   minimize possible injury to the mechanic and damage to the engine. c. Repair.    All engine parts must be repaired using methods approved   by   the   engine   TM.     Figure   3.9   shows   an   illustration   of typical repair limits for compressor rotor blades on the Lycoming T53 series engines. 3.12. MAINTENANCE ALLOCATION CHART

Maintenance   function   assignments   are   determined   by   the maintenance   allocation   chart   found   in   the   aircraft   ­20   technical manual.     The   maintenance   allocation   chart   assigns   functions   to   the lowest   capable   maintenance   level   based   on   past   experience,   and   the skills, tools,

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Figure 3.8.  Engine Disassembly Stand. and   time   available.     Maintenance   that   cannot   be   performed   at   the assigned   level   may   be   reassigned   to   the   next   higher   level. Generally,   there   is   no   deviation   from   the   assigned   level   of maintenance.     However,   in   cases   of   operational   necessity,   higher level   function   is   assigned   to   a   lower   level   by   the   maintenance officer   of   the   level   to   which   the   function   is   originally   assigned. Figure   3.10   shows   an   example   of   a   maintenance   allocation   chart   for UH­1D   and   H   series   helicopters.     The   symbols   "O,   F,   H   and   D" represent: organizational maintenance (O), direct support maintenance (F),   general   support   maintenance   (H),   and   depot   maintenance   (D). When   one   of   these   symbols   is   placed   on   the   allocation   chart,   it indicates the lowest level of maintenance responsible for performing the particular maintenance function.   Maintenance levels higher than the   level   symbolized   on   the   chart   are   authorized   to   perform   the indicated maintenance. The   terms   used   in   block   (3)   of   the   maintenance   allocation chart are explained in table HI for convenience in reviewing and for future reference. 3.13. STORAGE AND PRESERVATION

The   degree   of   preservation   is   determined   by   the   anticipated length   of   time   an   engine   is   expected   to   be   inactive.     The   three categories of storage are: 82

Figure 3.9.  Compressor Rotor Blade Damage Before and After Repair. a. Flyable storage.  An engine that will not be operated for a   period   of   at   least   72   hours,   nor   more   than   14   days,   must   be preserved   and   maintained   with   all   components   and   systems   in   an operable condition.   On the third day, the engine must be run­up or motored with the starter.  If the engine is only motored on the third day, it must be run up on the seventh. 83

Figure 3.10.  Maintenance Allocation Chart. 84

TABLE III DEFINITIONS OF MAINTENANCE TERMS

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b. Temporary   storage.     An   engine   that   will   not   be   operated for over 14 days, but less than 45 days, must be placed in temporary storage.     Engines   normally   falling   in   this   category   are   those undergoing   minor   repair   or   modification,   awaiting   assignment   or disposition,   being   held   in   operational   reserve,   or   any   other condition which requires idleness for a period not to exceed 45 days. c. Extended   storage.     An   engine   that   will   be   inactive   for more than 45 days, but not exceeding 180 days, must be preserved and maintained in extended storage.  Usually, this includes those engines undergoing   major   repair   or   modification,   those   declared   surplus   and awaiting   final   disposition,   or   any   other   circumstance   that   would warrant idleness for 45 to 180 days. NOTE Permanent storage is a depot level function. ENGINE   PRESERVATION   ­   GENERAL.     All   preservation   procedures   require that   any   accumulation   of   dirt   be   removed   from   the   engine   with   dry cleaning solvent.    Under usual conditions, it will not be necessary to   clean   the   entire   external   surface   of   the   engine.     If   necessary, perspiration residues can be removed from close tolerance bare metal surfaces by wiping with a clean cloth dampened in fingerprint remover before cleaning with solvent. CAUTION To   prevent   oil   contamination,   never   mix synthetic­base   oils   with   mineral­base   oils. Synthetic­base   lubricating   oil   is   required   for the   engine.     Only   a   synthetic­base   corrosion preventive   oil   can   be   used   to   spray   the compressor for corrosion prevention. 3.14. TURBINE ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING

Engine   malfunctions   can   be   recognized   and   diagnosed   by comparing actual engine instrument reading with normal readings.   To aid   maintenance   personnel   in   engine   troubleshooting,   the   engine technical manual has troubleshooting charts to analyze, isolate, and correct   engine   malfunctions.     Proper   utilization   of   the troubleshooting   charts   will   save   time,   provide   a   logical   method   of isolating   the   causes   of   malfunctions,   and   eliminate   the   unnecessary replacement   of   parts.     Figure   3.11   explains   how   to   use   the troubleshooting charts.

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Figure 3.11.  How to Use Troubleshooting Charts.

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3.15.

SUMMARY

Gas   turbine   engines   are   run  in   test   cells  to   ensure   quality control   before   they   are   shipped   to   the   user   for   installation   in aircraft.     The   test   cell   is   equipped   with   instruments   to   monitor engine performance.  Engine vibration tests can be performed with the engine   in   the   test   cell   or   installed   in   the   aircraft.     Vibration tests   are   required   after   any   maintenance   on   rotating   parts   or   when excessive engine vibration  is suspected.   A jetcal analyzer is used to check the accuracy of the egt system and to calibrate it. There   are   two   kinds   of   engine   inspections,   scheduled   and special.     Scheduled   inspections   are   required   whenever   any   of   the operating limits have been exceeded. Under the Army Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (ASOAP) oil samples  are   analyzed   for   metal  content,  to  prevent  in­flight  engine failures. Personnel performing maintenance on gas turbine engines should observe the precautions stated in the engine manual to avoid serious personnel   injury   or   engine   damage.     All   engine   cleaning,   both internal   and   external,   should   be   performed   in   accordance   with   the appropriate   engine   manual.     In   most   cases   the   engine   manual prescribes the approved  cleaning procedure to be used.   Most engine parts may be  cleaned by the vapor degreasing, solvent immersion, or vapor blasting methods. The  TBO  of  a  gas  turbine engine depends upon such things as operating   environment,   mission   to   be   performed,   and   how   will   the engine wear as flight time is built up. Maintenance   function   assignments   are   determined   by   the maintenance allocation chart found in the aircraft ­20 manual.  Three categories   of   engine   storage   are   used.     The   decision   as   to   which category of storage is to be used depends upon the length of time the engine will be inactive.

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Chapter 4 LYCOMING T53 4.1. INTRODUCTION

The   two   sections   of   this   chapter   discuss,   in   detail,   the Lycoming   T53   series   gas   turbine   engine   used   in   Army   aircraft. Section   I   gives   a   general   description   of   the   T53,   describes   the engine's   five   sections,   explains   engine   operation,   compares   models and   specifications,   and   describes   the   engine's   airflow   path.     The second section covers major engine assemblies and systems. Basically,   all   models   of   the   T53   engine   are   of   the   same design.     The   major   difference   on   models   later   than   the   T53­L­11   is that   they   have   two   gas   producer   turbines   (N1)   and   two   free­power turbines (N2) instead of the single stage turbine used on the L­ 11 and earlier models.   The engine models described in this chapter are primarily the T53­L­13, and T53­L­701.   However, the description and information given is applicable to all models except where noted. Section I.  Operational Description of the T53 Gas Turbine Engine 4.2. GENERAL

The information in this section is important to you because it describes   the   engine's   airflow   path   through   the   inlet,   compressor, diffuser,   combustion,   and   exhaust   sections,   and   explains   the operational relationship of these sections.   In addition differences between   models   and   specifications   are   compared.     Except   for   the paragraph comparing models, this section's coverage is limited to the T53­L­13 and ­701. 4.3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The T53 series gas turbine engine is an annular reverse­flow, free­power   turbine   powerplant   developed   for   fixed­   and   rotary­wing aircraft.     As   shown   in   figure   4.1,   the   engine   consists   of   inlet, compressor,   diffuser,   combustion,   and   exhaust   sections.     All   these are designed to include an annular or circular flow path for the air or   hot   gases,   and   they   are   structurally   dependent   on   one   another. These   sections   support   all   internal   rotating   systems   and   have attaching capabilities for engine accessories.

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Figure 4.1.  T53 Engine (Exploded View). 90

4.4.

OPERATIONAL DESCRIPTION

The discussion in this paragraph describes briefly the airflow through   the   engines   and   the   operation   of   the   Lycoming   T53.     The capital letters in parentheses such as (A), (B), (C) and so on in the discussion correspond to similar letters in figure 4.2 and refer you to that particular portion of the engine diagram. a. Air flow.   Atmospheric air (A) is drawn into the annular air   passageway   of   the   inlet   housing   (B)   and   passes   rearward   across the   variable   inlet   guide   vanes  (C).    The  vanes  direct  the  air into the engine compressor section.   The air passageway in the compressor section contains Eve rotating axial compressor stages with five sets of   stationary   stator   vanes,  a set  of  exit  guide  vanes  (D),  and one centrifugal compressor (E).   As the air passes through this section, each   rotating   axial   compressor   stage   increases   the   pressure.     The exit guide vanes guide the air onto the centrifugal compressor which further accelerates the  air as it passes radially into the diffuser housing   air   passageway   (F).     Vanes   in   the   diffuser   air   passageway convert   the   high   velocity   of   the   air   into   pressure   and   also   change the radial airflow to a rearward flowing direction. At   this   point   the   air   enters   the   combustor   section, passing   around   and   into   the   annular   combustion   area   (G)   through slots, louvers, holes, and scoops fabricated in the combustion liner. On   entering   the   combustion   area,   flow   direction   is   reversed   while both   air   velocity   and   pressure   drop.     The   air,   at   the   same   time, performs   the   multiple   functions   of   cooling   the   combustor   liner; mixing  with   fuel,   and   burning,  sustaining,  and  maintaining  the high heat   combustion   within   a   confined   area;   and   absorbing   the   heat   of combustion   so   as   to   lower   the   heat   to   a   usable   temperature. Combustion  is   made   possible  by  introducing  fuel  into  the  combustion area   through   22   atomizers.     The   atomized   fuel   mixes   with   the   air, burns, and produces temperatures as high as 3,500 degrees F. As   previously   stated,  this  exceedingly  hot  gas  is  cooled as   it   flows   forward   in   the   combustion   area   to   the   deflector,   which reverses the hot gas flow.  Now flowing rearward, the gas is directed across the two­stage  gas producer nozzle turbine system.   The first stage   nozzle   (H)   directs   the   high   energy   gas   onto   the   first   stage turbine (I), across the second stage nozzle (J) onto the second stage turbine (K).  The power system also uses the two­stage nozzle turbine concept.     Therefore,   on   leaving   the   second   stage   gas   producer turbine,   the   gas,   still   possessing   a   high   work   potential,   flows across the third stage nozzle (L) onto the third stage turbine (M), across the fourth stage nozzle (N) onto the fourth stage turbine (O). On passing from the fourth stage turbine, the gas is exhausted into the atmosphere through the exhaust diffuser passageway (P).

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(continued on next page) Figure 4.2.  T53­L­13 Engine Airflow.

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b. Operation.     The   engine   is   started   by   energizing   the starter,  the   starting   fuel  solenoid  valve,  and  the  ignition  system. Starting fuel flows into the combustion chamber through four starting fuel nozzles and is ignited by the four igniter plugs adjacent to the starting fuel nozzles at the 2, 4, 8, and 10 o'clock positions.  At 8 to 13 percent N1 speed, the fuel regulator valve opens, and main fuel flows   into   the   combustion   chamber   through   22   fuel   atomizers   and   is ignited by the burning starting fuel.  As compressor rotor speed (N1) increases, the additional fuel mixes with compressed air and burns. When compressor speed increases to 40 percent N1 speed, the starter, starting fuel solenoid valve, and ignition system should be de­energized.   Combustion gases pass through the gas producer nozzle assemblies;   impinge   upon   (strike)   the   blades   of   the   gas   producer rotor   assemblies;   How   through   the   power   turbine   nozzle   assemblies; and   impinge   upon   the   blades   of   the   power   turbine   rotor   assemblies. Approximately   60   percent   of   the   gas   energy   passing   from   the combustion chamber is extracted by the N1 turbine rotors to drive the compressor,  while   the   remaining  energy  is   extracted  by   the   N2  power turbines   to   drive   the   power   shaft.     The   power   turbine   rotor assemblies are splined to the power shaft and secured by the power­ shaft   bolt.     The   power   shaft   is   splined   into   the   sun­gear   shaft, which   drives   the   output   reduction   gearing   and,   in   turn,   the   power output gear shaft.  4.5. MODEL COMPARISON

The Lycoming T53 engine design was submitted to the military, and in 1952 a contract was awarded to the Army for development of the present T53 gas turbine engine.   The basic T53 powerplant is a free turbine   consisting   of   two   mechanically   independent   stages   ­­   a compressor and a power turbine.   From the initial prototype version, many models of the T53 have been developed.  The following models are currently being used by the Army. T53­L­13  ­­   a   second­generation   shaft   turbine   engine   having all   the   improvements   developed   for   the   T53­   L­11/11A/11B   versions. It   introduces   combustion   chamber   atomizers   (replacing   the   vaporizer tubes), two gas producer and power turbine rotors instead of one of each, and four atomizing type starting fuel nozzles and four igniter plugs. T53­L­13A  ­­   Engine   model   T53­   L­13   containing   additional modifications   is   designated   as   model   T53­L­13A.     This   model incorporates   the   following   improvements:   a   34­blade   second   stage compressor disc assembly; No. 2 bearing forward and aft seals, bearing 95

housing   and   retaining   plate;   oil­lubricated   fuel­control   drive splines,   an   air   diffuser   and   accessory   gearbox   with   improved   oil scavenge   capability;   and   a   6­probe   exhaust   gas   temperature   harness assembly. T53­L­15 ­­ a turboprop equivalent of the T53­L­13, the T53­L­ 15   has   been   flat­rated   and   is   equipped   with   a   torque   limiter   to prevent  engine   torque   from  exceeding  the  limitations  imposed  by the airframe manufacturer.  Other differences include a 6­probe, 12­point exhaust­gas   thermocouple   harness,   a   fuel   heater,   fuel   filter,   and bypass fuel filter.   Also, the manual operating feature of the fuel control has been deleted. T53­L­701 ­­ the newest turboprop addition to the Lycoming T53 series engines is designated the T53­L­701.  The most dynamic feature of the T53­L­701 is a newly developed Lycoming split­power reduction gear assembly, using an electric torquemetering system.   This split­ power   reduction   gear   assembly   permits   development   of   the   full mechanical   and   thermodynamic   capabilities   of   the   T53­L­701   by allowing  operation   to   1,451  shp.    Very  accurate  torque  measurements on the T53­L­701 are provided by an electric torquemeter system. 4.6. SPECIFICATION SUMMARY

Specifications for the T53­L­13 and 701 engines used in Army aircraft are summarized in the following chart.

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4.7.

DIRECTIONAL REFERENCES AND ENGINE STATIONS

The   diagrams   in   figures   4.3   and   4.4   show   directional references   and   engine   stations.     Notice   that   power   output   is   taken from   the   front   end   and   that   exhaust   gas   is   expelled   from   the   rear end.   Right and left sides for the engine are determined by viewing the engine from the rear.   The engine's bottom is determined by the accessory   drive   gearbox's   location.     The   top   of   the   engine   is directly  opposite,   or   180   degrees  from  the  accessory  drive  gearbox. Rotational   direction   is   determined   by   viewing   from   the   rear   of   the engine.   The compressor rotor and gas producer turbines rotate in a counterclockwise direction.   The power turbines and output gearshaft rotate in a clockwise direction.

Figure 4.3.  Engine Orientation Diagram (T53­L­13). The   T53   engine   has   14   ports   for   test   measuring,   and   it   is divided  into   stations   to   designate  temperature  (T)  and  pressure (P) measuring locations.    Engine stations for the T53­L­13 are shown in Figure 4.4.  They are identified on the drawing as 1.0, 2.0, on up to 9.0,   but  in   practice   they   are  spoken   of   as   1,   2,   3,   and   so   forth. Station 1, on the inlet housing, is for ambient air.  Stations 2 and 3   are   for   compressor   and   diffuser   discharge   air.     Station   4   is located at the combustor section.  Stations 5 and 7 designate turbine inlets N1 and N2.  Station 9 is the location for the exhaust diffuser. No stations are shown for 6 and 8, because these numbers are not used. 97

Figure 4.4.  Engine Stations (T53­L­13). 98

4.8.

SUMMARY

Following   the   air   path   through   the   engine   shows   how   air   is drawn into and moved through the engine's Eve sections.   Air brought into the compressor section is accelerated into the diffuser­housing air   passageway.     As   the   air   moves   through   the   passageway,   its velocity changes to pressure and, under pressure, the air enters the combustion  chamber   to   mix   with  injected  fuel.    The  flow  of  the hot gases   across   the   turbine   rotors  produces  mechanical  energy  to  drive the compressor and propel the aircraft. The various models of the T53 include the L­13, L­13A, L­15, and L­701.  Some of the specifications differ in each model. Section II.  Major Engine Systems and Assembles 4.9. GENERAL

Starting   at   the   front   of  the   engine   and  working   rearward  we discuss the major engine assemblies.  Systems such as fuel, oil, and electrical   are   covered   in   their   entirety,   after   the   major   engine assemblies.     Also   keep   in   mind   that   the   T53­L­13   is   a   turboshaft engine,   and   the   T53­L­701   is   a   turboprop   engine.     The   turboprop engine has a  propeller reduction gear assembly in the inlet housing where   the   turboshaft   engine   has   a   smaller   output   reduction   gear assembly. 4.10. INLET HOUSING ASSEMBLY

The   forward   structural   support   of   the   engine   is   provided   by the inlet housing assembly shown in figure 4.5.   The outer housing, supported by six hollow struts, forms the outer wall of the annular air   inlet   and   houses   the   anti­icing   manifold.     The   inner   housing forms the inner wall of the inlet area. Enclosed in the inlet housing is the output reduction carrier and   gear   assembly,   the   oil   transfer   support   assembly,   and   the accessory   drive   carrier.     A   torquemeter   valve   and   cylinder,   power shaft   support   bearing,   and   No.   1   main   bearing   are   also   mounted internally.     At   the   rear   of   the   housing   the   inlet   guide   vanes   are installed in the airflow path to direct air at the proper angle onto the first stage of the compressor rotor.

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Figure 4.5.  Inlet Housing. Externally the inlet housing provides mounting points for the overspeed   governor   and   tachometer   drive   assembly,   and   the   N1  and   N2 accessory   drive   gearbox   assemblies.     The   housing   also   has   engine mounting   pads,   a   hoisting   eye,   and   engine   and   airframe   accessory mounting   pads.     The   entire   one­piece,   cast­magnesium   housing   is coated with a  heat­applied epoxy paint (HAE) to prevent erosion and corrosion.

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The   gas   producer   compressor   assembly   is   supported   at   its forward end by the No. 1 main bearing, figure 4.6, which is a ball bearing   to   absorb   thrust   and   radial   loads,   mounted   within   a   leaf spring   retainer   that   dampens   minor   torsional   vibrations.     The   aft side of the bearing is sealed by a positive contact carbon seal aided by springs and pressurized air.   A radial labyrinth seal is located forward   of   the   carbon   seal,   operating   on   pressurized   air   through bleed holes; it assists in positive sealing of the bearing area.  The forward end of the power shaft is supported by an unnumbered roller bearing within the inlet housing.   All main bearings may be seen by referring back to figure 4.4. The   following   subparagraphs   give   some   information   about   the T53­L­13 output reduction carrier and gear assembly and the T53­L­701 propeller reduction carrier and gear assembly.  a. Output   reduction   carrier   and   gear   assembly  on   the turboshaft   engine   in   the   T53­L­13   is   located   in   the   inner   inlet housing as shown in figure 4.7.   It consists of the support housing (1),  carrier   assembly   (2),  three  planetary  gear  assemblies  (3), oil transfer   tubes   (4),   an   output   gear   shaft   (5),   and   a   torquemeter assembly (not shown).  The sun gearshaft is splined and bolted to the forward end of the power shaft and drives the three planetary gears, which   in   turn   drive   the   output   gearshaft.     Reduction   ratio   of   the turboshaft engine is 3.2 to 1. b. Propeller reduction carrier and gear assembly  used in the T53­L­701   engine   utilizes   a   revolutionized   reduction   gear   system called split power gearing.   This type of power gear system has the ability to absorb greater torque loads, which permits the delivery of increased   horsepower.     Figure   4.8   is   a   cross   sectional   view   of   the split power reduction gear system.  The power turbine speed reduction is   accomplished   within   the   split   power   gearing   by   primary   and secondary   drive   systems,   with   power   being   transmitted   to   the propeller shaft through each of these systems. 4.11. ACCESSORY DRIVE ASSEMBLY

This assembly provides drive for both the N1­driven accessory gearbox   and   the   N2­driven   overspeed   governor   and   tachometer.     The numbers in parentheses in the following paragraphs are used in figure 4.9 to show the accessory gear drives.

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Figure 4.6.  No. 1 Bearing and Seal Area. 102

Figure 4.7.  Output Reduction Carrier and Gear Assembly. 103

Figure 4.8.  Split Power Reduction Gearing (T53­L­701). N1  drive   is   provided   from   a   pinion   gear   (9)   mounted   on   the forward   end   of   the   compressor   rotor   shaft,   driving   two   bevel   gears (10   and   19)   located   within   the   accessory   gear   carrier.     The   bevel gear   located   at   the   six   o'clock   position   within   the   carrier,   being the   accessory   gearbox   drive   gear   (10),   is   splined   internally   to accept the accessory  gearbox shaft (18).   This drive shaft connects the gear carrier to the accessory gearbox through the 90° pinion gear (16) which in turn is splined directly to the starter­generator drive gear   (15).     The   starter­generator   drive   gear   provides   drive   to   all subordinate gears located within the accessory gearbox housing.

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Figure 4.9.  Accessory Drives.

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The power takeoff drive is provided through the second bevel gear (19) located within the accessory gear carrier, and it is used to drive airframe accessories. The N2­driven overspeed governor and tachometer drive gearbox (1)   receives   its   drive   from   a   spur   gear   (20)   pressed   to   the   power shaft aft of the sun gear.  This gear engages the N2 drive and driven gear   package   (8)   located   within   the   accessory   gear   carrier.     This package,   a   series   of   three   gears,   provides   an   internally   splined drive for the drive shaft (2) which passes up through the ten o'clock inlet housing strut and into the gearbox (1). The drive shaft then engages the internal splines of the upper drive gear (3) which provides drive to the tachometer gear (5).  This gear meshes directly with an idler gear (6) which in turn transmits the   drive   to   the   combination   torquemeter   boost   pump   and   overspeed governor drive gear (7). a. N1 accessory drive gearbox assembly, shown in figure 4.10, is mounted on the underside of the engine inlet housing and is driven through   bevel   gears   from   the   front   end   of   the   compressor   rotor. Drive pads are provided on rear of the gearbox for the fuel control, the starter­generator, and the gas producer (N1) tachometer generator. The gearbox front side has mounting for the rotary oil pump, and also has an unused drive pad with connection for the torquemeter pressure transmitter   vent   line.     Oil   scavenge   lines   are   connected   at   right rear on the gearbox which is an oil collector sump, kept practically empty   by   the   pump.     A   chip   detector   plug   is   located   in   the   lower right side, and the oil filter is on the left side. b. N2  overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly, shown in figure 4.11, is a gearbox mounted on the engine inlet housing at the  upper left side and is driven from the power shaft.   The drive assembly provides mounting and drive pads for the power turbine (N2) tachometer  generator   and   the torquemeter  boost  pump,  (except  on the T53­L­701)   and   also   drives   the   fuel   control   overspeed   governor.     A relief valve, on the drive housing, allows adjustment of torquemeter oil   pressure.     An   internal  filter  and  metering  cartridge  lubricates the gear train.

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Figure 4.10.  N1 Accessory Drive Gearbox. 4.12. COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY

The compressor and impeller housings, figure 4.12, consist of two matched halves constructed of cast magnesium and coated with HAE like   the   inlet   housing   assembly.     The   compressor   housings   provide alignment   and   support   between   the   inlet   housing   forward   and   the diffuser   housing   aft.     The   housings   enclose   the   five­stage   axial compressor and the single­stage centrifugal compressor impeller.  The stator   vanes   are   located   in   lands   (areas)   between   the   compressor rotor disks when the housings are installed.  The stators convert air velocity,  from   the   rotating  compressor,  into  pressure.    The  stators also direct airflow, at the proper angle, on to the following set of rotating compressor blades.   The fifth stator vane assembly includes a row of exit guide vanes which direct airflow on to the centrifugal compressor impeller.

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Figure 4.11.  N2 Overspeed Governor and Tachometer Drive Assembly. Stainless   steel   inserts   are   mounted   between   the   stator   vane rows of stages two through five to reduce compressor housing erosion from sand and foreign objects.   At the rear of the axial compressor housings,   a   series   of   machined   passages   are   provided   to   allow bleeding of compressor air.  This bleeding of air is controlled by an interstage airbleed system.  The centrifugal impeller housings have a hollow core which allows compressor bleed air to flow through them to the customer bleed air and anti­icing systems. Externally   the   housing   provides   mounting   points   for   limited engine  and   airframe   accessories.    Because  of  the  structural  support provided by the compressor housing, only one half may be removed at a time. The  dual  compressor rotor assembly, figure 4.13, consists of five axial compressor rotor disks and one centrifugal impeller.   The axial compressor blades are mounted in dovetail slots, machined into the   rotor   disks.     Roll   pins   and   lock   plates,   which   act   as   shims, secure   the   blades   to   the   disk.     The   centrifugal   impeller   is constructed   of   titanium   for   a   high   strength­to­weight   ratio.     The compressor rotor assembly is attached to the rear shaft and connects to the gas  108

Figure 4.12.  Compressor and Impeller Housing.

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Figure 4.13.  Compressor Rotor Assembly. 110

producer   turbine.     The   hollow   steel   powershaft   passes   through   and rotates   independently   of   the   compressor   rotor.     Splines   on   the forward end of the powershaft mate with the sun gearshaft that drives the output reduction gears.  Splines at the aft end of the powershaft mate   with   the   power   turbine.     The   powershaft   is   supported   at   the forward end, within the inlet housing, by a roller type bearing.  The aft end of the shaft is supported along with the power turbines (N2) by the No. 3 and 4 main bearings. 4.13. DIFFUSER HOUSING ASSEMBLY

The diffuser assembly housing shown in figure 4.14 is made of steel and is located aft of the compressor section.

Figure 4.14.  Diffuser Housing. 111

The   diffuser   receives   high   velocity  air   from   the  tip   of  the centrifugal impeller.    The function of the diffuser is the decrease velocity and increase air pressure in this area.  Air pressure at the diffuser discharge is  at its highest value, with air temperature in the   vicinity   of   500°  F.     The   diffuser   also   provides   a   means   for bleeding   a   portion   of   the   high   temperature   air   for   required   engine and airframe use, such as engine anti­icing and cockpit heat.   Later versions   have   an   external   air   manifold,   known   as   a   piggyback diffuser, where air is extracted for use as required. Externally,   the   diffuser   provides   engine   mounting   points   at the   four, eight,   and   twelve  o'clock  positions.    Hoisting  provisions are   incorporated   in   the   top   or   twelve   o'clock   mount.     A   port   for extracting   pressurized   air   for   use   as   the   pneumatic   force   for operation of an  interstage bleed system actuator is provided at the three   o'clock   position.     Mounting   points   for   required   engine accessories are provided on the external housing. 4.14. COMBUSTOR TURBINE ASSEMBLY

Located   aft   of   the   diffuser   housing,   the   combustor   turbine assembly   consists   of   the   combustion   chamber   housing   and   liner,   gas producer   turbines,   power   turbines,   and   exhaust   diffuser.     The combustor   assembly   is   an   external   annular   reverse­flow   type. Although   this   design   increases   the   diameter   of   the   engine   to   a degree,   it   significantly   reduces   its   overall   length.     It   is classified   an   external   annular   reverse­flow   type,   in   that   the circular   combustion   chamber   is   located   outside   of   and   encloses   the turbine area.  As shown back in figure 4.2, compressed air flowing aft from the diffuser enters the combustor (25 percent primary air) and mixes with fuel and supports combustion, within the combustion liner.   The hot expanding gas flows forward within the liner; it is diluted and cooled by the remaining compressed air (75 percent secondary air). Flow direction is changed again to the rear by the stationary deflector mounted within the diffuser inner housing.   The gases then flow   through   the   gas   producer   nozzles   which   greatly   accelerate   the gas stream and direct it onto the gas producer turbine (N1).   The N1 turbine extracts approximately 60 percent of the energy to rotate the compressor   assembly.     The   gases   still   possessing   energy   are   again accelerated as they pass through the power turbine N2  nozzles.   The gas stream is then directed onto the power turbines where most of the remaining gas energy is extracted to rotate the N2 power shaft.

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The gases are then directed into the exhaust diffuser, and an average   temperature   of   the   gas   stream   is   measured   in   this   area (station 9, in figure 4.4).  Although this temperature is much lower than   that   existing   in   the   turbine   inlet   area   (station   5,   in   figure 4.4), it is relative and indicative of the temperature at station 5. The   fuel   control   automatically   programs   fuel   flow,   so   the   maximum turbine inlet temperature is not exceeded during normal operation. a. Combustion   chamber   housing.     The   T53   has   an   annular combustion   housing   Which   is   constructed   of   steel.     A   flange   at   the forward   end   mates   with   the   aft   flange   of   the   compressor   diffuser housing.   It is at this point that the engine is split to perform a hot­end inspection.    A combustion chamber drain valve is located at the   6   o'clock   position.     This   valve   is   spring   loaded   in   the   open position to drain any unburned fuel from the combustor during engine shutdown   after   a   false   or   aborted   start.     During   engine   operation, compressed   air   flowing   through   the   combustion   chamber   automatically closes   the   valve   when   chamber   pressure   exceeds   outside   pressure   by approximately 2 psi.  If the drain valve fails to close during engine  operation   a   power   reduction   from air   loss   will   occur.     The stainless­steel,   annular, combustion chamber liner is shown in   figure   4.15.     The   liner contains   a   series   of   holes   and louvers   which   vary   in   size, regulate   the   flow   of   pressurized air   into   the   inner   area   to support   combustion,   and   form   a cooling air blanket on the liner surface.   The T53­L­13 and later version   have   twenty­two   swirl cups on the aft end that provide fuel   nozzle   access   into   the burner zone.   Slots in the swirl cups direct airflow in a pattern to   provide   proper   fuel atomization and flame control. Figure 4.15. Combustion Chamber Liner. b. Turbine   assembly.     As the gases flow rearward from the defector, item 1 in figure 4.16, they contact the first stage gas 

producer turbine nozzle.  The gases are accelerated by the nozzles to impinge upon the open tip blades of the N1  turbine, causing them to rotate at high speed in a counterclockwise direction.   As the gases pass   from   the   trailing   end   of   the   blades,   an   additional   force   is

imparted to the turbine by the reaction to this flow. 113

Figure 4.16.  Gas Producer Assembly, N1. 114

The first stage gas producer turbine (GPl) and the second stage gas producer turbine (GP2) are mechanically joined together and rotate   as   one   assembly   (N1).     The   dual   turbine   design   in   later versions of the  T53 permits more lightly loaded turbine blades than previous single turbine models and has a power output increase of 20%. As the gases flow from the GP2 they pass on to the first stage   power   turbine   nozzle   (PT1).     The   gases   are   again   accelerated and flow across the two N2  power turbines.   Both turbine rotors have tip   shrouded   blades   to   prevent  air  losses  and  excessive  vibrations. The power turbines are supported at the aft end by No. 3 (roller) and No. 4 (ball) main bearings.  An N2 power turbine assembly is shown in figure 4.17. c. Exhaust   diffuser.     The   welded   steel   diffuser,   shown   in figure 4.18, forms a divergent flow path for the exhaust gases.  The diffuser   consists   of   an   inner   and   outer   housing   separated   by   four hollow   struts.     It   is   mounted   to   the   aft   inner   flange   of   the combustor   housing.     Support   for   the   aft   section   of   the   diffuser   is provided by a support cone, 20 back in figure 4.1, that is secured by a "V" band coupling to the aft outer flange of the combustor housing. Located between the exhaust diffuser and support cone is a stainless steel   fire   shield,   19   in   figure   4.1.     During   operation   ambient   air flows   between   the   outer   and   mid   cones   of   the   diffuser.     This   air passes   through   a   series   of   holes   on   the   forward   area   of   the   outer cone and into the chamber formed by the diffuser and the fire shield. Ambient air then lows through the hollow struts to cool the bearing housing mounted within the diffuser and aft face of the power turbine (PT2).   Mounts for an exhaust gas temperature harness are located on the diffuser midcone.   The aft flange on the diffuser midcone is the mounting   point   for   an   airframe   furnished   tailpipe.     The   tailpipe routes the exhaust gas stream to the atmosphere. 4.15. DESCRIPTION OF FUEL SYSTEM

The   T53   series   engines   are   designed   to   operate   primarily   on MIL­J­5624   grade   JP­4   fuel.     The   fuel   system   consists   of   the components shown in figure 4.19. Fuel   flow   is   maintained   between   components   by   flexible   or rigid   lines.     An   airframe­mounted   boost   pump   supplies   fuel   to   the fuel   control   inlet   port.     During   the   starting   sequence   fuel   flows through an external line from the hydromechanical fuel control to the starting   fuel   solenoid   inlet,   shown   in   figure   4.20.     The   cockpit­ controlled

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Figure 4.17.  N2 Power Turbine. solenoid   is   a   two­position   valve   electrically   opened   and   spring loaded closed.   With the valve energized to the open position, fuel flows   through   an   external   line   to   the   starting   fuel   manifold.     The start fuel manifold is a two­piece assembly with four rigidly­mounted starting fuel nozzle attaching points.   Fuel flows into the starting nozzles located at the 2, 4, 8, and 10 o'clock positions at the rear of the combustor housing.   The nozzles inject atomized fuel into the combustion   chamber   during   the   starting   sequence.     The   following subparagraphs discuss the two fuel flow systems. 116

Figure 4.18.  Exhaust Diffuser. a. Normal   fuel   flow.     The   fuel   flow   continues   in   the   fuel control from the main metering valve to the main system outlet port. An   external   line   carries   the   fuel   from   the   port   to   the flow divider and  dump­valve assembly.   With the introduction of the atomizing   combustor   configuration   with   dual   orifice   nozzles,   a   flow divider   dump­valve   assembly   was   installed   to   achieve   correct   fuel atomization throughout the engine operating range. The   flow   divider   meters   fuel   to   the   engine   nozzles according   to   a   predetermined   schedule   of   secondary   flow   versus primary  flow.     A   dump   valve  is  incorporated  as  an  integral  unit to drain the fuel trapped in the manifold and fuel lines when the engine is shut down.   The flow divider and dump valve assembly is designed to   function   with   fuel   pressure   up   to   1,200   psi   with   an   ambient temperature of 250° F (121° C) and a fuel supply temperature from ­65° F 117

Figure 4.19.  Fuel System Components. (­54°  C) to  200°  F (93°  C).   The flow   divider   assembly,   shown   in figure   4.21   has   a   lower   housing containing the dump valve and an upper   housing   for   the   flow divider.     These   housings   are machined from corrosion resistant steel   casting,   and   sharp   edges are   maintained   on   all   metering slots and ports. When   fuel   pressure   at the inlet reaches a predetermined value,   the   dump   valve   plunger moves toward

Figure 4.20.

Starting Fuel Flow Sequence.

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the   closed   position,   allowing fuel   to   enter   the   flow   divider valve.     When   the   inlet   pressure has   reached   the   minimum   engine operating   pressure,   the   dump valve   plunger   is   in   the   fully closed position.  The drain valve seal   prevents   fuel   from   the primary   and   secondary   manifolds from draining. Fuel   passes   the   flow divider   series   orifice   in   the flow divider plunger en route to the   primary   manifold,   creating   a pressure   drop.     This   pressure drop   across   the   orifice   is sufficient   to   move   the   plunger off its stop.   As the plunger is displaced,   the   secondary   flow metering ports in the plunger are progressively   opened,   allowing fuel   to   pass   to   the   secondary manifolds.     From   the   flow divider,   fuel   flows   through primary   and   secondary   lines   to the   main   fuel   manifold   assembly shown in figure 4.22. Figure 4.21. Fuel Flow Divider.

From the flow divider, fuel   flows   through   primary   and secondary lines to  the main fuel manifold   assembly.     The   manifold is   a   two­section,   dual­channeled assembly   with   eleven   outlets   in each section.  Each manifold half is   interchangeable,   requiring only   a   minor   hardware   adjustment to make the change.   The 22 fuel atomizers   are   attached   directly to the manifolds, which discharge the   atomized   fuel   into   the combustion chamber. The   fuel   atomizer,   as shown in figure 4.   23 is a dual orifice   injector   designed   to accommodate   the   separate   primary and   secondary   fuel   flow functions.  The separate orifices spray 119

Figure 4.22.  Fuel Manifold.

Figure 4.23.  Fuel Atomizer. fuel   into   the   combustion   chamber   through   the   action   of   the   flow divider.     Fuel   entering   the   primary   section   of   the   atomizer   passes through the primary  screen and continues to flow through the center of the nozzle to the swirl chamber located internally in the head of the   nozzle.     Here   it   passes   through   three   swirl   slots   and   is discharged into the combustion chamber at a 90° spray angle.  The fine spray density established  by the primary slots is required to start and run the engine.   Higher N1  speeds require additional fuel and a heavier   density   spray   pattern;   therefore,   secondary   fuel   is introduced through the nozzle at speeds above 32% N1.   The secondary flow enters 120

the outer shell of the nozzle and passes through the secondary screen and into the secondary swirl slots.  The secondary swirl slots, being slightly larger in size than the primary swirl slots, allow a greater volume of fuel to be discharged into the combustor.   The combination of primary and secondary flow which is delivered to the combustor at an­optimum spray angle of 90°  is sufficient to operate the engine at all power settings above 32% N1. To further atomize the fuel entering the combustor liner, swirl   cones   located   at   the   aft   end   of   the   combustor   liner   assembly allow   combustion   air   to   enter   the   liner   and   swirl   in   the   opposite direction to that of the fuel being injected by the atomizer.   This additional  swirling   air   establishes  a definite  flame  pattern  at the end   of   each   atomizer.     Additionally,   air   is   routed   through   the   air shroud   to   cool   the   atomizers   and   assist   in   establishing   this   flame pattern.     When   fuel   flow   is   cut   off   at   engine   shutdown,   the   inlet pressure  falls   below   the   dump­valve  opening  pressure,  and  the dump­ valve plunger is moved by its spring to the fully open position.  The fuel   in   the   primary   manifold   then   flows   to   drain   through   the   main flow passage between the flow divider and drain valve.  The secondary manifold   is   drained   via   a   small   drain   port   in   the   upper   housing leading into the dump­valve cavity. b. Manual   fuel   flow.     The   manual   or   emergency   fuel   flow sequence   is   the   same   as   normal   fuel   flow   sequence   except   for   the fuel­control changeover valve.  When the changeover valve is actuated to   the   manual   position,   fuel   is   redirected   to   the   manual­system metering   valve,   which   is   mechanically   linked   to   the   main   power control   in   the   cockpit.     This   flow   path   bypasses   the   main   metering valve.  Other than that, the manual fuel­flow sequence is the same as the normal.  The fuel system on the T53­L­13 is similar to the one on the   T53­L­701.     However,   the   T53­L­701   turboprop   engine   has   a   fuel heater to prevent fuel from icing by using engine lubricating oil to heat the fuel.   The fuel heater supplies fuel in temperature ranges between 35 to 70° F when fuel inlet temperatures are in the ­65 to  ­70° F range. 4.16. INTERNAL COOLING AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM

The   internal   cooling   system   provides   cooling   air   to   the internal  engine   components   and pressurizes  the  number  one,  two, and three main bearing seals.  Cooling and pressurization air is obtained from five parts of the engine.  The following numbers in parentheses, such as (1), (2), and so on in the discussion, correspond to similar numbers   in   figure   4.24   and   refer   you   to   that   particular   portion   of the engine.   Air flows down through the fourth stage spacer (1) into the 121

Figure 4.24.  Internal Cooling and Pressurization. 122

area   between   the   compressor   rotor   sleeve   and   the   rotor   disk   inside diameters,   then   forward   to   the   first   stage   rotor   disk   where   it   is bled   back   into   the   compressor   airstream   through   holes   in   the   first stage   spacer.     This   airflow   cools   the   three   aluminum   disks   in   the compressor rotor assembly.   Compressed air bled from the tip of the centrifugal   compressor   impeller   (2)   cools   the   forward   face   of   the diffuser housing and pressurizes the No. 2 bearing forward seal, and continues  rearward   through   transfer  tubes  in  the  bearing  housing to pressurize the No. 2 aft oil seal.   It also passes through a series of   holes   in   the   rear   compressor   shaft   into   the   space   between   the rotor assembly and the power shaft.  At this point, it separates into three   flow   paths.     Part   of   the   compressed   air,   used   for   seal pressurization,   flows   forward   and   through   a   series   of   holes   in   the compressor front shaft.   This air fills the area between the carbon elements   of   the   No.   1   bearing   seal.     The   intershaft   seal,   located forward of the No. 1 bearing, prevents flow of pressurized air into the inner inlet housing area.  A portion of this compressed air flows aft   over   the   power   shaft   and   emerges   at   the   aft   end   of   the   rear compressor   shaft   to   cool   the   rear   face   of   the   second   gas   producer (GP) rotor, the forward face of the first power turbine (PT) rotor, and the first stage PT nozzle.  The air then passes into the exhaust stream.   The remainder of the compressed air flows through a series of  holes in the power shaft.   This air flows aft, inside the power shaft, through holes drilled in the hollow power­shaft through bolt, and   into   the   interior   of   the   second   PT   rotor   assembly.     Air   then passes through a series of holes in the turbine hub and the turbine spaces to cool the rear surface of the first PT rotor assembly, the forward   surface   of   the   second   PT   rotor   assembly,   and   both   faces   of the second PT nozzle. Compressed air, bled through slots in the mating surfaces of the combustion chamber  deflector and the air diffuser (3) cools the forward  face   of   the   deflector  and  the  No.  2 bearing  housing.    Then the   air   is   split   into   paths   to   cool   the   blade   roots   of   the   first stage   GP   rotor   assembly.     The   air   then   flows   through   holes   in   the inside diameter of the GP turbine spacer to cool the hub area of the rear face of the first GP turbine and the forward face of the second GP turbine.   The air then flows rearward where it joins the cooling air being discharged from the aft end of the compressor shaft where it is expelled into the exhaust stream. Compressed   air   is   then   directed   through   the   first   stage   GP nozzle and cylinder assembly (4) to cool the rear face of the first stage GP rotor and then into the exhaust stream.  Ambient   air   is   used   to   cool   the   No.   3   and   No.   4   bearing housing.     The   air   enters   the   exhaust   diffuser   struts   (5)   and   moves forward

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between   bearing   housing   walls   to   cool   the   rear   face   of   the   second stage PT rotor assembly.   As the ambient air passes the forward face of the No. 3 bearing seal, it helps pressurize the seal. 4.17. VARIABLE INLET GUIDE VANE SYSTEM

To ensure a compressor surge margin, the angle of incidence of the inlet air to the first compressor rotor must be within the stall­ free   operating   range   of   the   compressor   blades,   and,   because   this stall­free   operating   range   varies   with   compressor   speed   (N1),   it   is necessary to vary the angle of attack with changes in N1 speed.  This is done by varying the angle of the inlet guide vanes.  The variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) are located in front of the first compressor rotor as shown in figure 4.5. At low N1 speeds, a high angle of attack is required, while at higher N1 speeds, the angle of attack decreases.  Refer to the blocks in figure 4.25 for the angle of attack at high and low N1 speeds. The   VIGV's   are   positioned   by   the   inlet   guide   vane   actuator pilot valve, located in the fuel control, which monitors N1 speed and compressor   inlet   temperature   (T1).     While   setting   the   desired position   of   the   VIGV's,   the   actuator   relays   their   position   back   to the fuel control through an external feedback control rod to nullify the fuel pressure signal so that at any steady­state N1 speed between 80   and   95   percent,   the   inlet   guide   vanes   will   assume   a   constant position.     The   VIGV   actuator   is   mounted   on   the   right   side   of   the compressor housing assembly, shown in figure 4.26.   The actuator is controlled   by   main   fuel   pressure   from   the   fuel   control.     Two   fuel lines   carry   the   fuel   from   the   fuel   control   to   the   VIGV   actuator. This fuel pressure acts upon the piston inside the actuator to move the   VIGV's.     The   VIGV's   are   positioned   by   the   inlet   guide   vane actuator control rod through a synchronizing ring. 4.18 INTERSTAGE BLEED SYSTEM

The interstage bleed system, shown in figure 4.27, consists of a   bleed   band,   an   actuator   assembly,   and   air   hoses   and   connectors. The   function   of   the   system   is   to   improve   compressor   acceleration characteristics.   The system automatically unloads the compressor of a small amount of compressed air (about one tenth) during the period in the engine acceleration cycle when faster compressor acceleration is more desirable than the slight loss in engine power due to the air bleed.

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Figure 4.25.  Variable Inlet Guide Vane Angle of Attack. The   air   bleed   actuator,   shown   in   figure   4.28,   operates   by compressor   discharge   air   (P3)which   is   extracted   from   a   port   on   the right side of the air diffuser housing. The air entering the actuator assembly passes through a filter to   the  underside   of   the   relay  valve  diaphragm.    A small  portion of this air, which is under the diaphragm, is bled through an orifice in the   base   of   the   relay   valve   assembly   to   an   external   line   which directs it to a slide valve located on the fuel regulator housing. 125

Figure 4.26.  Variable Inlet Guide Vane System. With   the   slide   valve   in   the   open   position,   this   air   (Pm)   is vented   overboard,   reducing   pressure   at   the   top   surface   of   the diaphragm.    Simultaneously,  air  is  being  bled  overboard  through the open actuator valve;  this reduces pressure at the bottom surface of the diaphragm.  This equalization of pressure on both surfaces of the diaphragm causes it to remain in a neutral position holding the relay valve   in   its   open   position.     With   the   actuator   valve   open,   the majority of the P3 air that enters the actuator assembly is vented to the atmosphere.  When the P3 pressure is vented, the actuator spring, located on top of the actuator piston, expands and pushes the piston downward.  This causes the bleed band to open and remain open as long as the slide valve on the fuel control is in the open position.

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Figure 4.27.  Interstage Bleed System, External Components. When the slide valve is closed, it follows then that the bleed band will be closed.   This is accomplished by a buildup of pressure on the top side of the relay valve diaphragm which forces the relay valve down, closing off the overboard vent.   With the overboard vent closed,   the   P3   pressure   is   now   routed   into   the   actuator   piston assembly to move upward.   This causes the bleed band to close around the compressor bleed ports. The   entire   sequence   of   operation   is   controlled   by   the   fuel control   which   senses   gas   producer   (N1)   speed,   fuel   flow   and   pilot demand,   therefore   ensuring   proper   opening   and   closing   of   the interstage air bleed. 4.19. ANTI­ICING SYSTEM

The  engine  anti­icing system, shown in figure 4.29, supplies hot air, under pressure, to prevent icing of the inlet housing areas and   inlet   guide   vanes   when   the   engine   is   operating   under   icing conditions.   Pressurized hot air from the air diffuser flows through the holes in the trailing edge of the diffuser vanes and collects in the   bleed   air   diffuser   manifold,   where   it   is   passed   to   an   external bleed­air manifold located at the 1 o'clock position on the diffuser housing.   An elbow and tube are connected to the external bleed­air manifold 127

and to an adapter located on top of the impeller housing.   The tube and   elbow   pass   air   through   the   impeller   housing   to   the   hot   air solenoid valve.

Figure 4.28.  Interstage Bleed System, Cutaway View. 128

Figure 4.29.  Anti­icing System Diagram. The hot air solenoid valve is mounted on top of the compressor and impeller housing.   The solenoid­operated valve controls the flow of anti­ icing hot air from the diffuser to the inlet housing.  It is an   electrically   controlled,   pneumatically   operated,   fail­safe   valve and will open in the event of an electrical failure. During   engine   operation,   the   solenoid   is   generally   energized and   the   valve   remains   closed.     When   anti­icing   air   is   needed,   the solenoid is deenergized by activating a switch in the cockpit.   This vents   one   side   of   the   valve   to   atmospheric   pressure,   and   the differential   pressure   between   diffuser   pressure   and   atmospheric pressure  overcomes   spring   tension  and  allows  anti­icing  air  to flow to   the  inlet   area.     The   valve  will  anti­ice  at  gas  producer  speeds (N1) above flight autorotation (68% ­ 72% N1). After leaving the hot air solenoid valve, anti­icing air flows forward   through   a   tube   into   the   port   on   top   of   the   inlet   housing. This anti­icing air is then circulated through five of the six hollow inlet   housing   support   struts   to   prevent   ice   formation   in   the   inlet housing area.   Anti­icing air also flows into the rear of the inlet housing   where   it   passes   through   the   hollow   inlet   guide   vanes   to prevent icing.   After passing through the inlet guide vanes, the air exits in front of the inlet guide vanes and flows into the compressor area.   Hot scavenge oil, draining through the strut at the 6 o'clock position of the inlet housing prevents ice formation in the bottom of the inlet housing area. 129

4.20.

DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF LUBRICATION SYSTEM

The   engine   lubrication   system   consists   of   the   main   oil pressure   supply   system   and   the   oil   scavenge   system.     The   principal components   of   the   lubrication   system   are   the   oil   filter   assembly, power­driven   rotary   oil   pump,   power­driven   rotary   boost   pump,   and associated   oil   lines   and   internal   passages.     Figure   4.30   shows   the internal lubrication system for the T53­L­13.   The operation of the oil system is covered in the following subparagraphs. a. Main   oil   pressure  supply  system.   Engine  lubricating  oil is supplied from an aircraft­mounted oil tank.  Oil enters the power­ driven   rotary   oil   pump,   which   is   mounted   on   the   N1  accessory   drive gearbox,   along   with   the   main   oil   filter,   shown   in   figure   4.31A. Filter   oil   is   directed   into   two   main   flow   paths.     Oil   is   directed through internal passages in the inlet housing to supply lubricating oil   to   the   front   section   of   the   engine,   including   the   reduction gearing,   torquemeter,   accessory   drive   gearing,   the   No.   1   main bearing, and the power shaft forward bearing.  The second oil path is through   the   external   oil   pressure   lines   to   the   rear   section   of   the engine to lubricate the No. 2, 3, and 4 main bearings. In the inlet housing section, oil is directed through the accessory  drive   carrier   flanges  into  the  main  oil  transfer  assembly located in the rear support flange of the carrier, as illustrated in figure   4.31(A).     Oil   from   this   passage   is   directed   to   the   oil transfer assembly for forced­feed spray lubrication of the reduction gears through three  oil transfer tubes.   Oil flows through internal passages   in   the   output   reduction   carrier   liner,   under   pressure,   to three jets in the liner.  One jet sprays oil forward, lubricating the main output shaft bearing runner, the second lubricates the reduction gear   forward   bearing,   and   the   third   sprays   aft,   lubricating   the output gear shaft bearing. Oil from the transfer tube sprays against the output shaft plug deflector.   This deflector is manufactured with a predetermined angle to splash the oil rearward, to lubricate the sun gear and power shaft splines.   Three oil jets located 120 degrees apart in the main oil­transfer   assembly,   shown   in   figure   4.31(A),   direct   oil   to   the rear   planetary   support   bearings.     The   main   oil­transfer   support assembly also houses an oil jet positioned so that high pressure oil is   directed   to   impinge   or   the   power   shaft   bearing   runner,   thus lubricating the bearing.  Machined oil grooves in the accessory drive carrier   assembly,   illustrated   in   figure   4.31A(B),   transport   oil through   an   internal   strainer   to   an   oil   nozzle   located   in   the   power shaft   support   bearing   retainer.     The   oil   nozzle   has   three   machined jets.  The first 130

Figure 4.30.  Internal Lubrication (T53­L­13). 131

Figure 4.31A(B)(C).  Lubrication Flow Diagram. 132

jet is positioned  to lubricate the accessory drive pinion gear, the second   jet   is   designed   to   lubricate   the   number   one   main   bearing runner,   and   the   third   jet   is   positioned   to   lubricate   the   main bearing.     Surplus   oil   from   the   number   one   main   bearing   and   pinion gear also lubricates the accessory drive shaft support bearings.  The number   one   main   bearing   and   the   accessory   drive   pinion   gear   are lubricated by oil from a transfer tube located in the accessory drive carrier   assembly.     Oil   under   a   constant   pressure   from   the   transfer assembly lubricates the power shaft support bearing. Oil   from   a   third   transfer   passage   is   directed   from   the main   transfer   assembly   up   through   an   inlet   housing   strut   to   the power­driven   rotary   booster   pump.     This   pump   is   mounted   on   the overspeed   governor   and   tachometer   drive   assembly.     The   assembly includes a pressure regulating valve that governs the output pressure of   the   rotary   torquemeter   boost   pump   by   circulating   the   excess pressurized oil back to the inlet housing.   The pressurized oil from the   rotary   booster   pump   is   directed   back   through   an   inlet   housing strut to the torquemeter cylinder, shown in figure 4.31A(C). An   offset   passage   in   the   overspeed   governor   mounting flange directs engine  oil to the strainer and metering cartridge in the overspeed governor gearbox.   An additional transfer passage from the   main   transfer   support   assembly   directs   oil   through   internal passages in the inlet housing to the power takeoff mounting flange. This   oil   passes  through  a strainer  and  metering  orifice, which   lubricates   accessories   driven   by   the   engine,   mounted   on   the power   takeoff.     Oil   flow   to   the   rear   section   of   the   engine   is supplied from an oil pressure port at the 5 o'clock position in the inlet housing through an external hose to a pressure manifold.   The manifold is mounted on the forward face of the diffuser housing.  Oil is   directed   from   the   bottom   of   the   manifold   through   a   strainer mounted on the diffuser housing, shown at L in figure 4.31B, to the No.  2 main bearing.   Oil is directed from the top of this manifold through   an   external   hose   and   strainer,   shown   in   H   in   figure   4.31B, through the upper strut in the exhaust diffuser and directed through the   power   turbine   oil   tube   at   F   in   figure   4.31B.     The   oil   tube consists of two jets; one directs oil to the forward face of the No. 4 bearing runner, and the second jet lubricates the aft face of the No. 3 bearing runner.  Oil is also directed through a horizontal tube forward to the No. 3 bearing seal. 

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(continued on next page) Figure 4.31B.  Lubrication Flow Diagram.

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b. Oil scavenge  system.   All internal scavenge oil from the inlet   housing   section   drains   through   a   hollow   support   strut   to   the bottom of the inlet housing through a scavenge strainer and transfer tube,   and   into   the   accessory   drive   gearbox.     Scavenge   oil   from   the output reduction carrier and gear assembly flows by gravity into the hollow inlet housing struts. Scavenge oil from the No. 1 main bearing is pumped to the inlet   housing   struts   by   an   impeller   or   paddle   pump   located   on   the rear of the bearing.   Scavenge oil from the No. 2 main bearing flows through a scavenge oil tube, illustrated at G in figure 4.31B, in the diffuser housing and is directed to the accessory drive gearbox by an external scavenge oil hose assembly.  Scavenge oil from the No. 3 and 4   bearings,   as   shown   in   figure   4.31B(F),   flows   through   an   oil   tube that   extends   through   the   bottom   of   the   exhaust   diffuser   and   is directed to the  accessory drive gearbox by an external oil scavenge hose assembly.    The scavenge portion of the power­driven rotary oil pump   returns   scavenge   oil   from   the   accessory   drive   gearbox   through the aircraft oil cooler to the aircraft oil storage tank. 4.21. TORQUEMETER SYSTEM

The torquemeter shown in figure 4.32 is used on the T53­L­13; it   is   a   hydromechanical   torque­measuring   device   located   in   the reduction­gear section of the inlet housing.   It uses boosted engine oil to measure engine torque effort; the measurement is read in the cockpit   as   torque   oil   pressure   in   psi.     Although   this   system   uses engine   oil,   it   is   not   a   part   of   the   lubrication   system.     The following numbers in parentheses correspond to the numbers in figure 4.32.  The   mechanical   portion   of   the   torquemeter   consists   of   two circular   plates.     One   is   attached   to   the   inlet   housing   and   is identified as the stationary plate (1).  The second, or movable plate (2)   is   attached   to   the   reduction   gear   assembly   (6).     The   movable plate   contains   front   and   rear  torquemeter  sealing  rings  (12),  which enable   it   to   function   as   a   piston   in   the   rigidly   mounted   cylinder (3).     The   cylinder   assembly   houses   the   variable­opening   torquemeter (poppet)   valve   (4).     The   movable   plate   maintains   the   fixed­orifice metered   bleed   (13),   which   functions   in   relation   with   the   poppet valve.   The movable plate is separated from the stationary plate by steel balls (5) positioned in matched conical sockets machined in the surfaces   of   both   plates.     When   the   engine   is   not   operating,   the torquemeter   movable   plate   is   a   position   forward   and   clear   of   the torquemeter valve plunger, allowing the spring­loaded valve to remain in the closed position.  With the engine operating and a load applied to the output shaft (14), the torque  137

Figure 4.32.  Torquemeter Diagram. 138

developed   in   the   engine   to   drive   the   shaft   is   transmitted   from   the sun   gear   (11)   through   the   reduction   gear   assembly.     The   attached movable   plate   tends   to   rotate   with   the   assembly.     However,   this mechanically   limited   radial   movement   positions   the   steel   balls against the conical sockets of both plates, resulting in the movable plate being axially directed rearward in the assembly. The   plate,   moving   rearward,   contacts   the   torquemeter   valve plunger,   opening   the   valve   and   allowing   oil   to   flow   into   the cylinder.     This   contact   is   maintained   during   all   engine   operation, and the size of the valve opening varies as the plate moves rearward or   forward.     As   torque   continues   to   increase   and   the   torquemeter valve opens further, oil pressure increases in the cylinder but will not exceed the boost pump pressure because of the metered bleed (13). The   oil   pressure   developed   in   the   cylinder   exerts   pressure against   the   piston   (movable   plate),   restraining   the   rearward movement.   With the engine operating in a steady­state condition the cylinder oil pressure and movement of the plate hold in an equalized position. A factor affecting torque indications is the air pressure that develops   in   the   inlet   housing   at   high   power   settings.     This   air pressure produces a force oh the forward face of the piston (movable plate)   inducing   a   higher   torque   indication   than   is   actually   being delivered.   From the port on the forward face of the accessory drive gearbox,   the   air   pressure   is   vented   to   the   airframe­mounted torquemeter transmitter. The   pressurized   oil   from   the   torquemeter   cylinder   is   also directed to the transmitter from a port at the 3 o'clock position of the inlet housing.   The transmitter cancels the air pressure effect, resulting in a  true torquemeter indication at the instrument in the cockpit. A power­driven rotary (booster) pump, containing pressure and scavenge elements is mounted on and driven by the overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly.  Each element is an individual pumping unit   and   draws   oil   from   a   separate   source.     The   pressure   element receives   engine   lubricating   oil   and   delivers   it,   at   a   boosted pressure,   to   the   torquemeter   valve.     Excess   oil   flows   back   to   the inlet side of the pump.  A relief valve in the overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly sets the power­driven rotary (booster) pump outlet   pressure.     The   scavenge   element   receives   oil   from   the overspeed governor and tachometer drive gear housing and delivers it to the oil return passages in the inlet housing assembly. 

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The Lycoming T53­ L­7 01 uses an electric torquemeter system to monitor power output.  The Avco Lycoming electric torquemeter is a refined torque measuring system which measures torque imposed on the engine power output shaft.   The torque signal is a result of tension and   compression   stresses   changing   the   magnetic   reluctance   of   the shaft. The   torque   system   is   comprised   of   five   components   and   their interconnecting   wiring.     Two   of   these,   the   power   supply   and   the indicator, are airframe mounted components and may be replaced at any time   without   recalibration.     The   remaining   three,   the   power   output shaft,   the   head   assembly   (transformer),   and   junction   box,   must   be replaced only as a pre­calibrated set. The   transformer   consists   of   one   primary   and   two   secondary windings.     The   primary   generates   a   constant   magnetic   field   which penetrates   the   transformer   core   attached   to   the   primary   sun   gear. The   voltage   induced   in   the   two   secondaries   varies   with   the   tension and   compression   stresses   imposed   on   the   shaft.     This   difference   in secondary voltage is transmitted through the junction box and is read on  the cockpit indicator as psi of torque.   Figure 4.33 is a cross section   of   the   inlet   housing   to   show   relationship   of   power   output shaft, torquemeter head assembly, and torquemeter junction box. 4.22. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

The   engine   electrical   system   consists   of   the   main   wiring harness  and   connectors   for  electrical  components  as  shown  in   figure 4.34.     The   airframe   and   engine   wiring   diagram   is   shown   in   figure 4.35.     The   following   subparagraphs  briefly  discuss  the  operation of the engine electrical system. a. Ignition   system.     The   high­energy,   medium­voltage, capacitor­discharge   ignition   system   consists   of   an   ignition­exciter unit, output leads, spark­splitter coil, and four surface­gap igniter plugs.     The   system   is   activated   simultaneously   with   the   start   fuel solenoid valve and starter by a switch in the cockpit.  The ignition system   is   used   only   for   engine   starting   and   not   for   sustaining combustion. Power from the 28v dc electrical system is stepped up in the exciter unit to 2,500 volts and discharged through igniter plugs in the combustion chamber at a spark rate of two to eight per second.

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Figure 4.33.  Torquemeter System (T53­L­701). b. Exhaust gas temperature harness.   An exhaust thermocouple harness,   consists   of   an   electrical   connector,   a   shielded   manifold, and six thermocouples, as shown in figure 4.36.

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Figure 4.34.  Electrical System. 142

Figure 4.35.  Electrical Wiring Diagram.

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Figure 4.36.

Exhaust Thermo­ couple Harness.

The   thermocouples   are inserted   through   the   exhaust diffuser   into   the   exhaust   gas flow.  When heated by the exhaust gas,   an   electromotive   force(emf) is generated.  Any two dissimilar metals   placed   in   contact   with each   other   generate   a   small voltage   if   heated   at   that junction.   The  amount of voltage produced   varies   with   the   metals used and the temperature they are heated   to.     Electrically,   the thermocouples   are   connected   in parallel   with   each   other.     This results in an average temperature reading.  If one thermocouple  becomes   inoperative   an   average   reading   of   the   remaining   ones   will result.     The   thermocouples   and   their   leads   are   made   of   chromel   and alumel.   Chromel is an alloy of nickel and chromium.   Alumel is an alloy of nickel,  manganese, aluminum, and silicon.   The accuracy of the thermocouple harness is +5° at 1292° F (700° C). 4.23. SUMMARY

The major engine assemblies are the inlet, accessory gearbox, compressor,   diffuser,   and   combustor   turbine   assembly.     The   inlet housings   on   both   the   T53­L­15   and   T53­L­701   have   a   propeller reduction gear assembly. Fuel is metered by a hydromechanical fuel control to twenty­ two atomizers.   The fuel control has two modes of operation: normal, and manual fuel flow.  The internal cooling and pressurization system provides   cooling   air   to   internal   engine   parts   and   pressurizes   the main   bearing   seals.     The   engine   has   variable   inlet   guide   vanes   to ensure a  144

compressor   surge­free   margin.     The   interstage   bleed   system automatically unloads the compressor of a small amount of air during engine  acceleration.     The   anti­icing  system  supplies  hot  air,  under pressure, to prevent icing of the inlet housing areas and inlet guide vanes.     Oil   is   supplied   for   lubrication   by   the   oil   pressure   supply system and is scavenged by the scavenge oil system.   The torquemeter is   a   hydromechanical,   torque­measuring   device   that   indicates   engine torque in psi.   Ignition for starting is produced by a high­energy, medium­voltage,   capacitor­discharge  system.    Exhaust  gas  temperature is measured by six thermocouples inserted in the exhaust gas flow.  

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Chapter 5 LYCOMING T55 5.1. INTRODUCTION

This   chapter   covers   the   Lycoming   T55   gas   turbine   engine. Section I gives  an operational description of the T55, covering the engine's   five   sections.     Section   II   covers   in   detail   each   of   the engine's sections and major systems. Basically, all models of the T55 are of the same design.  The major difference between the T5 5­L­7C and L­11 engines is that the L­11 has a two­stage gas producer turbine and the L­7C uses a single­ stage gas producer turbine.  However, the description and information given in this chapter are applicable to all models of the T55 except where   noted.     The   Lycoming   T55   engine   is   used   to   power   the   CH­47 Chinook helicopter. Section I.  Operational Description of the T55 Gas Turbine Engine. 5.2. GENERAL

This   section   describes   in   detail   the   inlet,   compressor, diffuser, combustion, and power turbine sections, and the differences between models and specifications are compared. Except for the discussion comparing models and specifications, the section's coverage is limited to the T55­L­7C and ­11A engines. 5.3. DESCRIPTION

The T55 gas turbine engine is a direct­drive, annular reverse flow,   free­power   turboshaft   engine   developed   for   use   in   rotary­wing aircraft.     An   exploded   view   of   the   T55­L­11A   engine   is   shown   in figure 5.1. The   engine   consists   of   an   air   inlet,   accessory   drive, compressor,   diffuser,   combustion,   and   power   turbine   sections.     All the sections, except the accessory drive, form an annular (circular) flow path for air and hot gases.   in addition, all the sections are structurally interdependent.  The T55 is a direct drive engine,

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Figure 5.1.  Exploded View of T55­L­11A Engine. meaning it has no gear reduction, and the power output shaft speed is the same as the power turbine speed.   The airflow paths through the T55­L­7   and   L­11A   engines   are   shown   in   figures   5.2   and   5.3 respectively. 147

Figure 5.2.  Engine T55­L­7 Series.

Figure 5.3.  Engine T55­L­11 Series.

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At the front of the engine, the inlet housing forms an annular airflow path to the inlet guide vanes (IGV) which are variable on the T55­L­11A engine. An airflow path is between the inner diameter of the housing and the base contours of the compressor stages.  The compressor rotor has seven axial  and one centrifugal stage compressor.   The diffuser channel  contains   radial   vanes  which  straighten  the  airflow  from the centrifugal compressor.  These vanes increase the static air pressure to   its  highest   pressure   at  the  diffuser  exit.    Air  passes  into the combustor section where its flow direction is changed twice.  Flowing rearward   from   the   diffuser,   the   air   surrounds   and   enters   the combustor liner through holes and louvers, and 28 swirl cups reverse the airflow direction for the first time.  Each swirl cup contains a dual­orifice,   fuel­atomizing   nozzle.     As   combustion   occurs,   the   hot expanding   gases   move   forward   to   the   curl   assembly,   again   reversing the flow.  The T55­L­7 uses 14 "T" cane vaporizer tubes to inject the fuel for combustion. The gas flow is directed by the first and second stage nozzles to the two­stage gas­producer (GP) turbine.  The T55­L­7C engines use a single­stage GP turbine.   These turbines are attached to the rear of the compressor rotor shaft and extract the energy required to turn the compressor. From the second stage turbine of the L­1A engine, the gas flow continues   through   the   power   turbine   (PT)   section.     Most   of   the remaining   energy   of   the   hot   gases   is   extracted   by   the   two­stage   PT and   is   transmitted   by   the   power   shaft   to   the   power   output   shaft. After the expanding gases have passed through the PT section they are exhausted to the atmosphere through the exhaust duct. 5.4. MODEL COMPARISON

The T55 series gas turbine engines are used to power the CH­47 Chinook   helicopter.     The   CH­47B   is   powered   by   either   the   Lycoming T55­L­7,   ­7B,   or   ­7C   turboshaft   engines.     The   CH­47C   is   powered   by either T55­L­7C or T55­L­ll engines. Basically,   the   Lycoming   T55   series   engines   are   of   the   same design and differ only in shaft horsepower and internal details.  The T55­L­7  and   ­7B   engines   are rated  at  2,200  shp  at  normal  power and 2,650 at military power.   The T55­L­7C engine is rated at 2,400 shp at normal power, 2,650 at military power, and 2,850 at maximum power. The T55­L­11 engine is rated at 3,000 shp at normal power, 3,400 at military power, and 3,750 at maximum power.

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The   T55­L­7C   engine   differs   from   the   other   T55­L­7   series engines in the following ways: (1) an atomizing combustor is used as opposed   to   the   vaporizing   type;   (2)   the   14   vaporizer   "T"   canes   are replaced   by   28   dual­orifice   fuel   spray   nozzles   for   injecting   fuel into   the   combustor;   (3)   four   ignitors   and   start   fuel   nozzles   are installed   to   ensure   optimum   ignition   and   flame   propagation   during starting.  However, only two of the four start fuel nozzles are used; (4) a modified fuel control is used. In addition, the T55­L­11A differs from the T55­L­7 series in the following: (1)a two­stage gas producer(GP) turbine is used; (2) a more   accurate   electric   torquemeter   with   an   indicator   reading   in percent of maximum torque; (3) five thermocouple probes, that measure the   gas   temperature   at   the   power   turbine   inlet;   and   (4)   variable inlet guide vanes to improve compressor efficiency. 5.5. SPECIFICATION SUMMARY

Specifications   for   the   T55­L­7,   ­7C   and   ­11   engines   used   in Army aircraft are summarized in the following chart.

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5.6.

DIRECTIONAL REFERENCES AND ENGINE STATIONS

The diagrams in figure 5.4 and 5.5 show directional references and   engine   stations.     Right   and   left   sides   of   the   engine   are determined   by   viewing   the   engine   from   the   rear.     Direction   of rotation   of   the   compressor   rotor   and   gas   producer   turbines   is counterclockwise   as   viewed   from   the   rear   of   the   engine.     The   power turbine and the output gearshaft rotate in a clockwise direction.

Figure 5.4.  T55 Engine Directional References. Engine   stations   for   the   T55­L­11A   are   shown   in   figure   5.5.     The compressor   housing   is   station   No.   1   starting   from   the   inlet   guide vanes   and   extending   to   the   centrifugal   compressor.     Station   No.   2 starts at the beginning of the centrifugal compressor and ends at the air   diffuser.     Station   No.   3   is   from   the   air   diffuser   exit   to   the combustor inlet.   Station No. 4 runs from the combustor inlet to the gas   producer   (GP)   entrance.     Station   No.   5   is   the   GP   entrance, station No. 7 is from the GP exit to the PT entrance.  Station 7.2 is the PT entrance, and station No. 9 is the PT exit.   No stations are shown for 6 and 8, because these numbers are not used.

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Figure 5.5.  T55­L­11 Engine Stations. 5.7. SUMMARY

Basically, all models of the T55 series engine are of the same design and principle.   The major difference between the L­7 and L­7C is   that   the   L­7C   uses   28   atomizing   nozzles   instead   of   the   14 vaporizing tubes in the L­7 engine.   The T55­L­11A differs from the T55­L­7C in that it has a two­stage GP turbine where the L­7C has a single­stage,   and   of   course   the   shp   is   different   for   each   model engine.     The   engine   consists   of   an   air   inlet,   accessory   drive, compressor, diffuser, and combustion and power turbine sections.  The T­55 series engine differs from engines we have previously covered in that it is a direct drive engine.  The Lycoming T55 series engine is used to power the CH­47 Chinook helicopter. Section II.  Major Engine Sections and Systems 5.8. GENERAL

This   section   discusses   the   five   major   engine   sections, beginning at the front: inlet, compressor, diffuser, combustion, and power turbine; then it continues with descriptions of various engine systems,   including   fuel,   lubrication,   and   electrical   systems.     The text and illustrations cover the T55­L­11A engine except where noted.

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5.9.

INLET SECTION

The air inlet housing is a one­piece magnesium alloy casting, with an inner and outer housing as shown in figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6.  Inlet Housing Assembly.

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Four engine mounting pads are on the inlet housing.  The front face of the inner housing includes studs to mount the engine oil tank cover plate and a speed reduction gearbox.  The inner housing, figure 5.6 item 9,  contains the output shaft, the compressor rotor forward bearing support structure, the torquemeter head assembly, and a 3.75­ gallon   oil   tank.     The   outer   housing   forms   the   outer   wall   for   the annular   inlet   duct.     Four   struts   make   the   structural   connection between   the   two   housings.     The   struts   are   hollow   and   have   passages for oil and accessory drive shafts.  5.10. COMPRESSOR SECTION

The  compressor  rotor assembly, shown in figure 5.7, consists of   a   seven­stage,   all­steel   axial   compressor   and   an   all­titanium centrifugal  compressor.     The  two  compressors  form  a single  rotating assembly providing an 8 to 1 compression ratio.  All axial compressor blades are stainless steel and mounted on steel   compressor   disks   by   dovetail   roots   and   spring­loaded   locking pins.     Seven   two­piece   stator   assemblies   are   bolted   to   a   two­piece cast   magnesium   compressor   housing,   which   encloses   the   axial   and centrifugal rotors.   The housing is split axially to permit complete access to the compressor rotor for inspection and blade replacement. The   internal   surfaces   of   these   housings   are   coated   with   epoxy phenolic and graphite filler.  The external surfaces are treated with epoxy phenolic gray paint. On the L­111 engine, a variable inlet guide vane assembly is mounted in the front of the compressor housing.  The axial compressor housing   has   an   airbleed   system   consisting   of   a   series   of   holes   and machined   passages.     The   system   bleeds   air   from   the   sixth   stage   and thereby   improves   compressor   performance.     This   system   is   controlled by an interstage airbleed system covered later in the chapter. 5.11. DIFFUSER SECTION

The air diffuser, shown in item 1 figure 5.8, is constructed of stainless steel.  The diffuser receives high­velocity air from the centrifugal   impeller.     This   radial   airflow   is   changed   to   an   axial flow   by   longitudinal   guide.     The   divergent   shape   of   the   diffuser decreases velocity and  increases air pressure.   Air pressure  at the diffuser discharge is at its highest value; air temperature is in the vicinity of 600° F.  Temperature and pressure are directly related to rotational speed of the compressor.  Internally, the diffuser supports

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Figure 5.7.  Compressor Section. 155

the rear of the Compressor assembly through the No. 2 main bearing. Also mounted internally, but not a component of the diffuser, are the combustion chamber deflector curl, first and second stage GP nozzles, and turbine rotors.

Figure 5.8.  Diffuser and Gas Producer Turbine. 5.12. COMBUSTOR SECTION

The combustion chamber is a reverse­flow annular design, which permits   maximum   use   of   space   and   reduces   gas   producer   and   power turbine shaft length. The   atomizing   combustor   has   28   main   fuel   atomizing   nozzles. The   nozzles   are   of   the   dual­orifice   design   mounted   in   two interchangeable,   dual­channel,   main   fuel   manifolds,   with   14   fuel nozzles in each manifold. The   perforated   combustor   liner,   shown   in   figure   5.9,   is manufactured   from   a   heat­resistant   alloy.     The   perforations   are arranged to meter air into the combustor for combustion and cooling. Two combustor drain valves are located at the bottom of the chamber, to drain raw fuel on engine shutdown after a false or aborted start. Fuel   is   injected   directly   into   the   combustor   through   the   atomizing nozzles   which   are   mounted   on   the   fuel   manifold   at   the   rear   of   the combustor.

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Figure 5.9. Combustion Chamber Housing Assembly. 5.13. TURBINE SECTION

The gas producer turbines on the T5 5-L-11 engine are two-stage, axial-flow turbines coupled together and mounted on the rear of the compressor rotor shaft. The gas producer turbine nozzles and rotors are shown in figure 5.10. The gas producer turbine blades are air-cooled hollow blades held in place on the disk by pins. Ahead of the first and second stage rotors are the gas producer nozzles, which direct the hot gas onto the turbine rotors. The power turbine assembly is shown in figure 5.11. The power turbine is a two-stage, axial-flow turbine coupled together and mounted on the power turbine shaft. The power shaft transmits power from the power turbines to the power output shaft. Basically, the function of the power turbine is to extract velocity

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energy from the hot gases and deliver mechanical power to the output shaft. The GP and PT systems are mechanically independent of each other; however, their speeds are controlled by the fuel control unit.

Figure 5.10. Gas Producer Assembly. 5.14. DESCRIPTION OF FUEL SYSTEM

The fuel system of the T55- L-11 engine consists of the components illustrated in figure 5. 12. The T55-L-7 engine uses 14 vaporizing tubes in place of the 28 dual atomizing nozzles on the L-7C and L-11 engine. A cross-section view of the flow divider and atomizing nozzles may be seen by referring to figure 4.21 and 4.23 in chapter 4. The following subparagraphs discuss the components in the fuel system.

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Figure 5.11. Power Turbine Assembly. 159

Figure 5.12. T55-L-11A Fuel System. 160

a. Fuel control. The hydromechanical fuel control contains a dual-element fuel pump, gas producer and power-turbine speed governors, an acceleration and deceleration control, an airbleed signal mechanism, and a fuel shutoff valve. Functionally, the fuel control unit can be divided into two sections: the flow control section and the computer section. A flow control schematic is shown in figure 5.13. The flow control section meters engine fuel flow. The computer section schedules the positioning of the metering valves in the flow control section. The computer section also signals the actuation of the compressor bleed band and the variable inlet vanes systems. b. Liquid-to-liquid cooler. From the fuel control, fuel passes through the cooler mounted on the engine compressor housing. The cooler uses fuel to aid in cooling the engine oil. The cooler is a counter-flow type with the fuel passing through small aluminum tubes. The heat from the oil is transferred to the fuel. This type of cooler serves two purposes, to cool the oil and heat the fuel to aid in better atomization. A liquid-to-liquid cooler is illustrated in chapter 2, figure 2.12. c. Start fuel system. The electrically operated, normally closed igniter fuel solenoid valve is located on the compressor housing at the 9 o'clock position. The solenoid valve is actuated by a switch in the cockpit that energizes the valve and allows fuel to flow from the fuel control unit through the starting manifold and to the start fuel nozzles. On T55-L-5 and T55-L-7 engines, two start nozzles are connected to the starting fuel manifold at approximately the 3 and 9 o'clock positions. Starting fuel passes through these nozzles into the combustion chamber where it is ignited by a spark from an igniter plug adjacent to each start fuel nozzle. On T5 5-L-7C engines, four start fuel nozzles are connected to the starting fuel manifold at approximately the 1, 4, 7, and 10 o'clock positions. d. Main fuel system. The main and start fuel manifold are positioned on the rear surface of the combustion chamber assembly. The main fuel manifold consists of two manifold halves, with attaching points for 14 fuel vaporizer tubes. The main fuel manifolds for the T55-L-7 and L-7C/11A are shown in figure 5.14. The T55-L-7C and T55-L-11 engines have an improved fuel system. This system illustrated in figure 5.15 consists of 28 dual-orifice fuel nozzles in a two-section main fuel manifold. A flow divider was added to meter fuel to the fuel nozzles at 9 to 10 percent N1; as the rpm increases to 32 percent N1, secondary fuel flows to the nozzles.

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Figure 5.13. Fuel Control Flow Schematic. 162

Figure 5.14. Main Fuel Manifolds. 163

Figure 5.15. T55-L-11 Main and Start Fuel Flow.

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5.15.

INTERNAL COOLING AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM

The internal cooling system cools internal components and ensures extended engine service. A combination of several passages throughout the engine receives air from the main air-flow channel and directs it to cool components located within heat-generating areas. The exits from the cooling passages conduct the heated air to the main exhaust gas flow. Some of the cooling air is extracted for bearing seal pressurization. This internal airflow is guided to the appropriate bearing seal to protect against oil seepage while the engine is in operation. 5.16. ANTI-ICING SYSTEM

The engine inlet is protected from ice forming on it by the anti-icing system. The walls and struts of the inlet housing have internal passages through which hot, scavenged engine oil circulates. The variable inlet guide vanes are supplied with hot air which is extracted from the centrifugal compressor. The engine hot-air anti-icing system is shown in the schematic in figure 5.16. This air first passes through a hot-air valve and is distributed by a tube which directs the air into an annulus (circular structure) around the inlet-guide vane assembly. The anti-icing air is routed through the stem of the vanes and is discharged at the base of the leading edge into the main airflow. 5.17. VARIABLE INLET GUIDE VANE SYSTEM

The inlet guide vane assembly, located in front of the first compressor rotor, consists of a series of hollow blades positioned mechanically by a hydraulically operated synchronizing ring. The guide vane control system schedules the positions of the variable inlet guide vanes in response to gas producer speed and compressor inlet temperature. At low N1 speeds, a high angle of inlet air is required, and the inlet guide vanes are in the closed position of approximately 45.5° of the engine centerline. Guide vane positions are illustrated in figure 5.17.

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Figure 5.16. Hot-Air Anti-icing System. When engine speed increases above 65 percent, the inlet guide vanes begin to open. The progression toward the open position is proportional to compressor speed. At 98 percent speed, the vanes are opened to 7° off the centerline, and as speed increases to 100 percent, the vanes cross the centerline to the -4.5° position. At any steady state N1 speed, between 65 percent and 98 percent, the inlet guide vanes assume a constant position. 5.18. INTERSTAGE AIR BLEED SYSTEM

An interstage air bleed actuator assembly and bleed band, illustrated in figure 4.27, are used to facilitate compressor rotor acceleration and avoid compressor stalls. A series of vent ports around the compressor housing, at the sixth stage of compression,

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Figure 5.17. Angles of Variable Inlet Guide Vane.

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permits compressor air to bleed off and allows a more rapid acceleration. The pneumatic interstage-actuator assembly controls operation of the air bleed system by tightening or loosening a metal band over the vent holes in the compressor housing. The bleed band and actuator assembly are shown in figure 5.18. The fuel control is equipped with an acceleration air bleed adjustment that sets the compressor rotor speed at which the interstage air bleed closes. This is usually factory set to close the bleed band at approximately 30 percent of normal rated power. 5.19. LUBRICATION SYSTEM

The engine lubrication system has the dual function of lubricating and cooling. The principal components of the system are the integral oil tank, dual element lubrication pump, filter and screen assemblies, oil cooler assembly, Figure 5.18. Interstage Airbleed oil level indicator assembly, and internal scavenge Band Assembly. pumps. The entire lubrication system is self-contained within the engine. A 3.75-gallon oil tank is located in the engine air inlet housing. The tank filler neck is located at the top center of the inlet housing. Oil level indication is taken by means of an externally-mounted mechanical indicator. Two connections, one at the top and one at the bottom of the tank, are for the addition of an external oil tank to increase the oil capacity. The following subparagraphs discuss the lubrication system and components. a. Oil level indication system. The oil tank has an oil level indicator mounted on the left side of the inlet housing at the 9-o'clock position and can be read from the top or the side. The indicator contains a low-level warning switch for remote indication in the cockpit. Based on using the maximum allowable oil consumption rate, the switch is set to signal when there is a 2-hour supply of usable oil remaining.

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b. Oil flow. Oil from the tank flows from the bottom of the engine inlet housing through an external line to the pressure side of the main oil pump. The oil flow may be followed by referring to the schematic shown in figure 5.19. The main oil pump is located on the aft face of the accessory gearbox. I contains both pressure and scavenge elements. An adjustable relief valve in the pump maintains nearly constant oil pressure during engine operation. Oil goes from the pump and through a filter located in the accessory gearbox. A bypass valve will open if the filter becomes clogged. On the outlet side of the filter, oil temperature is measured by a temperature bulb. Then the oil is routed through the oil cooler into two external low paths. One flow path directs the oil to the rear of the engine. At that location it lubricates number 2, 4, and 5 bearings. The second flow path directs oil to the front bearings and accessory drive gear trains. Oil from the rear bearings is force-scavenged into an external oil-return line by paddle pumps mounted on the power turbine shaft. This scavenge oil is directed back to the accessory gearbox. A scavenge impeller in the accessory gearbox picks up the scavenge oil and pumps it to the scavenge element of the main oil pump. The oil is then returned to the inlet housing where it is discharged into the oil tank. c. Chip detectors. On the T55-L-7, the engine magnetic chip detector is located in the scavenge-pump housing on the lower left face of the accessory gearbox. The detector attracts ferrous material, which builds up until it bridges a gap, as shown in the accompanying sketch. This makes it possible to check for the presence of foreign material by checking continuity across the contacts. The detectors are electrically connected to caution lights in the cockpit.

The T55-L-11 engine is equipped with three chip detectors. Each bearing scavenge line dual chip detector is mounted externally. Each detects ferrous and nonferrous metal chips originating in the No. 2, 4, and 5 bearing areas of the engine. Another is located near the gearbox scavenge impeller.

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Figure 5.19. Lubrication System Schematic, T55-L-11. 170

d. Engine oil filters. The oil filter system consists of a main oil filter assembly and five secondary oil filters. Three of these filters are accessible for intermediate level maintenance. These are the No. 2 bearing strainer, located at the 3 o'clock position on the forward face of the diffuser housing assembly, and the No. 4 and 5 bearing strainers located in the supply tube within the exhaust diffuser. The main oil filter assembly, illustrated in figure 5.20, is mounted on the bottom of the accessory gearbox directly in front of the main oil pump, or fuel boost pump. 5.20. TORQUE METER SYSTEM

The Lycoming Electric Torquemeter used on the T55 engine is the same type that is used on the T53-L-701 covered in the previous chapter. To save describing the system in detail again, this paragraph is a brief review. When torque is imposed on the engine power output shaft, tension and compression stresses change the magnetic reluctance of the shaft. This change in magnetic reluctance is transmitted to an indicator in the cockpit and read as percent (%) of torque. Figure 5.20. Main Oil Filter. 5.21. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

The engine electrical system includes circuitry to facilitate starting, ignition, anti-icing, and all engine-oriented electrical monitoring devices. The following subparagraphs discuss the operation of the engine electrical system. a. Main electrical cable assembly. The main electrical cable assembly furnishes all necessary interconnecting wiring between the main disconnect plug and the nine-branch electrical connectors. The nine electrical accessories served by this cable are the gas producer tachometer generator, oil temperature bulb, fuel flow pressure switch, torquemeter system, ignition exciter,

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anti-icing solenoid valve, starting fuel solenoid valve, oil level indicator, and power turbine tachometer generator. The main disconnect plug mates with an electrical receptacle of the airframe wiring, establishing electrical continuity to the various airframe components. b. Ignition exciter. The high-potential ignition pulse is developed by the ignition exciter; 24 volts dc is applied to the input of the exciter. Current flows through the primary transformer winding the bias coil and the vibrator points to ground. This generates magnetic lines of force which permeate the transformer core and the core of the bias coil attracting the vibrator reed upward and interrupting the circuit. As current flow ceases, the lines of force collapse and the reed falls back, closing the circuit. This cycle repeats at a rate proportional to the input voltage. The resultant current flows in pulses, causing magnetic lines of force to build up and collapse with each pulsation. These lines induce voltage across the secondary coil which is transformed to a higher potential by an increased number of windings comprising the secondary. The diodes rectify the pulsating current back into direct current to charge the capacitors. The charge on the capacitors continues to build up at a rate proportional to input voltage, until a potential of 2,500 volts exists. The calibrated spark gaps ironize at this voltage, creating an electrical path for the firing pulse. The capacitors discharge through this path into the lead and coil assembly for distribution to each of the spark igniters. Radio frequency energy is generated within the exciter during normal operation. An inductive capacitive filter has been incorporated at the input to prevent this energy from being fed back into the 24-volt input line. Radio frequency interference on this line could be detrimental to the operation of other electrical accessories. This filter is tuned to radio frequencies and does not offer any appreciable opposition to the flow of 24-volt direct current. c. Ignition lead and coil assembly. The ignition lead and coil assembly constitutes the high-potential ignition wiring. This assembly incorporates two coils, fed with high voltage from the two outputs of the ignition exciter. The coil assemblies function as spark splitters distributing high voltage to four igniter plugs. Each coil assembly has one input and two outputs with the coil windings forming a transformer having a 1:1 ratio. Any current flowing through either winding will induce a voltage across the other so that even a shorted igniter plug will not short out the high-voltage ignition signal. The entire wiring harness is shielded and grounded at the airframe to suppress radio frequency interference.

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d. Exhaust gas temperature harness. The chromel-alumel, thermoelectric measuring system is independent of all other engine electrical wiring. The engine components are ten thermocouple probes to the shielded harness. The aircraft wiring, spool resistor, and indicator complete the system. The ten thermocouple probes protrude into the gas flow of the engine at station number 7. The probes react to variations in power turbine entry temperature by developing a proportional electromotive force across the chromel-alumel junction. This electromotive force results in meter deflection of the cockpit indicator calibrated to read temperature in degrees centigrade. 5.22. SUMMARY

The T55 series gas turbine engine is used to power the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. The CH47A and B are equipped with the T55-L-7 series engines, and the CH-47C is equipped with the T55-L7C or T55-L-l1. These are all basically the same except for shaft horsepower ratings and internal details. The fuel system includes starting and main fuel components. The fuel control is a hydromechanical device that automatically meters the proper amount of fuel under varying atmospheric conditions and power requirements. The engine has its own lubrication system with the oil tank contained within the inlet housing. It is equipped with an interstage bleed air system to facilitate acceleration and avoid compressor stalls. The anti-icing system prevents icing by ducting hot air from the diffuser section to the engine inlet. The engine has a starting and ignition system, and its performance is monitored by instruments on the cockpit instrument panel.

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Chapter 6 SOLAR T62 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT 6.1. INTRODUCTION

The SOLAR T62 auxiliary power unit (APU) is used in place of ground support equipment to start some helicopter engines. It is also used to operate the helicopter hydraulic and electrical systems when this aircraft is on the ground, to check their performance. The T62 is a component of both the CH-47 and CH-54 helicopters -- part of them, not separate like the ground-support-equipment APU's. On the CH-54, the component is called the auxiliary powerplant rather than the auxiliary power unit, as it is on the CH-47. The two T62's differ slightly. This chapter describes the T62 APU; explains its operation; discusses the reduction drive, accessory drive, combustion, and turbine assemblies; and describes the fuel, lubrication, and electrical systems. 6.2. DESCRIPTION

The T62 gas turbine engine auxiliary unit consists of a combustor, turbine, reduction drive and accessory drive assemblies, engine accessories, plumbing, and wiring. The engine has a single shaft with the compressor and turbine rotor mounted back-to-back. The T62 develops approximately 70 shaft horsepower. It has its own fuel control unit, hydraulic starter motor, ignition unit, and reduction gear drive. Operating time for the APU is maintained separately from aircraft engine time by an hour meter mounted on the APU. The T62 used on the CH-47 differs slightly from the one used on the CH-54. The accompanying table IV gives the particulars for each engine. Both models of the T62 are shown in figures 6.1 and 6.2. 6.3. THEORY OF OPERATION

The T62 gas turbine engine consists of three major sections: the reduction and accessory drives, the combustor, and the turbine sections as shown in figures 6.1 and 6.2. Air is drawn into the inlet of the engine when the hydraulic starter rotates the compressor during the starting cycle. After the engine is started, air continues

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Table IV. T62 Engine Leading Particulars.

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Figure 6.1. T62T-2A Used on the CH-47. 176

Figure 6.2. T62T-16A Used on the CH-54. 177

to be drawn into the compressor by the power produced by the engine. The air is compressed and directed into the combustor; fuel is introduced through six vaporizer tubes and is burned. During the starting cycle, fuel from the start nozzle is ignited by a spark plug. When the APU reaches 90 percent speed, a speed switch opens which closes the start fuel solenoid valve, shutting off fuel flow to the start fuel nozzle. The hot expanding gas flows through a turbine nozzle and to the turbine assembly. Power is extracted by the turbine rotor and is then transmitted to the reduction drive assembly. 6.4. PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR THE APU

The T62 is equipped with protective devices that shut the APU down if any of the operating limitations are exceeded. If the oil pressure drops below approximately 6 psi, the low oil pressure switch shuts off the fuel solenoid valve, which stops the flow of fuel to the engine. When this occurs the light marked "Low Oil Press" will be illuminated on the instrument panel in the cockpit. Overspeeding the APU is prevented by an overspeed switch, set at 110 percent. When this limit is exceeded, the overspeed switch opens and shuts off the fuel flow to the engine. This causes the overspeed (OVSP) light to illuminate on the instrument panel. Hot starting of the APU is prevented by the high exhaust-temperature switch, which shuts the engine off if the engine is too hot. Like the low oil pressure and overspeed switches, it stops the fuel flow to the engine. When the operating temperature is exceeded, the high exhaust temperature light, marked "HIGH EXH TEMP," in the cockpit will be illuminated. If any of these conditions occur and the APU shuts down, the control switch in the cockpit must be moved to the STOP position before attempting to restart the engine. 6.5. REDUCTION DRIVE AND ACCESSORY DRIVE ASSEMBLIES

The major difference between the T62T-2A and the T62T-16A is the accessory drive housing. A comparison can be made by looking at item 31 in figures 6.3 and 6.4. Reduction of high engine rpm is accomplished by using a single stage planetary gear reduction. Three fixed-center planetary gears are driven by the externally splined pinion of the rotor shaft, item 7. An internally splined ring gear transmits the drive from the planetary gears to the output shaft. External gear teeth on the output portion of the shaft drive an upper intermediate gear and oil pump gear. The intermediate

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Figure 6.3. T62T-2A Cutaway Engine Assembly. 179

Figure 6.4. T62T-16A Cutaway Engine Assembly. 180

gear drives the accessory section. The accessory drive assembly consists of accessory gears and the intermediate gear. These gears drive the hydraulic starter, the fuel control, and a speed switch and tachometer generator. 6.6. COMBUSTOR ASSEMBLY

The annular combustor assembly consists of a housing, liner, and nozzle shield, items 15 through 17 in figure 6.3. The assembly is secured to the turbine housing by a V-clamp, item 19 in the figure. Six self-tapping screws support and center the liner in the housing. Fuel for the combustor is supplied by six equally spaced fuel vaporizers connected by a circular manifold on the combustor housing. A combustion chamber drain valve is installed at the 6 o'clock position on the combustion housing. 6.7. TURBINE ASSEMBLY

The turbine assembly consists of the rotor, air inlet, diffuser, and nozzle assemblies. These items are shown in the airflow diagram in figure 6.5.

Figure 6.5. Airflow Diagram. The centrifugal compressor rotor and radial inflow turbine rotor are bolted to the aft end of the rotor shaft. A single forward ball bearing and an aft roller bearing support the shaft. These are items 8 and 9 in figure 6.3 and 6.4. The air inlet assembly serves

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as a structural support between the combustor assembly and the reduction drive. The cylindrical, contoured casting is open at both ends and is equipped with a wire mesh screen to cover the intake duct. Intake air passes through the inlet assembly and into the impeller. The air then passes through the diffuser to the combustion section where it flows between the outer walls of the housing and combustion liner. At the end of the liner, the flow reverses direction and enters the combustion chamber. After combustion, the gas exits at the forward end of the combustion liner through a nozzle and the turbine wheel. 6.8. FUEL SYSTEM

The T62T-2A and T62T-16A have identical fuel systems. The fuel system is illustrated in figure 6.6. The system consists of an inlet filter, fuel control, six main fuel injectors, a start fuel nozzle, main and start fuel solenoid valve, a fuel pressure switch, and the necessary plumbing. Fuel for the APU is supplied from the same source that supplies the engines. 6.9. FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION

The accessory drive gear drives both the fuel pump and the acceleration control assembly to deliver fuel to the engine at approximately 300 psi. Fuel is directed through the inlet filter, in the fuel pump, through the outlet filter with the fuel pump, and into the governor housing. A relief valve installed in the governor housing bypasses excess fuel from the pump outlet to the pump inlet. During engine starting, fuel is forced through internal passages to the fuel pressure switch. Normally closed, the fuel pressure switch opens on increasing fuel pressure at 100 to 120 psi. When open it actuates the start fuel solenoid valve and the main fuel solenoid valve to the open position, and completes the ignition circuit. Combustion takes place in the combustor when atomized fuel from the start fuel nozzle is ignited by the spark plug. At 90 percent speed, fuel flow to the start fuel nozzle is cut off. The main fuel injectors continue to supply fuel to the combustor. Fuel flow to the main fuel injectors is increased in direct proportion to increasing air pressure, thus eliminating the possibility of over temperature or compressor surge during acceleration.

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Figure 6.6. Fuel Control Schematic. 183

Ambient air pressure varies inversely with altitude. The altitude compensator has an aneroid bellows assembly that reacts to changes in ambient air pressure. It thereby reduces fuel flow to the fuel injectors during acceleration if the engine is operated above sea level, up to a maximum altitude of 15,000 feet. A minimum fuel flow needle, installed in the fuel passage that bypasses the governor, allows a small amount of fuel under pump pressure to flow to the fuel injectors when fuel flow is reduced by the governor. The engine speed is controlled throughout the operating range of 100 to 102 or 105 percent rpm by the flyweight assembly, in the governor housing. The combustor drain valve is mounted on the bottom of the combustor housing. This valve drains unburned fuel from the combustor during engine shutdown after a false or aborted start. 6.10. LUBRICATION SYSTEM

Figure 6.7 shows a schematic of the lubrication system. The pump draws oil out of the sump through an oil passage and into the housing. Oil under pump pressure enters the bottom of the filter housing, passes through the filter element, and flows out of the housing through a passage in the filter cap. A relief valve in the filter assembly opens at a differential pressure of 15-to 25 psi. This allows oil to flow from outside the filter element, through a passage in the filter element cap, to the filter outlet passage. If the filter element becomes clogged, this valve will open and allow oil to bypass the filter. From the filter, oil is forced into a passage to the pressure relief valve and to four oil jets. The oil jet ring which encircles the high speed input pinion contains three of these jets, and sprays oil to the points where the high speed input pinion meshes with the three planetary gears. One jet directs a spray between the end of the output shaft and the high speed pinion to create a mist to lubricate the rotor shaft bearings. The remaining gears and bearings are lubricated by air-oil mist created when oil strikes the planetary gears and high speed pinion. System pressure is maintained at 15 to 25 psi by a pressure relief valve. The valve regulates pressure by bypassing excessive pressure directly into the reduction drive housing. The bypassed oil strikes the inside surface of the air inlet housing, thus aiding in cooling the oil. Bypassed oil returns to the sump by gravity flow through an opening in the bottom of the planetary gear carrier.

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Figure 6.7. Lubrication System Schematic. 185

The low oil pressure switch, normally open, closes on increasing oil pressure to 5 to 7 psi. When the switch contacts close, the low oil-pressure circuit is deenergized. At rated engine speed, a drop in oil pressure below 5-7 psi opens the low oil-pressure switch contacts, and, through electrical circuitry, closes the main fuel solenoid valve and shuts down the engine. 6.11. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Circuitry for ignition and engine electrical accessories is included in the electrical system. The system includes the ignition exciter, spark plug, speed switch, tachometer generator, thermocouple, and hour meter. The engine harness-assembly connectors mate with receptacles on the junction box, oil pressure switch, ignition exciter, speed switch, and tachometer-generator. Descriptions of the components in the electrical system are given in the following subparagraphs. a. Ignition exciter. The input voltage to the ignition exciter is 10 to 29v dc. Input voltage is converted to an intermittent high-energy current which is directed to the spark plug for ignition. Minimum spark rate is two per second at 14 volts. b. Spark plug. The shunted surface-gap type spark plug is threaded into a boss in the end of the combustor. The plug furnishes the spark necessary for initial ignition of fuel during the starting cycle. Ignition is terminated by the No. 1 switch in the speed switch when the engine attains 90 percent rated speed. c. Speed switch. Mounted on the rear accessory drive pad in tandem with the tachometer is the speed switch. Inside the switch housing, two flyweights are mounted to the speed switch drive shaft. The flyweights move an actuating plate held in position by two springs of unequal strength. The speed switch is two switches in one housing. The No. 1 switch is set at 90 percent rated speed, and the No. 2 switch is set at 110 percent rated speed. As rpm is increased, the force of the lighter and then the heavier spring is overcome, allowing the actuating plate to actuate the No. 1 switch (90 percent speed). When the No. 1 switch is actuated, the start fuel and ignition systems are shut off. When the No. 2 switch is actuated at 110 percent speed, the main fuel solenoid valve is closed, and this shuts off fuel to the engine.

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d. Turbine exhaust thermal switch. A thermocouple projects into the exhaust gas stream at the aft end of the combustor. If an over temperature occurs, the contacts normally closed in the turbine exhaust thermal switch will open, close the main fuel solenoid valve, and shut the engine down. e. Tachometer generator. The APU tachometer generator is mounted in tandem with the speed switch on the accessory drive assembly. A synchronous rotor in the tachometer generator produces three-phase ac voltage proportional to the speed at which the rotor is turning. This voltage is transmitted to a tachometer indicator in the cockpit which indicates the engine speed in percent of rated rpm. f. Hour meter. Engine operating time is recorded by the hour meter attached to the engine. The meter operates on 24v dc supplied by the aircraft bus. 6.12. SUMMARY

The T62 is used on the CH-47 and CH-54 helicopters as an auxiliary power unit. The engine consists of a combustor, turbine, and reduction and accessory drive assemblies. Both the compressor and turbine rotor are mounted on the same shaft. A fuel control, hydraulic starter motor, and ignition unit are mounted on the engine. Operating time for the APU is maintained separately from the aircraft engine time by an hour meter mounted on the APU. The T62 is equipped with protective devices that shut the APU down if any of the operating limitations are exceeded. If the oil pressure, rpm, or exhaust temperature limits are exceeded, a light on the instrument panel will be illuminated and the APU shut down.

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Chapter 7 ALLISON T63 7.1. INTRODUCTION

The T63 series turboshaft engine is manufactured by the Allison Division of General Motors Corporation. The T63-A-5A is used to power the OH-6A, and the T63-A-700 is in the OH-58A light observation helicopter. Although the engine dash numbers are not the same for each of these, the engines are basically the same. As shown in figure 7.1, the engine consists of four major components: the compressor, accessory gearbox, combustor, and turbine sections. This chapter explains the major sections and related systems. 7.2. OPERATIONAL DESCRIPTION

The T63 turboshaft engine, being an internal combustion engine, requires intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust, as does a reciprocating engine. Figure 7.2 is a cutaway view of the T63 engine. By looking at the letters in the arrows in figure 7.2, you will be able to follow the air's path through the engine. Air is routed to the compressor assembly by intake ducts on the aircraft. The (A) compressor assembly "squeezes" incoming air to high pressures. This compressed air is discharged through twin air-transfer tubes (B) into the combustion chamber (C) and mixed with fuel which is then burned. The exhaust gases expand through the compressor turbine (D) which extracts energy from these hot gases to drive the compressor (A). The power turbine (E) takes the remaining energy to drive the power-output shaft (F). The gases are then released through exhaust ducts (G).

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Figure 7.1. Sections of the T63 Engine. 189

Figure 7.2. Airflow Diagram. 7.3. ALLISON T63 SPECIFICATIONS

Specifications for the T63-A-5A and 700 engines used in Army aircraft are summarized in the following chart.

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7.4.

COMPRESSOR SECTION

The compressor assembly consists of the following: compressor front support, compressor case, diffuser scroll, front diffuser, rear diffuser, rotor, rotor bearing, and oil seals. An exploded view of the compressor assembly is shown in figure 7.3. The compressor is a combination axial-centrifugal type with six stages of axial compression and one stage of centrifugal compression. The rotor hub and blade assemblies and the impeller are made from stainless steel. The compressor rotor front bearing (No. 1) is housed in the compressor front support, and the compressor rotor rear (No. 2) bearing is housed in the compressor rear diffuser. The No. 2 bearing is the thrust bearing for the compressor rotor assembly. The compressor case assembly consists of upper and lower halves and is made of stainless steel. Thermal-setting plastic is centrifugally cast to the inside surface of the case halves and vane outer bands. To achieve maximum compressor efficiency, a minimum clearance is necessary between the compressor-blade tips and the case. The first time an engine is started, the blade tips cut their own tip clearance in the plastic coating. The inside of the compressor must be kept free of dirt accumulation. A dirty compressor can cause high turbine outlet temperatures, low engine power, and

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Figure 7.3. Compressor Assembly. 192

eventual engine failure. Engine cleaning procedures can be found in the appropriate aircraft or engine maintenance manual. The compressor of the T63 must never be cleaned with an ordinary cleaning solvent, because this will dissolve the plastic coating on the inside of the compressor case and cause engine failure. A control valve is mounted on the compressor case assembly to bleed air off the 5th stage of the compressor during starting and all engine operations at low pressure ratios. The compressor diffuser assembly consists of stainless steel front and rear diffusers and a magnesium alloy scroll. The scroll collects the air and delivers it to two elbows. Compressor-discharge air tubes deliver compressed air from the outlet of the elbows to the combustion outer case. The diffuser scroll has five ports from which air can be bled or compressor discharge air pressure sensed. Two of these ports are customer bleed air ports, and the remaining ports are used by the anti-icing valve, fuel control pressure sensing, and bleed air pressure sensing. Customer air ports are used by the airframe manufacturer to tap bleed air to run pumps, heaters, and so forth. 7.5. ACCESSORY GEARBOX SECTION

Shown in figure 7.4, the accessory gearbox is the primary structural member of the engine. All engine components, including

Figure 7.4. Accessory Gearbox Case.

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the engine mounted accessories, are attached to the case, which has four mounting pads, one on each side, one on the top, and one on the bottom. The side pads must be used, and the helicopter manufacturer has his choice of using the top and bottom pads. The accessory gearbox contains most of the lubrication system components and houses the power turbine and gas producer gear trains. The power turbine gear train, shown in figure 7.5, reduces engine N2 speed from 35,000 to 6,000 rpm. The power turbine gear train drives the torquemeter, N2 tachometer-generator, and N2 governor. The gas producer gear train, illustrated in figure 7.6, drives the oil pumps, fuel pump, gas producer fuel control, N1 tachometer generator, and starter-generator. During starting, the starter-generator cranks the engine through the gas producer gear train. 7.6. TURBINE SECTION

As shown in figure 7.1, the turbine section is mounted between the combustion section and the power and accessory gearbox. The turbine section consists of a two-stage gas producer turbine, shown in figure 7.7, and a two-stage power turbine, shown in figure 7.8. Power to drive the compressor rotor is furnished by the gas producer turbine rotor through a direct drive. The power turbine rotor converts the remaining gas energy into power which drives the power output shaft. The exhaust gases are directed into the exhaust collector support and through the twin exhaust ducts on the top of engine. The power turbine is a free turbine, because it is free to rotate at a different speed than the gas producer turbine rotors. The gas producer turbine nozzles (1st and 2nd) are housed in the gas producer turbine support. The power turbine (3rd and 4th stage) nozzles are housed in the power turbine support and the aft end of the exhaust collector support. These nozzles may be seen by looking at figures 7.7 and 7.8. These nozzles increase the velocity of the expanding gas and direct the gas at the proper angle onto the turbine rotors. 7.7. LUBRICATION SYSTEM

The oil system is a circulating dry-sump type with an external oil tank and cooler. The engine oil-system schematic is illustrated in figure 7.9. This system is designed to supply oil for lubrication, scavenging, and cooling as needed.

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Figure 7.5. Power Turbine Gear Train. 195

Figure 7.6. Gas Producer Gear Train. 196

Figure 7.7. Gas Producer Turbine Assembly. 197

Figure 7.8. Power Turbine Assembly. 198

Figure 7.9. Engine Lubrication Schematic. 199

Spray jet lubrication is used on all compressor, gas producer turbine, and power turbine rotor bearings, and to bearings and gear meshes of the power turbine gear train, with the exception of the power output shaft bearings. The power output shaft bearings and all other gears and bearings are lubricated by oil mist. A spur-gear oil pump assembly, illustrated in figure 7.10, consisting of one pressure element and four scavenge elements, is mounted within the accessory gearbox.

Figure 7.10. Oil Pump. The oil filter assembly, located in the upper right-hand side of the accessory gearbox, consists of a filter bypass valve and a pressure regulating valve. Oil from the tank is delivered to the pressure pump which pumps oil through the filter and then to the points of lubrication. The oil pressure is regulated 115-130 psi by the pressure regulating valve. The engine lubrication system incorporates four screens, two magnetic chip detector plugs, and two check valves. The check valve in the oil filter outlet passage prevents oil in the tank from draining into the engine when it is not in operation.

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To further prevent internal oil leakage at engine shutdown, an external sump is connected to the scavenge oil line at the power turbine support. One magnetic chip detector plug is in the accessory gearbox sump, and the other one is in the scavenge oil pressure line which delivers oil to the oil outlet port on the gearbox. 7.8. TORQUEMETER

A torquemeter is located on the instrument panel and is connected to a transmitter which is part of the engine oil system. The torque indicating system converts the pressure sensed at the torquemeter pressure port, on the front side of the accessory gearbox, into an indication in psi of engine torque output. 7.9. FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM

The fuel control system meters fuel during starting, acceleration, constant speed, and deceleration. This control system consists of governor, accumulator and check valve, and fuel nozzle. These components are illustrated in figure 7.11. The following subparagraphs cover each component in the fuel system. a. The fuel pump assembly consists of two spur-gear pumps, filter, filter bypass valve, regulator valve, and two discharge check valves. As shown in figure 7.12, the fuel pumps are parallel, that is, fuel entering the inlet port can be pumped by either pump to the outlet port. Each pump has a separate shear point. In the event of a pump failure, the discharge check valve of the failed pump closes to prevent reverse flow through the pump. Failure of one pump will not affect engine operation. b. The fuel control (N1) is located at the 3 o'clock position on the accessory gearbox case. The fuel control delivers metered fuel (P2 in figure 7.11) to the fuel nozzle. The gas producer fuel control, driven by the N1 gear train, senses compressor discharge pressure (PC). The N1 fuel control lever, positioned by the twist grip throttle, is mechanically linked to a pointer and the fuel cutoff valve. A quadrant, shown in figure 7.13, with 0, 5, 30, and 90 degree indications is located adjacent to the pointer. The pilot's twist grip throttle has three basic positions: cutoff is 00 to 50; ground idle is at 300, and full open at 900. When the twist grip is moved from cutoff to ground idle during engine start, the fuel control automatically meters fuel in response to N1 rpm. The engine starts, accelerates, and stabilizes at ground idle rpm. Fuel flow during this phase is metered entirely by the fuel control.

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Figure 7.11. Fuel Control System. 202

Figure 7.12. Fuel Pump and Filter Assembly. c. The power-turbine governor (N2) is not required for starting or ground idle operation, but it is required for speed governing of the power turbine rotor. The gas-producer fuel control and the power-turbine governor are connected together by two pneumatic lines, labeled PG and PR in figure 7.11. The power-turbine governor, driven by the power-turbine gear train, senses compressor discharge pressure (PC). The power-turbine governor lever, as shown in figure 7.14, is positioned by the helicopter droop compensator or the N2 actuator. The power-turbine governor is required for speed governing of the power turbine rotor (N2). The N2 rpm at which the power-turbine governor will govern is under the control of the N2 actuator. Normally, the power-turbine governor is operated at 100 percent N2. However, the pilot can select a setting of the governor either higher or lower than 100 percent N2.

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Figure 7.13. Fuel Control System. The droop compensator moves the governor Lever any time the pilot's collective stick is increased or decreased. This is necessary to maintain the N2 rpm the pilot has set with the N2 actuator. When collective pitch is increased, the power requirements are increased, and N2 rpm droops slightly. The governor senses the N2 droop and it signals the gas-producer fuel control to meter more fuel. As fuel flow increases, N2 returns to the setting of the power-turbine governor. When collective pitch is decreased, the power requirements are decreased, and N2 increases slightly. The governor senses the N2 increase and signals the fuel control to meter less fuel. As fuel flow decreases, the N2 decreases to the setting of the power-turbine governor.

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Figure 7.14. Power Turbine Governor Control System. 205

d. The check valve assembly and accumulator are installed to dampen torsional vibrations encountered in helicopter rotor systems. Because of wind gusts and turbulent air conditions, the rotor rpm will fluctuate slightly. The power turbine governor senses this rpm change and causes the fuel control to vary fuel flow. By installing an accumulator and damping out the governing pressure (PG) to the gas producer fuel control, the design prevents the engine from responding to torsional vibrations. e. The fuel nozzle is a single-entry, dual-orifice type nozzle. It threads into the combustor outer case and extends into the aft end of the combustor liner. The fuel control delivers fuel to the nozzle which atomizes and injects fuel into the combustion chamber, where it is mixed with air and burned. The fuel nozzle must properly atomize and inject the fuel in all ranges of fuel flow from starting to maximum power. This is accomplished by means of a dual-orifice design. The primary orifice has fuel delivered to it whenever the engine is operating, but the secondary orifice receives fuel only when the fuel pressure to the fuel nozzle exceeds 150 psi. 7.10. AIR BLEED AND ANTI-ICING SYSTEMS

The compressor air bleed system permits rapid engine response by relieving compressor pressure during engine acceleration. A bleed air control valve is mounted to the bleed air manifold on the compressor case. The compressor bleed air and anti-icing systems are illustrated in figure 7.15. Elongated slots between every other vane at the compressor fifth stage bleed compressor air into a manifold on the compressor case. The air bleed control valve is open during starting and groundidle operation, and it remains open until a predetermined pressure ratio is obtained, at which time the valve begins to move from the open to the closed position. The engine is equipped with an anti-icing system that conducts hot air to the compressor front-support struts to prevent ice forming on the struts. The system is entirely separate and independent of any other bleed air system. The engine anti-icing system must be turned on by the pilot. As air passes through the compressor, it is compressed. As a result of this compression, the air is heated and is a source of hot air required by the engine anti-icing system.

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Figure 7.15. Air Bleed and Anti-Icing System. The anti-icing system consists of an anti-icing valve, two tubes, and passages within the compressor front support. During operation of the system, the anti-icing tubes deliver hot air from the anti-icing valve to the two ports on the compressor front support. These ports deliver the hot air into an annular passage formed between the dual-walled housing. Hot air flows from the annular passage through the hollow inlet guide vanes into the front bearing support hub. Some of the air flowing through the struts is exhausted out of slots on the trailing edge of the guide vanes, and the remaining air is exhausted out of holes in the front bearing support hub. During anti-icing operation, all surfaces of the compressor front support which come in contact with compressor inlet air are heated and ice cannot form. 7.11. IGNITION AND TURBINE OUTLET TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

The ignition system is composed of three components: a low-tension capacitor exciterassembly, a spark igniter lead, and a

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shunted surface gap spark igniter. The system is powered by the aircraft 28-volt dc electrical system. This ignition system is only required during starting, because continuous combustion takes place after the engine is started. Components of the ignition and turbine outlet temperature (TOT) systems are illustrated in figure 7.16. The TOT thermocouple harness contains four probes used to sense the temperature of the gases on the outlet side of the gas-producer turbine rotor. Each thermocouple probe generates a dc millivoltage which is directly proportional to the gas temperature it senses. The thermocouple harness averages the four voltages produced and indicates TOT on a gage in the cockpit. 7.12. SUMMARY

The Allison T63 is a free-power gas turbine engine which has four major sections: the compressor assembly, power and accessory gearbox, turbine assembly, and combustion assembly. The power-turbine governor senses power turbine speed and relays this to the fuel control that controls the compressor speed. The fuel control sends fuel to the nozzle located in the combustion section, and the nozzle sprays fuel into the combustion liner. The engine is lubricated by a dry-sump pressure system. Ignition for engine starting comes from an ignition exciter and spark igniter located next to the fuel nozzle in the engine combustion section.

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Figure 7.16. Electrical Components. 209

Chapter 8 PRATT AND WHITNEY T73 8.1. INTRODUCTION

The Pratt and Whitney T73-P-1 and T73-P-700 are the most powerful engines used in Army aircraft. Two of these engines are used to power the CH-54 flying crane helicopter. The T73 design differs in two ways from any of the engines covered previously. The airflow is axial through the engine; it does not make any reversing turns as the airflow of the previous engines did, and the power output shaft extends from the exhaust end. Chapter 8 describes and discusses the engine sections and systems. Constant reference to the illustrations in this chapter will help you understand the discussion. 8.2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The T73-P-1 and the T73-P-700 engines are straight-flow, free-turbine power plants using a two-stage turbine to drive a nine-stage, axial-flow compressor. The free turbine uses the exhaust gas to drive a two-stage free turbine rotor. External views of the T73 gas turbine engine are shown in figure 8.1. A cross-sectional view is shown in figure 8.2. The axial flow compressor consists of a nine-stage rotor and nine stator stages. The gas path of the compressor is so designed that it forms a convergent duct. The compressor has a moderate compression ratio. An automatically-controlled interstage airbleed is used for starting and low power operation of the engine. The engine's anti-icing system prevents dangerous accumulations of ice on compressor-inlet surfaces by directing compressor-discharge air into the hollow compressor inlet guide vanes. To the rear of the compressor is the diffuser section which reduces air velocity and increases air pressure for entry into the combustion chambers. The combustion section houses the canannular combustion chambers and the fuel. manifolds. The eight separate combustion chambers, arranged annularly, are connected by flame tubes.

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Figure 8-1. T73-P-700 Gas Turbine Engine. 211

Figure 8.2. Cross-Section View of T73-P-700. 212

Igniter plugs are installed in number three and six combustion chambers. Right and left, clockwise and counterclockwise, upper and lower, and similar directional references apply to the engine as viewed from the rear, with the accessory section at the bottom. Table V gives the leading particulars for the T73-P700 and T73-P-1 engines. 8.3. COMPRESSOR SECTION

The compressor inlet case, illustrated in figure 8.3, consists of the outer and inner inlet cases, outer and inner inlet vane shrouds, and hollow inlet vanes. Bosses and pads are located on the outer case for the No. 1 bearing compartment breather, scavenge, and pressure connections, inlet air pressure and temperature sensing connections, and anti-icing a air-icing air ports. The No. 1 bearing housing is bolted to the inner-inlet-case rear flange.

Figure 8.3. Compressor Inlet Case. The compressor inlet case houses the first four compressor rotor and compressor vane and shroud stages. Ports in the rear of the case allow bleed air to be discharged overboard by a bleed band assembly to aid engine starting and acceleration. The compressor rotor, shown in figure 8.4, consists of a forward hub assembly, a nine-stage compressor rotor, and an aft hub assembly. The No. 1 bearing is installed on the forward hub assembly of the compressor rotor shaft. The first stage compressor blades are attached directly to the forward hub while all other stages of compressor blades are attached to individual disks. The blades of the first and second stages are pin mounted to allow the blades to flex. Stages three through nine have a single dovetail and are secured in broached slots in the disk by expend able blade locks.

Figure 8.4. Compressor Rotor.

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TABLE V. LEADING ENGINE PARTICULARS

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The diffuser case, illustrated in figure 8.5, is a welded steel assembly located between the compressor inlet case and the combustion chamber case. It consists of an inner and outer case and 8 hollow struts. It houses stages 5 through 9 of the compressor rotor shroud and vane assembly, the 9th stage exit guide vanes, and No. 2 main bearing and seal. The diffuser assembly reduces air velocity and increases air pressure for entry into the combustion chambers. High pressure air from this case is bled off for anti-icing, fuel heating, and bearing pressurizing.

Figure 8.5. Diffuser Case. On the outer case at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions are the engine mount pads. At the bottom of the case are bosses for installing the gearbox and the fuel-pressurizing dump valve. 8.4. COMBUSTION SECTION

The combustion chamber case is bolted between the diffuser case and the free turbine case. This combustion chamber outer case, shown in figure 8.6, forms the outer rigid support member of the engine and must be removed for completing a hot section inspection. Located within the combustion outer case are eight combustion chambers (cans), the combustion inner case, fuel manifolds, and the combustion chamber outlet duct. The combustion chambers are attached by clamps to the combustion chamber outlet duct in the aft end of the combustion chamber case. Flame tubes interconnect all combustion chambers. Chambers three and six have igniter plug cutouts. Each combustion chamber, illustrated in

Figure 8.6. Combustion Chamber Case.

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figure 8.7, consists of six liners, a fuel nozzle cap, a fuel nozzle cup adapter, and male or female flame tubes.

Figure 8.7. Combustion Chamber. The combustion chamber outlet duct, shown in figure 8.8, acts as a transition area to combine the gas flow from the eight combustion chambers and introduce it into the first stage nozzle vanes. The fuel manifold consists of a secondary manifold within the primary manifold. Eight duplex fuel nozzles, one for each combustion chamber, are placed around the fuel manifold. Each nozzle has a primary orifice and a secondary orifice. Fuel sprays from the primary orifice during low pressure and from both orifices at high pressure. Fuel strainers in the primary and

Figure 8.8. Combustion Chamber Outlet Duct and Combustor (Can) Positions.

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secondary passages of each nozzle prevent foreign matter from clogging the orifices. A fuel drain valve, at the bottom of the combustion case, automatically drains the combustion section after engine shutdown in the event of a false or aborted start. 8.5. GAS PRODUCER TURBINE SECTION The gas producer turbine rotor assembly, illustrated in figure 8.9, consists of the turbine shaft and the first and second stage disks and blades. The turbine disks are attached to the turbine shaft hub with bolts and are separated from each other by the turbine rotor inner seal. The first and second stage turbine blades are shrouded. The shrouds form a continuous band which tends to reduce blade vibration, improve the airflow characteristics, and increase the efficiency of the turbine. The first and second stage turbine blades are placed in the fir-tree serrations of the disks and are held in place with rivets.

Figure 8.9. Gas Producer Turbine Rotor. The turbine rotor is supported by the No. 3 bearing and by the splined end of the compressor rear hub. Installed on the turbine shaft is the No. 3 bearing seal assembly. 8.6. POWER TURBINE SECTION The free-power turbine is a two-stage axial-flow turbine. The turbine inlet case, item 25, figure 8.2, is mounted on the rear flange of the gas producer turbine case. The power-turbine rotor turns counterclockwise while the gas producer rotor turns clockwise. The power turbine rotor assembly, items 16 and 18 in figure 8.2, consists of the turbine shaft, first and second stage disk and blades, turbine coupling, and accessory drive gear. Tiebolts attach the disk and blade assemblies to the front end of the turbine shaft. The shaft is supported at the rear by the No. 5 bearing and at the forward end by the No. 4 bearing. The free-turbine inlet case houses the turbine inlet duct, the first and second stage vanes, and the free-stage turbine rotor. The free-turbine case, item 24, figure 8.2, is mounted to the rear flange of the free turbine inlet case. The turbine case consists

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of the free-turbine outer case, inner front and rear case, four hollow struts and their Outer shrouds, twelve exhaust struts, and the No. 4 bearing housing. Housed in the case are the free-power turbine second-stage rotor, No. 4 bearing oil nozzle, and free turbine accessory drive gear and shaft assembly, item 20 in figure 8.2. 8.7. TURBINE EXHAUST DUCT

The free-turbine shaft and shaft cases are housed in the exhaust duct. The exhaust duct assembly consists of inner and outer assemblies, stiffeners, exhaust duct ring, and front and rear flanges. The exhaust duct bolts to the free-turbine case rear flange. 8.8. MAIN BEARINGS

All references to main bearings in this chapter are made by bearing number rather than by bearing nomenclature. Here are the bearing numbers with their corresponding nomenclatures and types.

8.9.

ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM

The T-73 is equipped with a single-element, centrifugal-boost fuel pump. The pump is mounted on and driven by the component-drive gearbox. On the rear of the pump is a mounting pad for the engine fuel control. The fuel boost pump raises the fuel pressure by approximately 20 psi. Fuel then passes through an externally mounted fuel de-icing heater. From the de-icing heater, fuel returns to the pumps at the inlet fuel filter and is directed to the main pumping element. The main pumping element raises the pressure to approximately 800 psi, and fuel passes out of the pump to the engine fuel control. The fuel control is a hydromechanical control designed to meter fuel to the engine. The control has a fuel metering system and a computing system. The metering system, subject to engine operating limitations, selects the rate of fuel flow supplied to the

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engine in accordance with the amount of power requested. The computing system allows the maximum engine performance available without exceeding operating limits. The fuel then flows through tubing to the right and left fuel manifolds and the eight fuel nozzles in the combustors. 8.10. INTERNAL COOLING AND PRESSURIZATION

Ninth stage air passes through holes in the compressor rotor rear hub, down through the inside of the rotor, and out through holes in the front hub. This air is used to pressurize the main bearing seals and to cool hot parts of the engine. 8.11. INLET GUIDE VANE ANTI-ICING SYSTEM

To prevent icing of the compressor inlet surfaces, an anti-icing air system is installed in the engine. Compressor bleed air is carried forward to the inlet case by an external tube on the left side of the engine. Air flow through this tube is controlled by a solenoid-operated valve. When icing conditions are encountered, the anti-ice switch in the cockpit is turned on to deenergize the solenoid which allows the valve to open and hot anti-icing air to pass forward. Anti-icing air enters the compressor inlet outer case through the anti-icing air boss and into the cavity formed by the compressor-inlet outer case and the IGV outer, shroud. The air then passes through the hollow inlet-vanes and through openings in the inner shroud to the bullet nose cone. The air passes through the bullet nose cone and is ejected out through louvers into the airstream. 8.12. LUBRICATION SYSTEM

The engine lubrication system is illustrated in figure 8.10. Oil from the tank is fed to the inlet of the pressure section of the main oil pump. The pressure oil is then directed through the main oil filter, through the fuel oil cooler if cooling is required, and to the bearings. The oil passes through external tubing to the No. 1 and 2 bearing compartments. Oil to the No. 3 bearing compartment is supplied by an internal tube that connects with No. 2 bearing supply. Pressure oil flows through an external tube to the free turbine accessory drive gearbox. An internal line carries oil from this connector to the No. 4 and 5 bearings. Pressure oil flow is maintained by metering orifices, thus providing a relatively constant oil flow at

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Figure 8.10. Engine Lubrication System. 220

all engine operating speeds. Oil pressure is controlled by the pressure relief valve. If the oil strainer becomes clogged, a bypass valve opens permitting oil flow and allowing engine operation to continue. Scavenge oil from the five main bearings and gearbox is scavenged by five of the six gear stages in the main oil pump. The first stage is a pressure pump. Stage two scavenges oil from No. 1 bearing; stage three from No. 3 bearing; stage four from the gearbox and No. 2 bearing; stage five from No. 4 bearing; and stage six from No. 5 bearing. The scavenge oil empties into a common tube that returns the oil to the tank. An air-oil separator in the gearbox removes oil from the breather air. Return oil passes through a de-aerator which removes most of the air. The oil tank contains baffles to prevent re-aeration of the oil in the tank. Each of the bearing compartments and the oil tank are vented to the components drive gearbox. A rotary separator within the gearbox separates the majority of oil particles from the breather air. This air then exits through the overboard breather connector on the upper right side of the gearbox. 8.13. TORQUE SENSOR

The torque sensor, the ignition system, and the power turbine inlet temperature indicating system make up the engine electrical system. The torque sensor consists of a torque shaft assembly, a three-pole magnetic torque sensor, and a torquemeter. It produces a visual indication of power transmitted from the engine to the main rotor gearbox by measuring the main drive shaft twist resulting from engine torque. 8.14. IGNITION SYSTEM

The ignition circuit is energized only during the starting cycle through operation of the starter circuit. The ignition system components consists of two identical, four-joule ignition exciters, one for each igniter plug. The ignition system operates satisfactorily with an input voltage of 14 to 30v dc. Operation of this system is the same as described in chapter 2, paragraph 2.22.

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8.15.

POWER TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE INDICATING SYSTEM

This system consists of a dual-junction thermocouple cable and six thermocouples. Two connectors are provided in the thermocouple cable illustrated in figure 8.11. One is for connecting to an averaging indicator and the other is for individual checking of the thermocouples. This system functions the same as the exhaust gas temperature-measuring system described in chapter 2.

Figure 8.11. Dual-Junction Thermocouple and Harness. 8.16. SUMMARY

The Pratt and Whitney T73-P-1 and the T73-P-700 are used to power the CH-54 flying crane helicopter. This engine is a straight-flow, axial-compressor, free-turbine powerplant. The axial flow compressor consists of nine stages. The combustion

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section has eight separate combustion chambers. The compressor is driven by a two-stage turbine mounted on the aft end of the compressor rotor shaft. The power turbine section is also a two-stage turbine, which mounts on the front end of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft extends out the exhaust end of the engine. The engine fuel system has a hydromechanical fuel control with a metering and computing section that schedules fuel flow. Internal cooling and pressurization are maintained by compressor bleed air. Compressor bleed air is also used to prevent ice from forming on the engine inlet surfaces. All components of the lubrication system are mounted on the engine. The oil system is a dry-sump type. The engine electrical system consists of the torque sensing system, ignition system, and turbine inlet temperature system.

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Chapter 9 PRATT AND WHITNEY T74 9.1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses the Pratt and Whitney T74 gas turbine engine. It is a reverse-flow, free-power turbine engine using a combination axial-centrifugal compressor assembly. The two models of the T74 are the T74-CP-700 and the T74-CP-702. They are used on the U-21 aircraft. Information in this chapter may be about either or both models. Section I describes the engine operation, and section II discusses the major engine systems. Figure 9.1 shows what the engine looks like; in this case, it is the -700 model.

Figure 9.1. T74-CP-700. Section I. Operational Characteristics and Description 9.2. GENERAL

This section discusses the operational characteristics and gives a description of the T74 engine. However, because these engines are undergoing continuous improvements in design and manufacture, the appearance of certain parts or details may change.

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9.3.

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

A cross-sectional view of the T74 showing the airflow through the engine is illustrated in figure 9.2. Inlet air enters the engine through a circular chamber formed by the compressor inlet case where it is directed to the compressor. The compressor consists of three axial stages combined with a single centrifugal stage. A row of stator vanes, located behind each rotating disk, diffuses the air, raises its static pressure, and directs it to the next stage of compression. The compressed air passes through a diffuser, turns ninety degrees in direction, and is then led through straightening vanes into the combustion chamber liner.

Figure 9.2. Airflow.

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The annular combustion chamber liner (ring shaped) has perforations which allow entry of compressed air. The flow of air changes direction to enter the combustion chamber liner, where it reverses direction and mixes with fuel. The location and shape of the combustion chamber liner eliminates the need for a long shaft between the compressor and turbine, reducing the overall length and weight of the engine. Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber liner by fourteen simplex nozzles. The fuel-air mixture is ignited by two glow plugs which protrude into the combustion chamber liner. The expanding gas from the combustion chamber liner reverses direction and passes through the compressor turbine guide vanes to the compressor turbine. The gases then pass forward through the turbine guide vanes to drive the power turbine. The compressor and power turbines, items 3 and 4 in figure 9.2, are located approximately in the center of the engine with their shafts extending in opposite directions. The exhaust gas from the power turbine is directed through an exhaust plenum to two exhaust ducts. All engine-driven accessories, with the exception of the N2 tachometer-generator and propeller governors, are mounted on the accessory gearbox and driven by the compressor. The oil tank is located forward of the accessory gearbox and forms part of the compressor inlet case. The tank has a total oil capacity of 2.3 gallons and has a dipstick and drain plug. The power turbine drives a propeller through a two-stage planetary reduction gearbox located at the front of the engine. The torquemeter is located in the reduction gearbox. 9.4. STATIONS, FLANGES, AND SPECIFICATIONS

The engine stations and flanges are illustrated in figure 9.3. Stations, identified by numbers in the figure, are specific locations in the engine. Flanges, identified by letters in the figure, are rims or edges providing strength in the attachment of one engine section to another.

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Figure 9.3. Stations and Flange Locations, -700. 227

Specifications for the T74-CP-702 engines used in Army aircraft are summarized in the following chart.

9.5.

INLET AND COMPRESSOR SECTIONS

The following subparagraphs discuss the inlet and compressor sections. An exploded view of the T74-CP-702 engine is shown in figure 9. 4. a. The compressor inlet case, shown in figure 9.5, consists of a circular aluminum-alloy casting; the front forms a plenum chamber for the passage of compressor inlet air. The rear portion, which consists of a hollow compartment, is used to house the oil supply. A large circular steel screen (item 11 in figure 9.4) is bolted around the air intake and the rear of the gas generator case to prevent foreign object ingestion by the compressor.

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Figure 9.4. Exploded View of the T74-CP-702. 229

Figure 9.5. Compressor Inlet Case, -700 Engine. The No. 1 bearing support is contained within the compressor inlet case centerbore. A conical tube is fitted in the centerbore of the oil tank compartment to provide a passage for the coupling shaft which extends the compressor drive to the accessories mounted on the rear accessory case. The pressure oil pump, driven by an accessory drive gear, is located in the bottom of the oil tank. The pressure oil relief valve and main oil filter, with check valve and bypass valve assemblies; are located on the right side of the inlet case at the 1 and 3 o'clock positions, respectively. b. The compressor rotor and stator assembly, shown in figure 9.6, consists of a three-stage axial rotor, three interstage spacers, three stator assemblies, and a single-stage centrifugal impeller and housing. The compressor blades are made of stainless steel and attached, with limited clearance, to the compressor hub in dovetail grooves. This accounts for the metallic clicking heard during compressor run-down. Axial movement of compressor blades is limited by the interstage spacers located between the disks. The first stage compressor blade airfoil differs from those in the second and third stages which are identical. All three stages differ in

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Figure 9.6. Compressor Assembly, -700. 231

length, decreasing from the first to the third stage. The No. 1 bearing is a ball bearing and supports the rear of the compressor assembly in the inlet case. The No. 2 bearing is a roller bearing and supports the front of the compressor and gas generator turbine. c. The gas generator case is attached to the front flange of the compressor inlet case and consists of two stainless steel sections made into a single structure. The rear inner section supports the compressor assembly. The compressor bleed valve outlet port is located at the seven o'clock position forward of the inlet screen. The No. 2 bearing support is located in the centerbore of the case. The diffuser pipes or vanes brazed inside the center section of the gas generator case create a pressure increase in the compressor air as it leaves the centrifugal impeller. The compressed air is then directed through straightening vanes, located at the outlet of the diffuser, and out to the combustion chamber liner. The front section of the gas generator case forms the outer housing for the combustion chamber liner. It consists of a circular stainless steel structure for mounting the 14 fuel nozzle assemblies and the manifold. Front and rear drain valves are mounted at the 6 o'clock position to allow residual fuel to drain overboard during engine shutdown after a false or aborted start. Two glow plugs protrude into the combustion chamber liner to ignite the fuel-air mixture. The engine is mounted on three flexible type mounts which are secured to mounting pads located on the outer circumference of the gas generator case. 9.6. COMBUSTION CHAMBER LINER

Located in the front section of the gas generator case is the combustion chamber liner. The liner is of the reverse flow type and consists primarily of an annular, heat-resistant steel liner open at one end. The combustion chamber is illustrated in figure 9.7. The liner has perforations which allow air to enter the liner for combustion. The perforations insure an even temperature distribution at the compressor turbine inlet. The domed front end of the liner is supported inside the gas generator case by seven of the 14 fuel nozzles. The rear of the liner is supported by sliding joints which fit to the inner and outer exit duct assemblies.

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Figure 9.7. Combustion Chamber and Turbine Section, -702. 233

The exit duct forms an envelope which changes the direction of the gas flow by providing an outlet close to the compressor turbine guide vanes. The vanes ensure that the expanding gases are directed to the compressor turbine blades at the proper angle to drive the compressor. 9.7. TURBINE SECTION

The turbine rotor consists of two separate single-stage turbines located in the center of the gas generator case and completely surrounded by the annular combustion chamber liner. The following subparagraphs discuss the compressor and power turbines. a. The compressor turbine consists of a turbine disk, blades, and weights. The turbine drives the compressor in a counterclockwise direction. The turbine assembly is splined to the compressor front hub and secured by a threaded centerlocking turbine bolt and washer. A master spline is provided to ensure that the disk assembly is always installed to a position to retain original balance. The disk has a circumferential reference groove to enable checking disk growth. The 58 cast steel alloy blades in the compressor turbine disk are secured in fir-tree serrations in the disk by individual tubular rivets. The compressor turbine is separated from the power turbine by an interstage baffle. This baffle prevents dissipation of turbine gas and transmission of heat to turbine disk faces. b. The power turbine disk assembly, consisting of a turbine disk, blades, and weights, drives the reduction gearing through the power turbine shaft in a clockwise direction. The power turbine guide vanes are located ahead of the power turbine rotor in the gas stream. The vanes direct the flow of gas at the most efficient angle to drive the power turbine. The power turbine disk is made to close tolerances and has a circumferential reference groove to permit taking disk growth measurements when required. A master spline insures that the turbine disk assembly is installed in a predetermined position to retain the original balance. The required number of weights is determined during balancing procedures and riveted to a special flange located on the rear of the turbine disk. The power turbine blades differ from those of the compressor turbine in that they are cast with notched and shrouded tips. The blades are secured by fir-tree serrations in the turbine disk. The blade tips rotate inside a double knife-edge shroud and form a continuous seal when the engine is running. This reduces tip leakage and increases turbine efficiency.

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9.8.

EXHAUST DUCT

The exhaust duct shown in figure 9.8 consists of a divergent, heat-resistant steel duct provided with two outlet ports, one on each side of the case. The duct is attached to the front flange of the gas generator case and consists of inner and outer sections. The outer conical section, which has two flanged exhaust outlet ports, forms the outer gas path and also functions as a structural member to support the reduction gearbox. The inner section forms the inner gas path and provides a compartment for the reduction gearbox rear case and the power turbine support housing. A removable sandwich-type heat shield insulates the rear case and support housing from the hot exhaust gases. A drain passage located at the 6 o'clock position at flange C leads to the gas generator case. This automatically drains the exhaust duct of any fluid accumulated during engine shutdown through the front drain valve on the gas generator case. Figure 9.8. Exhaust Duct, -702. 9.9. REDUCTION GEARBOX

Located at the front of the engine is the reduction gearbox, which consists of two magnesium alloy castings bolted to the front flange of the exhaust duct. A cross-section view of the reduction gearbox is illustrated in figure 9.9. The first stage of reduction is contained in the rear case. Torque from the power turbine is transmitted through the power turbine shaft to the first stage sun gear. The spur-gear end of the sun gear drives the three planetary gears in the first stage planet carrier. The first stage ring gear is located in helical splines in the rear case assembly. The torque developed by the power turbine is transmitted through the sun gear and planet gears to the ring gear. This results in rotation of the planetary carrier. The ring gear, though secured by the helical splines, is allowed to move axially between the case and three retaining plates. This movement is used in the torquemeter located inside the rear gearbox assembly, which is discussed in paragraph 9.16.

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Figure 9.9. Reduction Gearbox. The second stage of reduction is contained in the reduction gearbox front case. The first stage planet carrier is attached to the second stage sun gear by a flexible coupling which also dampens any vibrations between the two rotating masses. The second stage sun gear drives five planet gears in the second stage carrier. A second stage ring gear is fixed by splines to the reduction gearbox front case and secured by three bolted retaining plates. The second stage carrier is in turn splined to the propeller shaft and secured by a retaining nut and shroud washer. The accessories located on the reduction gearbox front case are driven by a bevel drive gear, mounted on the propeller shaft behind the thrust bearing assembly. Propeller thrust loads are absorbed by a flanged ball bearing located in the front face of the reduction gearbox centerbore. The thrust bearing cover is secured to the front of the reduction gearbox, and it has a removable oil seal retaining ring for replacement of the oil seal.

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9.10.

ACCESSORY GEARBOX

Located at the rear of the engine is the accessory gearbox. It consists of two magnesium alloy castings attached to the rear flange of the compressor inlet case by 16 studs. The front casting, provided with front and rear O-rings, forms an oil-tight diaphragm between the oil tank compartment of the inlet case and the accessory drives. The accessory drive gearbox is illustrated in figure 9.10.

Figure 9.10. Accessory Gearbox Cross Section, -702.

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The rear casting forms an accessory gearbox cover with support bosses for the accessory drive bearings and seals. The internal scavenge oil pump is secured inside the housing, and a second scavenge pump is externally mounted. Mounting pads and studs are located on the rear face for the combined starter-generator, the fuel control unit with the sandwich-mounted fuel pump, and the N1 tachometergenerator. Three additional pads are available for optional requirements; see figure 9.11. An oil tank filler cap and dipstick are located at the eleven o'clock position on the rear housing. A centrifugal oil separator mounted on the startergenerator's drive gearshaft separates the oil from the engine breather air in the accessory gearbox housing. 9.11. BEARING INSTALLATION

Figure 9.11. Accessory Gearbox Train.

The compressor rotor assembly is supported and secured in the rear section of the gas generator case by two bearings. The outer race of No. 1 ball bearing is held in its flexible housings by a special nut and keywasher. The split inner race, spacer, and rotor seal are stacked against a shoulder on the compressor rear hub shaft and secured by a cup-washer and special nut. The outer flange of the No. 2 roller bearing is attached to the gas generator centerbore by four bolts and tablock washers.

The compressor turbine disk holds the plain inner race stacked in position between front and rear rotor seals on the compressor front stubshaft and a shoulder on the stubshaft. The bearing installation of the T74 engine is illustrated in figure 9.12. The power turbine disk and shaft assembly is supported and secured in the power turbine shaft housing by the No. 3 and No. 4 bearings. Bearing No. 3 is a roller type, and No. 4 is a ball type.

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Figure 9.12. Bearing Installation. 239

9.12.

SUMMARY

The T74 is a light-weight, free-power turbine engine designed for use in fixed-wing aircraft. It has two independent turbines, one driving a compressor in the gas generator section, and the second driving a reduction gearing for a propeller installation. The different engine sections bolt together at flanges, which are identified by letters. Numbers are used to identify locations or stations on the engine. The compressor is a three-stage axial rotor, which is housed in the gas generator case. Located forward of the compressor is the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber is of the annular reverse-flow type. Fourteen fuel nozzles are mounted at the front end of the combustion chamber liner. The two single-stage turbine rotors are located in the center of the annular combustion chamber. The compressor turbine assembly is splined to the compressor front hub. The power turbine rotor drives the reduction gearing through the power turbine shaft. Ahead of the combustor and turbine assemblies is the exhaust duct. The duct is attached to the front flange of the gas generator. Located at the front of the engine are the reduction gearbox and propeller shaft. The accessory drive gearbox is attached to the aft flange of the compressor inlet case at the rear of the engine. The engine has four main bearings. Numbers 1 and 4 are ball bearings, and 2 and 3 are roller bearings. Section II. Major Engine Systems 9.13. GENERAL

The T74-CP-702 has four major engine systems: the bleed air system, lubrication system, fuel system, and instrumentation and ignition system. Each of these systems is essential for safe engine operation. The section discusses each system in detail in the paragraphs that follow. 9.14. BLEED AIR SYSTEMS

The engine has three separate bleed air systems: a compressor bleed air control, a bearing compartment airseal, and a turbine

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disk cooling system. The engine is also equipped for cabin-pressurization air. subparagraphs describe the bleed air systems.

The following

a. The compressor bleed air system. Automatically opening a valve in the gas generator case to spill interstage compressor air, the compressor bleed air system thereby prevents compressor stalls at low engine speeds. The valve closes gradually as higher engine speeds are attained. b. Bearing compartment seals. Pressure air is used to seal the 1st, 2d, and 3d bearing compartments and also to cool both the compressor and the power turbines. c. Turbine disk cooling system. The compressor and power turbine disks are both cooled by compressor discharge air bled from the straightening vane area of the diffuser. It is then metered through holes in the compressor turbine vane support into the turbine hub baffle, where it divides into three paths. Some of the air is metered to cool the rear face of the compressor turbine disk, and some to pressurize the bearing seals. The air is then led forward through passages in the compressor turbine hub to cool the front face of the compressor turbine. A portion of this cooling air is also led through a passage in the center of the interstage baffle to the rear face of the power turbine disk. The remaining air is used to cool the front face of the power turbine disk. The cooling air from both of the turbine disks is dissipated into the main gas stream flow to the atmosphere. 9.15. LUBRICATION SYSTEM

The T74 engine oil system is designed to provide a constant supply of clean lubricating oil to the engine bearings, reduction gears, torquemeter, propeller, and all accessory drive gears. The oil system consists of the components covered in the following subparagraphs. A schematic of the -702 engine lubrication system is illustrated in figure 9.13. a. The oil tank is part of the compressor inlet case. The tank has a total capacity of 2. 3 gallons of which 1.5 gallons are usable. This capacity allows for oil expansion of approximately 0.8 gallons. The oil tank has an oil filler neck and a quantity dipstick and cap which protrudes through the accessory gearbox housing at the 11 o'clock position. An anti-flooding and breather arrangement,

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Figure 9.13. Engine Lubrication System Schematic, -702. 242

located in the highest point of the oil tank, prevents flooding of the accessory gearbox if the oil tank is overfilled. A drain plug is mounted in the bottom of the tank. b. A gear-type oil pressure pump is located in the lowest part of the tank. The pump consists of two gears contained in a cast housing, bolted to the front face of the accessory diaphragm. It is driven by the accessory gearshaft which drives the internal double-element scavenge pump. The oil pump has an inlet filter screen, check valve, and relief valve. c. The oil filter assembly consists of a disposable cartridge type filter element with a perforated flanged end, bypass valve, and check valve. The filter assembly housing is located in the compressor inlet case at the 3 o'clock position. If the filter becomes clogged, the increased pressure opens the bypass valve, and an alternate passage for unfiltered oil to flow through the engine is used. The check valve, positioned in the end of the housing, prevents gravity flow into the engine after shutdown and permits the filter element to be changed without having to drain the oil tank. d. The centrifugal breather consists of a shrouded aluminum alloy impeller secured to the rear face of the starter-generator gearshaft by a retaining ring. Breather air flows radially inward through the rotating impeller housing where the oil particles are separated from the air mist by centrifugal force. The oil particles are thrown outward and drain freely to the bottom of the accessory gearbox. The air is then routed through a transfer tube to a breather boss on the rear face of the accessory housing where a connection for an overboard vent line is installed. e. The oil-to-fuel heater assembly is essentially a heat exchanger which uses heat from the engine oil lubricating system to preheat the fuel in the engine fuel system. The heater has a Vermatherm element, which senses fuel temperature, and consists of a highly expansive material sealed in a metallic chamber. The expansion force is transmitted through a diaphragm and plug to a piston. The element senses outlet fuel temperatures and, at temperatures above 70° F, starts to close the core valve and simultaneously opens the bypass valve. At 90° F, the core valve is completely closed and the oil bypasses the heater core. 9.16. PRESSURE AND SCAVENGE OIL SYSTEMS

Oil for lubrication of engine parts is supplied under pressure by the pressure oil system. This oil is then returned to the oil tank

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by the scavenge oil system. The following subparagraphs discuss the pressure and scavenge oil systems. a. The pressure oil system supplies oil at 85 to 95 psi to the reduction gearbox where it is divided into two branches. One branch is led to the first stage reduction gears, splines, torquemeter, and number 3 and 4 bearings. Pressure oil to the torquemeter is led through a metering valve which controls the flow into the torquemeter chamber. The bearings and gears are lubricated by oil spray jets. The second branch supplies oil to the propeller governor unit, the accessory drive gears, and propeller thrust bearing. b. The scavenge oil system includes two double-element scavenge pumps connected by internal passages and lines to two main external transfer tubes. One pump is secured inside the accessory gearbox and the other is externally mounted. They are contained in separate housings and driven off accessory gearshafts. The oil from the No. 1 bearing compartment is returned by gravity through an internal cored passage to the bottom of the compressor inlet case and then through internal passages in the oil tank and accessory diaphragm into the accessory gearbox. Number 2 bearing oil drains down from its compartment into an external sump leading rearward to the bottom of the tank. It is then scavenged to the scavenge pump which forces the oil into the accessory gearbox. The oil from the centrifugal breather and the input gearshaft and bearings drains to the bottom of the accessory gearbox. It is then scavenged from the gearbox together with the oil from No. 1 and 2 bearings by the rear element of the double-element internal scavenge pump. The internal scavenge pump is driven by a quillshaft from the main oil pump in the oil tank. The external scavenge pump scavenges any reduction gearbox oil which drains rearward when the engine is in extreme climbing attitudes. Oil from the propeller governor, front thrust bearing, reduction gear, and torquemeter bleed orifice drains into the reduction gearbox sump. The oil is then scavenged by the external scavenge pump through the external transfer tube to the accessory gearbox housing. The oil from both internal and external scavenge pumps is forced through a T fitting into the airframe oil cooler, where the oil is cooled and passed on to the oil tank. The normal oil operating temperature is 74° to 80° C. 9.17. TORQUEMETER

The torquemeter is a hydromechanical torque-measuring device located inside the first stage reduction gear housing. The

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torquemeter gives an accurate indication of the torque being produced by the power turbine. The torque pressure value is obtained by tapping the two outlets on the top of the reduction gearbox case. The pressure differential between the two outlets is then read on an instrument which indicates the correct torque pressure. 9.18. FUEL SYSTEM

The T74 basic fuel system consists of a single, engine-driven, fuel pump; p fuel control unit, temperature compensator, and starting control; and a dual fuel manifold with 14 simplex fuel nozzles. Two drain valves are mounted on the gas generator case to insure drainage of residual fuel after engine shutdown after a false or aborted start. The -702 fuel system is illustrated in figure 9.14. a. The fuel pump is a positive displacement gear-type pump and is driven off the accessory gearbox. Fuel from a booster pump enters the fuel pump through a screen filter and then on to the pump gear chamber, from where the fuel is pumped at high pressure to the fuel control unit. The filter screen is spring loaded and should it become blocked, an increase in fuel pressure differential overcomes the spring, lifts the screen from its seat, and allows unfiltered fuel to flow into the system. The fuel control unit returns bypassed fuel from the fuel control unit to the pump inlet; see the internal line in figure 9.14. b. The fuel control unit is mounted on the engine-driven fuel pump and is driven at a speed proportional to compressor turbine speed (N1). The control determines the proper fuel schedule for the engine to produce the power required as established by controlling the speed of the compressor turbine (N1). Engine power output is directly dependent upon compressor turbine speed. The fuel control governs the N thereby governing the power output of the engine. Control of N1 is accomplished by regulating the amount of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber. c. The temperature compensator is mounted on the compressor case with the bimetallic disks extending into the inlet air stream. The temperature compensator is illustrated in figure 9.15.

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Figure 9.14. Engine Fuel System, -702. 246

Figure 9.15. Temperature Compensator, -700. Compressor discharge pressure (PC) is applied to the compensator. This pressure source is used to produce a pressure signal to the fuel control unit. The compensator changes the pressure signal to the fuel control to produce an acceleration schedule, based on inlet air temperature, to prevent compressor stall or excessive turbine temperature. d. The starting control consists of a ported plunger sliding in a ported housing. schematic of the starting control fuel flow is shown in figure 9.16. A

Rotational movement of the input lever is converted to a linear movement of the plunger through a rack and pinion engagement. A pressurizing valve, located at the inlet to the control, maintains a minimum pressure in the fuel control to insure correct metering. This valve permits the primary manifold to fill initially for lightup, and as pressure increases in the control, the transfer valve opens. This allows fuel to flow into secondary manifold. e. The fuel manifold assembly delivers a constant supply of high pressure fuel from the starting control to two sets of seven fuel manifold adapters with simplex nozzles. The dual manifold consists of 28 short fuel transfer tubes fitted with O-rings at each end and interconnected by 14 fuel manifold adapters. Locking plates

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Figure 9.16. Starting Control Fuel Flow, -702. 248

keep the transfer tubes in proper alignment, secured by two bolts to a mounting boss on the circumference of the gas generator case. Individual transfer tubes or fuel nozzles can be removed and replaced without necessarily disconnecting the remainder of the set. The fuel manifold assembly is illustrated in figure 9.17. 9.19. IGNITION SYSTEM

The glow-plug type ignition system is used on the T74 engine for quick light-offs (starts), even at extremely low ambient temperatures. The basic system consists of a current regulator and two sets of tubes, two shielded plug leads, and two glow plugs. The following subparagraphs discuss the components in the ignition system. a. The current-regulator unit is normally secured to the accessory gearbox housing but can be remotely mounted if required. The regulator contains four electron tubes, shown in figure 9.18. Each tube has a pure iron filament surrounded by helium and hydrogen gas and enclosed in a glass envelope sealed to an octal base. The iron filament, having a negative co-efficient of resistance (resistance decreases with temperature increase caused by current flow), stabilizes the current flow across the tubes to a nearly constant value over a wide range of voltages. Each glow plug is wired in series with two parallel connected ballast tubes. Either glow plug may be selected for starting the engine. The tubes provide an initial current surge when switched on, which stabilizes to a constant value in approximately 30 seconds. The system heats the glow plugs for fast light-offs. b. The glow plug consists of a heating element fitted into a short conventional type plug body. A cross-section illustration of a glow plug is shown in figure 9.19. The plugs are secured to the gas generator case in threaded bosses. The heating element consists of a helically wound coil which lies slightly below the end of the plug body. During starting procedures, the fuel sprayed by the fuel nozzles runs down along the lower wall of the combustion chamber liner and into the helical coil in the glow plug body. The fuel is vaporized and ignited by the hot coil element which heats up to approximately 2,400° F. Three air holes in the plug body allow compressor discharge air from the gas generator case into the plug body, then past the hot coil in the combustion chamber liner to produce a hot streak or torching effect which ignites the remainder of the fuel. The air also serves to cool the coil elements when the engine is running with the glow plugs switched off.

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Figure 9.17. Fuel Manifold Assembly, -702. 250

Figure 9.18. Current Regulator Circuit.

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Figure 9.19. Glow Plug. 9.20. INSTRUMENTATION The following instrumentation is considered necessary for normal operation. a. The interturbine temperature sensing system is designed to provide the pilot with an accurate indication of engine operating temperature taken between the gas generator and power turbines. The system shown in figure 9.20 consists of twin leads, two busbars, and 10 individual chromel-alumel thermocouple probes connected in parallel. Each probe protrudes through a threaded boss on the power turbine stator housing into an area adjacent to the leading edge of the power turbine vanes. This system generates its own electric current.

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Figure 9.20. Interturbine Temperature Thermocouple Assembly, -700. b. The oil temperature indicator measures the temperature of the oil as it leaves the delivery side of the oil pressure pump. The oil temperature bulb is mounted on the accessory gearbox housing. This system uses 28v dc from the aircraft electrical system.

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c. The oil pressure indicator measures oil pressure in psi at the delivery side of the oil pump. The oil pressure transmitter is mounted just above the oil temperature bulb on the accessory gearbox housing. d. The turbine tachometer registers compressor turbine speed (N1) as a percentage of maximum rpm. Propeller shaft speed is registered in hundreds of rpm. The tachometer-generator for the N1 is mounted at the 5 o'clock position on the accessory gearbox and is driven from the internal scavenge pump. The propeller tachometer-generator (N2) is mounted on the right side of the reduction gearbox front case and is driven by a bevel gear on the propeller shaft. The N1 and N2 tachometergenerators produce their own electrical current. e. The torquemeter indicating system registers engine output power in psi of torque. The transmitter converts oil pressure to an electrical signal that registers engine torque on a gage in the pilot's cockpit. 9.21. SUMMARY

The Pratt and Whitney T74-CP-702 has four major engine systems. The compressor bleedair system prevents the compressor from stalling during low engine speeds. Compressor bleed-air is also used for bearing compartment seals and turbine cooling. The lubrication pressure system produces a constant supply of clean oil to the engine bearings, reduction gears, torquemeter, propeller, and accessory gears. The oil is then transferred back to the oil tank by the internal and external scavenge pumps. The basic fuel system consists of a single engine-driven pump, fuel control unit, temperature compensator starting control, fuel manifold, and 14 simplex fuel nozzles. The fuel control determines the fuel flow to the engine to produce the power required. The temperature compensator sends an air pressure signal to the fuel control to prevent compressor stall or excessive turbine temperature. The starting control permits the primary manifold to fill for engine starts. The fuel manifold delivers fuel to two sets of seven simplex nozzles. The glow plug ignition system is capable of quick light-offs at extremely low ambient temperature. The fuel is vaporized and ignited by the hot coil element in the glow plug. The engine is

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equipped with instrumentation to monitor engine operation during flight measures temperature in the turbine section. Turbine tachometers register N1 speed as a percentage of maximum gas generator rpm. The propeller tachometers (N2) register shaft speed in hundreds of rpm. Each indicator is directly responsive to a tachometer-generator unit attached to a corresponding engine section. Oil pressure is taken from the delivery side of the main oil pressure pump and registered in psi. Oil temperature is taken from the delivery side of the oil pressure pump and registered in degrees centigrade. The torquemeters indicate torque in psi applied to the propeller shaft.

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Chapter 10 GENERAL ELECTRIC T700-GE-700 10.1. INTRODUCTION

General Electric is developing the T700-GE-700 turboshaft engine for the U. S. Army Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS). The T700 is designed to operate in combat with improved reliability, easy maintenance, low fuel consumption, and extended operating life. The T700 will operate with no visible smoke and at low noise levels. External lines and leads have been reduced in number and grouped for armoring protection. The engine also contains its own lubrication and electrical systems to reduce dependence on the airframe systems. 10.2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The T700 is an axial-flow, free-power, turboshaft engine rated at 1,500 shp. It has a fivestage axial, single-stage centrifugal compressor; an annular combustor; a two-stage gas generator (N1) turbine; and a two-stage power turbine. An engine-driven inlet particle separator is located ahead of the compressor. For field maintenances, the engine breaks down into four modules: controls and accessories, cold section, hot section, and power turbine. The engine is constructed of corrosion-resistant steel except for a titanium axial-compressor casing, aluminum inlet-separator frame, and magnesium gearbox case. The engine dimensions in inches are length 47, height 23, and width 25. A cutaway illustration of the T700-GE-700 is shown in figure 10.1. 10.3. CENTRIFUGAL INLET SEPARATOR

Figure 10.2 shows the centrifugal inlet separator and a schematic of its operation. The inlet air passes through the fixed separator swirl vanes which swirl the air, and centrifugal force throws the particles to the separator collection scroll. The scroll is scavenged by an engine-driven blower mounted on the accessory gearbox.

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(continued on next page) Figure 10.1. Cutaway View of the T700-GE-700.

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Figure 10.2. Centrifugal Inlet Separator.

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10.4.

COMPRESSOR

The compressor has five axial stages and one centrifugal stage. The inlet guide vanes and the first and second stage stator vanes in the compressor vary their angle of attack according to compressor speed. The centrifugal impeller is mounted aft and on the same shaft as the axial compressor. One of the major design differences of the T700 is that the axial-compressor rotor stage blades and disks are one-piece castings. This means better rotor integrity and also easier buildup and overhaul. The compressor has very few blades, 332 total. This is about one-third the number in comparable current engines. Stages one and five have borescope ports for inspections. Just aft of the centrifugal impeller is the diffuser passage. 10.5. COMBUSTOR

The annular combustion chamber is located aft of the diffuser. Engine durability and time between overhauls (TBO) are directly related to the heat of the combustor. If the combustor can develop the power required at a lower temperature, component service life can be increased. The combustor has twelve vaporizing fuel injectors and two atomizing start-fuel nozzles. The axial type vaporizing combustor operates with a lower peak temperature factor. Axial flow ensures minimum liner area and hence minimizes the amount of secondary cooling air to be mixed into the hot gas stream. The annular combustion chamber can be seen in figure 10.1. 10.6. GAS GENERATOR TURBINE

The T700 gas generator turbine is a two-stage, air-cooled, high-performance, axial-flow turbine. The modular concept has been used in the gas generator turbine design for ease of assembly and maintenance. The turbine is divided into easily accessible submodules consisting of the first stage turbine nozzle and the turbine rotor. The first stage nozzle submodule consists of 24 air-cooled cast vane segments brazed in pairs. These twelve pairs are assembled to the inner support and held in place by a retaining ring with bolts. The rotor submodule consists of the turbine rotor combined with the second nozzles, supports, and shrouds. Both first and second stage disks, cooling plates, and turbine blades are clamped by

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five short tiebolts. Five longer tiebolts clamp this rotor assembly to the forward shaft through the forward coupling. Loosening these five longer tiebolts does not disturb the rotor assembly itself, permitting simple maintenance without special tools. Thirteen second-stage nozzle segments of two vanes each are held by the outer support, which is also assembled with the first stage shroud segments and second stage shroud support. All airfoils (vanes) are internally cooled. The first stage nozzle leading edge is air-cooled, with the air exiting through holes in the vane airfoils. The midchord region is convection-cooled, with cooling air exiting both through pressure holes and trailing edge slots. Cooling air for the second stage nozzle is bled from the centrifugal compressor exit and piped back through the turbine casting. The air enters the second stage nozzle through bushings and cools the nozzles by internal airflow exiting through trailing edge and inner band holes. The turbine blades are air-cooled through radial holes. Air enters through the dovetail and exits at the tip. The first stage blades also employ trailing edge holes for cooling. 10.7. POWER TURBINE

This component is a two-stage uncooled tip-shrouded design with replaceable turbine blades and nozzle segments. The output shaft governing speed range is from 17,000 to 23,000 rpm with a maximum rated speed of 24,000 rpm. The power turbine is a self-contained module which can be disassembled and reassembled to the gas generator without special tools. The rotor assembly consists of the third and fourth stage disks mounted on a drive shaft supported by four bearings. The third stage disk is secured to the drive shaft by a flange, allowing quick removal from the drive shaft without removal of the aft sump or rear frame. The third stage disk has 46 tip-shrouded blades attached to the disk through conventional dovetails and retained axially by bent locking strips. A similar arrangement is used on stage four where 50 blades are employed. The drive shaft is a hollow one-piece unit splined to the short output shaft at the forward end. An integral feature of the drive shaft is the torque sensor that mechanically displays the total twist of the drive shaft, which is electrically sensed and processed. This mechanical display of total twist is accomplished by a reference shaft that is pinned to the front end and extends back to the aft end, where

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it is free to rotate relative to the drive shaft. The relative rotation is due to transmitted torque, and the phase angle between the reference surfaces is electronically sensed by two pickups, one sensing five teeth on the reference shaft, the other sensing five teeth on the drive shaft. Both stages of each turbine nozzle are cast in segments. The third stage has six segments of six vanes each, and the fourth stage has 10 segments of five vanes each. The static tip shrouds are replaceable in four segments each and are of open cell honeycomb arrangement. 10.8. BEARING ARRANGEMENT

Figure 10.1 shows the T700-GE-700 bearing and frame arrangement. The four bearings and shaft arrangement at the front of the axial compressor isolate the driveshaft from the engine. Circumferential carbon seals are used on the power turbine shaft, and labyrinth seals are used on the gas generator shaft. The front frame has eighteen deswirl vanes which are part of the structure. 10.9. LUBRICATION SYSTEM

A schematic of the lubricating system is shown in figure 10.3. The oil tank is built into the inlet particle separator. All scavenge lines have magnetic chip detection for fault isolation. An emergency lubrication system has been built into the design for assuring continued bearing operation after loss of oil from any cause. Small oil reservoirs are included in each bearing sump, and are kept full during normal operation by the oil pressure pumps. Oil is always bleeding out of these reservoirs at a slow rate. Air jets, also continuous, act as "foggers" for this oil bleed and provide oil mist lubrication at all times. This continues for at least six minutes even if the oil supply fails. A fuel-oil heat exchange is a self-contained oil cooler and fuel de-icer. 10.10. MAINTAINABILITY

The engine has been designed for ease of servicing and maintenance. Borescope inspections can be made in critical areas where sand and dust erosion and clogging, corrosion, and foreign object damage can occur and in other critical areas where inspections are necessary.

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Figure 10.3. Lubrication System Schematic.

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The T700 design offers the following maintenance benefits: no special tools required for module replacement, no critical measurements required for module replacement, no component replacement at direct support. Any maintenance action requiring special tools is accomplished at depot level. 10.11. SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE

The T700-GE-700 engine has been designed to meet the required design life of 5,000 hours. The T700 is a durably designed engine and does not require frequent scheduled checks or adjustments. An example of this feature is that the fuel control requires no field adjustments. 10.12. SUMMARY

The General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshaft engine is presently being developed to power the Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS). The engine is an axial-flow free-power turbine design, rated at 1, 536 shp. The engine is made up of four modules: accessory gearbox, cold section, hot section, and power turbine. Mounted on the front of the engine is a centrifugal inlet particle separator to keep foreign objects from entering the compressor. The compressor has five axial stages and one centrifugal stage. The annular combustion chamber has 12 vaporizing fuel injectors and two atomizing start-fuel nozzles. The gas generator turbine and power turbine are two-stage axial flow turbines. An emergency oil system has been designed to ensure limited engine operation after loss of oil. The oil tank is built into the inlet separator. The engine has been designed for improved reliability, easy maintenance, low fuel consumption, and extended operating life. All field maintenance can be performed without special tools. The engine can be internally inspected by the borescope method, rather than by engine teardown. The engine will have a design life of 5,000 hours.

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Appendix I REFERENCES Army Regulations AR 310-25 AR 310-50 Dictionary of United States Army Terms Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes Technical Manuals TM 55-406 Fundamentals of Aircraft Powerplant Maintenance

TM 55-2840-229-24/T.O. 2J-T53-16 Maintenance: Organizational, Direct Support, and General Support, Engine, Shaft Turbine U. S. Army Transportation School Publications 333-335 333-337 333-339 333-374 333-375 333-385 333-394 333-397 T53-L-13 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual T74-CP-700 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual T63-A-5A/700 Gas Turbine Engine Advance Sheet JFTD-12A-1/T-73-P-1 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual T55-L-11 Turboshaft, Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual Jet Cal Analyzer T55-L-7, T55-L-7C Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual T62 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual

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Appendix II GLOSSARY Acceleration lag -- in the turbine engine, delay between the time instant power is requested and when power is available. The time it takes the engine to accelerate and give the required power increase. Aerodynamic drag -- force which thrust must overcome to move an aircraft forward. Design can lessen aerodynamic drag through streamlining. Drag increases with increased speed. Airbleed actuator -- device that operates the interstage bleed system, to improve compressor acceleration characteristics by unloading small amounts of compressed air. Air density -- total mass of air per given volume, the weight of a given volume of air. Air is denser at lower altitude, at lower temperature, and lower humidity. Air-fuel ratio -- 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel by weight, the mixture to be burned in the combustion chamber. Air inlet -- large, smooth aluminum duct to conduct the air into the compressor. Ambient air -surrounding air.

Angle of attack -- the acute angle formed by the direction of the relative wind and some longitudinal reference axis of the aircraft. Annular combustion chamber -- two-part combustion chamber made up of an annular liner and a housing assembly. The compressed air goes into a ring-shaped space formed by the annular liner around the turbine shaft rather than into individual combustion chambers. The space between the outer liner wall and the housing assembly allows the flow of cooling air. Used with axialflow and dual compressors. Annular reverse-flow -- type of gas turbine engine most commonly used in Army aircraft. Air flow direction is reversed in the combustion area.

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Anodizing -- putting a protective oxide film on a light metal by an electrolytic process. Anti-icing system -- device that supplies hot air under pressure to prevent icing of the inlet housing areas and inlet guide vanes. Hot scavenged oil is also circulated through internal passages in the walls and struts. Army Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (ASOAP) -- periodic oil analysis for microscopic metal particles. This takes place at an oil analysis laboratory. Atmospheric pressure -- barometric pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a result of gravitational attraction above the point in question. Atomizer -- nozzle that creates a highly atomized and accurately shaped spray of fuel suitable for rapid mixing and combustion. Axial-flow compressor -- one in which the air is compressed parallel to the axis of the engine. It is made up of a series of alternating rotor and stator vane stages. Bleed system -- device that unloads small amounts of air to relieve pressure. Boss -- raised rim around a hole; e.g., axle hole in a wheel. Circular projection on a casting, usually serving as the seat for a bolt head or nut. Brayton cycle -- constant pressure cycle, with four basic operations which it accomplishes simultaneously and continuously for an uninterrupted flow of power. The turbine engine operates on this cycle. Can-annular combustion chamber -- one with characteristics of both the can and annular types. It has an outer shell and a number of individual cylindrical liners. Can combustion chamber -- one made up of individual combustion chambers in which the air from the compressor enters each individual chamber through the adapter. Caustics -- substances that can burn, corrode, or destroy animal or other organic tissue by chemical action.

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Centrifugal-axial flow compressor -- combination of the centrifugal-flow and the axial-flow compressors. It usually consists of a five- or seven-stage axial-flow compressor and one centrifugal-flow compressor. Also called the dual compressor. Centrifugal-flow compressor -- one with an impeller (rotor), stator, and compressor manifold. The rotor revolves at high speed, drawing air into the blades. Centrifugal force accelerates the air, and it moves through the stator and through the manifold. Combustion -- process of burning the fuel-air mixture in a gas turbine engine. Combustion chamber -- part of a turbine engine in which the propulsive power is developed by combustion of the injected fuel and the expansive force of the resulting gases. Combustion chamber liner -- engine part usually constructed of welded high-nickel steel, subjected to flame of extremely high temperature. It is behind the compressor and receives the compressed air which is mixed with fuel and ignited. The combustor is where the combustion takes place. Combustor -- the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine with its associated burners, igniters, and injection devices. Compressor -- that section of an engine that produces an increase in air pressure. It is made up of rotating and stationary vane assemblies. It is the gas producer, or it may be thought of as an air pump. Compressor rotor -- impeller, may be thought of as an air pump. It accelerates the air rearward into the first stage vane assemblies. Compressor stall -- separation of the airflow from the suction surface of the fixed or rotating blades of a compressor. Any degree of stall reduces airflow. Concave -- pressure side of an airfoil. Conduction -- transfer of heat through material by communication of kinetic energy from particle to particle rather than by a flow of heated material.

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Convergent area -- place where the cross-sectional area of a duct becomes smaller. Convergent exhaust duct -- used on fixed-wing aircraft, formed by tapering toward the rear of the duct. Convex -- suction side of an airfoil. Crossover tube -- duct carrying flame to the individual cylindrical liners of the can-annular combustion chamber. Diffuser -- aft structural member of an engine. It receives high velocity air from the centrifugal impeller and decreases velocity and increases air pressure. In the combustor, a diffuser forms a divergent flow path for the exhaust gases. Diffusion -- process by which gases intermingle as the result of their spontaneous movement caused by thermal agitation. Directional references -- specific definitions of terms referring to gas turbine engines to identify front and rear, right and left, bottom and top. Divergent area -- place where air flows from a smaller into a larger area. Divergent exhaust duct -- used on helicopters, device to diffuse the exhaust gases rearward and to eliminate thrust. Dry-cleaning solvent -- cleaning compound that may be used for all metal parts. Dry-sump engine -- one in which the oil is stored separate from the engine. Dual compressor -- see centrifugal-flow, axial-flow compressor. Duplex nozzle -- dual-orifice channel through which highly atomized and accurately shaped sprays of fuel go into the combustion chamber. Engine airflow path -- route of the airflow through the engine. See paragraph 4. 4a for a detailed description of airflow through a T53-L-13.

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Engine oil pressure indicating system -- device that gives continuous readings of engine oil pump pressure in psi. Engine oil temperature indicating system -- device electrically connected to the 28v dc system which transmits temperature readings to the indicator in degrees centrigrade. Engine speed notation -- capital letter N represents the rotational speed of the engine. When a number is placed after the N, as in N1, it indicates a specific system on the engine. Engine stations -- specific locations on the engine designating temperature- or pressure-measuring locations. For example, T3 means the third temperature pickup on the engine. Engine surge -- result of compressor stall. The complete engine in stall. Exhaust -- hot gases discharged from the engine through the exhaust diffuser section. Exhaust diffuser -- section composed of an inner and outer housing, separated by hollow struts across the exhaust passage. It forms a divergent flow path for the exhaust gases. Exhaust gas temperature indicator -- sensitive millivoltmeter calibrated in degree centigrade, activated by an electrical force generated by its thermocouple. Fir tree mount -- manner of attaching the blades to the disk in the turbine rotor assembly. The root of the blade where it is attached to the disk is shaped like a fir tree. See figures 1.27 and 1.28 on page 42. Foreign object damage -- commonly called FOD, harm or destruction to the turbine engine caused by foreign objects sucked into the inlet area of the engine with the required air. Forged -- shaped by hammering. Only the malleable metals are worked successfully. The application of heat increases plasticity.

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Free-power turbine engine -- the turbine engine used by the Army. Sixty percent of the energy produced by combustion is extracted by the gas producer turbine to drive the gas producer rotor. The rest of the energy is converted to shaft horsepower to drive the out-put shaft of the engine. Frictional loss -- resistance to the relative motion of air flowing along a duct. Frontal area -- front part of a gas turbine engine, smaller than that of a reciprocating engine, therefore producing less drag. Front of engine -- end from which power is extracted. An exception is the T73 engine on the CH-54, in which the power is extracted at the end where the exhaust gas is expelled. Fuel-air ratio -- see air-fuel ratio. Fuel atomizer -- See atomizer. Fuel controls -- devices to control fuel flow. They are usually hydromechanical and include speed governors, servo systems, valves, metering systems, and sensing pickups. Fuel divider -- device that meters fuel to the engine nozzles according to a predetermined schedule of secondary flow versus primary flow. Fuel nozzle -- device to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a highly atomized and accurately shaped spray. Fuel pressure indicating system -- device that gives continuous readings in psi of fuel pressure in the main fuel supply line. Gas producer (N1) -- compressor in a free-power turbine engine. Gas turbine engine -- aircraft powerplant that is adaptable for both airplanes and helicopters. Gerotor pump -- modified gear-type pump with two moving parts, an inner toothed element and an outer toothed element. The inner one has one less tooth than the outer. Glow plug -- device that consists of a heating element in a short conventional-looking spark plug.

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Heat exchanger -- fuel-oil cooler, to help cool the oil. The exchanger is a cylindrical oil chamber surrounded by a jacket through which the fuel passes. Heat from the oil is transferred to the fuel by conduction. Humidity -- amount or degree of moisture in the air. If humidity increases, air density is decreased. Humidity has little effect on density, however, in comparison with temperature and pressure changes. Igniter plugs -- spark plugs which function only during starting and cut out of the circuit as soon as combustion is self-supporting. Imbalance -- uneven distribution of weight resulting in rotating parts being out of balance. Measured in inch-grams or inch-ounces. Impeller rotor -- rotor in a compressor that revolves at high speed, drawing air into the blades. Inlet guide vanes -- devices positioned by the inlet guide vane actuator pilot valve. They are located in front of the first compressor rotor, and they control the angle of incidence of the inlet air, thus ensuring a compressor surge margin. Inlet housing assembly -- forward structural support of the engine. Jetcal analyzer -- device used to check the exhaust gas temperature during periodic maintenance inspections or when abnormally high or low temperatures are noted. Jet propulsion -- propulsion of a body by means of a jet or stream of gas, obtaining all or most if its thrust by reaction to the ejection of the combustion products (gas). Joule -- unit of energy or work used in rating gas turbine ignition systems. A joule is equal to the amount of energy expended in one second by an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm. Kinetic energy -- work energy associated with motion. Labyrinth seal -- device for preventing leakage of gas on the gas generator shaft in a turbine. A labyrinth consists of a series of projections on the rotating element running in close contact with grooves on the stationary element.

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Maintenance allocation chart -- chart in a -20 TM that assigns maintenance tasks to the lowest level capable of doing them, based on experience, skills, tools, and time available. Manifold -- component in which air or gases are collected for intake or expulsion. Micron --one millionth of a meter. Mil -- unit of length equal to 1/1000 inch. circumference of a circle. N1 system -- gas producer. N2 system -- power turbine and shaft. Nacelle -- enclosed housing for an aircraft engine, outside the fuselage. Nozzle -- channel through which gas is conveyed to the rotor vanes of a turbine. Its purpose is to convert pressure into velocity. Orifice -- opening having a closed perimeter through which a fluid may discharge. It may be open to the atmosphere, or it may be partially or completely submerged in the discharged fluid. Oscillograph -- instrument that produces a record of variations in an electrical quantity. Oscilloscope -- instrument that shows the presence and form of an electric current. Outside air temperature -- commonly abbreviated as O. A. T, the temperature of the air outside the engine. Otto cycle -- a constant volume cycle, with four distinct operations performed intermittently. Reciprocating engines operate on this cycle. Overspeed governor, N2 -- gearbox mounted on engine inlet housing and driven from the power shaft. Overspeed governor, fuel control -- part of the torquemeter system, an individual pumping unit which, with the tachometer drive assembly, sets the torquemeter oil pressure. Unit of angular measurement equal to 1/6400 of the

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PD 680 -- cleaning solvent for exterior of engine and its attached components. Pneumatic -- something moved or worked by air pressure. Power-to-weight ratio -- relationship between power and weight. Turbine engines produce more power for weight than reciprocating engines. Power turbine (N2) -- turbine that is free and independent of the gas producer system. It develops rotational shaft power. Pressure oil system -- method of supplying oil under pressure to engine parts. Pressure pumps -- devices to put oil into the system. Pressurizing and drain dump valve -- device to prevent flow of fuel to the nozzle until enough pressure is built up in the fuel control. One also drains the fuel manifold at engine shutdown and traps fuel in the upper portion of the system to keep the fuel control primed for faster starts. Primary air -- air that mixes with fuel in the combustion chamber, to form a combustible mixture. The ratio is 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel. Radial inflow turbine -- type of turbine made by some manufacturers, not used in any Army aircraft today, even though it is rugged and simple, relatively inexpensive, and easy to manufacture. Similar in design and construction to the centrifugal-flow compressor. Ram air pressure -- free stream air pressure, provided by the forward motion of the engine. Rear of engine -- end of engine from which exhaust gas is expelled. Reciprocating engine -- device which produces motion in which the power originates in pistons and cylinders. Reverse flow -- change in direction of airflow in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine. Rotational direction -- direction of movement of the rotating part, determined by viewing the engine from the rear.

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Rotor -- in a gas turbine engine, the turbine wheel. Scavenge oil system -- method of returning oil from the engine to the oil tank, for cooling and reuse. Scavenger pumps -- those that drain oil from the sumps at various parts of the engine, return it through the oil cooler, and back to the oil tank. Secondary air -- large surplus of air that cools the hot sections of a gas turbine engine to lower temperatures. Shaft horsepower (SHP) -- energy used to drive the compressor and accessories in a turbine engine. Shroud -- device used with turbine rotor to prevent blade tip losses and excessive vibrations. The shrouded blades can be thinner than unprotected ones. Simplex nozzles -- single-orifice channels through which highly atomized and accurately shaped sprays of fuel go into the combustion chamber. Solvent immersion -- cleaning method in which parts are immersed in solvent to remove carbon, gum, grease, and other surface contaminants. Splines -- teeth in a gear. Speed governor -- device to relieve the pilot from resetting the power lever when outside air temperature and pressure change. Consists of flyweights balanced by a spring. Standard day conditions -- 59°F, sea level barometric pressure (29.92 inches of mercury). Stator -- part of assembly that remains stationary with respect to a rotating part. Stator vanes are a stationary set of airfoils in a compressor. Tachometer -- device that gives the pilot a continuous indication of engine rpm. Tachometer generator -- device that supplies power at a frequency proportional to the driven speed which drives the synchronous motors in the indicator.

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TBO -- time between overhauls. This is established by the Army and the engine manufacturer. Test cell -- building, usually concrete, that contains both a control room and an engine room, used for testing engines. The test cell is at the manufacturer's; a mobile engine-test unit is used in the field. Thermocouple -- device composed of two pieces of metal or wire joined where heat is to be applied and the free end connected to an electrical measuring instrument. Thermodynamic cycle -- succession of processes which involve changes in temperature, pressure, and density in which the substance acts as a means of transformation of energy. See Otto and Brayton cycles. Thrust -- pushing or pulling force developed by an aircraft engine. Torquemeter -- hydromechanical torque-measuring device located in the reduction-gear section of the inlet housing. The measurement is read as torque oil pressure in psi. Torquemeter indicating system -- pressure indicator for continuous readings of engine output-shaft torque. Transducer -- device actuated by power from one system and supplying power to a second system. Turbine -- rotary engine actuated by the reaction of a current of fluid (gas in this case) subject to pressure. The turbine is usually made with a series of curved vanes on a central spindle arranged to rotate. Turbine nozzle -- stationary nozzle which discharges a jet of gas against the blades on the periphery of a turbine wheel. Turbine rotor -- rotating portion of a turbine engine. It is made of specially alloyed steel because of severe centrifugal loads, the result of high rotational speeds. Turbine section -- part of the turbine engine that extracts the kinetic energy of the expanding gases and transforms it into shaft horsepower. Turbofan -- compressor section of a turbine engine.

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Turbojet -- engine most commonly used in high-speed, high-altitude aircraft. Turboprop engine -- one in which a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to rotational shaft power, to provide power for a propeller. Turboshaft -- engine in which a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to rotational shaft power, to provide power for a helicopter transmission. Vapor blasting -- abrasive method used to clean combustor parts. magnesium, painted, or aluminum surfaces. Not to be used on ceramic,

Vapor degreasing -- cleaning method used on unpainted metal parts or aluminum-painted steel parts. Vaporizing tubes -- devices used instead of fuel nozzles in a T53-L-11 engine. Variable inlet guide vanes -- devices located in front of the first compressor rotor to guide the angle of incidence of the inlet air to the first compressor rotor. Velocity -- speed or rate of motion in a given direction, and in a given frame of reference. Venturi -- short tube with flaring ends connected by a constricted middle section forming a throat. It depends for operation upon the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases in the throat, the pressure decreases. It is used for measuring the quantity of a fluid flowing in connection with other devices for measuring airspeed and for producing suction, especially for driving aircraft instruments by means of a branch tube joined at the throat. Vermatherm element -- device which senses outlet fuel temperature and closes the core valve and opens the bypass valve. Vibration -- periodic motion of a body or medium in alternately opposite directions from the position of equilibrium. Vibration meter--device for measuring vibrations. Weldment -- unit formed by welding together an assembly of pieces, as in gear housing.

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INDEX

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CORRESPONDENCE COURSE OF THE U.S. ARMY TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL SOLUTIONS AVIATION LOGISTICS 0993........................................................................Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines. (All references are to Reference Text AL0993.) Lesson 1 Weight 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. B, false. (par. 1.12d) A, true. (par. 1.8) A, true. (par. 1.3) A, true. (par. 1.10) B, false. (par. 1.5) B, false. (par. 1.12a) A, true. (par. 1.12b) A, true. (par. 1.13a) B, false (par. 1.12e) A, true. (par. 1.13e) B, false. (par. 1.13c) A, true. (par. 1.9) B, false. (par. 1.9) A, true. (par. 1.9) A, true. (pars. 1.5, 1.9) A, true. (par. 1.9)

All concerned will be careful that neither this solution nor information concerning the same comes into the possession of students or prospective students who have not completed the work to which it pertains. 1 AL0993

Weight 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. A, true. (par. 1.5) A, true. (par. 1.5) B, false. (par. 1.5) B, false. (par. 1.5) A, true. (par. 1.5) B, false. (par. 1.11) A, true. (par. 1.11) A, true. (par. 1.11) B, false. (par. 1.11) A, true. (par. 1.11) A, true. (par. 1.4) B, false. (par. 1.4) B, false. (par. 1.4) A, true. (par. 1.4) A, true. (par. 1.4) B. (par. 1.3) E. (par. 1.3) C. (par. 1.3) A. (par. 1.3) D. (par. 1.3) C. (par. 1.3)

2

LESSON 2 Weight 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. B, false. (par. 1.24) A, true. (par. 1.17) A, true. (par. 1.21) B, false. (par. 1.19c) A, true. (par. 1.16c) B, false. (par. 1.19b) A, true. (par. 1.19c) B, false. (par. 1.19c) B, false. (par. 1.19a) A, true. (par. 1.19b) B, false. (par. 1.22a) A, true. (par. 1.22b) A, true. (par. 1.22a) B, false. (par. 1.22a) A, true. (par. 1.22b) B, false. (par. 1.20) 3, false. (par. 1.20) A, true. (par. 1.20) B, false. (par. 1.20) A, true. (par. 1.20) A, true. (par. 1.20)

3

Weight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. A, true. (par. 1.17) B, false. (par. 1.17) B, false. (par. 1.17) A, true. (par. 1.17) B, false. (par. 1.17) A, true. (par. 1.19) B, false. (par. 1.19) B, false. (par. 1.19) A, true. (par. 1.19) A, true. (par. 1.19) A, true. (par. 1.23) A, true. (par. 1.23) A, true. (par. 1.23) B, false. (par. 1.23) B, false. (par. 1.23) E. (table I) B. (par. 1.16a) D. (table I) A. (par. 1.16a) C. (table I) A. (par 1.21) B. (par. 1.21)

4

Weight 2 2

Exercise 44. 45. C. (par. 1.21) D. (par. 1.21a) LESSON 3

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

B, false. (par. 2.21) B, false. (par. 2.2) A, true. (par. 2.18) A, true. (par. 2.24) A, true. (par. 2.9) A, true. (par. 2.4) A, true. (par. 2.8) A, true. (par. 2.8) A, true. (par. 2.8) A, true. (par. 2.8) B, false. (par. 2.8) B, false. (par. 2.22) A, true. (par. 2.22) B, false. (par. 2.23) A, true. (par. 2.22) B, false. (par. 2.23) A, true. (par. 2.22) B, false. (par. 2.12) A, true. (par. 2.14)

5

Weight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. B, false. (par. 2.15) B, false. (par. 2.16) A, true. (par. 2.15) A, true. (par. 2.14) B, false. (par. 2.13) A, true. (par. 2.3a) A, true. (par. 2.3a) B, false. (par. 2.3b) A, true. (par. 2.3) B, false. (par. 2.3a, b) B, false. (par. 2.5) A, true. (par. 2.5) B, false. (par. 2.5) A, true. (par. 2.5) A, true. (par. 2.5) B, false. (par. 2.7a) B, false. (par. 2.7,c) A, true. (par. 2.7b) A, true. (par. 2.7b) A, true. (par. 2.7b) B, false. (par 2.3) A, true. (par. 2.3)

6

Weight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. B, false. (par. 2.3) A, true. (par. 2.3) A, true. (par. 2.3) A. (par. 2.25a) D. (par. 2.25e) C. (par. 2.25d) B. (par. 2.25c) D. (par. 2.25e) A. (par. 2.25a) LESSON 4

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

A, true. (par. 3.6) A, true. (par. 3.14) A, true. (par. 3.9) A, true. (par. 3.4) B, false. (par. 3.12) B, false. (par. 3.5) B, false. (par. 3.8) A, true. (par. 3.7) B, false. (par. 3.7e) B, false. (par. 3.7b) A, true. (par. 3.7d) A, true. (par. 3.7c)

7

Weight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2

Exercise 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. B, false. (par. 3.7a) A, true. (par. 3.2) B, false. (par. 3.2) A, true. (par. 3.2) B, false. (par. 3.2) A, true. (par. 3.2) A, true. (par. 3.2) B, false. (par. 3.2) B, false. (par. 3.10n) A, true. (par. 3.10) B, false. (par. 3.10) A, true. (par. 3.10) B, false. (par. 3.10j) A, true. (par. 3.10) B, false. (par. 3.13a) B, false. (par. 3.11) B, false. (par. 3.11a) A, true. (par. 3.13c) A, true. (par. 3.11a, b) A, true. (par. 3.13) B, false. (par. 3.3) A, true. (par. 3.3)

8

Weight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. A, true. (par. 3.3) B, false. (par. 3.3) A, true. (par. 3.3) B, false. (par. 3.3) D. (par. 3.9d) B. (par. 3.9b) A. (par. 3.9a) D. (par. 3.9d) A. (par. 3.9a) B. (par. 3.9b) LESSON 5

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

A, true. (par. 4.3) A, true. (par. 4.13) B, false. (par. 4.21) B, false. (pars. 4.1, 4.6) A, true. (par. 4.16) B, false. (par. 4.7) B, false. (par. 4.17) B, false. (par. 4.9) A, true. (par. 4.10b) B, false. (par. 4.10) B, false. (par. 4.10) A, true. (par. 4.10b) 9

Weight 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. B, false. (par. 4.10a) B, false. (par. 4.4a) B, false. (par. 4.4a) B, false. (par. 4.4a) A, true. (par. 4.4a) A, true. (par. 4.4a) B, false. (par. 4.11a, b) B, false. (par. 4.11) A, true. (par. 4.11a) B, false. (par. 4.11a, b) A, true. (par. 4.11b) B, false. (par. 4.21) A, true. (par. 4.21) B, false. (par. 4.21) A, true. (par. 4.21) A, true. (par. 4.21) B, false. (par. 4.4b) A, true. (par. 4.4b) B, false. (par. 4.4b) A, true. (par. 4.4b) A, true. (par. 4.4b) A. true. (par. 4.12) A, true. (par. 4.12) 10

Weight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. A, true. (par. 4.12) B, false. (par. 4.12) B, false. (par. 4.12) A, true. (par. 4.12) B, false. (par. 4.14) A, true. (par. 4.14b) B, false. (par. 4.14a) B, false. (par. 4.14c) A, true. (par. 4.12) A, true. (par. 4.12) LESSON 6

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12,

A, true. (par. 5.13) B, false. (par. 5.6) A, true. (par. 5.9) A, true. (pars. 5.3, 5.7) B, false. (par. 5.6) B, false. (par. 5.14) A, true. (par. 5.14a) B. false. (par. 5.14) A, true. (par. 5.14b) A, true. (par. 5.14d) A, true. (par. 5.10) B, false. (par. 5.11) 11

Weight 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. A, true. (par. 5.9) A, true. (par. 5.12) A, true. (par. 5.10) B, false. (par. 5.16) A, true. (par. 5.15) A, true. (par. 5.18) A, true. (par. 5.17) A, true. (par. 5.15) A, true. (par. 5.20) B, false. (par. 5.19d) A, true. (par. 5.19a) A, true. (par. 5.19b) A, true. (par. 5.19c) B, false. (par. 5.19b) A, true. (par. 5.19) B, false. (par. 5.3) A, true. (par. 5.3) A, true. (par. 5.3) B, false. (par. 5.3) A, true. (par. 5.3) A, true. (par. 5.3) B, false. (par. 5.4) B, false. (par. 5.4) 12

Weight 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Exercise 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. B, false. (par. 5.4) A, true. (par. 5.5) B, false. (par. 5.4) B, false. (par. 5.4) A. (par. 5.5) C. (par. 5.5) B. (par. 5.5) D. (par. 5.5) A. (par. 5.5) C. (par. 5.5) D. (par. 5.5) LESSON 7

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

A, true. (par. 6.2) A, true. (par. 6.7) B, false. (par. 6.4) B, false. (par. 6.8, table IV) A, true. (par. 6.10) B, false. (par. 6.11b) A, true. (par. 6.1c) A, true. (par. 6.11a) B, false. (par. 6.11e) A, true. (par. 6.11d) A, true. (par. 6.11e) 13

Weight 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. B, false. (par. 6.1) A, true. (par. 6.2) B, false. (table IV) B, false. (table IV) A, true. (par. 6.2) A, true. (par. 6.2) B, false. (par. 6.9) A, true. (par. 6.9) A, true. (par. 6.9) B, false. (par. 6.9) A, true. (par. 6.9) A, true. (par. 6.3) B, false. (par. 6.3) B, false. (par. 6.3) A, true. (par. 6.3) A, true. (par. 6.3) A, true. (par. 6.4) B, false. (par. 6.4) A, true. (par. 6.4) A, true. (par. 6.4) A, true. (par. 6.4) B, false. (par. 6.4) C. (par. 6.6) 14

Weight 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. A. (par. 6.5) D. (par. 6.7) C. (par. 6.6) A. (par. 6.5) B. (par. 6.5) LESSON 8

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

B, false. (par. 10.1) B, false. (par. 7.1) A, true. (par. 8.13) B, false. (pars. 9.1, .3) A, true. (par. 7.11) A, true. (par. 7.7) A, true. (par. 7.9b) B, false. (par. 7.7) B, false. (par. 7.9c) A, true. (par. 7.10) A, true. (par. 7.9d) A, true. (par. 7.7) B, false. (par. 7.9a) A, true. (par. 9.19) B, false. (par. 9.16b) A, true. (par. 9. 15e) B, false. (par. 9.15c) 15

Weight 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercise 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. A, true. (par. 9.7j, k) A, true. (pars. 9.9, 9.10) B, false. (par. 9.7a, b) B, false. (par. 9.3) B, false. (par. 8.16) A, true. (par. 8.12) B, false. (par. 8.9) A, true. (par. 8.11) B, false. (par. 8.12) A, true. (par. 7.7) A, true. (par. 7.5) B, false. (par. 7.1) B, false. (par. 7.6) A, true. (par. 7.4) A, true. (par. 8.9) A, true. (par. 8.6) A, true. (par. 8.3) B, false. (pars. 8.5, 8.6) A, true. (par. 8.4) B, false. (par. 8.3)

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1999 - 728-075/00993 16

Appendix II GLOSSARY Acceleration lag -- in the turbine engine, delay between the time instant power is requested and when power is available. The time it takes the engine to accelerate and give the required power increase. Aerodynamic drag -- force which thrust must overcome to move an aircraft forward. Design can lessen aerodynamic drag through streamlining. Drag increases with increased speed. Airbleed actuator -- device that operates the interstage bleed system, to improve compressor acceleration characteristics by unloading small amounts of compressed air. Air density -- total mass of air per given volume, the weight of a given volume of air. Air is denser at lower altitude, at lower temperature, and lower humidity. Air-fuel ratio -- 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel by weight, the mixture to be burned in the combustion chamber. Air inlet -- large, smooth aluminum duct to conduct the air into the compressor. Ambient air -surrounding air.

Angle of attack -- the acute angle formed by the direction of the relative wind and some longitudinal reference axis of the aircraft. Annular combustion chamber -- two-part combustion chamber made up of an annular liner and a housing assembly. The compressed air goes into a ring-shaped space formed by the annular liner around the turbine shaft rather than into individual combustion chambers. The space between the outer liner wall and the housing assembly allows the flow of cooling air. Used with axialflow and dual compressors. Annular reverse-flow -- type of gas turbine engine most commonly used in Army aircraft. Air flow direction is reversed in the combustion area.

264

Anodizing -- putting a protective oxide film on a light metal by an electrolytic process. Anti-icing system -- device that supplies hot air under pressure to prevent icing of the inlet housing areas and inlet guide vanes. Hot scavenged oil is also circulated through internal passages in the walls and struts. Army Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (ASOAP) -- periodic oil analysis for microscopic metal particles. This takes place at an oil analysis laboratory. Atmospheric pressure -- barometric pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a result of gravitational attraction above the point in question. Atomizer -- nozzle that creates a highly atomized and accurately shaped spray of fuel suitable for rapid mixing and combustion. Axial-flow compressor -- one in which the air is compressed parallel to the axis of the engine. It is made up of a series of alternating rotor and stator vane stages. Bleed system -- device that unloads small amounts of air to relieve pressure. Boss -- raised rim around a hole; e.g., axle hole in a wheel. Circular projection on a casting, usually serving as the seat for a bolt head or nut. Brayton cycle -- constant pressure cycle, with four basic operations which it accomplishes simultaneously and continuously for an uninterrupted flow of power. The turbine engine operates on this cycle. Can-annular combustion chamber -- one with characteristics of both the can and annular types. It has an outer shell and a number of individual cylindrical liners. Can combustion chamber -- one made up of individual combustion chambers in which the air from the compressor enters each individual chamber through the adapter. Caustics -- substances that can burn, corrode, or destroy animal or other organic tissue by chemical action.

265

Centrifugal-axial flow compressor -- combination of the centrifugal-flow and the axial-flow compressors. It usually consists of a five- or seven-stage axial-flow compressor and one centrifugal-flow compressor. Also called the dual compressor. Centrifugal-flow compressor -- one with an impeller (rotor), stator, and compressor manifold. The rotor revolves at high speed, drawing air into the blades. Centrifugal force accelerates the air, and it moves through the stator and through the manifold. Combustion -- process of burning the fuel-air mixture in a gas turbine engine. Combustion chamber -- part of a turbine engine in which the propulsive power is developed by combustion of the injected fuel and the expansive force of the resulting gases. Combustion chamber liner -- engine part usually constructed of welded high-nickel steel, subjected to flame of extremely high temperature. It is behind the compressor and receives the compressed air which is mixed with fuel and ignited. The combustor is where the combustion takes place. Combustor -- the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine with its associated burners, igniters, and injection devices. Compressor -- that section of an engine that produces an increase in air pressure. It is made up of rotating and stationary vane assemblies. It is the gas producer, or it may be thought of as an air pump. Compressor rotor -- impeller, may be thought of as an air pump. It accelerates the air rearward into the first stage vane assemblies. Compressor stall -- separation of the airflow from the suction surface of the fixed or rotating blades of a compressor. Any degree of stall reduces airflow. Concave -- pressure side of an airfoil. Conduction -- transfer of heat through material by communication of kinetic energy from particle to particle rather than by a flow of heated material.

266

Convergent area -- place where the cross-sectional area of a duct becomes smaller. Convergent exhaust duct -- used on fixed-wing aircraft, formed by tapering toward the rear of the duct. Convex -- suction side of an airfoil. Crossover tube -- duct carrying flame to the individual cylindrical liners of the can-annular combustion chamber. Diffuser -- aft structural member of an engine. It receives high velocity air from the centrifugal impeller and decreases velocity and increases air pressure. In the combustor, a diffuser forms a divergent flow path for the exhaust gases. Diffusion -- process by which gases intermingle as the result of their spontaneous movement caused by thermal agitation. Directional references -- specific definitions of terms referring to gas turbine engines to identify front and rear, right and left, bottom and top. Divergent area -- place where air flows from a smaller into a larger area. Divergent exhaust duct -- used on helicopters, device to diffuse the exhaust gases rearward and to eliminate thrust. Dry-cleaning solvent -- cleaning compound that may be used for all metal parts. Dry-sump engine -- one in which the oil is stored separate from the engine. Dual compressor -- see centrifugal-flow, axial-flow compressor. Duplex nozzle -- dual-orifice channel through which highly atomized and accurately shaped sprays of fuel go into the combustion chamber. Engine airflow path -- route of the airflow through the engine. See paragraph 4. 4a for a detailed description of airflow through a T53-L-13.

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Engine oil pressure indicating system -- device that gives continuous readings of engine oil pump pressure in psi. Engine oil temperature indicating system -- device electrically connected to the 28v dc system which transmits temperature readings to the indicator in degrees centrigrade. Engine speed notation -- capital letter N represents the rotational speed of the engine. When a number is placed after the N, as in N1, it indicates a specific system on the engine. Engine stations -- specific locations on the engine designating temperature- or pressure-measuring locations. For example, T3 means the third temperature pickup on the engine. Engine surge -- result of compressor stall. The complete engine in stall. Exhaust -- hot gases discharged from the engine through the exhaust diffuser section. Exhaust diffuser -- section composed of an inner and outer housing, separated by hollow struts across the exhaust passage. It forms a divergent flow path for the exhaust gases. Exhaust gas temperature indicator -- sensitive millivoltmeter calibrated in degree centigrade, activated by an electrical force generated by its thermocouple. Fir tree mount -- manner of attaching the blades to the disk in the turbine rotor assembly. The root of the blade where it is attached to the disk is shaped like a fir tree. See figures 1.27 and 1.28 on page 42. Foreign object damage -- commonly called FOD, harm or destruction to the turbine engine caused by foreign objects sucked into the inlet area of the engine with the required air. Forged -- shaped by hammering. Only the malleable metals are worked successfully. The application of heat increases plasticity.

268

Free-power turbine engine -- the turbine engine used by the Army. Sixty percent of the energy produced by combustion is extracted by the gas producer turbine to drive the gas producer rotor. The rest of the energy is converted to shaft horsepower to drive the out-put shaft of the engine. Frictional loss -- resistance to the relative motion of air flowing along a duct. Frontal area -- front part of a gas turbine engine, smaller than that of a reciprocating engine, therefore producing less drag. Front of engine -- end from which power is extracted. An exception is the T73 engine on the CH-54, in which the power is extracted at the end where the exhaust gas is expelled. Fuel-air ratio -- see air-fuel ratio. Fuel atomizer -- See atomizer. Fuel controls -- devices to control fuel flow. They are usually hydromechanical and include speed governors, servo systems, valves, metering systems, and sensing pickups. Fuel divider -- device that meters fuel to the engine nozzles according to a predetermined schedule of secondary flow versus primary flow. Fuel nozzle -- device to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a highly atomized and accurately shaped spray. Fuel pressure indicating system -- device that gives continuous readings in psi of fuel pressure in the main fuel supply line. Gas producer (N1) -- compressor in a free-power turbine engine. Gas turbine engine -- aircraft powerplant that is adaptable for both airplanes and helicopters. Gerotor pump -- modified gear-type pump with two moving parts, an inner toothed element and an outer toothed element. The inner one has one less tooth than the outer. Glow plug -- device that consists of a heating element in a short conventional-looking spark plug.

269

Heat exchanger -- fuel-oil cooler, to help cool the oil. The exchanger is a cylindrical oil chamber surrounded by a jacket through which the fuel passes. Heat from the oil is transferred to the fuel by conduction. Humidity -- amount or degree of moisture in the air. If humidity increases, air density is decreased. Humidity has little effect on density, however, in comparison with temperature and pressure changes. Igniter plugs -- spark plugs which function only during starting and cut out of the circuit as soon as combustion is self-supporting. Imbalance -- uneven distribution of weight resulting in rotating parts being out of balance. Measured in inch-grams or inch-ounces. Impeller rotor -- rotor in a compressor that revolves at high speed, drawing air into the blades. Inlet guide vanes -- devices positioned by the inlet guide vane actuator pilot valve. They are located in front of the first compressor rotor, and they control the angle of incidence of the inlet air, thus ensuring a compressor surge margin. Inlet housing assembly -- forward structural support of the engine. Jetcal analyzer -- device used to check the exhaust gas temperature during periodic maintenance inspections or when abnormally high or low temperatures are noted. Jet propulsion -- propulsion of a body by means of a jet or stream of gas, obtaining all or most if its thrust by reaction to the ejection of the combustion products (gas). Joule -- unit of energy or work used in rating gas turbine ignition systems. A joule is equal to the amount of energy expended in one second by an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm. Kinetic energy -- work energy associated with motion. Labyrinth seal -- device for preventing leakage of gas on the gas generator shaft in a turbine. A labyrinth consists of a series of projections on the rotating element running in close contact with grooves on the stationary element.

270

Maintenance allocation chart -- chart in a -20 TM that assigns maintenance tasks to the lowest level capable of doing them, based on experience, skills, tools, and time available. Manifold -- component in which air or gases are collected for intake or expulsion. Micron --one millionth of a meter. Mil -- unit of length equal to 1/1000 inch. Unit of angular measurement equal to 1/6400 of the circumference of a circle. N1 system -- gas producer. N2 system -- power turbine and shaft. Nacelle -- enclosed housing for an aircraft engine, outside the fuselage. Nozzle -- channel through which gas is conveyed to the rotor vanes of a turbine. Its purpose is to convert pressure into velocity. Orifice -- opening having a closed perimeter through which a fluid may discharge. It may be open to the atmosphere, or it may be partially or completely submerged in the discharged fluid. Oscillograph -- instrument that produces a record of variations in an electrical quantity. Oscilloscope -- instrument that shows the presence and form of an electric current. Outside air temperature -- commonly abbreviated as O. A. T, the temperature of the air outside the engine. Otto cycle -- a constant volume cycle, with four distinct operations performed intermittently. Reciprocating engines operate on this cycle. Overspeed governor, N2 -- gearbox mounted on engine inlet housing and driven from the power shaft. Overspeed governor, fuel control -- part of the torquemeter system, an individual pumping unit which, with the tachometer drive assembly, sets the torquemeter oil pressure.

271

PD 680 -- cleaning solvent for exterior of engine and its attached components. Pneumatic -- something moved or worked by air pressure. Power-to-weight ratio -- relationship between power and weight. Turbine engines produce more power for weight than reciprocating engines. Power turbine (N2) -- turbine that is free and independent of the gas producer system. It develops rotational shaft power. Pressure oil system -- method of supplying oil under pressure to engine parts. Pressure pumps -- devices to put oil into the system. Pressurizing and drain dump valve -- device to prevent flow of fuel to the nozzle until enough pressure is built up in the fuel control. One also drains the fuel manifold at engine shutdown and traps fuel in the upper portion of the system to keep the fuel control primed for faster starts. Primary air -- air that mixes with fuel in the combustion chamber, to form a combustible mixture. The ratio is 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel. Radial inflow turbine -- type of turbine made by some manufacturers, not used in any Army aircraft today, even though it is rugged and simple, relatively inexpensive, and easy to manufacture. Similar in design and construction to the centrifugal-flow compressor. Ram air pressure -- free stream air pressure, provided by the forward motion of the engine. Rear of engine -- end of engine from which exhaust gas is expelled. Reciprocating engine -- device which produces motion in which the power originates in pistons and cylinders. Reverse flow -- change in direction of airflow in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine. Rotational direction -- direction of movement of the rotating part, determined by viewing the engine from the rear.

272

Rotor -- in a gas turbine engine, the turbine wheel. Scavenge oil system -- method of returning oil from the engine to the oil tank, for cooling and reuse. Scavenger pumps -- those that drain oil from the sumps at various parts of the engine, return it through the oil cooler, and back to the oil tank. Secondary air -- large surplus of air that cools the hot sections of a gas turbine engine to lower temperatures. Shaft horsepower (SHP) -- energy used to drive the compressor and accessories in a turbine engine. Shroud -- device used with turbine rotor to prevent blade tip losses and excessive vibrations. The shrouded blades can be thinner than unprotected ones. Simplex nozzles -- single-orifice channels through which highly atomized and accurately shaped sprays of fuel go into the combustion chamber. Solvent immersion -- cleaning method in which parts are immersed in solvent to remove carbon, gum, grease, and other surface contaminants. Splines -- teeth in a gear. Speed governor -- device to relieve the pilot from resetting the power lever when outside air temperature and pressure change. Consists of flyweights balanced by a spring. Standard day conditions -- 59°F, sea level barometric pressure (29.92 inches of mercury). Stator -- part of assembly that remains stationary with respect to a rotating part. Stator vanes are a stationary set of airfoils in a compressor. Tachometer -- device that gives the pilot a continuous indication of engine rpm. Tachometer generator -- device that supplies power at a frequency proportional to the driven speed which drives the synchronous motors in the indicator.

273

TBO -- time between overhauls. This is established by the Army and the engine manufacturer. Test cell -- building, usually concrete, that contains both a control room and an engine room, used for testing engines. The test cell is at the manufacturer's; a mobile engine-test unit is used in the field. Thermocouple -- device composed of two pieces of metal or wire joined where heat is to be applied and the free end connected to an electrical measuring instrument. Thermodynamic cycle -- succession of processes which involve changes in temperature, pressure, and density in which the substance acts as a means of transformation of energy. See Otto and Brayton cycles. Thrust -- pushing or pulling force developed by an aircraft engine. Torquemeter -- hydromechanical torque-measuring device located in the reduction-gear section of the inlet housing. The measurement is read as torque oil pressure in psi. Torquemeter indicating system -- pressure indicator for continuous readings of engine output-shaft torque. Transducer -- device actuated by power from one system and supplying power to a second system. Turbine -- rotary engine actuated by the reaction of a current of fluid (gas in this case) subject to pressure. The turbine is usually made with a series of curved vanes on a central spindle arranged to rotate. Turbine nozzle -- stationary nozzle which discharges a jet of gas against the blades on the periphery of a turbine wheel. Turbine rotor -- rotating portion of a turbine engine. It is made of specially alloyed steel because of severe centrifugal loads, the result of high rotational speeds. Turbine section -- part of the turbine engine that extracts the kinetic energy of the expanding gases and transforms it into shaft horsepower. Turbofan -- compressor section of a turbine engine.

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Turbojet -- engine most commonly used in high-speed, high-altitude aircraft. Turboprop engine -- one in which a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to rotational shaft power, to provide power for a propeller. Turboshaft -- engine in which a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to rotational shaft power, to provide power for a helicopter transmission. Vapor blasting -- abrasive method used to clean combustor parts. magnesium, painted, or aluminum surfaces. Not to be used on ceramic,

Vapor degreasing -- cleaning method used on unpainted metal parts or aluminum-painted steel parts. Vaporizing tubes -- devices used instead of fuel nozzles in a T53-L-11 engine. Variable inlet guide vanes -- devices located in front of the first compressor rotor to guide the angle of incidence of the inlet air to the first compressor rotor. Velocity -- speed or rate of motion in a given direction, and in a given frame of reference. Venturi -- short tube with flaring ends connected by a constricted middle section forming a throat. It depends for operation upon the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases in the throat, the pressure decreases. It is used for measuring the quantity of a fluid flowing in connection with other devices for measuring airspeed and for producing suction, especially for driving aircraft instruments by means of a branch tube joined at the throat. Vermatherm element -- device which senses outlet fuel temperature and closes the core valve and opens the bypass valve. Vibration -- periodic motion of a body or medium in alternately opposite directions from the position of equilibrium. Vibration meter--device for measuring vibrations. Weldment -- unit formed by welding together an assembly of pieces, as in gear housing.

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Appendix I REFERENCES Army Regulations AR 310-25 AR 310-50 Dictionary of United States Army Terms Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes

Technical Manuals TM 55-406 Fundamentals of Aircraft Powerplant Maintenance

TM 55-2840-229-24/T.O. 2J-T53-16 Maintenance: Organizational, Direct Support, and General Support, Engine, Shaft Turbine

U. S. Army Transportation School Publications 333-335 333-337 333-339 333-374 333-375 333-385 333-394 333-397 T53-L-13 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual T74-CP-700 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual T63-A-5A/700 Gas Turbine Engine Advance Sheet JFTD-12A-1/T-73-P-1 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual T55-L-11 Turboshaft, Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual Jet Cal Analyzer T55-L-7, T55-L-7C Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual T62 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual

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