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VOICES OF THE \i\TISCONSIN PAST

YESTERDAY'S FUTURE
The
Twentieth Century Begjns

*
MICHAELE. STEVENS
Editor

STEVEN B . BURG
DAVID A. CHANG
REID A. PAUL
Assist(J,nt Editon

STATE HISTORIC AL SOCIE T Y OF ·w1SCONS I N


Madison: 1999
V 0 I C E S 0 F T H E vV I S C 0 N S I N P A S T

Lt.1tle1:s from the Fron.I, 1898- 1945

Women Remember the \i\fo; 194 1-1945

Voires.from Vietnam
luuunn bmi ng the f-1olocaust
>'l~stenlay '.s Future: The Twentieth Century Begins

Copyrighl © 1999 by
THE STATE HISTORICAi. SOC I ~TYOFW! SCONSIN
All rights re.wrned. Permission 10 quote from or
re produce any porlion o f' this copyri ghted wo rk
may be so ught from the pu blishe r al 8 1() Stal<.: Street,
l'vladiso n , Wiscon sin 53706.

LIBRARY OF CON t ; 1~1·;s~ C: 1\ T 1\ l,()(; I NC- l r\- l 'U fll . IC AT l <)N D ATA
J't~ftmht)' :~ fu.l'lt'H' : !hr• lwrm lit!lh. i:t•11l11.ry begim (Voices of th e \Visconsin Past..)
Michael E. Stevens, c diLOt'.
Steven B. Burg, David A. Chang. Re id A. Pau l, ass istant editors.
Includes b ib liographic referen ces a nd index.
ISBN 0-87020-3 13-4 ISl:'>N [papcrbound]
l. Wiscomin- Hiswry- 191h c::cn tury.
2. Wisconsin-H bwry- l9th ccnturv Sources.
3. New Ye<U"-Socia l f\spects-Wisco;1sin- Hiswry.
4. Nin e teen Hundred. A.D.
5 . Twentieth Cenn11y
I. Ste,·ens, :vlichacl L
II. Burg, Stnen B.
III. Ch ang, D<wid A.
IV. Paul, Reid A.
V. State Histori cal Society or Wisconsin. F586.Y47 1999
VI. Series. 977.5'041- dc21
99-25326
CIP
Contents

Inu·oduction ,.

1. Greeting the New C:enlll r y in Wisconsin 1

2. Refl ec tions on a Ccn 1.t1r)' or Progress 45

3. A rew World of Tech n o logy 92

4. "lt Will be a G lori o us Ce ntur y" 125

Suggestions for FurLhcr Read in g 161

Index J63

iii
Introduction

Decades, ce ntu ries, millennia. i\.mericans love to use these cate-


gories to classify time. Never mind that change does noL take place
in neat periods e nd ing in zeroes; these words have become a
shorthand tor ch aracterizing the past. Although long preoccupied
with the future, ;\mericans also have found that they can not. com-
fortabl y pl ot the tr~jectories of their lives without ma ki ng com-
parisons to the past and the present. At the open ing of th e twen-
tieth centu ry, this tension between nostalgia and regret for the
past and anticipation and anxiety about the future reached a fever
pitch. Whi le the century marker was a purely artific ial lin e, it
prompted peop le to stop and reflect about the kind offuture they
wanted. As Americans began thinking about new centuries as
times of change, the process became a self-fulfilling prophecy,
ma king the approach of a new century one more reason to e m-
brace cha nge fo r its own sake.
In th e chapters that follow, readers can follow the ways thaLthe
men and wome n of Wisconsin experienced th e approach of the
twentieth century. The people of the state joined others from
around the nation a nd celebrated the coming of the new cen tury
both in 1900 a11d in 1901. They reflected on Ame rica's accom-
plishme nts in the previous cen tury and speculated o n the changes
they hoped would take place in the n ext hundred years. The ite ms
that appear he re are taken from newspapers, magazi nes, and
oth e r prin ted material published in 'Wisconsin at the tur n of the
century. Newspapers of t11c era contained an in teresti ng mix of
original loca l writing, reprints of stories from in-state newspapers,
and syndicated and reprinted material from om-of-srnte newspa-
pers a nd magazin es. T hus, while this book offers a perspective on
wh at th e people of \•Visconsin read and what th e state's editors
published, it also tells a story that is national in scope. Together,
these articles a nd essays offer a window o n people's hopes and
fears at a mo ment of great change.

\!
VI Yesterday's Fut.ure: The Twentieth Centw)' Begins

Fascination with the fu ture had been building throughout the


last decade and a half of the nineteenth century. While the end
or o ld cen turies had been systematically marked as early as the
close or the thirteenth century, the end of the nineteen th century
saw interest in the future grow greater than ever before. The pop-
u la rity of' Edward Bellamy's utopian novel, Looking Bachward, 2000-
1887, took the nation by storm in 1888, selling more than a hun-
dred thousand copies in the first two years after publication and
becoming one of the bestsellers of the nineteenth century. Bel-
lamy's novel told the story orJulian West, a young man from 1887
Boston who found himself mysteriously transported to the year
2000. T he book depicted a n America a t the end of the twentieth
cenr.ury th at had radically different social, political, and economic
structures from those of the 1800s. Bellamy was not alone in spec-
ulating about th e future. T h e novels of H. G. Wells, such as The
Time 1\llachine (1895) and The Warofthe Worlds (1898), speculated
about the distant future and space a nd time u·avel. As th e new
century approached, Ameri cans became increasingly conscious
thal they were living through a period of change and thaL Lhe turn
of Lh e century would be an opportun ity for reflection . T he World's
Columbian Exposition h eld in Ch icago in 1893 focused interest
on accomplishments and potential, past and future. At the expo-
sition, Frederick J ackson T ur ne r, the famous Wisconsin historian,
del ivered his paper, 'The Significan ce of the Frontier in American
I-listory," which began with h is observation that tJ1e closing of the
frontier marked the end of an era.
Even before the start of Lh e new era, publications throughout
the nation began to use the phrase twentieth cenlltr)' as part of their
titles to show thar. they were forward looking. Citizens in some
com rnunities formed twentie th-cenmry clubs, and other writers
began to attempt to forecast tJ1 e future. Indeed, there we re many
reasons for A.me1icans and Wisconsinites to be high ly aware of
change. Th e United States had ended the eighteenth ce ntury as
a nation of five million souls scattered throughou t sixtee n states,
largely along the Atlantic seaboard. During the n ineteenth cen-
tu r y, great social, economic, and technological changes shook th e
nation. Americans fought a great war that led to the abo lition of
slavery. Massive industrialization had ch anged th e ways that peo-
ple earned their livelihoods. Technological advances, such as the
revo lution in u·ansportation , permitted one to cross the Atlantic
in less than six days in 1900 compared to between seven weeks
lNT.RODUCTTO N vii

and three months a century before. By 1900, the federal union


had grown to forty-five states, a nd its seventy-SL\: million resident'>
were spread out fro rn th e Atlantic w the Pacific. With the recent
annexation of Hawaii and the acquisition of the Philippines a nd
Puerto Rico in th e Spanish-American War, Arne1ica's territorial
boundaries e mbraced th e Caribbean and the far Pacific, a nd
A..me1icans struggled to become comfortable with their new status
as an impe rial powe r.
Wisconsin , too, had changed over the previous hundred years.
In 1800, th e land that would become known as 'Wisconsin was a
remote pan of the lndiana Territory, and the two largest sites of
European settlement, Prairie du Chien and Green Bay, were iso-
lated trade outposts with few permanent residents. In 1900, Wis-
consin was a prospe rnus state with a mixed agricultural and in-
dustrial economy and a population of more than two million.
Thus, amid great transformations, and at a time when Americans
were highly attuned to the prospect of change, the turn of the
century provided a reason to think about the future.
This book tells how Wisconsinites coped with these changes, first
by celebrating, the n by reflecting on the past, and finally by pro-
jecting a fu ture for Lhemselves. The first chapter opens \Vith the
debate about whe n the new century should be celebrated-whether
1900 or 1901. In Wisconsin, as in the rest of America and in most
of Europe, the festivities were marked on the evening of December
31, 1900. H owever, the German kaiser decided LO observe turn-of-
the-century eve nts o n December 31, 1899, and 'Wisconsin, with its
large German population, contained some citizens who chose to
cele brate th e earlier date. On e wag suggested in the best Wisconsin
tradition that the citizens of Milwaukee could resolve the proble m
by indulging themselves on both dates. Most people opted LO ob-
serve the latter date, and men and women in 'Wisconsin used their
creativity to cele brate in a vari ety of ways, ranging from pious church-
going to late-night carousing in pubs and taverns.
Wisconsin suffe red from a cold snap on the evening of Decem-
ber 31, 1900. fn i'vlilwau kee, two inches of snow fell during the
day, followed by a te mperature drop to two degrees below zero.
Farther north, in Wausau the mercury dropped to twelve degrees
below zero, and in Superior the temperature plummet.eel to a rec-
ord-setting eightee n below. The cold weather kept many of the
festivities indoors. Those not attending church or ,.i siting taverns
could keep th e mselves occupied by the many balls, banquets, and
VIII Yesterday's Future: The Twenlielh Cenlu I)' Begins

organized games that took place throughout the state, but the
cold weather did not discou rage all outdoor activities. On New
Year's Day in Appleton, ten young me n "wearing silk h ats and
huge chrysanLhemums" rode around the ciry on a vehicle d rawn
by four horses. The convivial group sang out vigorously, sounded
thei r horn, and stopped frequently al the homes of their frie nds
and neighbors for a variety of refreshments- undoubtedly liquid
and otherwise-to keep up their spirits. Newspapers, always in-
terested in boosting their circulation, sougln ou t stories about
ways to celebrate the century, ranging from a newspaper contest
in Superior to name the first baby born in the cenmry to an in-
terview wir.h Betsy Hasbrouck, an Oshkosh woman who was born
in the wan ing clays of the eighteenth cenr.ury and had lived to see
the dawn of the rwentieth.
New Year's Day festivities were not restricted to partying and
communal gatherings. Newspaper ed itors, magazine publ ish ers,
and speech makers seized the opportunity for more cerebral
speculations abou t the era that had just closed . ·Wisconsin, which
had cele brated its fiftieth anniversary of statehood in 1898, got a
head start on the retrospective reflections, but bragging about the
state's and nation's accomplishme nts in the last century reached
its height in 1900 and 1901.
Although v\'isconsin residents gloried in the past, they paid
even greater anenr.ion to the future. Americans looked with awe
upon the great technological progress of the previous decades
a nd speculated about the wonders that science and engineeri ng
would bring. Many writers offered strikingly accurate predictions,
such as increased life expectancy through ber.ter medicine, cen tral
air cond itioning, snowmobiles, air I.ravel, and radio. One writer
expected that in theaters of the future, ';the lips of a remote actor
or singer will be h eard to utter words or music when seen to
move." Others predicted advances in medical science: 'The living
body wi ll to all medical purposes be transparent. Not only will it
be poss ible for a physician to actually see a living, throbbing heart
inside the chest, but he wi ll be able LO magnify and photograph
any part of it. " Other predictions were further from the mark.
While many observers touted the future of "liquid air," others sug-
gested that. by 2001 humans would co rnmunicate with Martians
and that most urba n dwellers wou ld travel to work by airship. So-
cial c hange equally intrigued late-n ineteenth-century prophets.
Pred ictions ranged fro m the accurate, such as women's sutfrage
INTRODUCTlON ix

and the growth of the suburbs, to unfulfilled hopes for the ad-
mission of N icaragua and tvlexico to r11e union and fre e universit71
ed ucation. ;.\_Janesville newspaper even speculated that once pop-
ular sports, such as baseball and bicycling, were r.o become passing
fads. As an e ditorial in an Oshkosh paper asked , "How many
things will the Twentieth century bring of which we may not even
dream today? ... Shall we reach the state of perfect toleration in
human beliefs? Shall we reach the time when wars will be no more
and e ternal peace will reign over the nations of the earth?"
In the e nd, predictions depended on temperament and view of
human nature. Some expected a glorious foture, such as the
writer who specu lated, "If righteousness and justice and brol11erly
love shall go ha nd in hand with the advance of science, with th e
dissemination of knowledge and the development of nature's re-
sources, the n indeed it will be a glorious century." Othe r less op-
timistic so uls pointed out that the new century was just a date on
the cale ndar: "It will be the same old world, with the diffe re nce
that the le tte r-heads will be elated 1901, up to 2000. "
T he wrilings produced while standing on the threshold of a
n ew century provide an opportunity to examine the hopes and
reflections of a generation of Americans, few of whom co uld have
envisioned th e amazing progress and unspeakable horrors that
humans have realized in the twentieth century-from the miracle
of organ mrnsplan ts to the massive death and destruction wreaked
in Lwentie th-century wars. It is unlikely that modern pundits could
do better than the ir predecessors in their visions of the Lwenty-
first century, but reviewing the thoughts and predictions of the
past should serve as more than a warning about the limits of en-
gaging in the imperfect art of prophecy. Some of the visions were
mere specu l<uion s, but others provided important: road maps for
foture progress. Technological advances, such as air travel, a nd
social c hange, such as the battle for women's rights, stemrned
from the hard work of individuals committed to seeing their
dreams beco me reality. The dreams of any era, including our own,
provide insigh t into the dreamers, their desires fo r the future , and
the many paths co nsidered but not taken.

The nearly one hundred articles and essays that a ppear in this
book are ta ke n from new·spapers, magazines, and other mate ria ls
printed in Wisconsin. Sixty percent of the pieces were written by
x Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centwy Begins

state au tho rs, while 20 percent were syndicated or reprinted items


from out-of-slate papers. The o rigin and authorship of the re-
main ing 20 percent is unknown . The excerpts are taken from
nearly forty separate newspapers and magazines originating in
Wisconsin communities of all sizes, ranging from urban Milwau-
kee (population 285,315) to the Town of Dale in Outagamie
County (population l,273). In addition to articles from the main-
stream press, this volume contains wri Lings published in school
newspape rs, church bulletins, and pe riod ica ls aimed at a variety
of special audiences such as German-language speakers, Afric an
Ame ricans, farmers, and th e hearing impaired. The six pieces
take n from German-language pape rs are printed here in English
translations, or in the original fo r m if the item was written in
English prior Lo publication in Ge rma n.
T he texts are printed as they appea r in the originals, with th e
fo llowing exceptions. Spelling mistakes a nd typesetting e rrors
have bee n silently corrected, wi th the e xceplion of the spelli ng of
perso nal na mes. Names of newspapers, names of ships, and book
ti tl es are set in italic type. Editorial inse r tions of words needed to
clari !'y mea ning appear in brackets. To disLinguish these brackets
from those supplied by the n ewspaper ed iLor, all brackets in the
o riginal texts have been changed to parenth eses. All omissions
from the text of an article are noted with ellipses. Minor changes
in punctuation have been made only whe n needed for clarity. The
physical for mat of the newspape rs has not been reproduced, con-
seque nt!)', headlines and subheads have not been included when
they are used simply as typographical conventions and repeal in-
formation provided in the text.

* * * * *
Many people worked long and hard to bring this book into print.
Steve Burg, David Chang, and Reid Paul , the volume's assistanL ed-
itors, contr ibuted in innumerable ways. The hard work, energy, and
ded ication that they gave to this project fo recasts great success for
them in their future endeavors. Ted Franrz and IZtisten Foste r
helped with the 01iginal search for documents. Liberty Wollerman
did exce llent work in n·anscribing the original materials. Hope
Hague and Madelon Kohler-Busch translated the German-language
materials. Ellen Goldlust-Gingrich assisted with the copyediting.Jill
Bremigan designed the cover of the book. Paul Hass provided his
usual good counsel as this prqject moved from idea to book.
VOICES O F THE W ISCO N SI N PAST

YESTERDAY'S FUTURE
The
Twentieth Century Begjns
6 7 8 9 ·IO II 12
13 14 la 16 17 1& 10
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 23 29 30 31
Oconto County Reporter,jr11111ary 11, 1901.
1
Greeting the New Century in Wisconsin

When Does the New Century Begin?


As the e nd o r the year 1899 approached, people around the world
began debating whether celebra1.io11s marking the arrival of the
twentieth century should be held on J a11ua ry I, 1900, or January I, I \JO I.
Fuding this controversy was a si.atcrncnt by Pope Leo XIII granting
Catholic priests permission w cele brate special New Year's Eve midnig ht
ITHlSSesonDecembe r31 orboih IK99and 1900. Ultimatcly, 111os1.or1.he
Weste rn world, wirh the notable e xception o f the German empire ,
decided to celebrate tl1e start of the 1we n1ictl1 cen tury on Januaq1 1,
1901. But the conu·oversy continued, particularly in Wisconsin, witJ1 its
la rge Ge rm an population. The follcnving piece from a Wisconsin
German-language ne"'spape r, published several days before the e nd o r
1899, re minded read ers r.hat confusion on~ r whe n to celebrate the new
cenwr y was not a new problem.

(A/>/1leton) Gegenwa:rl, December 29, I 899

One hu ndred years ago in our old fatherland a vehement dispute


erupted concerning whether the new year would begin on .Janu-
ary I , 1800, or on January l, 1801. Schiller and Goethe were also
d rawn into this dispute, which me rrymakers resolved by celebrat-
ing New Year's Eve twice-on December 31 , 1799, and on Dece m-
be r 31, 1800-with the th e n-customary punch and the obligalOry
waffl es. T his year, too, a lively discussion is in progress abom wh e n
we should celebrate the beginning of th e twentieth century. Many
peopl e think it \-viii begin wh e n we first write the number 1900
instead of 1899- that is to say on .January 1, 1900, and this appears
correct, as far as the eye is conce rned. But others counLer that the
new century does not really begin until.January I , 1901.
Pope Leo recently decided this question for all Catholi cs wilh
a pronouncement that the old century will end next Decembe r
2 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Cenlwy Begins

31st. He probably couldn't have decided otherwise, since the cal-


endar that takes Ch 1ist's birth as its beginning dates from the lime
of Charlemagne, and at that time the year 800 was considered the
first year of the new century. Popes since then have re peatedly
called for jubilee year:s, as did Pope Boniface VIII in the year 1500,
with the additional mandate that the jubilee should be cele brated
he ncefonh every hundred years. Peter the Great also held a simi-
lar o pinion, since he chose the year 1700 for the beginning of the
new Russian calendar. And now the German kaiser and Federal
Council have also spoken in favor of this view. It is also effectively
supponed by the obvious concurrence between the new ce nrnry's
beginning and its new numbe r. lt would require the greatest e ffort
to persuade most people that the old century had not ye t. e nded
wh e n th e number for the ne·w century was already in use, since
they a re persuaded in this instan ce by the eye and n ot by mathe-
matical calculations.
From a mathematical perspective, however, things look differ-
e nt. There is absolutely no doubt that the re cannot be a fu ll count
of ten withom including the number ten . If you want to have ten
app les, you certainly need the tenth one, too. Seen in this way,
the )'ear 100 belongs to th e first century, the year 200 to the sec-
o nd, and d1e year 1900 lO Lhe nineteenth. Mathem a ti cian s have
al·ways held this view. Littre 's Dict.ionl/1)', whose entries are based
on consultation with authorities in the fields of science, states suc-
c inctly in its article "Century": "The present century began with
the first day of 1801 and will e nd with the last day of the year
1900." The greatest comemporary English astronome r has a lso
decided the mar.ter similarly.
ln any case, th ere is as little hope for agreement on this ques-
tion as there was one hundred years ago, and the cleve rest re-
spo nse would be to emu late Goethe and Schiller in celebrating
the beginning of the n ew century twice: once on J anuary L, 1900,
and agai n on January l , 1901.

While the debate over th e proper time to celebrate the century's end
drew considerable popular inLe resl and eve n cliciLed comments f'rom
prominent scholars and scientists, the controversy also attracted a
numbe r or passionate d e bate rs d etermined r.o prove through co111plcx
ana logies and elaborate rnath c ma tical computations th e u-ue dale whe n
Lhc century ended. As the fo llowing short story d1m th e Milwaulil'I'
Se11 /i111'l r eprinted from Lhe Clc,·dand Plain Dealer sugges ts, th e d ebate
GREETING THE NEW CENTURY I N \NISC ONSl.N 3

over the ce ntury's e nd becarne inc reasingly a source of humor, and its
most passio nate panic ipa llls we re dismis~cd as crackpots.

Milwa.uhee Sentinel, Jan uary 3, 1901

It was a sunny Dece mbe r afte rnoon. The snow was fast disappear-
ing. The eaves were mo no t0n ously dripping.
In the h andsomely furnishe d parlor of the Kendall residence a
young woman was watching a young man. He sat looking thought-
fully at the firepla ce and she was looking anxiously at him.
"Come, Alfred," she said in a coaxing voice, "it will soon be over.
Remember that 1 have pre pare d pa pa for the- the ordeal. You
musm 't be so timid about it. Eve r ything will have to be at a stan d-
still, you know, until you have asked papa for my hand. He is in
the library now. You couldn't have a be tter opportunity."
"Millie," said the young ma n wi1.hout looking up, "let's elope! "
"Silly boy!" cried th e young woman. "Don 'Lsit there temporiz-
ing. Papa isn't a-a fi e ry dragon. You 've told me over and over
again that you'd go through fire and flood for me."
"Show me the fire and the fl ood," said the young man doggedly.
"And yet you fear to rneel rny own clear papa," said th e girl
reproachfully. "Why, jusl th ink of it, Alfred. You can have two new
relatives for the asking."
The young man stiffened his shou lders.
"By Jove, I'll do il," he said. He set his jaw with a d ick as he
arose. The girl clapped he r hands.
"Bravo!" she cried. "Don't le Lyour resolutio n cool. J usr. remem-
ber one thi ng. Fall in wiLh papa's humor. Don't contradict him.
Le t him lead Lhe conversation and wa it fo r your opportun ity. Then
switch in quickly and have it: ove r. It seems so funny that although
you have been here so many times he has never seen you. But I've
told him all about )'OU. T he re, d on ' t hesitate."
The young man had paused wiLh his hand on the door knob.
"\Voulcln ' t to-mor row d o .iust as we ll? " he asked.
"No, " she answe red sharpl y. "March !" Then as he turned the
knob she added, "Courage a nd success! "
Alfred Barnes found him self in the presen ce of A.mos Kendall.
The old gentleman did not look up as he entered. He was too
deeply engrossed in a sheaf of papers o n his desk to heed the
newcomer 's en trance. He was a grim old man with a short white
mustache and a strange fash io n of raising his white eyebrows and
4 Yestuday 's Future: The Twentieth Cenl'll'I)! Begins

wrinkling his fore he ad . Alfred Barnes watched him for several min-
utes. Presently tl1 e o ld man looke d up and caught sight of him.
"Ah," h e said in a brusqu e tone, "so you have come. Take a seat.
Yes, over h e re. or co urse you know why I sent for you. "
Alfre d clicln 'l kn o w, but he remembered that he was not to con-
tradict this Le rrible old ma n. So h e only nodded as he took the
seat that iVfilli e's fath e r po inted oul. The re was a brief silence.
Alfred grew a liule ne rvous. Perhaps this was the opportunity
that he was to embrace.
"Mr. Kendall," he said , "I have called - "
"I know all abo ul it," inte rrupted the old man. "Let us have no
preambles. J am ope n to convi ction. No man can accuse me of
being obstinate or unreasonable. If you can prove what you say
that's quite enough for me. Go on."
Alfred started hard at the o ld man . What was he to prove? What
sort of recomme ndaLion could Mi llie have given her father? He
wished he had questio ned her further.
".Mr. Kendall, " he sa id with the boldest air he could muster up.
"I am quite sure 1 can prove everything to your complete satisfac-
tion. If it: is merely a question of- of-"
"Time," cried the o ld man .
"Eh?" said the asto nish ed Alfre d as his rather prepossessing face
reddened.
"It's a question or time, or course," said the old man. "You think
you are right in the stand you have take n. You have set your heart
on convincing me. I mean to prove yot1 are 'vrong. "
Alfred 's he art sank.
"I don't think you can d o that, sir," he said.
"Obstinate, of course," sa id the o ld man. "They always are. I've
had a dozen he re this week on the same errand. "
"A doze n !" gasped Al fre d . \ Vhat a liuJ e deceiver Millie must be!
1

But no, it coulcln 't be possible.


'There's one thing certain ," said the old man; "and that is if
you can' t convin ce me )' OU don't ge t a dollar of my money."
"I- 1 am not afte r you mon ey, sir," said Alfred with dignity. "All
J want is- "
"I guess you 'd take it fast e nough if" you could get it,'' cried the
terrible old man. "But you' ll have to earn it first. vVhen you do it
will be time e nough LO talk abou t not wanting it."
"If you will pe rmit me Lo say a few words about myself," began
Alfred with renewe d d ignity, "I am sure I- "
GREETING THE NEV\' CENTURY IN WISCONSI N 5

"Confine yourself to the subject in hand, " said the old man
firmly. "My time is nor. entirely my own. There may be others here
to-day on the same errand."
"The same errand!" murmured the dazed youth.
"Certainly," cried the o ld man. "Do you think you are th e on ly
on e? We are wasting altogethe r too m uch time. Corne, now, let
me try the familiar argument of the clock on you. l wan L to see
how you'll answer it. Do you see that clock on the mantel?"
Alfred looked at it careful!)'·
"I see a clock on the man Le i," he finally said. He would have to
humor this old man, and h e would humor him in such a sooth ing
way that perhaps his temper wou ld soften.
"Go up and feel of it if you have any doubt about it," said the
terrible old man. v\:11ereupo n Alfred gravely advanced to the man-
tel and carefully stroked the bronze case.
"I am quite positive it is a clock, sir," he said.
"\l\lh y don' t you smell of it, too?" snorted the old man. Evide n tly
th e soothing process hacln 't begun to take effect.
"I trust you will excuse the third test, sir," the young man cau-
tio usly said; "I have an unpleasanL cold in my head. "
"Is there a clock on that mante l, or isn' t there? " cried the iras-
cible old man.
"The re is a clock on the mantel," said Alfred with much de li b-
e ra tion.
"And what time is it?"
"One minu te to 1 o'clock, sir."
"To properly illustrate the point I mean to make," said the o ld
man, "the clock will be in be tte r shape after it strikes. Liste n."
They both watched r.he dial of the timepiece with great inte nt-
ness. A heavy silence fell upo n the room. Presently it grew insup-
portable.
"Stopped, hasn ' t it?" inquired Alfred in respectful tones.
"What!" roared the old man. "\Nhy, of course it has stopped!
Confound these French clocks, th ere 's no depending on the m!
Why dicln'L you tell me it had stopped ?"
"You simply asked me to verify the fact that the clock existed, "
replied Alfred ,.,.;th dignity.
"You are a-a hairsplitter," cried the old man. "l understand
how l'll have to deal with you . .Kindly start the clock. \1Vhen it
strikes 1 we will know how to proceed."
Alfred did as requested and a moment later the clock struc k 5.
6 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth CenlLt'I)' Begins

T he o ld man breathed hard.


" \ 1\le wil l assume that the clock has just struck o ne ," he said . "Let

us ru rthe r assume that the first min ute of the ho ur j ust passed was
the fi rst minute of time. At the end of the first sixty min utes the
cloc k o f eternit:y struck one. Do you follow me?"
"l fo llow you very closely, sir," replied Alfred. ''When the first
sixty minutes of time had elapsed the French clock of eternity
struc k Vive-I mean one. But l don 't see what this has to do-"
"Don't ge t nervous," cried the o ld man . "You'll see my meaning
clear e nough when I get through . Th e clock struck o ne. That
meant rhat: the first hour was up. 'When it strikes e ight, e ight hours
wi ll be up . Now take the clock of the years. \!Vh e n it strikes one
the ftrst year is up . vi/hen it strikes ten, ten years are up. Wh e n it
strikes 1900, 1,900 years are up ! What d o you th ink of that? "
"J think that a clock that in sisted upo n sLri king 1,900," replied
Alfred wiLh a frank smile, "ought to b e gagged. "
Th e o ld man scowled at him and his face grew dark.
"Come, come," he growled, "no facetiousness. You can't hide
your defeat in any such way. Doesn't tJ1is u na nswerable argument
satisJ); yo u?"
"Sat:ist)1 me of what?" inquired Alfred , with a li ttle tre mor in his
voice.
"Of' wha t! " roared the o ld man.
Affre d realized that he must not co ntrad icl Millie's father.
"Y-yes, sir," he stamme red, "I think it does. T hat is," h e hastily
added, "with limitations."
"Ver y we ll," said the old man, and his tone showed he was some-
what mollified.
"And now let me hear you define your own position."
He re was Alfred's opportunity.
"My posi 1i on is an excellent one," he said, '·and next January I
am lo be admitted to a partnership . The salary is tin usually liberal
a nd-"
"Hold on," cried the o ld man , "what are you g iving me? I don't
care a rap for your salary. No subterfuges. Slick to the business at
hand. Convince me with arguments and do n 't go skylarki ng round
Robin Hood's barn."
"f was trying to convince you," said Alfred. "1 meant to show
you that l can support- "
"Can you support any theories in con lradiction r.o the o n e I
have just shown you ?" cried tJ1e old man.
GREETI NG TM E NEW CENTURY IN WISCO NSIN 7

"But I mean something more substantial than a theor y," pro-


tested AJfred. "I meant th at I can support your- "
On ce mo re th e old man interrupted him.
"My practical illust.ratfo n, eh ?" he cried. "Well, I didn ' L see how
yo u co ul d disprove of it. At the same time l have no doubt you' ll
go away calli ng me a cra nk."
"No, sir, " protested Alfred.
"Yes, you will. AJ I the oth ers did. Whe n a man stands up a lone
against th e rn~j o ri ty he is a lways e ither a foo l or a crank. They
called Gali leo a crank, a nd all those other thingumbobs. I begin

Falher Time Lahes a.


refreshing breal< from the
debate over when lhe new
cenlul)' would begin.
Milwaukee Se ntinel,
December 26, l 899.

ia 4 prime .fnTorite at the club. ca(e or


family board. A bottle "broken.. at
home or at the club is sure to pron
rntful nnd iuigorating.
It1 absolute purity "nd genuine
ftavo,r of malt and bops is a refresh·
ing bttr proposition uot alone apprc·
ciatcd by the connoisscur ·and t-picy.rC'
There arc several brands - BLATZ
WIENER strikes the happy medium:
Try a cnse.
TELEPHONE 152 llAIN.

VAL. BLATZ BREWING CO.


8 }' psterday 's Future: The Twentieth Centu 1y Begins

to see thaL this inte rview \\'ill be productive of no good to either


or us."
"But if you will on lr g ive me a chance to plead my cause, sir?"
cried Alfred .
·'Plead your cause! 'vVhy, confound it, man , you have bee n doing
nothing else! I never saw su ch a Jong winded fellow. Come, this
interview has gon e fa r e nough. Good day, sir." And the o ld man
turned back to his desk.
Alfred arose with a h elpless g la n ce at Millie's father. He would
make one more desperate a ttempt.
Then there was a rap al the door. A servant entered bearing a
card. T h e old man LOok it.
"What's this!" he cried . Then h e looked across at Alfred. "Aren't
you Prof. Limpsy?"
"No," said Alfre d.
"Didn't. you come h e re 1.0 try to con vi nce me that the n ew cen-
tury d id not begin on the first or.January, 1900?"
"I never though 1 of such a thing, si r. "
"But you came in at r.h e very moment that I expected this m an
Limpsy."
"I can't help that," said A.lfred.
"Well , what in thunder then are you here for?"
"I came, sir," said Alfred, with a firmness that surprised him, "to
ask )'O U for the h a nd o f )'O U daugh ter."
"v\lell, we ll , well!" cri ed Lhe o ld ma n, and a sudden sm ile swept
across his wrinkled face. "So you 're the man, are you? Come h ere
and shake h a nds. Milli e has w ld me all aboUL you. Of course sh e ' ll
h ave h e r own way. G lad to know you. T h ere, there, run along and
tell the Jiu.le g irl it's a ll right."
A tall , cadave rous man e nte red th e outer door as Alfred tu rned
towards the parlo r.
And as h e sm ili ngly closed Lhe door behind him the happy
you ng man h eard t.he brisk wrangle of warring words.

Wisconsin Celebrates the New Century


Mosl Wbconsin rcsidenLs 1narked the turn of the n ew cc nLu r y on the
eve nin g of Monday, lkccmbcr 3 1, l 900, with celebrations ranging l'r o m
raucou.~ parLics a 11d lhc discharge of firearms to ge nteel banquets and
.sole nrn rt:ligio11s services. T he following fo u r pieces capcure how people
in Mi lwau kcc. Wa11sau , Kenosha, and Shebovgan broke with their dai lv
rot.nines tn cc lc:brnte this once-in-a-lifetime e;~ent. ·
GR££TlNG THE NEW CENTURY IN WISCONSJN 9

Milwaukee Sentinel, January 1, 190 I

At 11:55 last nighL the City hall began to iing out the old year and
it continued its incessant clanging for ten minutes, or until the
New Year had crossed the threshold of Time, bringing the Twen-
tieth century along in convoy.
Other bells took up Lhe cue and swelled the grand chorus until
it ranged out all over Milwaukee and into the suburbs, reinforced
by sr.eam whistles at the factor ies, and on locomotives in the yards
and standing in front of trains in the stations. Then from the front
of the Broadway armory volley after volley was fired by the mem-
bers of Companies A a nd F. Wornen rushed into the streets from
their homes a nd set off red fire , and other women and men came
tumbling out of ho uses and homes cheering the new born year
and wishing eac h oth e r rnany returns of the day.
Men in the hotels a nd in the sample rooms joined in the joyous
acclaim while others o pen ed bottles of wine and drank bumpers to
the little stranger. Factories in which the fires are usually banked
with the close of the clay, kept up steam last night and sounded
their whistles in recogn ition of the birth of the New Year and the
New Century. Not:wirJ1standing lhis, the demonstsation was neither
as noisy nor as long con tinued as on many former occasions of the
kind. This was due in a large measure to the number of entertain-
ments in the clubs or th e city, a nd the general observance of the
fleeting momems becwce n the old and tl1e new as an occasion fo r
religious services at th e churches. At the former the guests paused
between the measures of the dance to wish each other "A Happy
New Year," a nd then ''chased the glowing hours with flying feet"
until Aurora began to awake the new born day. At the churches
thousands of worshipe rs arose from bended knee to exchange the
greeting and then quielly took their way homeward.
Never before, it may be said , has the birth of a new year been
so generally celebrated in Mi lwaukee as was that of 1901 , and
never before was the cele bration attended with so little noise.
There was p le nty of e nLe rtainmen L, but there was less reveling and
the new year and the new cenwry was heartily welcomed with
more than the usual amount of good cheer, but it was extended
in a more dignified mann er.
The dying year was in Lhe last stage of dissolution wben the peo-
ple began to turn o ut for th e purpose of making the welkin of the
incoming century ring with their demonstrations. The new era was
10 Yesterday's Fut.ure: The Twentieth Centtt·1y Begins

p recede d by and e nveloped in a cold wave that made the home


circle th e most comfort.able place to spe nd lhe hours of watching
and wai1jng, and th ose people who did not attend Lhe churches or
enjoy 1,hc good fellowsh ip of the clu b, stayed a l home until the
auspicious mome nt of welcome arrived across Ti me's threshold.
T hen they went into the open air and shou ted their welcome. The
ho te l lobbies and the saloons were deserted excepl by the few stran-
gers within our gates who had no whe re else to go.
There we re ser vices in all of the English speaking Catholic
churches with the exceptio n of Holy Rosar y, a nd "watc h m eetings"
al the Me lhodist churches. T he othe r denomi nations, as a rule,
he ld union services in wh ich two or more congregations j oined to
keep up the \rigil and welcome the new year and the new centur y.
AL the De uLScher cl ub, a Sylvester eve ball was give n, an d the
me mbers and th eir friends dan ced the o ld year o ut and the new
year in with music's voluptuous swe ll lead ing them through the
m err y measures of the waltz. The Iroquois cl ub mem bers and
th e ir rriends celebrated the an niversar y of that in stiLU tion and
inciden la lly we lcomed the new cen tur y a nd lhc new year across
the lh reshold wiLh a dancing par ty. The members of the Carl ton
club also gave a dancing pa rty last eve ning which carri ed into th e
new born year. They wi ll keep o pen h o use to-day.
Al the Phoenix club the new year fou nd the mem be rs sitting at
the banq uet table ready to drink to the hcalLh o f the stranger as
he came across T ime 's threshold.
Al the IV[ilwa ukee club very few of th e me mbe rs were a bout th e
house last even ing and nothing ou t of lhe ord inar y took place.
To-clay Lh e customary New Yea r lun ch wil l be served from 11:30
unti l 2:30 o'clock, with lor..s of egg-nog to wash it down. The Old
SetLlers' club will a lso keep open house Lo-clay, alLhough the ir
quane rs we re deserted last evening.
AL Lile Bo n Ami clu b a little group of congen ial spir its assem-
bled during the early evening h ou rs and began bowling, bul later
the larger part of th em wen t to St j ohn's ca th edral and attended
the rel igious se r vices. To-d ay a New Year lu nch with a pu nch bowl
as an accessor y wi ll be p rovided and the club will keep open house
to the ir rriends.
The lvli llioki club house was brillian lly ill um inated last evening,
a nd Lhe roo ms were ha ndsomely decorated wi th palms and flow-
ers, whi le the members an d the ir friends e njoyed an info rmal
dancing pany lo m usic by Bach. To-day the club will keep o pe n
house wiLh lots of good cheer and m usic swee t
GREETI NG THE NEW CENT U RY IN WISCONSIN 11

A dinn er was given by R. W. Houghton at the Hotel Pfister last


eve ning in honor of D. M. Place of Chicago. Covers were laid for
sixtee n. AfLer the dinner those who participated joined with the
Cotillion club at the Athaneum in dancing th e old year out and
th e new year in.
"Wh ee-e-e," yelled David Norrell, on the tap of the clock when
the new century was ushered in at the Cen tral station last night.
And in consideration of his having been "pinched" as 1901 began,
he was released at daylight this morning, noth ing more serious
than d ru n ken ness being charged against him.
"Here's a man with a record," said Patrolman Beale as he led
Norrell into the station. "He'll be the first booking of the new
century. Clarkson sent him in. "
Just then a rifle was fire d at the armor)' next door. Norrell
pricked up his ears as he heard the annou ncement of the death
of 1900, li fted his overcoat skins like a ballet girl would her lin-
gerie, whirled around on Lhe tips of his toes and gave a soldier's
salute with a ye ll, as the firsl su-oke of 12 sounded from the ciLy
hall bell.
"Whee-e-e, " as the clock struck, saved Norell a $5 fine on
Wednesday.
The new century began with the thermome ter at 2 degrees
below ze ro and a chill win d from the northwest gave promise of
co lder weather to-day. There was snow yeste rday, to a depth of
over two inches, but it stopped falling before night, and was fol-
lowed by a drop in the temperature. It was the coldest weather of
the season, thus far, and for the first time dur ing the winter the
sn ow plows or the street railway were sent ouL to clear and sweep
Lh e trac ks.
To accommodate the people who were kept o uL late for the
purpose of attending the religi ous and oth er meetings, and also
for th e benefit of the revelers the l'vlilwaukee Electric Railway &
Ligh t co mpany operated its lines, urban and suburban, several
hours laLer than is called for by the regular sc hedules.

Wmmtu Pilol, .Jan'lta1) ' 8, 1901

The 20th ce ntury was ushered into existen ce in Wausau with a


good d ea l of rumpus- enough to awake slumbering humanity
with such suddenness as to make many wonder whether hades
had broken loose or the town had bee n attacked by a company of
12 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centwy Begins

Boers. T here was clanging of be lls, booming of cannons and blow-


ing o r h orns. Th e morning d awned with out a cloud to d im Lhe
lustre of' Old Sol, but it was dreadfully cold, the thermometer
ind icating 12 degrees below zero. T his extreme winter weather
continued all day, notwitb stancl ing there were many who donned
their furs and nicked in their nobby turnouts, 'neath warm robes
a nd enjoyed a New Year"s sleigh ride. The large num ber of you ng
folks at hom e from their different schools made the day a cheerfu l
one to all, besides there was e nough going on in the city to make
the first day of th e year and century a n interesting one.
The rooms of the Young l\ilen 's Chris1fan Association we re ke pt
open a ll day and they were visited by th ousands of our cili zens
a nd were the favorite place fo r those seeking diversion and amuse-
ment.. The ·whole afternoon was raken up in games a nd in the
evening there was a rnost d elightful e n tertainment.
3: 15 P.M. Basketball game between teams from jun io r a nd in-
termed iate classes.Jun iors having had more practice were a matc h
for inte rmediates in team play if' not in size. T he score be ing 12
LO 11, in favor of in termediates ....
4:00 P.M. Baseball game beL1veen sen iors and business men.
Th e teams were unequal , six busin ess men and e ight se niors. The
game was exciting and there was good playing on both sides. The
game resulted in defeat of business men by a score of21 to 12 ....
7:30 P. M. There was a baskeLball game between two sen ior Learns
wh ich were evenly matched.
At 8:30 P .M. A very entertain ing program was comm e nced , in
the hall o n the upper floor, a nd the room was packed with an
appreciative audience. The first on the program were a number
or very fine selections on C. J. Winton 's new phonograph. T h is is
the finest in.stn1mcnr. ever heard in th e city and created much
en Lhusiasm . E. M. James fo llowed with a \'ocal solo wh ich was ren-
d e red in his usual p leasing mann e r.
T he feature of the occasion was the sleight-of-h and pe rfor-
mance wh ich was given by Phin eas Pease, oldest son of Rev. Pease,
or this city It was announced that he would amuse those prese n t
for a short time, but none thought it would be more than a n
amateur exhibition of simple tric b. To everybody's surprise, the
young m a n proved to be a wonder in this line. He appeared in
full d ress, was as easy as if in his own home, and the tricks wh ic h
he perform ed, many of them, eq ua l r.o those seen at the O pera
House recently by the famous Ourno. H is part of th e progra m
GREETING THE NEW C1•:NTURY IN WISCONSIN 13

lasted from a h alf to three-quarters of an hour, and has since been


much talke d abo ut by th ose who were present. "Phineas," so we
are told, h as a sp le ndid paraphernalia for giving entertainmen ts
of this kind.
Refreshme nts were served by the Ladies' Auxiliary during th e
afternoon a n d evening.
O wing to th e severity of the weather the attendance at the watch
nigh t servi ces, h e ld in the M[ethodist] E[piscopal] church, was
not as large as expected, but those who did attend fe lt amply re-
paid , lhe church was comfortably warm, the opening service of
song helpful, and the two addresses, "A Review of the Past, " by
Rev. Adam Fawcett, and "The Church of the Coming Century," by
Rev. S. N. \!\Tillson, proved instructive and inspiring. The meeting
and year were close d with prayer. Afi:er hearty new Year's greetings
all separated for th e ir homes.
The Y.l\11. C.A. sent out a New Year's Greeting which was libe rally
distribute d. On the same was the following:
"Am o n g th e good resolutions you may for m at th is season of
the yea r, don't forge t our work for men and b oys. Then during
the year nine teen lnmclrecl and o ne, let us earnestly and con tin-
uously work to co in our resolutions into deeds which shall live for
good. With this thou ght, we wish you a better New Year."
On New Year's evening the Froshin Society gave their ann ual
dancing party whic h was a successful affair in every way. T h e party
took place at Woodrnen 's hall, refreshments being served in the
Liederkranz hall , just opposite . The Froshins never fail of h aving
a good time .
A very e njoyabl e party was given at Asmory Hall, New Year's
evening , by the young people. Not:withstanding the cold weath e r
the parcy was large ly atte nde d.
"tvfiss Imoge n e Harge r gave a large number of her young friends
a most deligh tful sle ig h ride on New Year's evening.
The Record we nt back to the old custom of issuin g an address
on New Year's day.

Kenosha Evening News, .Jmt'uetry 2, 1901

It was a h a ppy N ew Year's day in Kenosha and the new century


was ushered in u nder the most auspicious circumstances. Not-
withstanding th e cold weather great crowds attended the services
in the diffe re nt church es. The two Catholic churches in the city
14 Yesterday's Fulur(!: The Twentieth Cenl'll'I)' Begins

at wh ich midnighL mass was celebrcned, were packed to the doors


wi th devout worsh ipers.
New Year's d ay was generally observed as a holiday. Business
men c losed r.heir stores and e njoyed lh e firsl day of the year wit:h
lheir famil ies a l home.
The day was a gay one for sociely and many young people in
the city kept o pe n house.
The mosl e njoyable social event g iven for the welcome of the
New Year was r.he dancing pany g iven by Mr. and Mrs. F. J. Gott-
fredse n and Ri chard Welles at Central i\llusic f-Iall. The hall never
looked prettier. It was resplendent i 11 deco rations of flags and ban-
ne rs and the stage, on which the musicians sat, was elaboratelv
banked with pah~s. In one corner of the hall a tiny pavilion had
bee n placed, at which punch was served during the evening. Th e
party was one of the largest ever given in the cily, fully two hun-
d red guesls being in attendance. The music was furnished by .Ja-
coby and Co mpton and it was so charm ing thaL nearly every d ance
was e ncored . At midnigh t dainty refreshments were served in the
dining rooms, which 1verc prettily decorated in green and gold.
When the hour of midnight marked the opening of the n ew
century a rollicksome dan ce was in progress, but all the dan cers
stopped long e nough to wish th e ir frie nds a glad and happy New
Year.
fVlany guests fro m other cities attended and the party was o ne
of th e most noted social evenr.s ever give n in Kenosha.
The bac he lor maids- Misses CalixLa English , Loretta Toner,
Cora White, Edna Holderness, Mabel \i\1inclsor, Lotta Hannahs
a nd M.a ri an Hale- made their first bow to Kenosha on Tuesday,
when they were the hostesses at a charming New Year's receptio n
at lhe home or Miss English on Park street. Fifly young men of
Lhe city were invited to partake of the pleasures of the day a nd
the you ng ladies certainly made a brill iant entr y into the social
world of Kenosh a.
In honor of r.he event th e home or Miss English was pretti ly
decorated with Christmas greens. T he din ing room was exceed-
ing ly pretty ; abo ut the sides of the room we re hung festoons of
sm ilax, 1vhil e innumerable bachelor buttons were to be seen ev-
e rywhere. On one side of Lhe table a Chrisunas Lree had been set
up and on it was hung the diffe rcm ravors for the young men.
The favors co nsisted of everything calcu lated to make glad the life
of a bache lor. The table, at which ices we re served during the
afternoon , was done in pink and g reen .
GREETING T l II~ NE\\" CENTU RY IN WlSCONS fN 15

The bachelor maids were assisted in entertaining by Miss Er-


rickson and ~liss Madel ine English, "·hile th e refreshments were
served b)' little ~li sses ~fargaret Eichehnan, Inez ' Yh ice and Laura
v\'i n clso r.
' ew Year's clay was a jolly one at the YM.C.A. building. The
rooms were.: o pen all day lo ng and the bowling alleys, gymnasium
and gam e room had m any guests during the d ay. In th e afte rn oon
Lhe Lad ies' Auxili ary rece ived the young gentlemen of r.h c city in
the parlo rs on ll ie second floor. Lemonade was served a nd a plcm;-
ant time is re p o rte d.
At Cen tntl Music 1lall Tuesday evening occurred Lhe first d ance.:
of th e )'Ca r. It was given under the auspices of the Alncicnt]
O[rd er of] HI ibernia ns] and proved to be a charm ing even t. The

\\'I h ( \\'(jf~t11~•6

"Nno }'mr'.,· rlay was a joll)' one at the Y. 1W.C.A. bui/di11g"


i 11 Kenosha, /Jictured here in I 898.
16 Yesterday's Futum: The Twentieth Cent11.1y Begins

music was ii.1rnished by CompLOn 's o rc hestra. A large crowd was


in attend a n ce a nd it was early morn ing before the strains o f
"T-forne, Sweet Home" marked the close of the firs t dance of 1901.
Another or the p leasan t even ts of New Year's day was the card
parLy g iven by Miss Ada Thom as at he r home on Milwaukee ave-
nue New Year's evening . Th e house was prettily d ecorated fo r Lh e
pa rty and fifty fr iends of lVfos T h o mas e njoyed the even ing with
h e r. C inch was the am usemen t for th e eveni ng and dainty prizes
were g iven . At midnight the g u ests were sen ·ed with daimy re-
freshm e n ts.
T h e Uniform Rank K[ nig lus] of P[yr.hias] , entertai n ed a la rge
numbe r of th ei r friends at a danc ing party at Simmons' l-lall o n
Tuesday evening to welcome th e ope ning of the new century. T h e
d a nce was a most enjoyable even t. Th e large hall n ever looke d
prettier. It was decorated with ;,1 wea lth of flags and p alms and th e
e m b le m s of the order were to be seen on all sides. Fully on e hun-
dred cou p les attended a n d e r~ j oyed th e hospitality o r t h e Knigh ts
duri ng th e eve ning. The rnusic was furnish ed byJ acoby's o rch estra
a nd dancing continu ed unti l early morn ing. There were many
guests prese n t from Other citi es LO partake of the pl easures or the
eve n in g .

Sheboygan Telegram, Jan uary 2, 190 1

Sh eboygan gave a hearty we lcome t.o the incoming new yea r a nd


n ew cen tury that was not less demonstrative than that or the larger
citi es wh e n population and opportnn ities are considered . Be lls
we re r u ng, fire arms disch a rged a nd olher m eans e mpl oyed to
increase the d in which is supposed LO b e the requisite concomita nt
o r a reception to a n ew year, to say nothing of a n ew century. So
far as S he boygan was conce rne d, h owe\·er, there was not an excess
o r this sort of thing . Th e whistl e blowing an d bell ringing we re of
sh o rt d uration, there b e in g just about e nough of each Lo sh ow
tha t th e occasion was pro pe rly a pprecia ted . The d ischarg ing o f
firearms was somewhat sporadic, on ly a comparatively few appar-
e ntly fee li ng th at the duty of we lcom ing the new century rea lly
requi red th at sorr of thing. llis qu ite li kely th a t a ver y consid e ra ble
proportion of the population slept the old year out a n d th e new
year in.
ln Sh eboygan the onl y fo rma l observances were at several o f
th e church es. At the Methodist Ep iscopal church th e services we re
G REETJ NG THE NJ:: W C ENTU RY IN W ISCO NS I N 17

very inte resting, embracing addresses by pasto rs on de nomina-


tional progress, w;th sociability and the customa ry wa tch services.
Midnigh t masses were celebrated at the Ca tho li c churc hes in ac-
cordan ce with the decree of the pope, the mass al Holy Name
church being followed by adoration lasting until noon yesterday.
·watch se rvices were also held at the First Baptist and th e German
Methodist churches. AH of these services we re well attended and
\.Vere doubtless profitable to the attendants.
Quite a n umber remained up celebrating th e occasion in a way
tha t was pe rh a ps anything but profitable to the mselves. Many oth-
ers j olli ed along until the stroke oft.he midnigh t hour, when th ey
resolved to turn over a new leaf in the year to come. Both of these
classes of celebrants will be the b e tte r pleased the least is said of
their obse r van ces. It may be rema rked, howeve r, th a t resolutions
take n u nde r such circumstances are gen e rally short lived and have
on ly th e advantage of being suitable for use again a year after....

Churches Celebrate the New Century


Man)' Ca th o lics and Protestants obse rved the turn or the cen tur y by
attendin g religious se rvices. The fol lowing account.~ o r an Episcopa l
service in O conomowoc, a Baptist servi ce in Apple ton , and an
intc rd c11ominatio11al service in Oshkosh ca pture som t: or the ways that
Protestan ts marked the ce ntury's end as a time (()r spiritual re flec t.ion
a nd cele bra tion.

(Oconornowoc) Zion Parish PafJei; Febmary, 1901.

The mid night service New Year's Eve was a wo nderful success in
poin t o f numbers a nd interest. It began aL 11 o'clock with the
processio nal hymn , "A Few More Years Shall Roll ," proceeding as
far as Lh e Praye r of Humble Access, whe n a pause was made for
sile nt prayer, broken by the singing of a few of the old familiar
hym ns, such as "Rock of Ages, " "Neare r My Cod to Thee" and
"Days a nd Moments Swiftly Flying. " Precisely a t 12 the rector, ris-
ing first fro m his knees, opened the sou th sanctuar y window just
as the bell in Lhe big clock on the town towe r began to strike the
last Lwelve strokes of the old century. Outside the moon shone
bright upon the lake locked in ice, across which Lhrough the clear,
crisp air 1.haL marked ten degrees below ze ro, th e solemn tones
bore in upon the kneeling congregation. l t was a solemn
moment-<1hush and a pause that was truly drama tic. Turning to
his people the rector gave the New Year greeting and immediately
18 Yesterday's Fut u rr~: The Twen tielh Cenlt11)' Begins

the century old bell in Zion to\.ver rang oul the old and in the new
wiLh a voice of cheer that met a glad response in eve ry expectanl
heart. Then choir and congregation broke forth '"'ith rJ1e Doxol-
ogy as th ey never sa ng it before and perhaps never will again this
sid e of Eternity. Then fo llowed the glad Tc Deum by all the people
as wel l as choir. After th is th e rector proceeded w·ith the Com-
mun ion sen.ice, the entire congregation that fi lled the church
re rnai n i ng throughout. By actual coun L, ninety-th ree persons corn-
rn un icatccl, nearly two-thirds of the whole number e nrolled. Con-
sidering the midnigh t hour, the lirsl inlc nse cold weather, and th e
fact that a ll were residents th e year round , it was a remarkable
manireswcion of interest. On e d evoled Churchwoman, who is 86
years o ld , was presen t at the sacram e nt.
T he service was beautifully primed on heavy white paper with
appropriate frontisp iece "Special Se rvices in Zion Church , Ocon-
omowoc, Wisconsin. " "The End or· the Nineteenth Cen tury a nd
th e Beginn ing of the Twentieth Cen tu ry. " T he main portion of
this order of service was the same as that used in St. J a mes'
Chu rch, Chicago, wh ose rector, Rev. Dr. Ston e, kindly offered the
"form " Lo Zion Church , the rector's broth e r, Mr. T. NI. Garrett, of
Chicago, cheerfully bearing th e expe nse or extra copy and a ll the
work for our parish. An in teresting feature of this souven ir was
the page headed "Historic No tes," giving in paragraphs the prin-
cipal eve nts in the life of the parish from the first services in l841
to the Consecration of the church in 1900. The names in full we re
give n o f a ll o!Ticers of the parish , guilds, teachers of rJ1e Sunday
schoo l and members of the choir. A page was also devoted Lo a
list of all the former rectors with dates of incum bency. T his pam-
phlet wi ll be treasured in archives and referred to a hundred years
he nce when perhaps the same service wi ll be said in Zion Church .
A copy has been place d in the libra ry of the 'Wisconsin State His-
torical Society an d also in the Chicago H istorical Society. Descen-
da nts of all present that n igh t will re hearse with pride Lhe fact that
the ir ancesi:ors at.tended that midnight service .

A /1/Jlt~ton Crescent, Janum)' 4, 190 I

The watch-n igh L services he ld New Year's eve a t the Baptist church
by the Young People's Local Un ion was largely attended, the
church be ing fill e d to its ullnost capac ity. A devo tional service was
GREET ING THE NEW CENTURY I N WIS CONSIN 19

led by th e Rev. Ray C. Harker, the Rev. F. T. Rouse spoke interest-


ingly on 'The Promise of the Century," a musical and literary
program was presented, and a very enjoyable soc ial, with an apple
feast followed. Two minutes before the midnight hour the con-
gregation bowed in silent prayer, and as the hour struck and the
new cen tury dawned, the bells rang ou t, all voices were lifted in a
song o[ praise, and after a short season of exchanging greetings
the meeting adjourned.
The coming of the new century was also greeted by many pri-
vate wa tch-night parties, and judging by the demonsu-ations many
persons were awake to greet it. The night was a most beautiful
one , cold and still, with a glorious moon bathing all in a flood of
sofr white light almost as bright as day. v\lh e n the midnight hour
struck, all the bells in the city pealed out joyfully, many whistles
joined in, guns and anvils were fired , and for five minutes there
was no lack or a 'joyful noise." Soon , howeve r, the watchers dis-
persed to their homes, and the city again rested silently in the
white light of the moon.

Oshlwsh Daily Northwestern, January 2, 1901

The pastors of the First Baptist, First Presbyterian, Plymouth Con-


gregational a nd First M[ethodist) E[piscopal] churches of this city
hit upon a h appy scheme when tl1ey a rra nged a watch-night ser-
vice for the purpose of greeting the new year and century with
prope r religious zeal. The service t-ifonday eve ning was one of
much inte rest and tl1e attendance was ve r y la rge, ta,-xing the ca-
paciL)' of the church. The ch1·istian people of these four congre-
gatjons and other friends were d esirous of having some place
whe re they might watch the old year out a nd the new century in
and they gladly accepted the invitation to a tte nd the services at
the First Baptist church. Old and young we re present.
The l:our pastors each conducted a portion of the service for
an hour. Rev. S. H. Anderson of the First M. E. church addressed
the gathe ring on the su~ject of "Watching Before God." Rev.
George E. Farnam of the Plymouth Congregational church spoke
on the subject of "The Enduement of the Spi ri t." Rev. G. D. Lind-
say of' th e First Presbyterian church spoke on the subject of 'The
Leading of tl1e Spirit," and Dr. James P. Ab boll closed the evening
with th e subject of "Consecration of th e Spirit." The pastors all
20 Yeslenla)' 's Futu re: The Tw1mtieth Ce11l 1t1)' Begins

Ste ve ns Po in t
.Jou rna I, ] anucl'1)12,
1901.

spoke of the spontaneous desire they had to ho ld the ser vices and
they considered the occasion one of mornen t to eve r y person pres-
e m. Th ey though t much good would co me Lo the service and that
many persons would as a resulc start the new year a nd cen tury
wi th re newed in terest and a new faith in God . T he services in-
cluded the singing of hymns by the entire congregation. At e ight
o'clock the se rvices began and it was shortly after 1nidn ight wh e n
the gathe ring was dism issed.

I11 lkcc rn bc r. 1900 Po pe Leo X111 issued cl irec:1io ns to Ca1h n lic


p ri ests a rnu11d th e wo rld specifying the com luc l o r m id n ig h t masses
for New Year's Eve . In th e follo wing circ ular le tte r se nt to th e pa r ish
pricsls in h is d iocese, Bishop Se bastia n (;. Messme r o r C r <:cn Bay
expla i11s the procedures !or v\'isconsin Cath o lic: c h urc hes
cele bra ting masses on Decembe r 31, 1900.
GREET I NG Tilt:: i':EW CENTURY IN \\"ISC:O:-./Sli': 21

Milwaulu-!e Catholic Citizen, De1:ember 29, 1900

... Revere nd Dear Sir: Last year Our Holy Fath e r granted special
privileges Cor the midnight h our of the 31st of Decem ber, 1899
and 1900. These privileges a re the solem n exposition of the
Blessed Sacrament, a h igh or low mass coram sso. an d h oly com-
munion. The exposition and commun ion may take place, even if
mass be not said. These p rivileges are again allowed in our par-
ish es under the same conditions which we made in our circular
o r Dec. 15, I 899. By a recent d ecree or th e Sacred Congregation
o f Indulgences the Holy Father allows a solemn exposition of the
Blessed Sacrament from 12 o'clock p.m. (m id-night) to 12 o ' clock
m. (noo n ) ofJanuary 1, 1901, and g rants a plenary in dulgen ce to
a ll th e f'aithfu l, wh o h aving received th e holy sacraments of con-
fession and coIT1munion shall, during those twelve hours, spend
one hour before th e Blessed Sacrame nt exposed a n d there pray
for the intentions of the Holy Fath er. The Sacred Congregation
leavc;s it Lo the bishops to determine how long, in th e ir dioceses,
this solemn exposition shall last. H e nce we ordain h e reby, that it
sha ll take place from 12 p.m. to l o'clock a.m. where r.he pastor
co 11siclc rs it advisable, and fro m 6 o'clock a.m. to 12 m. wherever
this can be conveniently don e : but in any case th e re shall be at
least o n e f"ull hour's exposition wh e rever th e priest will celebrate
that day be it at home or in th e mission or in bo th p laces. Thus
the people will be giYen th e opportun ity n eeded of gaini ng the
above indulgence. Desirous of h a\"ing a ll the faithful of our dio-
cese join in this great centenary clerntion to Our Divine Lord and
partake of the spiritual favors extended by Our Holy Father, we
hereby g ra nt to all our priests, h aving fac ulties to h ear confessions,
th e power of absolvin g from a ll cases reserved to o u rselves; this
con cessio n to hold from this date until n ext New Year's Day inclu-
sive. We ordain moreover th at in thanksgiving for th e divine bless-
ings bestowed on mankin d during this ending century the hymn
"Tc Dcum '' o r some othe r corresponding and appropriate hymn
be sung before the midnigh t rnass, and that before the benedic-
tion with th e Blessed Sacrament after the mass, the Litany of the
Holy i\ame o f Jesus be su ng or publically recited , in recognition
or the supreme reign of Our Lord .Jesus Christ and o f our sah"ation
in his l !oh· Name ....
Again l beg you to earnestly admonish rour flock of their clucy
to cond uct themselves in a trulr Christian manner on th ese holy
22 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth CP11t111)' BPgins

and extrao rdina ry occasions, a nd to avoid mosl scr up11 lo11sly ev-
e rythi ng un becomi ng or giving rise to scandal. Lcl the m be "ho ly
nig hts. " ...

;-!c11· Year's E1·c midnight masses anrac tecl enthusia,tic crowds that
numbered in the th ousands. The follo11·ing fll'O aniclC's published in the
1\ lit111(111/wl' Catholir Citi:e11 offer different assessments of tlw behavior of'
the men and women who auended these services.

M.ilwrmkee Catholic Citizen, .Janu.ary 5, 1901

The pastors in al l the local Catholic churches who had services at


midnigh t New Year's eve, we re agreeably su rprised a t. the large
attendance a nd the good o rder and spirit or clcvolio n wh ich
in arke d the large congregalions. At St.John 's cathe d ral po n tifical
high mass was sung by Archbishop Katzer a t mid night. The ch urch
was crowded o u t imo Lhe lobby, the aisles being filled with people.
I lalf a n hour before rhe services began the church was !illed and
rarely has so large a cong regation been seen al the cathedral. The
sen·ices were \"ery imprc sive and Father McDcnnoll de livered an
e loq ue nt sermon . Fully a thousand persons received communion
New Year's clay.
At the Gesu church fully two thousand people fi lled Lhc seats and
crowded the aisles of the vast edifice a t the New Year's mid nigh t
mass. Father Rosswinkcl ce lebrated the m ass and de livcrccl a short
New Year's g reeting. Th e church was brillian tly illuminated.
All of' the olhe r churches were crowded a t midnight mass.

Mi lwaulll't! Catlwlit Citizen, jruntll1)' 5, 1901

In a ll 01 1r great cities, more p eople were awake a nd moving a t


niid night, Dec. 31, 1900, than ever before. The midnig h t masses
drew the masses. Wh ile th e re was much to edify in the devo tion
o f' th ese g reat crnwcls wh ich packed our churches, the re was
e no ugh, LO che o bservation of the o nlooker in th e rea r or th e
pews, to justify the rel uctance of our pastors as towards the prop-
osition or making the midnight mass an annual feature. Once per
century will do.

Perhaps the most unusual religious obsen-ance inspin:d br the coming


or the 11c11· century was a gathering in Chicago described bdow. Tht·
c1•cn t di cited commen ts from se1·eral 'Wisconsin p ap ers.
GRE ET I NG THE NF.W CENTU RY I N WI SCONSI N 23

(/anesvilLe) Daily Gazelle, Der:ember 27, 1900


Thirty-six persons from various parts of the United States who
allege that by recent sign they have been led to believe that Lhe
second com ing of Christ is at hand are assembling in convention
here, watching, worship ing and praying that they may be in read-
iness to receive the robes of' im mortality. They are lo re main in
session until January 3 by whi ch time they claim they ex pec t to
be ho ld the object of the ir vigils.
Menasha Evening Breeze, December 28, 1900
A numbe r or men have assembled at Chicago to await the seco nd
coming of Christ. They believe the time is near at hand. W h y they
have selected Chicago as the p lace a t which He will make the first
stop is a myster y. The scriptures do noL even mention Ch icago,
and iL has no resemblan ce to the new.Jerusalem.
Marking the Beginning of a New Century
In ad di tion to attending church sc: r viccs, Wisco11sin reside nts sough 1 10
find uni<iue ways to mark che heginning of the new century, wh ii<' 1hc:
ed ito rs of the state's nc1,·spap ers so ug h1 to make the story of th e n ew
ccnwry vi1·id and imeresting for th e ir readers. Among th ose trring to
find new ways of celebrating were a gro up or yo ung men in Appleton
who revived an old custom.

AjJpleton Daily Post, janucny 2, J 9() I


Afte r ten or fifteen years or more of slumber, the good old custom
of making New Year's calls was revived yesterday, and will probably
h e reafter be a perman e nt feature of New Year's day. Some of th e
lad ies did not arran ge to receive in Lime to let it be thoroughly
known a nd calle rs were less numerous than they would otherwise
have bee n, but as it was foll many a man was ,,;elcomed, fed a nd
sen L on his way rejoi cing .. ..
One party of te n young men, wearing silk hat<> and huge chry-
san themums, mounted upon the Lop of a tally-ho improvised rrom
a hote l omnibus drawn by fou r horses, attracted great atte ntion
as they toured the town, with windi ng of horn and their New Year's
salu te :
H a ppy, happy, happy,
H a ppy e ve r be,
Happy, happy, happy,
Happy ccnturiee .
24 Yesterday's Fu.lure: The Twentieth Cenlw)' Begins

At each house where this ta.lly-ho stopped a card was left heade d
"The Charge of the Light (because e mpty) Brigade . We have five
minutes here for refreshments." Then came a pen a nd ink d nrw-
ing of Lhe tally-ho in full caree r, and finally the names of the call-
e rs, as follows: Charles Butterfly Boyd, Paul Van Eater Cary, Walter
Lightfoot Conkey, Charles "Skat" Dickinson ,.Julian Skyscrape r Ea-
ton , William Hal fgrown Holcomb, Edward Prevaricato r H um-
phrey, T homas \ 1Vhirlwind Orbison , John Stevens, j (oke) r, O liver
Cooledclown Smith.

An O shkosh couple marked Lhe arr ival of the r.wentie th cen tur y by
ho lding a New Year's Fvc parry wirh a surprise conclusion. T he R<:v. C. E.
Fa rn a m who atte nded the ga the ring was the same minister who had
de live red a se rmon earlier in th (.; ev(.; ning at the four-church
ime rdenominational service describ(.;d on pages 19- 20.

Wl l i ( ll~S H :;

A house pcnty in Stwgeon Bay, January 20, 1901.


GRl·:ET JN G THF. NEW CENTU l{Y IN vVISCO NSIN 25

Menasha Evening Breeze, January 3, 1901

Mr. Ell is Roberts and Miss Margaret E. Fulley were unite d in mar-
riage at the home of Lhc bride's parents, Mr. and Mrs. T. E. Fu lley,
29 Wright street, shortly afte r midn ight of New Year's morning,
Rev. G. E. Farnam of Lhe Plymouth Congregation a l c hurch per-
forming the ceremony.
This simple announce ment, however, does not te ll of the sur-
prise given the friends of Lhe contracting parties, wh o had gath-
ered in response to the following in nocent appearing invitation:
'The Misses Fulley request your presence at the end of the cen-
tury hours, 9:30 to 2 A . M."
Some th irty persons responded to this invitation and during all
the early hours of New Year's eve, games and various parlor amuse-
ments were enjoyed by the young people. Betwee n the hours of
twe lve and one o 'clock, however, the bride to be qu ie tly slipped
away from the gathering, re paired to her chambe r and donned
he r wedding dress. The dining room was then thrown open to the
guests, who, though evide ntly surprised at the evide nces for an
e laborate repast, said nothing bu t took the places assigned. As
the y all stood at th eir cha irs they bowed their heads as Rev. Mr.
Farnam was apparently about to invoke the blessing. At this j unc-
ture Mr. Ro berts and h is bride to be, all unnoticed , took their
positions a t th e table, which was but a step from Lhe c hamber door
be hind which they had been concealed. The minisLe r 's beneclic-
Lio n commenced to sound oddly to the guests and one by one
heads were raised and t.he trul11 dawned on the m Lha t they were
witn essing a marriage. Th e affa ir was a comple te surprise to all
save the immediate relatives of the contracting pa rties. T he wed-
d ing breakfast was a very e laborate affair, the Lab le be ing trimmed
with roses and carn ations.
The b ride is the elder daughter of Mr. and Mrs. T. E. Fulley,
respected residents of Osh kosh. The groom is the only son of Mr.
a nd Mrs. J. E. Roberts, 77 Polk street. He is in the e mploy of th e
Globe Printing company.
Yo ung john Hood of Racine indulged in a relaLive l~· n e\\' hobbr o n Ne"·
Yt.:ar's E\·e . U nformnately, n o image acco mpanied th e n ews sLo r v.

Racin e Dai~v jO'urnaL, January 3, 1901

.John Hood, a ·west. Side boy, is rapidly rising Lo the top of th e


ladder as a ph otographer of views, both in and outside of homes
26 Yesterday's Futu re: The TwentiPth Ce11 tu1)' Begins

a nd o the r buildings. l\ilr. H ood has the distin c tio n o r raking the
o n ly photograph at the minu te and hour that th e o ld year die d
a nd Lh e Twe m ie th century came in. It was taken in the towe r of
St. Luke's ch urch and is a p ic ture of George Shurr manipula ting
Lh e keys or th e ch im e of bells th at rang out the o ld an d we lcomed
th e new. The ph otograph was taken by a fl ash ligh t an d Mr. H ood
believes it will develop into a g ood one a nd he wi ll n ame it: "St.
L u ke's C h im es T wen tieth Cen tury Pho tograph .''

While th e new ce ntu ry inspired j o hn H ood to capture tht· 1110 11w 11t wi th
phot.ogra ph)'· Lhe e xr.i1c·m c nt o r the new century lt:d.Jo hn LtJe11is, ;i
ruurt h-grade s1.ude111. at· wh;1r is n ow Martin Luth er King Jr. Scltool in
tvf ilwaukce, Lo wrile a poem.

(i'vf ilwaukee) Excel.sio1; January, 190 I

The twen tieth cen tury has begun,


Wi Lh the year of 190 I.
\\'e begin the year in school,
Till J une when \\'C arc free fro m ru le.
T hen comes .July the Fourth ,
An cl Th a nksgh~ n g Day, of course,
No11• comes Christmas "~th San ta Claus.
Ancl the n-a little pause,
And the Ne w Yea r is here.

J o hn Ru pplc decided lO mar k th e n ew cencmy by gathe:: r ing p kd gcs to


close o n Sundays from bu~ i ncsses a nd saloons in the rural Outagam ie
Coun ty co1111111111iLit:s o f Medina and Dale.

D alf' Rr1 cordm; .January 5, I 901

Sin ce the Gregorian ca le nda r was adopted by m a n kind the cuswm


o f fo rmi ng n ew resolutio n s on the fi rst of the yea r h as been in
vog11e, an d with th e dawn of a new yea r and a n e w cc nLury m a ny
or o ur citizens were busy a t this work.
"My last cig ar" o r "my last drink" was heard o n eve ry side . But
the re was o n e resolutio n m ad e which did n o t pertai n to "swearin g
off' fro m e ith e1· of th ese babies. Ics ke)TIOte is Reform and it "'as
made by Mr . .John Rupp le o f Medina. H e resolYecl Lo b ring abou t
th e closin g o f the saloon and that of th e stores a n d oth e r places
of business, o n the Sabbath Day, as is required by the laws of Wis-
con sin. Acco rdingly, brig ht and early New Year 's m o rn ing Mr.
GREETING THE NEW CENTURY IN W IS CONS IN '2.7

Rupp le started on his canvass of the saloons and stores in l'vledina


and he re. From all he exacted a promise to close the ir places of
business. Th e me rchants gave theirs cheerfully, as it will give them
a chance to e njoy a day of' rest in the fami ly circle and thus e nable
them to become be tte r acquainted whh their fa mily. Th e saloon-
keepers altho ugh not ove r anxious to suspend business on Sunday,
their greatest business day, may after all comply with the wish of
the com munity. 'They will eith er close willingly or be compelled
to b)' process of law, but close they must" Mr. Rupple is quot.eel as
saying. We doubt the necessity of compulsion and rath e r th ink al l
will close of their own accord.
As a resul1 of M.r. Rupple's call on the Wason Bros., a card in
their window announces that the store will be closed Sundays ex-
cept during the hours of 8 to 9:30 in th e morning a nd from 4 to
5:15 in the afte rnoon ; for th e receiving and distribution of rnail-
ma tte r. T he other m erchants and saloon-keepers wh o have signi-
fi ed their in tention [to remain] closed are:

\\'lfo\".!~ l l 'l50

j ohn R:upple o,/Medina wanted saloons, such as this 011.r> in lurn-ofllte-


centw)' !3tru:ll Hiver Falls, to close on Sunda;•s in thr> n ew {.'enl'1 t 1)'·
28 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth CN1t111y RPgins

R. W. Somm er, Gen era l merchandise.


Drews & Bullinge r, Gene ral merchandise.
£. D. Bacon , General me rchandise.
Fre d .J ung man , Sa loon.
T. D. Hall , Druggist.
Wm. 11. H euer, Fur niture.
G. r\. Bock, Hardware. (has always closed)
F. Saenger, Barber. (1/2 day from noon. )
Mr. Weiher it is said wi ll close h is saloon if the othe rs clo .
'v\lis('onsin 's high society t0ok th e arrival of the n ew centUI')' ;1s an
nppnr11111 i1.y 10 host !:w ish pa rties, such as this elaborate 111ilit<1ry hall
licld in Man iwwoc on New Year 's Eve.

Manitowoc Dail)' ffemld, Januruy 2, 1901

If all the world loves a lover, eve ry woman loves a so ldie r. The
picture of' beaut'}' leaning upon chivalry and su·ength has fou nd a
warm response in the h uman heart since time was. There is some-
th ing in a soldier 's unifo rm that is too attractiw· for "·oinan to
resist a nd she would rath er dance \\·ith a lan ce co rpo ral with a
single chevron, than 10 lead the grand march with a chief' exec-
utive a t the na Liona l in augural ball. Thus it is th a1 the an nua l
military ball is ever a n event o f social promine nce i11 Man itowoc
and whi le in oLher years 1he function has consu111ma1ccl a fl a tter-
ing success, never bas it ach ieved the gTandeur or the year of 1900.
Monday eveni ng witn essed th e th ird annu al of Co. 11., Second
Regt. W[isconsin] 1 [a tional] G [u ard] at Turne r ha ll a nd elabo-
rate preparatfons for the evem \.Vhich voice d happy an ticipations
proved to be a sure prophecy of the reality as it was revea led in
the attendance a nd in the unaffected pleasure of th e occasion.
fu lly 175 couples yie lded to the attraction of Te rpischorc, whose
wa nd was waved by Bieling's orchestra in a most de lightful pro-
gram o f insp iring music. T he scene presented was anisti c bea uty,
th e d ecoration of the ha ll being a fea ture of the eve ning tin t
aroused the admiration of all. The red, white an cl blue consti tu ted
th e colo r scheme in effect and in th e history of local society affairs
th e elegance and beauC)' of the decoration has ne,·cr been
('qualed. The stage was draped in large flags, affording a screen
which hid from \'iew the forbidding aspect of th e scen er y and
throughou t the ha ll the bare walls were transforrne cl to a \'iew
p leasing to the eye. The supponing pillars to the gc-tl lcry in a cov-
e riug of wh ite found a graceful beauty in the crea tive ness of the
GREETI NG T H E NEW CENTURY IN WISCONSIN 29

decorator 's a rt, shields of various colored pape r be ing attached.


Miniature umbrellas of red, white and blue, suspended from , and
ladders of small patterns in the same colors, leading to the ce iling
gave rhe firiishing touches to a n artistic sce ne. Th e e lectrical dis-
play was o n a more extensive p lan than ever atte mpted and was
the crown ing success of Lhe evening"s charm, e xtending a bright-
ness Lo the lavish decorations. A large shie ld or lights fitted in
colored globes of national colors, occupied a se tting at the en-
trance of the hall, a star in similar arrange me n t ce nte red in the
ce iling and on the stage a collection of incandesce nt lamps form-
ing the figures 1900, cast a mellowed light tha t re fl ecte d the great-
est happin ess of the participant.5.
1l was shortly before 10 o'clock when the first number on the
program was calle d and the zest with whi ch th e participants en-
te red into the e rtjoyment forecast the most pleasant sociability.
Specia l music had been prepared and unde r th e d irection of Prof.
Geo rge Urban , the musicians rendere d the se lectio ns in a manner
tha t was highly appreciable and happy. At 12 o' clock supper was
served in the basement and here the decoration sch e me was also
carried o ut. The spread was of excellent viands a nd was served by
Caterer Hober t and assistants in the usual complete manner.
Dan cing was again resumed and u ntil tl1e sun's rays peeped in at
the east wi ndows, t.he revelry of the night con tin ued. With the
toll ing of the midnight hour, denoting the bi rth of the New Year,
a nd ce ntury, pandemonium broke loose a nd the informality
which characterized the entire party gave license Lo hilari ty tl1at
was marke d for many minutes. University st.ude nls home fo r the
ho lidays and present at the ball , made the welki n ring, others
add ing vo ice to the din and greeting the new cycle of time with
pron oun ced acclaim. The bugle blowecl taps LO th e de parting year
and a welcoming reveille to the new.
The asse mblage was or gaiety and youth a nd th e credit fo r the
dressin ess of the party belongs to the ladies, all of whom wore
handso me gowns that gave the spectato r a pleasure in vi ewing the
sce ne as they circled about the h all, the colors ble nding like un to
a gorgeous a nd ever changing rainbow. To Se rgL. F. J. Trost is d ue
the success of the affair in th e artjstic a nd beautiful decorations
a nd this was a ttested in the many complimen ts showered upon
h im. The comm ittee on arrangemen t consisti ng o f Capt. Knud-
son , Li euL. Stahl, Se rgts. Mahnke and Ohcle and Privates Mueller
a nd Hage n had performed their work in conscie n tious and d e-
tai led precision and fulfi!Jed the p u1-poses or the ir oilice.
30 Yesterda_v 's Future: The Twentieth Centw)' Begins

As a spectacle the military ball was an undoubted success and


as a social event it takes its place with th e notable occasions of the
lasl year of the century and stands among th e banner events of
Ma nitowoc's social life ....

T he we ll-w -do could also celebrate with a fan cy meal, sllch as this grand
banque l offered by the Hotel EnglebrigliL in Ripon.

Rij;on Advance Press, January 3, 1901

Including the dancing party suppe r guests, two hundred and


th irty-five persons were served at H otel Engle bright on New Year's
day. The dinner menu follows:

Caviar-Tartines.
Baltimore Oysters.
Celery.
Chicken, Gumbo. Consomrne, Barigoule.
Sliced Cucumben;. Lettuce . Olives.
Broiled Columbia Rive r Salmon, Maitre d 'H otel.
Potatoes, Rietz.
Scallops, Saute a'la Puree-Verte.
Larded Fillet ot' Beef, Mushrooms.
Diamond Back Terrapi n , Maryland Style.
Prime Roast Beef, atural.
Mashed Potatoes. String Beans.
Roast Suckling Pig, Fried Apples.
Asparagus on Toast. Green Peas.
Roast Young Turkey, Cranberry Sauce.
Cardinal Punch .
Braised l\fallard Duck, Chasseur.
Boned Capon en Aspic. Crab Salad.
English Plum Pudding, Brandy Sauce.
Horne Made Mince Pie. Lemon Meringue Pie.
Strawberry Ice Cream. Wine Jelly.
Fancy Assorted Cake. Mixed Nuts.
Oranges. Grapes.
Bananas. Ap ples.
Cheese: Am e ri ca n. Edam.
Water Crackers.
Tea. Coffee. Milk.
G REETI NG T H E NH \" CENTUR Y I N \ \. ISCO NSI N 31

\1'l l i ( X ~)f>2! :H

The H otel Fnglebright, RijJOn, abo-u.t. 1915,


site of a lavish new r.entwy f east.

Newspapers sought to d evelop in novative stories to lap the ir read e rs'


i11tc1·cst in lhe new century. T he two pieces below detai.1 a contest
launche d by the SufJi:rior Even:inp; 'fid1~gm:111. tha t laste d for al most three
wc<·ks into the new cen tu r)'. The name selected by Johnson's labo r un io n
was in ho no r of George ,.v. Childs. wh nst: dnn a tio n of ten tJ10usancl
d o lla rs he lpe d establish a ho me in Colo rado Springs for re lired
ni t: mhc rs of the t)l) ographical u n io n.

SufJerior /;ven:ing Tel.egra m, Jmwai)' 2, 1901

'Wh a t Sh all \Ve Name C entury's First Baby?


vV. H. J o h nson of 1227 John ave nue propou nds this questio n
to a ll Superior iLes. Mr. Joh nson, .Jr., is th e first twentielh cen tury
baby to arrive in this city, having been born just afLer miclni.ght
New Year's morning.
JVlr. J o h nson is foreman of Lhc l~mming Telegram and if th e reade r
sho uld no tice any mistakes th is eve ning he will of course overlook
32 Yesterda)"s F'uture: The Twen liel!i CPnlu1y Begins

Lhe m. As the firsr twentieth century baby to a rrive in the city the
maner oLrn appropriate name is not to b e lightly Lhought of. The
proble m of an appropriate name was laid before the Evening Tele-
gram by Mr. Johnson and with his conse nt it passes the question
to th e whole ciLy.
The name must fit the boy and the occasion. Possibly some
already established cognomen will be found which suits the case
at hand or it may be th.al someone will make a nam e that will be
just rigbl.
Th e .l~vening Telegram will receive all suggestions a nd it hopes that
there wil l be thousands of them. Address all suggestions: A Name
For The Boy. Care Evening Telegram, West Supe rim, Wisconsi n.
In t-.1linn eapolis the first baby of th e twenti eth centu ry was a girl
and th e 1\!{inneajJolis.fournal has likewise unde rtaken to name it.

SufJerior Evening Telegram, January 19, 1901

The first baby born in Superior this century will bear the name
Childs Alpha .Johnson. This has been decided upo n by i\fr. and
Mrs. W. I-I.Johnson after a good deal of deliberation. Ch ilds is the
n ame se lected by the Trades and Labor Assembly and was im-
m ediate ly agreed to by Mr. Johnson. Alpha was lh e most popular
among the names sent in to the livening Telegram office and is
consicle red ve ry appropriate, the first lett~r in th e Greek alphabet
and in English means the beginning.
The christen ing will be public, at St. AJbans church , but it has
nol b een d ecided just when it will take place . Mrs. Johnson is in
poor h eallh a t present and the date of th e c hristen ing will depend
on h er recovery.
Baby Lundeen , down in Minneapolis, will go through life with
the n ame AJpha Twencentia Minn ea Lundee n. T his makes a com-
binati o n which covers all the features in th e case. Alpha, the be-
ginning, T"'ve nccntia, the Twentieth ce n tury, ancl M innea an ab-
breviation for Minn eapolis.

Several v\lisconsin newspapers ran new-century reature swri es in which


LhC)' interviewed local people who had been born in Llw c ightccmh
ccn 1.1 1r)'. 111 the (cillowing example, a reporter rro rn I.ht: Oail)' Northwestern
visite d one-hundred-year old Betsy Hasbrouck of Oshkosh .
GREETING THE NEW CENTURY I N WISCONS I N 33

Oshlwsh Daily Northwestern, January 5, 190 I

Born in Lhe lasl year of the e ightee1uh cenlury and still living in
this th e open ing week of the Twen lie th century, .Mrs. Betsy Has-
brouck who lives with her son, Matt Hasbrouck, on Ninth street,
cla ims lhe distinction of h aving lived in lhree cen turies.
"I don't feel any older than I did twe n ty years ago," said Mrs.
Hasbrouck, on New Year's day, wh en a Northwestern reporter called
to pay his respeclS to th e m ost remarkable woman in the city on
that day.
"!fl cou ld only see," said Mrs. Hasbrouck, "I would be perfectly
happy. Of course I can see the shadow or m y hand as it passes
b efo re my eyes and I can see the light from the windows, but I
can't see faces nor tell who people are who call on me."
Mrs. [-Iasbrouck speaks e n r.ertain ingly on n early all subjects. She
is happy to have lived to see the birth of a new century, and it is
safr to say she was the proudest woman in Oshkosh on New Year's
day. That her mind is perfectly active is evidenced by the ease with
whi ch she converses o n vario us sul~j ects. "If 1 could only fo rget
some of the things that happened Jong ago," she said, "I might
remember things that h appened a rnonLh ago better than I d o. I
keep a-Lhinking of the o ld, o ld times, and when I try to remember
things much more important that occurred a sh ort time ago l
can not. "
On Lhe 20th of February, M rs. H asbrou ck wi ll be LO I years of
age. A year ago she celebrated her hundredth birthday an n iver-
sary and received callers all day long. She occupied a chair like a
quee n on h er throne and spoke and shook hands with her callers,
who came in large numbers. It would have tjred an ordinary per-
son completely out, bul Mrs. Hasbrouck said she was "as good as
new" th e next day.
Th is indicates that she does not fret or worry about the con-
cerns of life the way some women do. lt is one of the secrets of
her longevity. She says also th at she never took medicine to any
extent a nd n ever drank strong tea o r coffee. She is in excellent
health , has no aches or pains, and the mach inery of h er life seems
lO be capable of several more years of wear. She takes a little ex-
ercise each day and during the summer makes it a point to take
fresh air every clay tha t it is possible to leave the house ....
34 Yesterday 's Future: The Twentieth Cent·wy Begins

Lookin g for sometliing differem from Lhc standard accoums of sermons,


banquets, and balls, a Milwa.uliee Sm thlf'I reporte r explored the city's
s1rcc1s and instirutions and recorded his obst:rvations in the fr>llowing
piece, e nti tled "Incidents That Marked Dawn of" tJ1e Century."

Milwaul<.ee Sentinel, janua·t)' 2, 190J

WRONGED vVIFE SECURES PARDO N FOR HER HUSBAND

Joseph Suchomski observed the dawn of the Twentieth Century


by returning to his wife and fami ly, whom a few months ago h e
deserted. This was made possibl e by his wife, whom b e bad left
penniless, securing for him a pardon Crom Gov. Scofield, and early
yesterday morning che doors of the House of Correction opene d
for him and Suchomski went forth a free man.
Suchomski was convicted of dese rtion in the Police court on
Nov. 30, and was sentenced for nin e months. He had told his wife
before starting to begin his term in prison that if he only h ad a
chance he \.vould treat her as h e should , and she at once set about
to secure his release. She laid th e case bdore Gov. Scofield and
th e pardon is the result. It arrived at the House of Correction late
Monday night. Bright and early yesterday morning, l\ilrs. Such-
omski, who had been informed, wem to the county institution and
met h er husband at the door. A New Year's dinner like the wed-
ding breakfast of years ago, m<u-kecl the reuniting of the two and
the pl edging anew of the promise to "love and cherish forever. "

FOUND SHELTER WITH TI-IE DAWN OF THF. CENTURY

Th e new century was literally wafted into the Home for the Friend-
less, for when the winds blow chill and bleak as they did on New
Year's eve it is almost impossibl e to keep the draughty, ramshackle
old house, in which for so many years a noble charity has been
carried on, even fairly comfortabl e. A co ld night means that some-
one shall stay up most of the time, keeping the coal stoves going
and the water pipes from freezing and so it happened that the
first thing that happened at the home was when Mrs. Schoon-
make r, just as the bells were ringing a t midnight, shook down the
biggest heater. Two hours before that the last arrival of the year
had d ri fted in- a forlorn girl who had lost her place in a Chicago
laundry a nd had come back to rvlilwaukec in hope of getting other
·work t:o do. By the time she had been safely stowed away in a clean,
GREETTNG THE. NF.W CENTURY IN WISCONSIN 35

comfortable bed Lhe new century was a lmost on hand and it came
in LO find the good matron stirring up th e lire.
"But you can'L say," said Mrs. Schoonmaker, ''lhat that was a n
incident. It was merely the regular, cold night· evenl."

EVEN i'vl EN I N PRISON GREETED T HE N1•: \V YEAR

The new century found every prisoner awake al the I-louse or


Correction and ready LO greet its arrival. There is a rule in the
institution that prisoners shall not commun icate with each other
and that while in their cells absolute silence must re ig n, but o n
such an auspicious occasion as the e ncl of the nin eteentl1 century
discipline was relaxed and pandemo nium he ld sway. T he boys
pounded on tl1e bars of their cells with tin cups and wash basins
and screamed themselves hoarse with joy. From the stroke of mid-
night to the chime that announced the first quarte r of an hou r in
1901 it was impossible to ma ke oneself heard in the din and a t
length th e guards had to go around and threaten d ire things if
the racket didn 't calm down.

S T RAYED PIGEON ANNOUNCES A RRJ VAI. OF T H E Ci·: NTU RY

"One of rny pigeons escaped from the coop on the stage iVlonday
night," remarked Joe M'urphy, the actor, "and l thought I had lost
the bird. What was my astonishment on being awake ned from a
reverie, for I had not ye t retired, by the so unding be ll and blowi ng
whistle, to discover my white winged clove, pecking a\vay at my
window trying to get imo my room. The bird had followed me
from the theater to the hotel. Now I take Llial as a pre tty good
omen for the new century, so far as I am concerned. At any rate,
when I awoke this morning l fe lt as youn g and as chipper as I was
th irty years ago."

FouR MEN OllSEtrvEn lT W1T1-1 A V1s1T To JAr t.


Four men who were brought t.o the county .iai l at the same time
opened the new century at that institutio n yesterday. Thomas Bai-
ley was released from the jail a t daybreak yesterday, after serving
a term of fifteen days, before noon was "loaded" again , and within
six hours was in the jail again .Joseph vVocher was ch illed through
by the cold which ushered the new cen tury into Pigsvil le so went
up to an acquaintance, it was cha rged, and tapped him lightly in
36 Yesterday's Future: The Twen tieth Centwy Begins

the jaw. For LhaL he is likely to spend the winter in the House of
Corrections. T homas Be nson and Thomas Buyerns dan ced the
old ce ntur y om , and before the new one was fairly begun had
given two of 1J1 e ir fri e nds bloody noses, th e complaints say, and
were arreste d.

J-l>\PPY BEC AUSE HIS 0PEHATION WAS SUCCESSFUL

Louis Coll ins, who had just successfully come through a trephin-
ing operatio n at Emergency hospital and who is finding conve r-
sation lhe m ost dcl ighLful thing in the world , began the new cen-
tury by making an earJy round of the wards and stopping at eve r y
bed to wish its unfortunate patient a Happy New Year. The re
wasn't a more cheerful person in town than Lou is, with his
mended sku ll.

I-IE GETS A RETAINER WHILE BELLS AR E RINGI NG

"\i\lhat was my first expe rie nce with the new century?" repeated
Se nalOr Julius E. Roe hr. "Le t me see: I was at the Iroqu ois da nce.
Oh, yes. We we re a t suppe r when the bells rang out, and the most
beautiful woma n in th e club house leaned O\'er a nd said , ' Mr.
Roehr, I wa nt to retain you in a law suit. I ,vilJ call a nd see you to-
m orrow o r the ne xl day and explain.' "

HOLi) AjOLL. IFICATION AT BED OF BLIN D WOM AJ'\


The quaintest and most interesting event of th e clay at St. .John's
Home for the Aged occurred ·when shortly after breakfast those
of the old ladies who could leave their room went to ca ll upon
Miss Hinton, who has see n all but nine )'Cars of th e century just
past. She is bed-ridden but there was no cheerier New Year cele-
brant in the city th an this little old lady of ninety-on e winte rs as
bolstered up among the pillows she welcomed h e r fe llow guests
of th e home.

HAn A St.E1G11 Rtor IN Two CENTURTl~S

'That man 's dead a nxious w say he had a sleigh ride in t1vo ce n-
turies," said a sidewa lk spectator as he watched a horse la boriously
drag a c utte r down Grand avenue at m idnight with a man and a
woman as its occupants.
GREET I NG THE NEW CENTURY I N WISCONSIN 37

FIRST FIRE ALARM WAS O N F OO L'S E RRAND

Th e Fire de partment's first call of th e new ce ntury was to put out


the su n, no t a fire. The red rays of Old Sol as he sank in the west
shone on the steam from the South Bay streel mall house of the
American Malting company and the vapor whi ch sifted oUL from
the planL was illumined like the reflection o n the smoke of a mil-
lion dollar fire at midnight. Box 266 was pulled but after an in-
vestigation of the malt house Asst. Fire Chief Meminger decided
that he would let the sun continue LO sh ine.

A CF.NTURY JOKE THAT DID NOT SUCCEED


"My first experience with the centur y," said Joseph Flan ner, "came
in the form of a messenger boy and a telegraphic message upon
whic h th ere was 60 cents in c harges. ' T do n' t want any dispatch
that. isn't prepaid,' l remarked to the boy. ' Open it and see what
it is,' re plied the boy, 'and then if you don 'L want it you don 't have
to.' l opened the dispatch and found that some one who signed
the name 'Pearl,' and was sojourning in Mic higan, wanted to bor-
row $20. 1t was a good joke, but it didn't work."

ORPHANS GREET TH E ARR!Vf\L OF CENT U RY

It wasn't daylight when the biggest boy o rphan at the Protestant


asylum sli pped out of his bed in th e big dorm itory and scampered
d own the corridor shouting: "Happy New Year. " He wo ke all the
o the r orp hans and gree tings flew thick and fast until breakfast
tim e. Bu t that was all that happe ned outside of the established
routin e.

SPA R RO\.VS ALSO W E R E Norsv AT MIDNJGHT

"My firsL line of vision in the ne'v ce ntury rested on a scene some-
what novel," remarked .J. M. Handley, th e manager of the Bijou
lheaLer. "You know r.here are about 400 or 500 sparrmvs that roost
out th ere in the pagoda in fronl of the house. They are attracted
by the heat that passes out of the house when the doors are
opened I su ppose. They are to us whaL th e geese were to Rome
in the days of o ld. Well , last evening th e electricians neglected to
turn the arc lights off at th e close of th e e nte rtainment, and when
th e city hall bell rang out at midnight, a nd the whistles sounded,
and the National guardsmen began firin g volleys over in the ar-
38 YesLerday 's Future: Th e Twentieth Cen tu:I)' Begins

Tlw Bijou Ojwra Rouse, located


on Second Street near
Grand A ven-ue in
Milwaukee, 1889,

Wlli ( X3)5~l27

mo ry, the sparrows awoke, and in the g la re of the electrical lights


the)' j oined in the grand chorus of inharmo nio us sound and made
such a racket that the policeman on the beat came running to see
what was the trouble,''

Reflections on the Opening of a New Century


In addition to being a r.ime for celebrati o n, th e lllrn i11g of the century
was widely viewed as <m occasio n to reflect 0 11 tlie past and consider the
pi-ospCClS fo r the f'UlUJ'e,

Green Bay Semi-V\leekly Gazette, January 2, 190 I

To witness the opening of a new ccntu r r is a privilege which is


nove l to a ll except a ver r few phenome nal ve te rans on the stage
of life and even among these latter, few have recollection of the
G REETING THE NEW CENTUR Y I N W I SCO N SLN 39

ushering in of the n ine leenth cen tury. These dividi ng lin es be-
tween the centuries have a meaning that. invites solemni ty. T hese
great measur ing periods as they come a nd go a re not to be lightly
regarded. T hey cause one Lo look back a nd see the great achieve-
men ts of the past a nd peer imo the future a nd speculate as to
wha t m ay be in store.
The occasion is one which is occupying co nsiderable serious
th ough t. In ma ny cities of the country arrangements are being
made for holding appropriate ceremon ies in the nature of wa tch
ser vices. In obser ving the occasion Green Bay migh l look upon
other cities of the country as . lew York, Ph iladelphia, Boston and
oth er of th e older cities do. She has seen centuries encl and begin ,
before.

Some editoria l writers looked w the new cc nturr with optimism as a


time whe n th e Un ited States wou ld re;1lize its full g lory as a powerful.
p rosperous na tion.

Neillsville Times, December 27, 1900

A ce ntu ry is dawn ing! With what. emotion man marks the flight
of time! T he wondrous tide of human progress, flowin g higher
ever, seems a t each cen tury's e nd to reach the limit, and little man,
full of false estimates, swaggers with conscio us pride in his achieve-
me nts, and feels today th at he is brothe r to omnipo tence in god-
lin ess and potence, just as, in d ays of old J ustinia n , a nd farth er
back, when in Egyp tian sandli ills the chisel-blistered Ethiopes
carved great tombs from. solid rocks, in cocky, hig·h conceit, man
thought h imself a high I)' fin ished prod uct. And we today are full
of pride, and glory in th e illu mined maste ry o f the age. The pace
increases, lite is more, and lo nger, men stop at nothing, have grown
bolder, stronger, world con querors, unplagued by myste ry, unham-
pered by the shackles of the pasl, they have fo und rneans to master
land and sea, and would now navigate the upper vast,-harness Lhe
lightning and the amwsphcre, speed be neath cities like a demon
flighL, bring earth 's remotest corners neighboring n ear, and yet
shall o unving Milton 's cone of n ight.
To Americans th e ce n tury a bou t to d awn promises to be full of
grand achievemen t and magn ifi cent. natio nal life . . .. v\!e must
40 Ye.sle·rda)' 's Future: The Twentieth Centwy Begins

raise a race of gian Ls for Lh e greaL task of government, and those


giants must be pure and good as well as strong, for bad men
should never haYe hi bo-h ]Jlace . Th us far for every. emero-enC)'
t:>
n1en
have been fo u nd. \ Ne a re in an optimistic mood , and believe that
the righL man will appear for every crisis, a nd that our beloved
Republic by deed or by precept will ye t work out the federation
of the world.

1\ot e1·e r yo n<' 1·icw(·d th e arriva l of th e n ew century fa\'orably. T he


fo llowing 1.hree pieces l'rnrn newspape rs in Sheboygan, Eau Claire, and
Janesvil h: e xpressed anxicL)' abou t L11e fu rure. Dr. J ohn Dowie,
rnemion ed in th e (Janesville) n ail)' Ga.uUf' article, was the found er of L11e
Christian Catholic Chu rc h in Chicago am! a healing eva ngelise. On New
Ye<1 r's Day. 1900, Dowic f(mned a u1.opia11 religious colon y calle d Zion
Ci ty, loca1cd in Illino is near Lhe Wisco nsin borde r.

Sheboygan Telrigrmn, .Jrmu.a·ry 9, 190 l

Now that the first th rill o!" exultation o n entering a new century
has passed away, noL a few people ;u·e confessing to a sense of doubt
as to whether the cha nge is an a llogether agreeable one, and Lo a
sort of regret at the d rawing of so broad a line in their lives. Those
who are old, e ilhe r in )'ears or feeling, recoil timidly from the ne-
cessity of identiCying Lhemse lves wilh a new era toward the glories
of which they do not even hope to comribute anything, while, on
the other hand , Lhey d islike to coup le themselves definiti vely with
"the last century, " a phrase that for so many years has had for all
the world a moldy, a ncestral sound, replete with the associations of
semi-barbarism . The nin eteenth century was all righ t, of course-
while we were a ll in and of it; but now it is d iffe rent. Some of us,
and alas, how ma ny! <ffe st.ill in a nd of that cenniry, and the one
jusL beginning has on ly Lhe fa intest of direct personal interest for
us. Tl's a fine moment fo r the boys and girls, for those whose
successes-and fa il ures-are all before th em , and no wonder they
eagerly accept tJ1e prophesies of the great things to be done in the
next hundred years. Some of them will do the great things, and a
lot of them will at least see and profiL by the doing, but there is
consolation in the prospecL fo r those who are only survivals from
"Lile lasLcentury." T he generation that was and th e generarion rJ1at
is Lo be seem to stand strangely-and for the former, sadly-far
apart, if you happen to have eyes for the distance.
GREETING THE NEW CENTURY IN WISCONSIN 41

(Eau Claire) Weekly Free Press,]anuttr)' 3, 1901

During the year about to close there have been 8275 murders in
the United States, whi ch is 2050 more than in 1899. T he embez-
zlements during th e closing year aggregated $4,502,1 34, which is
more than double Lhe aggregate sum-$2,218,373-that was em-
bezzled in 1899. If there is not a good deal of swe<u-ing off' next
Tuesday it will not be because the opening of the TwendetJ1 cen-
tur y finds on this continent a people so far advanced on the march
toward moral perfection that th eir conduct leaves no room for
improvement.

(}anesville) Daily Gazette, January 3, 1901

The spirit of restlessness, that has developed rapidly during the


past ten years, was never more pronounced in this counu-y than
at the opening of the new century. As a nation we seem Lo be
going wild on fads of almost every descripdon. One amusement

11·Hi(\ .2) 11 9 ~

The old transjJOrfation and the new in turn-ofthe cenlw)'


Black River falls. Bicycling became a fad in the 1890s,
and by the dawn of I.he new centwy some obserners thought the
invention wO'uld qu icldy fade from j)()'/JU larity.
42 Yesterday '.s .Fut'llre: The Twentieth Century Begins

after another is adopted and thrown aside before it is fairly tested.


A few years ago base bal l was the national game . Today il is prac-
tically cliscarclecl. Bicycling fo ll owed as a craze, and last year mil-
lions of dollars were sunk in the manufacture of machines that
cou ld hardly be sold for th e cost of the material in them. Just now
it is golf and rootball. One LOO expensive a nd the other too dan-
gerous to hold the bards for a ny protracted period. 'W hat the next
amusement fad wi ll be re ma ins for some enterprising yankee to
develop, and he is usually equal to the occasion.
'W hat is true of games is equally true ofreligious and theological
fads. The city of Boston, the old Puritan hub, is now the hotbed
of Unitarianism and all sorts of peculiar d ogmas. Almost every
protestant church in the city prides itself on its liberality of faith
and doctrine. T he west always li kes t.o lead, and so she is giving
Boston several points along the li ne of religious fads. The latest is
the city of Zion j ust. ouL of Chicago, dedicated to Dowie, and his
fanatical creed , and a great many inte lligent people ,.,~th wheels
in their heads, are j o ining the Dowie ranks. Faith cure, Christian
science, and othe r fads of this class, are likely to be ecl ipsed by
the Zion movement.
Four years ago the cou ntry went crazy vvild over the free silver
fad and almost hair the voting populalion expressed a belief lha t
a fifty cent dollar was hon est.
This spiri t of restlessness suggests an element of danger, and
prompts the question in the minds of many th oughtful people: Is
the nation drifting away from the old landmarks toward a point
where self governm ent is endangered? The fanatic, be he religious
or politica l, is an unsafe leader. France has been cursed with this
kind of sentime nt, ever sin ce she became a republic, and it has
always been, and is today, an open question as to whether the
nation will long co ntinue under its present form of government.
Her weakness is, of' course, socia lism, bLLc every fad of a political
or religious cha racter partakes of the same nature. A man or
woman who can swallow some of the fads that are so popular in
this counLry today, would reach the border land of socialism, and
develop into full edged citizenship, withou t. perspiring to get
thei-e.
\<\7hat the cou n try needs today more than any one thing is sta-
bility. Th e re are some things th at should be regarded as sacred,
and one of them is the fa ith of the fathers. It may be a little irk-
some, blll it is a lways reliable. It ought not to be possible in this
GREETING TH£ NEW CENTURY JN WISCONSIN 43

intelligent age for faith cure, Christian science, Dowieism, and


fads of this class to gain a foothold, and the fact that they do, is
not a flattering comment.
Another thing that should be held sacred is national honor and
honesty. Fanatical heresy, along this line, if it ever wins, means
nothing less than national ruin.
Wisdom will prompt the nation as well as the individual to
check and control the spirit of restlessness, so far as may be, in
the interest of the best good.

New Year's Day was often a time for resolutions to do better; tl1e new
century only accelerated this practice. In the nexc article, a Wausau
writer questions the practic<~ of making resolutions.

(Wausau) Philosophe1; January, J 901

I note that there was an unusual activity in the resolution market.


New Year's is the usual period for making agreements which arc
not intended to be kept, but with the advent of the century, which
by the way, may have advented any one of two or three times
before, there seems to have been an unusual impetus to this foot-
less and fruitless pastime of little people. Good resolutions are the
refuge of the small and the confessions of the weak. A man should
do righL or wTong ·without any agreement therefor ·with himself
or anybody else. He should live as his heart dictates, and if that is
wrong he should get it right. You cannot make morality the subject
of contract, any more than you can regulate it by law. I see that
the bishops of one of the churches announce vvit.h great gusto
thal they are going to spend a million dollars in the laudable
enterprise of converting souls, by way of celebrating the twentieth
century. That is well enough as far as the souls are concerned, but
if these bishops can raise the enormous sum they have raised and
can devote the tremendous energy they now pledge to this work,
what have they to say for themselves for the years that have gone,
and how are they to answer for the souls that went into eternity
·without waiting for the auspicious dawn of the twentieth century
and the accumulation of the million dollar sinking fund. God has
no anniversaries and I do not observe that the sun shines any
brighter, or the north wind blows any balmier with the dawn of
the new century than it did before. Mind, I do not criticize the
activity of the l;ishops,-God speed them in their work. vVhat I
44 Yesterday's .Future: The Twentieth Centur)' Begins

am wondering abo ut is why any more acuvuy in the twe ntieth


cen tury than in th e nineteenth. Surely there were e nough sou ls
in the nin e teenth and, so far as I know, not being in autho ri t)',
God 's grace was ciuite as abundant. Let us do what we have Lo do
the best we kn ow how without reference to the cale ndar; the sea-
son , the day or th e year. T hen will the heart be glad and the life
filled with rejoicing. T he best New Years' resolution you can ever
make is to reso lve to make none and let every day be fu ll of e.t:
fort and leave t.o the spasmodics the little period that fo llows the
usual moving day of the conscience .
2
Reflections on a Centw·y of Progress

"The Most Wonderful Century in the History of the World"


The people of'Wisconsin no t nnl)' cele brated the opening of a new
century but a lso paused to look back at Lhe events of the precedin g
hundred years. Like the ir peers throug hout the nation, Wisconsin
newspape r write rs and editors e xpressed pride 1.ha1 the United States
had g rown from a Liny and weak nation l.O a world power. They touted
the wonders of the technical progress of the nineteenth centur y, judged
thar. the century's treme ndous social changes had made the world a
better place, a nd looked to the fuwrc with o ptimism. The following
three pieces offer snapsho ts or the way Wisconsin ne wspape rs depicted
nineteen th-centur)' progress.

AppLeLon Dail)' Post, De1:mnber 3.1, .1900

Today marks the closing of what has dou btl ess been the most won-
derful century in the history of th e world, in the way of material
achievement. To realize whaL has been accomplished within that
cycle of time, in the various fi elds of human activity, is well-nigh
impossible and of which scarcely a hin t can be offered in a news-
paper article.
One hundred years ago, however, our own republic had its birth
through much of sacrifice, Lribulatio n and pain, but was still in its
swaddling clothes, so to speak. It was yet an expe riment, though
one which gave to humani ty brighl promise. Now it is a mighty and
beneficen t actuality, surpassing in extent, power and, let us hope,
in true magnificence, the most extravagant hopes of its founders.
At the beginning of the century it consisted of sixteen states-only
r.hree more than th e original number-four territo1ies and the
District of Columbia. Now it e xte nds far beyond even the boundary
of the oceans- for bette r or worse . The n t.he to tal populatfon was

45
46 Yf'slf>rrlay 's Future: The Twentieth CenlW)' Begins

"Unrlf' Sa 111 190 I l .ool1i 11g 11ru:kwarrl: 'J\lly don 'l those old fashioned
/1irt u H'S 11wlu' 0111' loo/1 rirlicultnL~!' " Dodgeville Sen tine I,
Decembt'r 28, 1900; (Oshhosh) Daily T imes, December 30, 1900;
Mi lwa11kcejournal,january 2, 1901.
REFLECTJONS ON A CENTURY CW PROGRESS 47

5,308,483, or only a little more than twice that which Wisconsin


contains at. present. T hen the an nual receipts of th e federal gov-
ern me n t were about $10,000,000- only enough to pay its necessary
running expenses now for the minor fraction or a week. The total
number or post offices was 903 and the postal revenue was
$280,804, whereas now Lbe former are numbered by many tens of
thousands while the receipl.'S and d isbursements extend well imo
the millions. A century ago the imm ortal .Jefferson had just been
elected presidem LO succeed j ohn Adams, who was the successor
of the first president and most justly re nowned American patriot,
George Washington. The Revolution was then only about half as
far removed as the war of tJ1e rebellion is now and the majority of
those who distinguished themselves in that great revolt were still in
th e service of their country. The establishment of a government
"of th e people, by the people and for the people" on the virgin soil
of the western hemisph ere has been an inestimable blessing not
only to the posterity of its fou nders but to millions of the oppressed
of other lands and whose com ing hi ther has redounded in as great
measure to the be nefit of the ir adopted coun try as to their mvn.
Nay, more. The American colonists not only fo ugh t their own bat-
tles to a successful issue bu t. indirectly also the battles of the great
bulk of the people or Great Britain as well, whereby re presentative
and constitutional governme n t was placed on quite a differ ent and
much higher plane in that. coun try than it had ever occupied be-
fore. In fact, the crystallization of Republican principles into this
sublime sLrucmre of government and its survival of the mosL crucial
tests of permanen cy, so that it is now as firmly established as a
nation can be, because resling upo n the consent and abiding in
the affections of a.I I its people, has exerted a beneficent influence
the wide ·world over.. ..
One of the most. noteworthy facts in ciden t to the century now
about to pass into h istory is the marvelous development of labor-
saving machinery, whereby t.he productive power of human hands
has been increased to an incalculable extent in all branches of
industry and the price of all manufactures has been correspond-
ingly reduced to the co nsume r. Indeed, the economic conditions
of the world have been repeatedly revolutionized by this means
and the encl is not yet, all of which is due to the inventive genius
of Americans more t.han that of any other people, or one might
safely say of all others. A hint or two will suggest the extraordinary
progress which has been made in all directions. At the beginning
48 Yesterday's Future: The T wentieth Century Begins

of the ce n tury, wool, co uo n and flax were spun and wove n by hand
an d ge ne rally by each fa mily to supply its own wants. Grain was
cut by ha nd a nd th reshed with a flail. An d in the pr inting or books
and n ewspa pe rs the e xpansion of facili ties has been at least qui te
as re ma rkable. I n a wo rd, a t the opening of th e cen tury nearly all
rna nufac w res we re th e produc t of man ual labor wh e reas now the
h uma n hand does little else tha n manipulate o r guide mach ine r y
by which the)' are f'ash ioned and a t a small fractional part of the
origin al cosl.
During the pe riod unde r conside ratio n also, in a correspond-
ing degree al least t:o the material advancement n oted , has been
the growth or educational facili ties, especially in th is coun try, in
respect o l' commo n and inte rmediate schools and higher insti tu-
tio ns or learn ing. In deed, to the latter l·a ct is d ue the great strid es
which have been mad e in the othe r direction. Christian ity, too,
has take n a firm e r, deeper and more comprehe nsive, al beit ge n-
tler, ho ld of the wo rld d uring th e century, an d to such an e xtent
as this is true have the physical a nd in tellectual achieve me n ts re-
d ounded lo the greatest good of the greatest n umbe r of man kind .
With.out d isparaging o ther forms of religio n wh ich have much
tha t is co mme ndalor y, this syste m , after n ineteen full cen turies of
lest, stands par exce lle nce as the world 's exempl ar. Tr ue its teach-
ings have often been perve rted and mistaken means h ave been
e mployed fo r its propagation, but on the whole civilization has
advanced o r re trograded with Christia nity. And whethe1· one can
acce pt its mysteries o r no r, as none can fatho m the m , no one can
deny tha t ir the re we re a un iversal and practical application of iLs
ph ilosophy, a n ideal social state would supervene- whe n cot1 n l-
less thousa nds wou ld no longer m ourn because of man 's in hu-
manity to man.
But enough. T he world is infinitely the better and riche r be-
cause of the achieve me nts of the nineteenth ce ntury and th e ne w
century ope ns a uspiciously. O u r wish is th at so muc h of it as may
be vouchsafed t.o o ur reade rs may con tribute to the ir happi ness.

Oshkosh Dail)' Norlltweslern, Dn:ember 31, 1900

Tomorrow will o pe n the Twentie th ce ntury. With today passes


away the Nine teenth cen tur y, th e most momenr.ous in the wo rl d 's
historr To the ha ppi ness, comfort and en lightenment of the race
REFLECTIONS ON A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 49

the Nineteenth century has contributed more than all the eigh-
teen centuries preceding it. Ove r h alf of the firsL eigh teen cen-
turies of our era '>vas wasted in warfare and devastation among
peoples and nations and between peoples of the same nation, in
cur.ting each other's throats, burning each other at the stake and
in or.her ways persecuting each other because they did not all be-
lieve alike in the manner of worshiping God. If perchance a great
discoverer made a great discovery, he was punished for his pains,
if noL put to death, because such discovery was li ke ly to in some
manner contravene the prevailing religious faith. The few notable
advances in science and utilities had to be kept secret for fear of
arousing the antipathy of the church. Massacre and misery, big-
otry and superstition were the ruling features of most of the chris-
tian era, up to the last two cen turies, and it was not until the
Nineteenth century that the world seemed to have merged into
that toleration and liberal research that has made possible the
wonderful advancement of mankind in all th e ways that promote
civilization and human h appiness.
The Nineteenth century has given us all we see around us that
is today considered essential to our welfare. It has given us the
railway, the steamboat, the telegraph, Lhe telephone, the electric
light, the elecu-ic motor, the Atlantic cable, the sewing machine ,
the typew1i ter, the printing press, Lhe bicycle, the automobi le and
many other important conven iences of life too numerous to men-
tion. In the scientific world the advancement has been on a par
with that achieved in the mechanical world. In astronomy, medi-
cine , surgery, chemistry, photography and kindred fields of re-
search, the most important discoveries have been made or Lhose
previously made have been rendered of practical value. In the
engines of warfare there has been a complete revolution, with the
result that the more desu-uctive have become the implements of
war t.he less frequent have wars become. The changes in our own
counu-y during the century now closed have been marvelous. One
hundred years ago the U nited States was bounded on the north
by the great lakes, on the west by the rvlississippi river, on the east
by the Atlantic and it did not reach r.he gulf. Today it stretches
from ocean to ocean and from the lakes to the gulf and into the
gulf and far across the Pacific into the islands of the sea, and far
north to the Arctic regions along [the] Bering sea. From a popu-
lation of a little more than fi ve millions in 1800, the United States
50 Yesterday 's Future: The 7'wentietli Centu.1)1 Begins

has grown to a population of over seventy-six millions in 1900. In


1800 the government expenses were less than twe lve millions of
dollars annually, a nd in 1900 they are over a bil li on dollars. In
1800 it cost 25 cents to se n d by mail what may n ow be scnL for 2
cents. These are but a few items to indi cate the wonderful progress
of the past century in those things wh ich go to case the lot of man
and make life richer in those comforts and e njoymen ts which
are really the object of li fe. In fac t the world did n ot begin to
live, as we understand li fe wclay, until close LO the present
century. It was too wrapped up in its pre;judices and false no tions
and narrow bigotries lo afford time o r oppo rtunity for m e ntal
expansion.
But, judging from the marvelous achievements of 1.he Nine-
teenth century, what may be expected o f the Twe nLi c 1.h cemury?
Not even the imagination may picture 10 us, for who in the Eigh-
teenth century imagined the steam railway and 1.he te legraph or
believed we could harness the lighting lO make artificial suns? How
many things will Lhe Twentieth century bring of which we m ay not
even dream LOday? Shall we fly in the a ir like birds, or at least travel
through the atmosphere by means of aerial navigaLion? Shall we
find the el ixir of life by which d eaLh will be bu1 a malte r o f choice?
Shall we harness the sun's rays as we have h arn essed electricity and
utilize them for heat and powe r, and Lo turn darkness into clay?
Shall we reach the sr.ate of pe rfeCL 1.oleration in h uman be liefa?
Shall we reach the time when wars \Vill b e n o m o re and c1.ernal
peace will reign over the nations of tJ1e earLh? Pe rhaps n ot all of
these things will come to pass, but some of the m may, a nd others
of \vhich we may now scarcely concei\·e . A g lorious prospeCLspreads
before us fortified by every incentive to furth e r progress and d is-
covery. And h e who lives to scan th e Twe ntie th century as it merges
into the Twent;1-first may look back wi1.h as starLling cornparisons
as we now employ in speaking of the Nin e teen th.

Green Bay Adr.1ocate, January 4, 190 I

A comprehensive summary of the more important advances in


law during th e century just closed was ch ronicled in a paper read
by Attorney F. C. Cady during th e evening servi ce, Sunday, or th e
Union Congregational church on the sut~jc ct, "The Century's Pro-
gress in Law. " In part Mr. Cady said:
REFLECTIONS ON A CENTURY 0.F PROGRESS 51

Dueling has been legislated ou t of existence. At the beginning


of the century me n fought upon th e slightest provocation. Lot-
teries can no longer exist except in violation of law. Lynchings are
comparatively few, and those who take part in them are in danger
of punishment. Piracy is e nded. National controversies are being
largely settled by arbitration.
T he world is learning the lesson tha t war is never justifiable
except as a means of secu ring peace. The century has revolution-
ized the treatment of the insane. The laws governing the rights of
married women have felt the touch of progress. Formerly a
woman's identity was merged in that of her husband. They becam e
one, and in the eye of the law, that one was tJ1e husband. The
vision of the law has cleared and in that clearer vision husband
and wife are seen to stand together, with rights a nd privi leges in
most respects equ al. The protection whi ch the law h as thrown
around married women, however, is not confined to their social
righ ts, but embraces their property rights as well. By her marriage
n o rights are now forfeited. She retains the titles and right of
contr ol of her personal property. T he management and income
of her real estate are hers. She may purch ase, e 1~j oy and sell all
kinds of property as she will. Her separate estate cannot be inter-
fered with by h e r husband. She may engage in business and her
earnings are her own.
Perhaps the greatest step of progress in the law of th is cen rury
has been the abolition of slavery. To Lhose who have grown up in
the last 30 years this will , perhaps, be thoughL incredible. One
must be familiar with th e struggle of the mighty opposing forces
which lasted for more than 50 years to realize the significance of
the proclamation of e mancipation .
Imprisonment for debt has been clone away with. The law has
passed from a condition where a man 's body cou ld be held for
his debts to one where this cannot only no longer be done bm
where his family cannot be depr ived of certain articles a nd earn-
ings belonging whim. Exemption laws m.ay be abused-they are
often- but in principle they are r ighr.
Court metJ10ds have changed fo r the better, although some sur-
prising things are still seen in justice courts if one gets far enough
from Green Bay. Another progressive step is the comparative ex-
pedition with which matte rs in court are now disposed of. Some
people sti ll complain tJ1at courts are slow. lL should not be forgotte n
thaL good work is inconsistent with too great dispatch ... .
52 Yesterday's Fitture: T he Twentieth Centu·0 1
Be,~·ins

"The Blessings of Government"


T he final ~'ea rs of the nine teenth cenwrr "·iuit:sse cl the rise o r the
l.Jn ite d States tu an unprecedented leve l of inte rnational prominen ce.
and \•\ 'isconsi.n newspapers were caught up in the p owerfu l wave of
patr iotism that S\,·ept anoss Arne.-ica. In a hundred years, th e United
States had prm perecl as it conquered a continen t aucl bui lt a po1,·er ful
goYernmelll. Each o f the fo llowing pieces offers a slig hth- different view
of th e nation ·s h iswr y. The German-lang uage Buffrilo r:ou nty .Re/J11blilwn£'r
und Alma Bliillrr pra ised th e superiority o f :\.mer ican ways. \\'hi le a
Racine ne"·spaper re fl ected o n Ameri ca's c.e rrito rial exp<lllsion
from th e Lo uisiana Purchase lO efforts to suppress the m1tio 11al ist
i11surrection in the newh· acq uire d Philipp ines.
R EFLECTIO:-IS ON A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 53

(Alma) B-u/j'alo County 1-?ejntblilwner und Alma Rlatte1;


January 1, 1901

A new century-the twen tieth-is begin ning! This news will be


broadcast tonight at twelve midnigh t from the bronze mouLhs of
the bells. We will be there as the world steps from one century
into the next, and- a serious thought for young an cl old- when
Lhis event occurs again, nothing will remain of us; at most a
mounded grave, perhaps held in honor by a distant relative, will
mark the place where we were laid to rest.
And so the approach ing New Year's Eve is doubly interesti ng
and significant. Not only a rc we looking back on a bygone year,
but on a bygone century, a nd tr u ly, it is a magnifice n t pictu re that
passes before our eyes, a pic ture of the most gigamic ste ps for-
ward, a picture of improvcmcn ts, of complete transformation an d
change.
In these one hundred years an unforeseen transformation in
the life and busi.ness of the world has taken place. IL has happened
so quickly th at no one can e ntirely explain it. It has been like an
awakening of the human race t0 a universal spiri t of cornpct.ition.
The e ntire world set to work. All the peoples of the earth dem-
onstrated their energy, a nd each country, even the smallest,
step ped for ward inLo the public eye.
Yet th ough all countries show epochal changes in their n ine-
teenth-century histories, the Cnitcd States has outdone itself. Still
small and weak one hundred years ago, it is n ow the migh tiest
republic under the sun. le can demand respect from all the
nations of the ear th. lt.S commerce has spread th roughout the
world. The citizens of our country are- ta speak wirh the poet-
grown one with their highe r purposes. The freedom that inspired
them sparked their gen ius, their diligence, an d rheir e nu-epre-
neurial spirit.
\•Ve owe our progress to no monarch; the American spirit
brought all this about. Tt is customary to congratulate o ne anoth er
on New Year's Day, and it is fitting to extend these co ngratulations
al Lhe beginning of a new century to the entire world: long Jive
·'Uncle Sam," may he grow and th r i,·e! \fay he continue to prepar e
the way for freedom and to demonstrate to the world the blessings
of goYern ment by and for the people.
54 Yestrrday's Fu.Lure: The Twentieth Centwy Begins

Racine Daily.Journal, Decemher 3 f , 1900

T h e Nin eteenth centu r y passes ou l a nd Lhe scroll of Lime brings


to view the Twentie tb ceutury. Its dawn discovers lhe world ex-
pectant, yel triumphant at the re markable progress that has been
made during lbe long years in every department of industry, sci-
e nce and commerce. In the realms of speculation, in those of
chemisu-y, in geology and of astronomy, there does not seem
much to be left for the future cliscove1ies lhat can arouse a world.
Our earth so small, ye t so very large, yet has wonclc rf11l regions
tha t for practical p urposes a re utterly unknown. Vasi tracts of land
le ft behind in the move me nt<; of ma nkind , a rc ye t to be mapped ,
and this work is progressing year by year, and in a son of' way man
is dete rmining the fu ll exte nt of the he rilagc given h im by his
Creator....
Jn the past hundred years the world a t la rge has prospered a nd
de,·eloped and in all the list of' counu·ies, th ere is none that can
compare ,,·ith the glorio us republi c ofL11e Cni ted Stmes. One hun-
dred years ago, a decade previous hm·ing set upon business for
ourselves after a war for indepe nde nce Iast[ ing] seve n years, our
co untry had a n a rea of 827,844 square mil es wit h th irtee n
slates ....
T he gre at west was a blank o n the ma p a hun d red years ago
and the English , the Spanish and Fre nch he ld vast stretches of
country which is today under our flag. Al l west or lhc Mississippi
was foreign territory and all of Flo rida was Spanish. Jn th e far
northwest the Columbia river remain ed LO be located an d not
un lil 1803, through lhc wonderful expediti on of Lewis and Clark,
wa [discovered] the ric hes of that are now Oregon a nd Wash-
ington and t.he mountain co1111 try- now the statC"s of' Dakota,
Mon tana, Wvom ing, Jclalio. General Fremon t later on added to
our informatio n stores of knowledge concerni ng th e now great.
m in ing country, Utah and Cali forn ia. Spain yiel ded he r posses-
sio ns, the n carne Fran ce. 1he n the 54:40 o r ligh t gave us Wash-
ington a nd O regon practica lly. T hen cam e a long th e war with
Mexico and gave us New Mexico , Utah and Cal iforn ia , with a few
years later the Gadsde n purchase m o re of Mexican territor y,
Texas had come in to the U nion thro ugh her own p rowess and
added mi llions of additional squa re m iles o r territo ry and some
thousands of brave me n; Texas now a slate of' over 2,000,000
people a nd of won derful resources.
REFLECTIONS O N A CE NTU RY OF P R OG R l~SS

vVhaLwill the n ext h u ndre d years bring fo rth? ILis a 111 ysLc ry o f'
th e futu re in one way and in a n oth e r n o myste r y, f'o r wiL11 the
astounding progress in th e arts, scie n ces, agri c11l llll'c a n d m an u-
factures a nd wi th the co11st.anlly increasing popu latio n, it hard ly
req u ires a prop het to forete ll what we will be ten d ecad es h ence.
vVe have been b lessed as no othe r n a tion has a nd in o ur pros-
peri1y we do not forget the obligations we owe to the CrcaLor of
all who has so richly e n dowed us as a n ation . Let the n ew year be
o n e of peace, of prosperity an d as the first of th e n ew centur y
marked by acts of wise statesm ansh ip. Let us hope tht: cruel war
in the Philippines m ay speedi ly te r m ina te and a ll ove r o ur broad
land ex tend the folds of th e Ameri can flag waving ove r a happy
and co n tented and peace fu l people.
All hail the New Year!

"American Enterprise and Ingen uity''


American prospe1;Ly was built 011 a foundaLion of rising agricultural and
indusu-ial prnducLion. \\"bcomin plavecl an impon;1111 role· in 1hi'
dc,·clopmenL. and according 10 1hc au1hor of 1hc following ar1ick-. one
of the heroes of nine1ecn1h-<"C'nL11rr agricu l1ural ckn: lopmt·111 1\'a~ lhl'
be uer-bred bO\·ine.

(Racine) Wisconsin Agriculturalist,.Jr111 url/'y 3, 190 1

T HE T\\"ENTI J.::TH CE1'TURY Cow


She is a ,-ery d ifferen 1 crea ture from th e cow whi ch saw the dawn
of the nineteen th century. Yes: C\'en fifty years ago th e cow of our
fathers' yard had little in common with the fine specimen we call
the q ueen of the stable we.lay. ' 1\'e a ll know what she had in the
way of ancestry. Hardly a cow in the country hair a cen tury ago
could boast of a lin eage worth prese rving. H e r ca re and gen e ra l
treatment comported we ll with her descen t. She stood ha ir the
win ter long ou l in the co ld , shiveri ng, lrnng r )' a nd a sL<m cl i11g ad -
vertisemen t of th e fac t th at h er owne r considered her simp ly a n
adjunc t of his far m rather than h is most valuable assis1ant.
Bm th e cow of the new cen tur y! She opens he r eyes upon a
prospect most deligh tfu l to con template. Sh e is recogn ized as fur-
nishin g the lucky man who possesses her a most desirable part of
his incom e from year to year. T h e millions of d o llars invcs1cd in
her an d her progeny in this cou n try according to th e latest census
show that she re presents a qua 11 tity upon the dai r yrnan 's cash book
56 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Century Begi:ns

by no means inconsiderable. Then, too, her surroundings are


fairly palatial compared with those of her grandmother. It is now
thought worth while to provide her with warm quarters, secure
from the wintry blasts; to fornish her with the best of hay and corn
and other feed; to keep her well supplied with pure and fresh
water; to shield her even from the flies which might annoy her
and detract from her peace of body; in short, to do everything
possible to add to her comfort.
Her pedigree is carefully traced and hung in the parlor where
all may point to it \vith pride. From calfhood to full maturity she
is an ol~ject of Lhe utmost consideration, and her untimely depar-
ture, in case such should be her fate, is the source of deepest
lamentation.
v\!hat does the new century cow do to compensate for all this
watchful solicitude? According to the statistical report for 1898,
the latest before me, there are about 16,000,000 cows in this coun-
try, valued at $474,000,000. Not far from ten thousand creameries
are in operation in which 300,000,000 pounds of butter are made
each year, or one-fifth of the total output, the remaining
1,200,000,000 pounds represents the labor of private dairies. The
value of every pound of butter made should be at least twenty
cents, from which we may conclude that the worth of the butter
alone which our cow gives us every year is about $3,000,000. Be-
sides there is the cheese, the tallmv, the hides and all the other
products traceable to the cow.
v\!hat a beautifully magnificent creature she is! We do well to
take pride in her. She repays all our efforts in her behalf ten fold
every year. Do we sufficiently appreciate her consequence in our
farm economv? Some do not. That is sure. Thev still consider her
J '

just as their grandfathers did, as an animal to be tolerated on th e


farm. It is time these men woke up to the fact that the cow is a
creature of flesh of blood, with keen instincts and a .sharp sense
ofjustice. vVith what measure we mete to her, ·with that measure
she returns. She is a business animal. She knows when sh e is fairly
dealt with and responds accordingly.
It will pay us to cultivate more carefully the acquaintance of the
ne'>v century cow.

The government, of course, played an imporcam role in the


development or American foreign and domestic trade. This article,
from a Republican newspaper, gives much of the credit to the
administration of President 'William McKinley.
RI::.FL.ECTIONS Or\ A C.E TUllY OF PROGRESS 57

(FriendshifJ) Ada m s Cou n Ly Press, Derember 30, 1899.

Janesville Daily Gazelle, January 2, J 9()1

It is gratif)i ng to know LhatAmerica enters the n ew cen tury lead-


ing the procession of nations in Lhc val ue of exporL'i. The United
States has been forgi ng rapid ly a heacl d u ri ng the past fo ur years,
dista ncing all rivals except the United Kingdom, a nd passing he r
58 Yesterday's Fut-ure: The Twentieth Cent.to y Begins

on the last quarter stretch. The nation is recognized today, not


only as the great cereal produci ng nation , but as the great manu-
facturing na tion of the ·world.
Two o r th ree things have conr.ributed to the wonderful cond i-
tions.
The first, Ame rican enterprise and ingenuily, both of which are
without a parallel. Chicago capital is now building four ocean
freighters th at will cost $1,000,000. T hey will be loaded with ma-
chinery and manufactured goods, and sail from Chicago for th e
old world early in April. So far as heard from, no subsidy is ex-
pected.
Th e second is a wise administration that possessed lhe foresight
and courage to adopt a protective tariff that ena bled our indus-
tries, not only to get on their fee t, but to walk ou t inde pendently
and mee t the world 's competition. l t accomplished mo re than
this, for d1e encouraged indusu·ies took on new life, until every
wheel in ever y factory, ever ywhe re throughout the broad land,
was turning, while American labor, contented and happy, co ntrib-
uted to the busy hum. Prospe rity within our borders fo llowed as
a natural result, and a steady stream of mon ey fl owed in. The
individual prospered a nd the nation prospered, until four short
years filled a bankrupt treasury with abun dant wealth.
Th e wise administration did more than this. It settled for all
time the question of national honor, so far as so und fina ncial
policy was concerned, and today American secu ri ties are in brisk
demand in all the markets of t.he world.
lf the Ship of State is wisely handled Am erican enterprise wi ll
continue to reap the rewards to which it is entitled, an d before
the new cen tury is fairly on its fee t, many long su-ides will mark
an era of rapid progress.

W isconsin edito rs and ll'riters also noted tha t Anierica·s commercial


growth an d geographic expansion had bee n accompanied by a
tremendous increase in the size of the federa l go\'crnm e nt.

Sujmior Evening Telegram, January 4, 1901

The nineteentl1 cemury has been remarkable fo r the growth of


public expenditures. Enormous debts have been c reated by the
civilized nations of the world, the expenses of governme nt have
increased to a startling extent and the taxpayers bear burdens
REFl.EC'J'lOKS ON A CENTU RY OF PROGRESS 59

compared with which those o i' lh e ir ro re fath e rs were tri via l. As Mr.
Cha rles A. Conant points oul in an a nicle in th e .J anu ary lltlanlic
1\llonlhl)', "Burdens of taxatio n a mo unting in vo lum e Lo 111a11y times
th e sum which drove ou r British a ncestors lo Lake arms against
the Stuarts in the se,·elllee nth ccntllr)', o r wh ich impoverished
France before the revolution. arc now borne almost without a
murmur by the people of ever}' civi lized state." . ..
The United States has also become cxu·a,·agam as a nation. In
1842 the go,·ernment needed o n ly $25,205,761 for its expenses.
T hen came the ciYil war, wh e n a colossal debt was pi led u p. T he
cost of the govern m e n L u pon a peace basis before the recent in-
crease of the army was about S5 per head-more tha n three tim es
g reate r, according to J\fr. Cona nl, than it was 60 years ago, two
and one-ha lf times what it was before th e civi l war and~() per cent
greater than it was 14 years ago. T he lowest per capita expend iture
since the ci,·i l \\'ar was in 1886, 11ncler the adminisLratio n of Pres-
ident Cle,·cland. In 1860 the cost of ri,·er and harbor imprm·e-
ment was S22] ,973. The ncL disbursement · in 1898 for ri,·ers and
harbors "·ere $20, 785, l 09. The posta l service is not scll~s11 sta in i ng,
a ncl every year the governme nt has to meet the dclicit. Last year
it was $8,211,750. T he lig hth o use se r vice cost over $3,000,000 in
1899. T he scie ntific bureaus or th e governm en t a n.: expe nsive.
Pe nsio ns cost $ 140,000,000 a year, o r nearly $2 per ca pit a. The
pensio n expe nditure fo r 1900 fvlr. Cona nt sta les, barring one year
of the Mexican war, "is not much less tha t the cost of Lh c federal
governmen t fo r all purposes clown a lmost to 1860. Jr th e expenses
of the military an d naval esLabl ishmcnL<> last )'Car wcrc added to
the expend itur es for pensions the burden upon the American
people for these object$ was about $4.40 per head, or very close
to the entire miliLar y a nd nava l expend iture or the Empire of
Napoleon when he was leadin g th e Gra nd Army or fi00,000 rncn
to its d eath am idst the s11ows o f" Rw;sia." ff the cost o f state and
m un icipal expe nd iture we re added LO the ex pe nditures of the
national govern ment tli e tota l would reach an extrao rdin ar y fig-
ure. The annual cost o f lhe government. of the ciL)' o f New York
since its consolidatio n with Brook lyn is nearly $90,000,000. It is
estima ted that the salaries paid Lo schoo l Leach c rs alone in Lhe
united S tates amounted to $ 123,809,412 in 1899....
Mr. Conant says in co11 cl usion :
"The history of the cen tury in public tl nan ce, Lhc rcfore, and
espec ia lly the history of Lh c present generation, il lustrates the
60 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centmy Begins

benefits which may come to the community from a well directed


use of a part of its new wealth in the extension of' state fu nctions.
The character of this extension need not be radically soc ia lisLic
nor disturbing to the existing order, but may simply relieve Lh e
individual of many minor duties which could not be performed
at all before, or were performed inadequately or at great individ-
ual expense. Just as the average man has ceased to try to be his
own carpenter, physician, or lawyer in spite of a breath of culture
which may include some knowledge of their duties, he has ceased
to undertake the many functions relating to public health, intro-
duction, and protection , which were formerly performed by the
individual, because h e co uld not afford to contribu te from slender
surplus above the cost of maintenance Lo have them performed
by others. The increase in public expenditures, great as it has
been, has by no means kept pace with the increase of social wealth
above the subsistence point, but has taken a fraction of these great
resources and ought to apply it to those improvem e nts in social
condition which can be best provided through state action. Mod-
ern social development, opening new means of comfort and lux-
ury on every hand to the mass of men, would be strange ly one
sid ed, if it left the functions of the state shut within the pa rsimo-
nious limits of a century ago, or even a generation ago."
Jn this piece, one editor suggested that as the gm·e rnm c nt h<1cl grown, so
had the pernicious influe nce or money on electi ons. This suspicion was
not his alone; a "·eek later 1.hc Chi/>/>ewa Falls \\h,k~r reprinted this
editorial.

J\llonclovi Hera Ul, December 21, 1900

One hundred years ago when the capital was located a t Washing-
Lon Lhe financial problem attendin g the location, whi ch involved
the expenditure of half a million of dollars, was a serious one
for the government to solve. Now it takes that much to buy a seal
in the senate from Montana and she is no t one of the greatest
among the sisterhood of states, and many there are who can pay
the price. Verily, times have changed.
"Who Would Have Believed It?"
l\o subject captured the auention or Wisconsin\ write rs a nd editor~
more than the scientific and technical wonders or the nineteenth
century. The following articles convey a sense of amm:c111e1H <il th e
tremendous changes rcsulcing from technological progTcss.
REFLECTIONS ON A CENTURY OF PROCl~ l~SS 61

(Union Congregational Clntrch, Green Bay) Unionist, Der:emfgr; 19{)0

Prof. A. E. Dolhear, of Tufts College, in a n article in the Congre-


gationali.~t, on The Century or Science, puts in the following strik-
ing way, the progress of th e last hundred years:
vVe received the horse and ox; we bequeath the locomo tive, the
automobile and the bicycle.
We received the goose quill; we bequeath the fountain pen and
type>vriter.
We received the scythe; we bequeath th e mowing machin e.
vVe received the sickle; '>Ve bequeath th e harvester.
We received the sewing and knitting needle; we bequeath the
sewing and knitting machine .
We received the hand printing press; we bequeath the cylinde r
press.
1Ne received the typesetter; we bequeath the linotype.

We received the sledge; we bequeath the steam drill a nd ham-


mer.
v\le received the flintlo ck musket; we bequeath a utomatic Max-
ims.
vVe received the sail ship, six weeks to Europe; we bequeath t11e
steamship Majestic, si.,x days to Europe.
Vile received gunpowder; we bequeath nitroglyce rin.
v\Te received the hand loom ; we bequeath the cotton gin and
woolen mill.
\ Ve received the leather fire bucket; we bequeath the steam !ire
engine.
\ •Ve received the wood and stone structures; we bequeath
twenty-storied steel structures on which t11e skv mav rest.
we· received the staircase; we bequcall1 the ~leva'tor.
'We received .Johnson 's Dictionary with 20,000 words; we be-
queath the Standard Dictionary with 240,000 words.
\'-le received 22,000,000 speaking the English language; we be-
queath 116,000,000.
We received the painter's brush and ease l; we bequea th lithog-
raphy and ph otography.
We received the lodestone; we bequeath the e lectro-magnet.
\ 1 Ve received the glass elecu·ic machine; we bequeath the
dvnarno.
, We received the tallow dip; we bequeath the arclight and the
Standard Oil Company.
62 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centu1)' Begins

We received lhe four-inch achromatic telescope; we bequea1J1


the four-foo t telescope.
We received two dozen members of th e solar system; we be-
queath 500.
\Te received a million stars; we bequeath 100,000,000.
\ 1

We received the tinder box; we bequeath the friction match.


We received ordinary light; we beq ueath Roentgen rays.
We received the beacon signal fires; we bequeath the telegraph ,
the telephone and wireless telegraphy.
\Te received the ·w eather unannounced; we bequeath th e
\
1

weather bureau.
We received less than tiven ly known elemen ts; we bequeath
eighty.
We received the products of distant coun tries as rarities; we
bequeath them as boun tiful as h ome productions.
\\Te received history as events remembered and recorded ; we
bequeath the kinetoscope.

The lure of twentieth-


centmy modernity was
0
Take Time By even used to ma:d~.et
carriages and harnesses.
1he Forelock" Milwaukee Sentinel,
and drop in and look ]anumy 1, 1901.
over ·our

20th Century
Broughams and Station
Rockaways. Nothing
quite equal to them.
Our Harness tc;>o is
very attractive.

. ORdBn &Com~any
G.W
1n . 17• ... 176 Tlllnt St-.
R EFI.ECTfONS ON /\ CENTURY OF P ROG.RESS 63

\ 1Ve received the past. as sile nt; we bequeath the phonograph ,

and the voices of the dead may again be hea rd.


We rece ived pain as an all otment to man ; we bequeath ether,
chloroform and coca in e.
\Ne received ga ngre ne; we bequeath antiseptic surgery.
We rece ived the old oaken bucket; we bequeath the drive n we ll
and the water tower.
We received decom position helplessly; 've bequeath cold stor-
age.
We receive d fo ods for immediate consumption; we bequeath
the canning industry.
We received butte r solely from milk; we bequeath oleomarga-
rme.
We receive d the pontoon; we bequeath the Brooklyn bridge.
\Ne rece ived th e hedgerow and the rail fence; we bequ eath the
barbed wire fence.
We received cement sr.eel; we bequeath Bessemer steel.
We received un li m ited dependence upon m uscles; we bequeath
autom.atic mechan ism.

(Wisconsin Schoolfor the Detif, Delavan) Wisconsin Times,


January 1 7, J901

If anyone in 1800 had predicted r.he wo nderful things that have


taken place during the century, he would have been pronounced
as a fi t su bj ecL fo r a n asylum ..Anyone predicting that the day would
come whe n you could speak to frie nds h u ndreds or thousa nds of
miles away and receive an insta n t answer as we do now by lele-
graph or Lelephone, would have been classed with the ratlle
h eaded. T ha l we wou ld visit Europe in less than one wee k, or
travel over the la nd at the rate of one hundred miles an hour.
Th at we could light up the body and see through it as by X rays.
Th at boats could trave l for hours under water out or sight. Tb at
your picture true t:o life could be produced in a second. That a
sewing mac hin e could be made that would do more and be tter
work than man y pairs of hands. That steam and electricity wou ld
be the powe rs Lhal would run the machinery doing the world's
wo rk. Th at smge ry-cutting a man nearly to p ieces-co uld be
pe rformed without pain. That hundreds of thousands o f copies
of the largest newspapers filled with pictures, could be printed in
a few hours. That ai r co uld be condensed into a liquid. T hat
64 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centwy Begins

watches of grem accuracy and ch eapness could be produced by


machin erv. Thal Lhe u-ees of t11e forest would furni sh me mate rial
upon whi~h to write a nd print. That bicycles and automobiles
would rush lhrough me streets of cities and over country roads.
Thal grain o f the country would all be sown , harvested and
threshed by machine r y. Had a nyone predicted r.he foregoing and
scores of o Lher Lhings that have actually taken place, no jury of
his peers would have hesitated to pronounce him of unsound
mind. The coming ce ntury will outstrip the past.

Mos t Wisco11si11 editors a nd wr ite rs looked at nineteenth-century


techni cal adva n ces in a11 excl usively positive ligh t. The author of this
piece, l'or examp le, believed that the world was co nstantly imp roving mid
that r.h osc who disagreed had been rnisled because or the easy
transm issio n of d is ta11 t n ews.

AjJjJleton Evening Cresaml, December 31, 1900

The gates of the nin e tee nth century are about to close on the
great inventive century of the world 's history. W'hether on land or
sea the progress of the world has been wonderful. The milization
of steam and electricity has been marvelous, and in every trade
and pursu it the improvements have been wonderful. 'The old
podange r days" can never return because there are no barbarian
hosts to destroy the machinery or t11e present. From t11e flint-lock
musket of lhe war o f 18 12 to the Krag:Jorgensen of 1900, or th e
old wooden frigates of 1860 to the battleship of 1900, and from
the commercial wooden steame r of 1860 to the iron a nd steel
passenge r palace of 1900, how wo nde r ful the su-ide ..And yet in
facrory, mill a nd prinLing office, the transformation has bee n
eq ually wo nde r ful , and when one goes out to visit the far m the
reminder comes that here too the pace has become a gallop.
Looking backward, o ne is proud to have lived in such an age, and
to have wi tnessecl most of these triumphs of genius. Say what men
may, the world has bee n growing beLter during all this pe riod.
True, the te legraph brings daily accounts of all the crimes com-
mitted on i:hc continen t: a nd many really belie ve the contrary
because formerly they did not hear of one crime where they now
hear of fifty, bu t they forget that prior to the telegraph not one
in a h undred was ever published beyond the state or county where
committed. Greed and selfishness may have increased a t com-
REFLECTIONS O'.'\ :\ CE NT R\' OF PROGRESS 65

me rcial cen ters of popula1io11, bu t. morality and practi ca l religion


pervades the country as ed ucatio n co mes more general.
T he Crescent congra tulates its n ume rous reade rs o n the world's
progress. They have clon e ll1ci r part in the work, and wi ll n mv
et1le r upon a century th at 11rny and probably wi ll change the map
o f th e world. but there will be no backward steps in the march of
humanity toward a better life and further imprm·emems on ear th .

Though most \\Titers celcbraH·d Ill'\\' 1cchnolog\' uncriticall r. a f°t-11'


aq.{ucd that new inve mio ns so111c.:limcs Je<l to undesirable sc>rial c h a n~es.
T h<" following piece is part o f an addn:ss that Mi nneapolis librnrian
.J a111l's Ke ndall Hosmer marh· at. th e 190 I State Histor ical Crn1V(' J1t ion in
Milwaukee. Here, he conside rs th e complex changes wrrn.112: '1 1. b)' t.wo
ninc.:t.eenlh-cen tury i11 ve11 Lio11s. This piece is taken from t.lie l'mf'1'r1di11,e,:~ of
1/11' Stale Historical Soriety of Wi.1ro11.1i11 al its Fort;~,Vinth Anmrnl Mf'l•li11g /-Md
/)r'rei11ber 12, 1901 and uf /hi' Str1t1• llist111fral Convention Held of J\/i/111f111l11'e,
Ortober 11- 12, 1901 (1'.lad ison: De mocrat Printing Company, 1!102).

Proreedings of the Stale Historirnl Convention, October 11 - 12, 1901

... Lacking a th read on which may be strung, in convcn ie nt order,


the details of the develop111 rn L of the Mississippi Va lley d uri ng the
n ineteenth century, n othi11g be tter can be done th an t.o trace the
co nsequences flowing fro111 the in troduction of two mac hines-
1'11 e steam engine as app lied to traffic and corn1111111intlion , an d
th e co tton gin .. . .
Al th e close of the eigh tcemh century slaYery appeared LO be
cl~'in g e\·er ywhere in Am erica: as it fail ed, the conscience of the
land asserted itself as co its evil in a way quite new. It \\'as the
general expectation that negro slavery would soon disappear. lt
has lo ng been held that the cotto n gin, invented in 1793, by sud-
de nly lending new effective ness to the work or negrocs in the
South , wrought a change, spiritua l as well as materia l- the eco-
nolll ic advantage lulling to slee p the awake ning rnoral sense. As
years passed and cotton became king, slavery grew lo be consid-
e red as never before, the ver y a pple of the patr1o L's eye . Mean-
time, a t the ~'forth, no economic advantage inter ven ing to favor
th e presenation of slavery. il follo\\'ed the course of decay
upon wh ich it had en te red, and died om; and as the century ad-
,·anced . it came to be regarded. under the influen ce of earnest
teache rs, as the chief of h uman evils.
66 Yeslerrlay 's Future: The Twentieth Cent1uy Begins

Sundered thus as the North and South became in their inte rests
a nd moral conceptio ns, a conflict \\'aS in evitable .. .
Stra nge indeed was the developme nt which sprang from the
cotton gin ; scarcely less momentous has been the influence of the
steam e ngine as app li ed to traffic and communication. The lo-
comotive has succeeded, and often superseded, the steamboat,
with resu lts that a re modify ing all the continents. The new West,
whic h has come to pass in the old Louisiana of the Purchase, was
before the war in a most incipien t stage, and as it stands today
may prope rly be called the child of the locomotive. v\Thile that
extraordina r y mac hine in the eastern half of the valley has bee n
a powe rful rnodil'i e r, in the western half it has worked almost as a
creator. IL has made possible a reclaiming and populating more
rapid than has eve r before been seen when ne\·V lands were oc-
cupied. The un known wilderness of Jefferson's day has become
fill ed througho ut wi L11 fu ll)' organized commonwealths, and is
about, with th e admission of Oklahoma, to become, so to speak,
politically ma ture. Whether such a rapid exploitation of the na-
tional domain will be for the ultimate benefit of our counu-y, or
otherwise , may well be questioned. Our grandchildren may wish
their forefa the rs had gone more slowly... .

"Some Like Their Doctors Mouldy, Like Their Cheese"


In addition to the mechanical in ve n tions that garnered so much
a tte ntion f"rnm writers, th e nineteenth century witnessed a revolmion in
medicine, as Dr. Bcr~jamin C. B1·ett po inted out in th e followin g address
a t Union Congrcg-ati o nal Church in Green Bar-

(Union CongregaLional Church, Green Ba)') Unionist, Febrtt.aT)', 1901

T he progress or medic ine may not inaptly be likened to the ad-


vance of a conque ring a rmy in an enemy's country. Now at some
point alo ng r.he li ne of ba ttle, an advance is sounded and a posi-
tion is rap idly ga in ed as if by storm , far in advance of the main
line, only to be abandoned aft.er night-fall, by retreat to a more
secure position . T he n at some other point along the line a n ad-
vance is made and the ground is here held until the main lin e
advances upo n it:, thus rendering the new position secure. And so
medical history is one of con tin ual advance and retreat but nev-
ertheless o ne of gradual acquisition and permanent possession.
One hundred years ago the art of the apothecary was still crude,
and, e xcept in the larger cities, every physician was his own phar-
R EFLECTIONS O N A CE NTURY OF PROGRESS 67

mac isl, carrying his stock of drugs with him, mixing and dispens-
ing them, in not very small doses, at the patient's bedside. Now
and then a doctor was seen whose constant atmosphere was sug-
geslive of the mingled odors o r rh ubarb, assafoetida, and decay,
as though he were in truth a lineal descendant of Rip Van Winkle,
and , like his progen itor, had just wakened from a twenty years'
sleep. As Dr. Oliver Wendell Ho lmes once wrote:-"Som e li ke
th eir doctors mouldy, like 1.heir c heese ."
Fads were as common then in the profession as now and phle-
botomy was the first remedy for three-fourths of the ills or man-
kind. The lancet, calornel, tartar e metic and Spanish fl y-each
th e fore most remedy of its class-were the agents most called into
use . To be sick was indeed a greal calamity. No wonder that people
used to fr igh ten their childre n into obedience by a threat. to call
the doctor.
On e of' the greatest contributions to medicine, marking a new
e ra in medical and surgical practi ce, was the discovery a nd suc-
cessful use of anaesthesia. Su lphuric ether as an anaesth e tic was
firsLused bv Dr. T. G. ~forton of Boston in 1846, and chloroform
by Dr. J. V. 'Simpson of Edinburgh one year later. On the bactle-
fi eld , in the hospital, in th e reduction of broken or dislocated
bones-in fact in every situation where pain or muscu lar spasm
or severe bodily suffering of any kind is present-the surgeon can
neve r do his besr. without anaesthesia. Many a time have l been
called to a child with a broken Ji rnb who h ad cried itself Lo sleep
before my arrival. Slowly adrni n isr.ering the chloroform ti ll the
little one had passed from nature 's sleep into an artificial one, l
have ac!jusr.ed the broken bones, appli ed the splints and bandages,
and left the house, the little sleeper undisturbed, and sti ll in
dreamland. Is not this a ChrisLian Science worth practicing? ...
Rapid a<lva nces in med ic ine a lso produced claims of miracle cu res tli a 1
we re advertised daily in newspapers throughout. 'Visconsin . Dr. King's
N('w Discovery was one of nm11y p<tl<:nt medicines that claimed to cure
colds and orhcr illnesses.

(SufH1rio·1j Inland Ocean, .Jrm:umy 6, 1900

For amazi ng discoveries, for stupendous inventions, th e 19th cen-


tury has never had an equal. An electrician and an engineer sat
in the Keo kuk Hotel in Hannibal, Mo., discussing the question
whaL is its greatest product? Th e former said the telegraph, the
68 Yesterday's Future: T he Twentieth Cenl tLI)' Begins

!alter the railroad, but Mr. J. E. L illy, who is connec ted with tli e
ma n ag e ment of the hotel, sa id : "Ge ntlemen : the grea test product
a nd most wonderful d iscovery of the 19th century is Dr. King's
New Discovery for Consump tion, Coughs and Colds. The reason
is p lain. A discovery by which m any thousands of lives are saved
eve ry year is infinitely more irnpo rtant than that which p rom otes
a ma n 's convenience. I kno w wh a l this grand remedy will d o, fo r
it saved my life. I was take n wi th typhoid fever, that le ft a severe
case o f Pneumonia, my lungs becam e h ardened and I got so weak
1 coulcln 't even sit bolste re d up in b ed. No docto r o r m ed icine
gave m e an y relief. I expected to di e o f Consump tio n. T h en I
happen ed to see this m.arve lo us m edic ine advertised, and bough t
a 50-cent bottle. It gave imm edi ate relief. I continued to use it
unlil I am now a well and su·ong man . Now, gentlemen, whe n )'Ou
think that 100,000 consump tives die annually in this co untl')',
alo ne, and that many thousa nds of them might be save d by using
Dr. King's New Discovery, yo u wilt see I am right in saying it's the
greatest discovery of the century." T his medicine is th e gra ndest
cure o n e arth for Consump tio n , Stubborn Coughs, Severe Co lds,
Bro n chitis, Asthma, Ple urisy, La Grippe, Hemorrh age, H ay Fever,
P n eumo ni a, Lu ng Fever, Cro up , v\Th ooping Coug h , and a ll b ro n-
ch ia l troubles. The first dose brings re lief. Money will be re turn ed
if no be n efit. Large bottles 50 cents and $1.00. A uial bo ttle free.
At. all druggists.

"There Are No Limits to Her Ambition"


By 1900 the situation for wome n in Ame rica n society had changed
dra matically, Lhough not as much as wo me n's r ights advocates d esired .
In 1he lirst o r the two foll owing a rti c.:k s, srndicated a utho r Ge rLrude
T haye r expresses fe minist~' p ride in wo me n's progress and their
eagern ess to ta ke the su·uggle fu n hc r. In 1lw second piece, Katheri ne
King gi,es a "New Century Talk to Milwaukee Girls,'' defending turn-of:
the-century vou ng ,,·ome n from critics who ro und them fri,•olous a nd
strong-minde d.

J anesville Dail)i Gazette, J anu ary 4, 1901

T h e g irl of 1801. What a visio n th a t calls up before us! A shrinking,


timid creature with narrow shou ld ers and lily cornplexion, a girl
wh o was sh arply reproved if she h e ld d ecided opinions of he r o wn,
a wo man who was expected to shine as an orname nt in h e r hus-
ba nd 's drawing room, but wh en we ig hty matters we re b rought up
REFLECTIONS O N A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 69

for discussion ·was requ ired to stay meekly in the background and
hold her peace. True, there were some daring spirits who occa-
sio nally broke all bounds and spoke the ir rninds, but we know
from Napoleon's a ttitude toward :rvlme. d e Stae l how such women
were treated.
Can you imagine a modern girl bursting into a roomful of these
ultra genteel ladies? To make things as bad as possible, fancy her
in a golf costume with her h air blown about by th e wind and her
chee ks tanned and perhaps a little dusty. How the mouths of our
ancestors would have pursed up in disapprova l at the sight of her
mannish vest and h er high collar and ascot tie. And if, thrusting
he r hands in her pockets and crossing h er knees in a characteristi c
boyish auitude, she had regaled them with up to date conversa-
tion, don't you suppose that before she had been in the room five
minutes the entire asse mblage would h ave h ad a fit of the vapors,
o r fainted, or indulged in some other nervous performance fash-
ionable at the time?
And would you b lame them when yo u consider what the status
of woman was in their time? Let me quote from the records of
th e National Anierican Woman 's association:
"In 1800 married women were not permitte d in any country to
con trol their prope rty nor to will it away at d eath. To all intents
and purposes they did n o t own it. The legal ex istence of the wife
was so merged in that of h er husband that sh e was said to be 'dead
in law. ' N ot only did he control her property, coll ect and use her
wages, select the food an d clothing for he rse lf and children, but
to a very large extent he contsolled her 'freedom of thought,
spee ch and actfon.' If sh e disagreed with him or in any \Vay of~
fended him he possessed the legal right, u pheld by public opin-
io n, to punish her, th e courr.s only interfering when the chastise-
ment exceeded the popular idea in severity. At this time it was
he ld by courts in Eng land and the Cnited Sta tes tha t a man in
whipping his wife should be restricted to a stick no thicker than
his thumb.
"All possessions passed into the hands of the husband at mar-
riage. If a married worn an worked for wages, she could not legally
collect them, as they belonged to her husband. She could not
make a will, sue or be sued. Few occupations we re open to wom en.
"No college in the world admitted women. Men had so long
done the thinking for the average woman it was universally be-
li eved that no woma n was capable of 1naste ring the highe r
70 Yesterday 's Future: The Twentieth Crmtn1 )i Begins

' ":'
_,...=-'-"-~- """""- ""

The A111nimn woman, Fo111 t.he "shrinhinp,~ timid creature'' r!f 1801 to
1901 ~5 al.h.111lit and conflrlrml "modern girl. "Janesville Da il y Gazette,
]anua:ry 4, 190 l.

branches of' lea rning. Th e few women of genius who had ap-
peared l'rorn tim e to Lime were pronounced lhe 'exce ption wh ic h
proves 1l1 e rnle .' The convents and boarding schools wh e rein girls
ofwea llh we re educale d laughl nolhing but the rudiments, while
the girls or Lhc poor rect:i,·cd no education at all. Publi c schoo ls
we re in many place · closed to girls, and whe n admiucd th e ~· we re
REFLECTIONS ON A CENT U RY OF PROGRESS 71

d issuaded from a ttem pting the study of all branches except read-
ing, writing and elementary a ri thmetic. Women we re forb idden
to spea k or pray in the chnrcbes and, in m any of the m, even to
sing in th e choir.
"In 1803 a man sold h is wife as a cow in the Sheffield market,
England , fo r a guinea. Newspapers commented upon iL as a com-
mon occurrence. The pulpits at this time ga\'e frequent exposi-
ti ons of the necessary subordination of women , quoting from St.
Ambrose as though inspired: 'Adam was beguiled by Eve, not Eve
by Adam. It is just that woman should take as h er rule r him whom
she in cited to sin, that he may not fall a second time th rough
femal e levity.'
"It was upon such condi tions that the curtain of th e n ineteenth
ce n tury rose, the cen tury which the prophetic voice o r Victor
Hugo proclaimed to be the 'century of woman.'"
We all know what she has gained. She works sid e by side with
me n, and her work is taken seriously. She receives th e same edu-
cation as h er brother. She excels in nearly every branch of labor
open to men. Marriage is not the only future open to h er, but
whe n she does marry it is no longer a slavery, but a parmership
o n equal terms. She refuses to be kept in ignorance of the world,
and she faces it with clear eyes and keen judgment. She is healthy
and athletic, as full of life an d spirits as a boy, and above all there
are no limits to h e r ambition .. ..

Milwaukee journal, December 29, 1900

Such a line of ancesu·esses as she has-this twentie th centur y girl!


v\Then she begins life next Tuesday morning she rnust take just
a look back at them. Ninetee n, in a great gallery it has taken 1,900
years to build; and \·Vhose ninetee n pictures have bee n more cun-
ningly painted than anythi ng Sir Joshua ever did.
What are they like-these nineteen women who will act as god-
mothers to the twentieth cen tury girl? 1 don't know whether in
you r heart you believe them all to have been greatly the inferiors
of girls of today as you know them. I don't know whether you look
clown on the twentieth ce ntur y g irl and think she is pre ny sure to
go backward. But I know what I th ink about h er-this new, new
woman who is to work for he r own position side by side with the
n ineteen who have gone before.
The woman of the first ce ntury. That one does noL seem to you
7'2 Yesterday's Future: The Twentit?th Century Begins

a real woman , does she? When you see her pictured in white gar-
ment5 \\'ith a light about he r head; ,,·hen you see her on the j o ur-
ney imo Egypt by nigh t; and seated in the manger with tJ1 e wise
men, can you imagine her the first in th e line that came after, wi th
its gay li ttle f·igures, decked ou l in powd e r and p lumes and
patches? Least of' all, can yot1 imagine he r having anything at all
in common with the tailor-made looking li ttle person who sta nds
a t the end o f th e line , and is just taking h er re luctant place as an
ancestress, too?
from tha t first century woman to th e girl of the end of the
centu ry seems a far cry; from he r, who is before eve ryone the type
of perfect womanhood, to the maid with th e side-wise pompadour
and the go lr sk irt and the shirtwaist and the many rings.
Now, I dare say that there is to you something a b it shocking at
this succession. Tdare say that, a lthough you can nor. quite tell why,
)'OU fee l some way as if there is no justification in bringing those
two, as types, side by side. And because you do fee l that way, as I
do too, I want to ask you two th ings:
First: If the compariso n shocks you a little, as a n ineteenth cen-
tury girl, what have you as a nin e tee nth centur')1 girl , done to make
it shocking?
And second: Can ·t you see Lhat those two are noL so far removed
art.er all , as differences would ind icate?
Because I can . And these are some of the reasons why:
When the nineteen th ce n tury girl is mentioned I suppose
everybody forms an involu n tar y picture such as the one at wh ich
I j ust h inted : A picture all bi cycles and golf a nd chic and inde-
pe ndence. I wonder whether the ninetee nth century girl has de-
served that? l wonder whether she really does deserve to have fin
de siecle a te rm of opprobrium as it some way is? After next Tues-
day that word will be a dead letter, a nd peace co its ashes. T he
word was all right, but we said it wrong. Th e ni neteen th centu r y
girl was always more than we gave her credit for.
v\!e cartooned the n ineteenth century girl. Our j okes and our
stories and th e half n-uths we told always exaggerawd her. Al l he r
little foibl es we magnified and called ourselves clever to do so.Just
p ut away your idea of the nin eteenth century girl for a little, and
think of her as she really is, and see wh ether that succession from
the first century is one so ir npossible after all.
·what is the use ofjudging all women by tJ1e strictly fi n de siec le
girl-to rcson to tJ1at term for once- whom \\'C have picuired as
REFLECT IONS ON A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 73

THE TWENTIETH-CENTUR.Y GIRL

HER NINETEENTH-CENTURY SISTERS ·DRINK A TOAST TO HER FtJTUR.E

Milwaukee .Journal, December 31, 1900.

all chic and dash and no mind at all? Or why judge them by the
women whom we have p ictured as all rnind- strong mind-and
n ot enough chic and dash to make a prese ntable appearance?
Vifhy, the girls who a re accounted up-to-elate girls, and that's all ;
or the girls who are accounted club women , a nd that's all; or the
74 Yesterday's Future: The Twenl.ieth Centu1)1 Begins

girls who earn their living-non e of these, as one class, h as a right


to be the type of the ninc leenth century girl. Ye t eve r yone who
speaks lip;hll )' of her, has in mind som e on e of these classes in
whom he has disbelief, and with whom Lhe re lOre he classes a ll
other possible women.
v\lh at of the nineteenth century girls who a re true and good
and since re a nd square? \ Vhat of the nine tee n th century girls wh o
1

believe in peo pl e, and do no l account the mselves weak to do so?


\\That of the girls who work and contrive for otJ1e rs, who support
1

themselves, who spend th e ir time in work and fun and hon esL
effort for oth ers, altogether?
Haven't these girls, who a re everywhere, the right to hear lhe rn-
selves call ed th e typical nine tee nth century g irl at last?
And instead , we all look th e m over, and no te a loud gown he re,
and a pe rt littl e face th e re, a nd a good bit of su-ong mindedness
somewhere e lse , and we say straight1vay with up lifted eyebrows:
'This nin e teenth centu ry g irl. ·what is she coming to?"
Well, I will tell you to what I think she is coming. I think she is
coming to nothing but good. I think that if much that sh e does
cannot be a pproved, m ore of il can. 1 think Lhat she is all ge ner-
osiry and charity, and a good d eal of the time she is all sinceriry;
because wh e n she isn't sincere she doesn ' t always know it. I beli eve
that in anoLh e r hundred years, if we were a ll he re to see, we should
see a world or women Lhat would do tJ1e world more credit tha n
it deserves.
Wh y, sec he re. Suppose it had gone the othe r way. Suppose
that instead or evolving what was beautiful in dress, and gracious
in manne r, and e legant in her house furnishing and ta ble
service-the n ineteenth century woman had leaned toward li n-
sey-woolsey and sh ingled hair and stone chin a? Su ppose that her
Indian and Norman and wh at not ancesu·y had cropped up in a
desire to do nothing but me nial service, and suppose she h adn ' t
cared for p re LLy things, and up-LO-date ways of doing things? Ca n
you think how everything would have gone? Does any man , I
wonder, be lieve that he wo uld have h ad th e same pleasure in
going home lO a wife who wo uld have welcomed him in homespun
and short. hair, that there is in seeing he r in a gown whic h he
wonders at a nd is proud of, a nd who says th ings at which he
laughs, and in which h e de lig hts-all the while he is te lling he r
she is extravagant and fri\'o lo us too?
REFLECTIONS ON A CE. T U RY OF" PROGRESS 75

Som e of the cxtravaganc<.: and some of the fr ivolity or the n ine-


lc<.: n th century girl are aboul Lhe most civilizing influences I know!
You think this doesn 't sou n d much like a ce ntury sermon , per-
h aps? ·well, I don 'L know. l don't know really why it docsn 't. If you
can come to believe a liu Jc; more in somebody of whom you ha,·e
made light, if you can come to see a good deal of good where you
had looked for on ly a liulc, th at is all a sermon can do.
l d o want the nineteenth cenniry girl to b e better. I want h er
Lo be more sincere, and more business like, a nd more orderly,
and more square. I wan I h er to be broad-minded, but first I want
her Lo knovv what b e ing broad-m inded is; I want h er to appreciate
h er family and to be loyal to th e m; I want her to spea k just as little
evil of people as sh e ca n ; 'I want her not to like to hurt people
deliberately; not willi ngl y to do any wrong at a ll. And I believe she
wi ll be like this.
I belie,·e it, b ecause I belie ,·e she is like t his n ow, \\'ith all the
liu le frivolities- civilizing frivolilies I said. I believe that sh e is
good.
And if you, for insrance, are nut-the thing Lo do is not to judge
til e rest. Il is simply to realize thal you are behind th e times. You
a rc too old-fashioned to b elong to a new century!
So h e re's a toasc to th e n ineteenth cencury g irl , who, Tuesday
m orni ng, will welcome a n ew title with which she can do what she
pleases.
The ne"· title will be a heritage. Use it well. Be lieve that you are
as good as I have said you arc, if you are. Bue be lieve that everyone
else is, too. And that will be new cen tury enough without th e
calendar.
Not all Wisconsin ne\\'spapn·~ approvt:d of changes in wu11w11 's srnn1s. By
publishing the following humorous poem, e ntitled "Fin de Sicclc
(;randmother, ~one edi tor 1;xpressccl his ambivalence about huw some
\\'Omt:n 's lives \vere changing.

/)air, Recorde1; Demnber 22, 1899

T he grandma in her cap o r snow,


Who by th e h earthstone used Lo sit,
And in th e firelight's ch eerful glow
With flying finge rs used Lo knit,
Is gone alack-a-day!
76 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centu:1y Be1:,rins

She used to make such g in ge rbread ~


\t\That seed cakes, too , she used to bake!
Fit for a king, the children said,
Was grandma's golden johnny-cake,
But she has passed away.
Quite diffe rent is grandma now,
Her office is a sinecure ;
No wrinkles corrugate her brow;
Her h a ir is la pompadour;
She wea rs a demi-train.
She laug h s at signs of flilting years;
No spectacles rest on he r nose;
At things old-fashioned grandma sneers;
A lorgnette Lakes wh e re' e r she goes
I-luno-
b
bv a ()'olden
Jb
chain.
Coarse knilting work she does not love ,
Tho ugh oft she spins upo n her \vheel;
Her ball dress fils her like a glove,
Her snowy n eck does not conceal
The fashion of today.
Of cook-book rules sh e has no need,
On mental culture is sh e bent,
And Robe rt's Rules d ocs gra ndma read,
She ofa club is President;
And she has come to stay.

"Our Progress Has Been Great"


At the e nd of' the nin c tec nL11 ce ntur~-, .\·lilll'a ukc:e's African-America n
popu lal ion \\'<ls still guile small. amo untin g w o nly 862 of the city's
285.3 1;, i 11 h;i hi1.an L~. Tht' co rn mun ity was. h owe,·er, highly self-aware an d
had its nwn press, churches, and other instilulions. In this ccli1orial,
tvli.l waukn"s h lack newspape r re fl ec ts oo Al'rir;111 Americans' i111por1.anl
advan ces during the pasl cc11Htl')'.

(Milwr11dm Wisconsin We.Phi)' Advocate, Derl'lnber 2'7, 1900


1)

At the close of the cent.ury it is approprimc that \.Ve look back and
review the hisLOry of our race in lhi.s country during th at period.
Al th e beginning of the century now clos ing, as is we ll known to
a ll of us, we were in a condir.io n of pupilage and bondage. Some
H EFLECT !ONS ON A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 77

few were the toys and pastimes of massa or missus, while Lhe great
m ~jority were sul~ject to a taskmaster as hard or even harder than
him of ancient Egypt.
As time crept on to the middle of the centu ry public sentiment
began to be awakened to the fact that all human be ings, white or
black, were men and h ad the ir part to fill in God 's great plan. This
sentiment crystallized in the great abolition move ment which cul-
minated in the aboli tion decree of the immorta l Linco ln during
o ur Civil war.
The next step in our advancement was the fourteenth and fif-
teenth amendments to the Constitution of the Un ited States,
wh e re by we were received into the full citizensh ip of these same
states, with all the r iglHs a nd privileges connected the rewith, and
as be ing on an equal footing wiLh people of all other climates or
cou ntTies. That some states, exercising their state privileges have
recently to some extem, nullified these amendme nts, is, in our
op in ion, so much the worse for those states.
Now, having been received into this full citizenship , what are
t:he results we can show to the world as a justil:icalion of these
several acts? vVe assert tha t, considering the long pe riod during
which our race was in slave ry, it has progressed more Lhan any
other known to history cluri ng the same period of Lime. Statistics
we re given in this paper a few weeks ago, showing the value of
property acquired during the last fifty years, r.he advance in edu-
catio n, in relig-ious organizations, etc., fully proving this fact.
But, reaching the close o f a cen tury, we natura lly reach the close
of a year, and this year of J900 has been one of very vital interest
to the negro race in the United States. The acr.ion of the Legis-
latu res of several Sou thern stales is bound to have a far-reaching
effect, as we have of lat:e freque ntly pointed out. T he discrimina-
tion in dealing out lynch law to a negro and not to a ·w hite man
guilty of the same oflense has also been frequently d ealt with in
these columns, and needs no further comment he re. If our sub-
scribers have clone us the ho nor of following up the plan we have
pursued chuing th e past year in presenting to them all current
news of interest to th e race, they must have seen that it has been
prolific in men and women of the race, who are rapidly forging
ahead in almost every direction- in literature, music, politics, ath-
letics: facts culled from the c urren t n ews of th e day.
But whi le our progress has been great-eve n ma rvelous, under
the circumstances-th e faults, for which we alone must now be
78 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centu1)1 Begins

held responsible, remain , and the greatest of these is in our opin-


ion a Jack of self-reliance-a remnant and he irloom of serfdom ,
and this must be shaken off. Perhaps the next greatest fau lt, and
especially in this fair city o f Milwaukee, is the want of co hesion,
of comraclism , and in their place a condi tion of jealousy and sus-
picion and e nvy of one 's neighbor. Such things should not be. We
must re me mber the words: "A house divided against itself cannot
stand."
We wish al this time to render our tha nks to all patrons a nd
subscribers who have stood by us during the three years we have
had the honor and pleasure of producing this paper. To them, as
well as to a ll of our race in Milwaukee and elsewhere, we wish a
happy and prosperous New Year.

"Our Splendid System of Public Education"


By t.he beginning of the twen1ielh century, education was available to
ma11y mon; Am e ricans than it had been when the nineteenLh cent.u1»'
began. In the following pi<::ee, Green Bay school sup c rintcnclem
Frederick G. Kracge reviewed Lhis e xpansion in ccl11e<nional oppunu11it\'.

(Union Congregational Churrh, Green Bay) Unionist, Decembt>1; 1900

Of all the ce nturies in th e world's history, the nineteenth century


has on th e whole recorded the greatest progress of th e human
race . Development so rapid , changes so stanling, inve ntions so
undreamed of, crowd eac h 0 1..h er in a whirl o f confusing images
when we 1sy to picture this centur y and note its achievements.
Indeed, in some departme nts of human activity greater advance-
ment has been made during this century than in all or the pre-
ceding centuries combined. It may be safely asserted also that in
no direction has greater progress been made than in education.
Rousseau first set the world r.o thinking of the child and its
psychologi cal clevelopme n t, but it was no t umil 1869 that th e first
scien tific investigation oft.he child's inte llectual life was made in
Berlin. S.ince that: time unde r the wise leadership of Dr. G. Stan ley
Hall and Pro[ Earl Barnes ol' our own country, despite the ridicule
heaped upon its enthusiasts by the skeptica l, child study has be-
come a scie nce and a knowledge of the laws governing th e evo-
lmion of the physical, inte ll ec tual and m oral powers of the c hild,
is regarde d as an essential qualification of Lhe teacher.
At th e beginning of th e century, any pe rson who possessed a
REFLECTIONS ON A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 79

limi ted amount of scholasLic attainments was deemed competent


to assume the role of teach er; today it is regarded equally i mpor-
tant that the pe rson should understand the laws of the de velop-
ment of the chi ld to be taught, and should be ski lled in the ir1eth-
ods of using the subjects of study to assist the unfoldment or his
powers. No definition of education now limits its meaning to
mind-storing, or to mind-sw ring ·with ability to reproduce at ex-
aminations what is in the mind.
The kinde rgarten became the first objective representation of
the great truth that children may be aided in their developrnent
by supplying them with material to stimulate their creative activity
and by utilizing their self-activity and even their play to this end.
According to Froebel himself, the purpose of the kindergarte n is
"to take oversight over children before th ey are ready for school
life; to exerc ise their senses; to strengthen their bodily powe rs; to
employ th eir awaken ing mind; and to make them thoughtfully
acquainted with th e world of nature and of man."
No educatio nal reform of the century has been received with
greater favor by the public than the introduction of physical and
manual training into the work of the schools. The feeling has
grown apace that the o ld education de pended too much on
books; that it neglected the physical development of the child;
that it did nol provide adequately for developme nt of the creative
powers of the mind; that consequently it was one-sided and panial,
and that it tended to foster a distaste for common manua l labor.
Manual training does not aim at the teaching of any one trade,
nor does it impart merely superficial acquaintance with many
trades; but it gives a thorough course on instruction, bOLh theo-
retical and practical, in the principal operations of all rrades, a nd
thus brings students a long way o n towards the learning of many
trades.
Ever since the fourtce!1lh century the de mand for individual-
ism for representation in the schools has been made, but it was
not until this century that the significance of the individual as a
member of society has been justly recognized. With a view to sup-
plying the needs of the individual, courses of study h ave been
multiplied and enriched, first in the universities and colleges, then
in the secondary schools, and lastly in the grades, until those who
have found it cliflicult to kee p pace have become alarmed. The
elective syste rn has been introduced into lhe colleges and second-
ary schools, despite the fact lhat many conse rvative educators still
80 Yesterday's P'ttlure: The Twentieth Century Begins

l fl. li < X ,l)21 1 il~

Ph:vsi.ml ellucation was regarded as an irnj1ortanf. innovation o/ llu~


nineteenth centu1)1. Girl~playing basketball at the Hillside Home School
11N1r SjJring Green, 1900.

question Lhe wisdom of' allowing sluden ts in th ese schools a I im-


itecl amount of freed om in the ch o ice of the .studies that they
pursu e. T he elective system, first imroduced in our country at
Han·ard, in 1826, is regarded by President Eliot as one of the
g reatest educational reforms of the century.
Th e th eo1·y of evolution, which was at first bitterly antagonized
because i111perfecdy understood, has permeated eve ry moveme n t
of the cen mry, educational and othe r wise. It has shed a flood of
light upon educati onal and social problems hitherto dark. Psy-
chological investigations have established the fact that societ)' is a
vast psychic organism, that there is an evolution of society as well
as of the individual and that socia l traditions and customs react
upon individuals and a re in turn modified by thcrn. Instead of
REF l.F:CTIO~S Oi\ A CENTU RY or PROGRESS 81

being opposed to religio n, as was at first supposed, this Lheory,


verifi ed by scientific invcstigalion, has been incorporated in lo the
rheo logy as well as into 1he educational and soci;;il theo ries of the
clay.
At the beginning of th e centu ry but ver y few colleges and uni-
versities \\'ere open to women. a nd separate secondary schools
were maintained fo r girls. Today co-education is the general rule
and the h igher instituLions of learning that do not open their
doors to women are a nomali es. Despite all predicLi ons to the con-
trary, women have demonstrated Lheir ability to riva l t.h eir broth-
e rs and win a large proporti on of educational honors. At the be-
ginning of lhe century b111. few trades and none o l' t.h e professions
we re open to women ; a l it.-; close there are but few 1rncles or pro-
fessions in which they a rc not. e ngaged ....
The century's progress in education has bee n truly man ·elous.
As the nin eteenth century dra"·s to a close, th e cducat.ional out-
look is full of promise. Standing on the threshold of Lhc t\\'entieth
century, with such an un preceden ted record of achievement we
have reason to expecL t.hal the new century wi ll give abundant
fru iLage to the work which has bee n done in the ol d.

Colkgcs a nd universities a lso r lrn11 gcd dramatically cluri11 ~ !lit·


nin c l<:c nth century. as puhlir i11stitu1i o ns such as th e U11iVl'rsi1.y of
Wiscon sin mad e hig h er cd11rn1io11 for more accessible.

(Kenosha) Telegraph-Courin; .January 17, 1901

The h istory of the closing years of the nineteenth century indi-


cates that in dustrial and educational condi tions in the beginning
of' the twentieth centu ry will be jusl the reve rse or th e conditions
at. Lhe beginn ing of th e nin e teenth. It is a remarkabk f~1ct that for
the first two-thirds of the nin e teenth century, or from its incipi-
e ncy down to the close of 1he civil war, there was a n actual decline
in th e number of studems who graduated a t Lhc various colleges
in proportion to Lhe populatio n. The demand fo r i11struc tion in
Lhe libe ral ans acmally fell off in this counu-y during that time, in
consequence of th e diversion into industrial pu rsui t'i of the most
promising young me n , to whom th e reward of business was more
aLU·active th an the d eligh 1s of'l earning. r\s a resu lt, while the coun-
try was developing indus1ri ally and growing in wealth , the conser-
vative influence of high er a nd liberal education was being lost.
82 Yesltmlay 's Future: The Twentieth CenlUI)' Begins

The schoo l and the college were deserted for the counLi ng room ,
the highways or liberal learn ing for lhe thoroughfares of com-
merce.
The p resent great wealth of the UniLed States is l;u-gely a result
of this rush to comme rcial pursuits that marked the (irst sixty years
of the old cenlury. The movement was also producLive of the
antagonisLic social conditions that a re Lhe heritage of th e new
century. An increase in wealth, with a differentiation in the two
extremes or the scale, unprecedented in history, has been ac-
companied by an accumulation of disturbing conditions, which
it will tax Lh e wisdom and the patience of' the presen t generation
to deal wiLh.
Bur the conditions that created the e normous wealth and the
social questions which are perplexing Lhe people of lOday, have
turned upon themselves. There has been a reaction toward liberal
education that presents, at the beginning of the presenc century,
a state of affairs diame trically opposite that of one hundred years
ago. ·wha L might be call ed a surfeit o r wealth, created ac the ex-
pense of the educational institutions and fear.ures of o ur society,
is now be ing used in the se rvice of edu cation. The c losing years
of the nin e tee nth cen tury witnessed the greatest endowments of
educational institutions known to histo ry. Cornell, Johns Hopkins,
Chicago Un ive rsity and Le land Stanford , a ll the creawres of phil-
anthropic beq uests, have sprung into ex istence in a comparatively
few years. Ivloreover, then; has bee n a wide con tribution LO schools
already founded, both state and denomin ational, such as the State
University of California, whic h has bee n given a new lease of life
by the magnificent gifts or i\1frs. Hearsl.
Thus, j ust. as the momentous proble ms growing ou L of the
slraine cl soc ia l conditions a re beginning Lo look most menacing,
the ide n tical conditions that promor.ed the questio ns build up
educationa l institutions, in which men and women sha ll be edu-
cated to properly deal with them. Most importan t o r a ll the edu-
cational institutions that the reactional wave of publi c sentiment.
is nursing to full strengll1 is the State Un iversity. It is the clima.'X
of our sp len did system of public in structio n and the most repre-
sentative and rypical republican insti1u1.ion of learning. Like the
governmen l, it is "of th e people, by the people a nd for 1he peo-
ple." What it is capable or be ing is evidenced in Wiscon sin, Michi-
gan, lVlinn esota and Ca li fornia. vVhat it is lia ble to dege nerate to ,
unless given the most jealous care by the people of Lhe state, is
IU:Fl.F.CTIO:\S ON A C ENTU KY OF PROGRESS 83

d emonstrated i n many of th e twenty-three states ou tside o f th ose


m e ntio ned, which su p port a state university. Il must b e g u arded
against th e influence of political opin ion or p arry inre rest, and
even against the rivalry of great universities founded on th e wealth
o r charitably inclined multi-m illionaires, for no insli tu tion of
learning is more d irectly and entirely the people's and o capa b le
or absolute freedom rrom prejudice as the state institution.
It is a matter of just pride to th e Badgerite th at the universi ty
al Madison is in the van of the educational institutions of t he land,
and th at it is a leading represen tative o f th at typically American
class of schools, the state universi ties. But while ·w isconsin has, by
dint of years of endeavor, created a noble school of training, there
are other sch ools o r a similar n a m re, which, through constant
ch anges in the legislature, and selfoee king party leaders, h ave not
o nly had th e ir d evelopme n t hindered but h ave bee n de liberately
crippled. On the eve of wh at promises lo be a great educational
revival, it is well for Lhe people of\1\lisconsin to prepare to protect
th e ir state university from these dangers and mainta in th e high
standard it has achicYed.
In the nineteenlh ccntur~-, the deaf made rc1m1rkable progress in
gaining access to educcilio n . The fo llowing arLicle, which tJ1c nt:wspapc1·
or tlie Wisco nsin Sc hoo l for the Deaf' reprinte d [roman Iowa public.::u ion
for the hearing irn paircd , lists the advances 1ha1. m ade sch oolin g
ava ilable to t·h e deaf in Lh c nin e tee nth ce ntur y. T he piece a lso 1·c fl ccLs
th e school's support for pioneering educator T h onuL~ Hopkins
Callaudet's insu·uctional method of co111bi11i11i; sign language and oral
speech.
(Wisconsin Sclwol for the Dmf, Delavan) I Visconsin Ti mes,
January 24, 1901
During the nine teenth century the edu cation of the dear was
m ade possible in th e fo llowing vario us ways:
The first practical system of instruction as inu-oduced by Gal-
lm1det and Clerc in America.
The manual alp h abe t.
The sign la n guage.
The first college for th e deaf in the wo rld at ·washington, 0. C.
T he industrial train ing in nearly a ll the schools.
The ch u rch work among the deaf.
T h e national a n d sta te association s of the deaf.
And lite 1·ary, social, and mutu al ben efi t organizations.
School and independent papers for th e deaf.
84 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Century Begins

\\'l li(X'l)278 1.S

Students al. the State Sdwol for the Deaf Delavan, about 1893.

All these facr.ors have never failed to leach the deaf so success-
fully that they have become able to conduct their business affairs
themselves. \!\Th at migh l have beco me of us deaf if Gallaudet had
brought the pure oral me thod to Ameri ca?
The edu cated deaf will always demand that nothing but proper
and correct methods of in struction for the deaf be used. Con-
de mn any an d all methods th at really fail to bring abou t sa tisfac-
tory results.

Some criti cs claimed th at as ed ucational access becam e more


democr<llic. the quality o f karning llad deteriorated in r.hc nin e lec11th
ce ntur y. Charles Fra11cis Ada ms wok on this question in an addn.:ss at
the dcdi c uion or th e ne"· :'\fadiso n h eadquarters or the State His1m·ical
Society nf'\\' isco11si11 on O cw bc r 19. 1900. In his speech , Adams. head of
the :.fassacln1seus Histori cal Soc ie ty and grandson of l'reside n l J o hn
Quinq Adams, asked \Vhc.:lhcr the readership ro1· scrio\ls literal.lire had
fallen o lr i11 the fXL~ t ccnwry.
REFl .ECTIONS ON A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 85 .

C:lutrles Francis Adarns, The Sdltl(t Crain and the Omin Si/t1 rs.
1

Ot:lo/Jer 19, 1900

... There is a widespread irn p ression among those n1ore or less


ciua lified co for m a n o pin ion that the general capac it)' for sus-
tained reading and thinking has not increased or been su·ength-
cned \\ith the passage or Lhc years. On the con 1nry, the indica-
tions, it is currently supposed. are r ather or e masculation.
Everything must now b e made easy and shon. Th e re is a co nstant
d e m and felt, especially by our p e riodical press, for information
o n all sorts of subjects,-h iswri cal, philosophica l, scicn til'i c,-but
it 111ust be set forth in wlrnt is known as a popular style, that is
introduced into the reade r i11 a species of sugared capsule, and
with o u t leaving any ann oying taste on the intellec tua l palate. The
average reader, it is said , wan ts to know something co n cerning all
th e LOpics o f the d ay; but. wh ile it is highly desirable he should be
gratified in this laudable, th ough languid, craving, h e m u st not
bc fatigued in the effort o f' acquisition , and h e will not s ubmit to
be bored. It is then furth er argu ed that this was n oL lhe case for-
m e rl y; thal in what are common ))' alluded to as "lh c good old
or
lim es, ''-always the tim es the g randparents,-peoplc had fewer
hooks, and fewer p eople read ; but those who did read, deterred
n e ithe r by number of" pages nor by dryness of" trea tm e nt, were
e qual to the feat of reading . To-d ay, on the contrary, a lmost no
o n e rises to more than a magazine article; a volume appalls.
T his is an extremely in ten:sti ng subject of inquiry, were lhe real
facts o nh·. attainable. nfonunateh·, theY. are not. We arc fo rced to
deal with impressions; and impressions, alwavs vague, are usually
d eccptin::. At the same time, when glimpses of a m o rc o r less re-
mote past do now and again reach us, they seem to indicate mental
concl ilions calculated LO excite our special wonde r. We do know,
for instance, that in Lhe o ld e n days,-before public libraries and
pe riodicals, and the mode rn cheap press and the Sunday n ewspa-
pe r we re devised,-whe n books were rarities, and re ading a some-
what rare accomplishme nt , -the Bible, Shakespeare, fJa.rrulise Lost,
the Pilgrim 's Progress and Ho/Jinso11 Crusoe, the Sj1ertotor a nd Tatter,
Br1nnws · Semwns and H1111u<r llislm)' of England \\'e re Lhe standard
hou se hold and fami lr li LCrau 1rc; and the Bible was read and reread
un til iL'i slightest allusions passed into familiar speech .... The ques-
1i o 11 suggests itself, were there giants in those d ays?-or did the
read er ask for bread, and did th ey gave him a ston e? ...
86 Yesterda)' 's Future: The Twentieth Centur)1 Begins

It would be difficult to mark more strikingly the d eve lopment


of a century, than by thus presenting 1-ht.mP'.~ Hist01)1and Rollin as
typical of what was deem ed light and popular reading at one end
of it, and the Sunday ne,vspaper at the other. As I have already
intimated, they were either g iants in those days, or husks supplied
milk for babes. Recurring, however, to present conditions, the
popular d emand for historical literature is undoubtedly vastly
larger that it was a century ago; nor is it by any means so clear as
is usually assumed that the solid reading and thinking power of
the community has at all deteriorated. That yet remains to be
proved. A century ago, it is to be born e in mind, there were no
public libraries at all, and the private col lections of boo ks were
comparative ly few and small. It is safe, probably, to assume that
there are a hundred , or eve n a thousand, readers now to one
then .... In 1796, also, the re were not a te nth part of the insti tu-
tions of advanced education in the country which now exist. The
statistics of the publishing houses and the shelves of the boo ksell-
ing establish ments all point to the same conclusion. or cou rse , it
does not fo llow that because a book is boughL it is also read; but
it is not unsafe co say that twenty copies of Gibbon's Derline and
Fall are called for in the bookstores of to-day to one that was called
for in 1800 . ...
"True Spirit of Religion"
\ilany Wisconsin newspapers noted that relig ion. like oth e r endeavors,
had changed over the past century. Of course, their e\·aluation of
religious change varied with the ir beliefs. T he amh or of r.he first pit:ce,
Thomas Edward 13arr, supported religious experimems such as the lH9'.1
World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago and began a
nondcnom inat:ional "Peo ple':; Pulpit" at l'vlilW<lUkce's Pabst Theate r i11
1900.

Milwaukee Sentinel, December 31, 1900

... The Nineteenth century fo lds away the most glorious story of
human life in history. Th e rights of man have been defined and
established as never before, until even China lifts slowly in lo na-
tional consciousness. Comforts have multiplied until we can not
think ourselves into the barren happiness of the Colon ial days.
The splendor of culture from brilliant genius is in the hands of
the most humble, invention has u-ansform ed life, and commer-
cial ism, the d evelopment and satisfaction of the wants of rnan,
proves itse lf the chief spur and agency or civilization .
REFLECTIONS ON A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 87

The religious changes or the century arc equally greaL. Re li-


gious u-uth has become the property of the general public. We
can realize how fully the c le rg)'rnan of a century ago was, in his
domain, an in tellectual a uLocrat. Now every novelist. has his shy at
the problem . Re ligion is a matter of present c:baracter and expe-
rience. Before we accept a rnan 's profession o f faith we ask, has
he integrity in human relal.ionships?-for we de ny the divorce or
religion and morality. Religion seeks a scientific basis and state-
ment. Our be lief<; were thoughL out in an age when there was no
physical science. Hence, the development of science brought con-
troversy. Now we demand that. the essential harmony of religion
and science be shown, and thaL the basis and nalure and method
of religious life be stated scient.ificaJly,just as is clone in any branch
of truth.
The whole fabric of teachings based on lh e idea of fear has
broken down. The reaction to scepticism is only temporary. Me n
are corning to a sane view of God in the true faith of all the ages.
T he humanilarian side of religion is in Lhe foreground. Hence,
the religiotis sentiment of o ur day has a glad freeness which was
not a century since, but which makes possible a fellowship of hon-
est spirits, as was shown in the Parliament of Re ligions, and which
is the secret of our deve loping sense of broth erhood. Only in
method we are still laggard. The principles of management which
have buill up our great industries are followed by few religious
orders, and lhey are the ones whose work grows a pace.
The same wealth of knowledge and power and opportunit)'
which in all other ways makes resplendem th e opening of the
Twentieth ce ntury b1ighLe ns and hallows the future of our re li-
gious life. We arc getting a closer definition or the function and
province of religion. In olde n clays religion covered every deta il
of life from birth to burial. Many now say it should be wholl)' se l
aside, save LO influence children and to give man hope when he
leaps from his death bed into lhe dark. We say it must inform life
with an influe nce affecting ever y detail.
The function of religion is lO establish the mind and heart in
the truth concerning th e Unseen and our relationships to it; and
to develop and establish the character and present relationships
of manly emphasis on the worth and dignity of the spiritual nature
of all men. Hence, the province of religion is not to teach m edi-
cine or sanitation, literary criticism, politics or sociology, but to
show that me n are linked in a subtle and vital brotherhood as al l
88 Yesterday's Future: Th e Twentieth CenlUJ)' Begins

children of the living God; t.hat all true progress is wward and in
the realization of this; that the Unseen is Lhe potency of all present
life. We 1.raverse all fields, to find and rt;joice over and insist upon
the true spirit of religion ....

Ripon Advance Press, lJerember 28, 1899

A hundred )'ears ago ste rn theology taught that lunacy was pos-
session by the devil and tha t the unsound in mind should be pun-
ished on earth in order that they mig ht: escape damnat.ion here-
after; it taught that epid emics resulted, not from th e violation or
nature's laws, but from the wrath of the Divine Being, manifested
for sins frequently entirely unconnected with the causes of the
frightful pestilence; it still countenanced belief in witchcraft, it
opposed vaccination and other preventives of disease, it upheld
slavery, and it persecuted those who dared to differ from any of
iL<> teachings. A hundred years ago a Christian thought it his reli-
gious dllly Lo refuse all dea lings with an atheist, and that oppro-
brious term was more often bestowed th e n than now; a Unitarian
was an object of bitter dislike to an Episcopalian, a Baptist believed
that a Qua ker would not go to heaven, a strict PresbyLerian refused
to allo'>v his d aughter to wed one who was not a church member,
and in England , J ews were denied legal privileges.
During Lile nineteentJ1 ce nl.Llr)'. Catholics haci g rown from ;i s111all
minority Lo one of Lhe largest religio us groups in America. Cath o lic
influenct: was es pecially apparent in Wisco usin wiLh its large Polish and
German communities.

(Milwaukee) Catholic Citizen, December 29, 1900

There have been many wonderful things which have profoundly


influenced the destinies or men, both for weal and for woe, that
date their birth during some of the eventful years of Lh is centur y;
but great as they are, we cannot but co nsider the we lfare of the
Church oCGod as the greatest ofall. ln all ages, throug h he r divine
organization as well as through the gifts she bears unto men, she
can easily lay claim to being the m.ost potent factor in the social
and intellecrnal evolution of man. Sh e lifted man up fro m the
condition of serfdom a nd endowed him with both civil and reli-
gious free dom; she elevated woman ; she inspired th e ans; she
trained the barbarian and taught him th e highest civic virtues; she
REFLECTIONS ON A CENT URY OF PROCRESS 89

created the mode rn civilization whi ch we enjoy. In estimating the


facto rs that have innuenced the lives of men she musLbe given a
place far ahead of al l the others. As the re is no passion so strong
in the human heart as that of religi o n , she who is the external
embodiment of it has moulded and modified the ways of men as
no other power has done . In making a hasty survey of lhe last one
hun dred years it is from her po int of view we must look, and
through her eyes we must estimate 1.hc progress of the ,..,,.oriel.
She began the ce ntury with li ttle hope of securing many tri-
umphs during its co urse. She was down in the valley of th e shadow
of death. The wise in en of the world seemed to see in her a hoary
old institution, bearing with some dignity the laurels of the past,
though feebly toue ring to her ruin. Judged from worldly stan-
dards, there did not appear to be an y elements of recuperation
within her bosoni; her strength was sapped in the wrinkles and
emaciation of o ld age. The signs of the times were portentous.
T he spirit of re ligion had been d rowned in the streams of blood
of the Revolution in France. Engl and and Germany, who had been
nourished at th e breasts of the Church, had gone out from under
her roof-tree a nd had disowned he r for the poisonous pastures of
heresy. Russia and the East were in d ecadent schism. Austria, like
a spoiled child, attempted to rule the household. Italy and Spain
defended their o ld home, but it was with many insults to their
feeble mother. Humanly speaking, the re was bt{t liule hope that
th e Church wou ld ever rise from he r bed of prostralion and de-
feat. But the ways of God are not Lh e ways of men. 'vVhy have the
Ge ntiles raged a nd the people d evised vain things? " "The kings
of the earth stood up, and the prin ces met together against the
Lord and against. his Christ." ''Let us break their bonds asunder,
and let us cast away their yoke from us. He that dwe lleth in heaven
shall laugh ar. th e m; a nd the Lord shall deride them. T he n shall
he speak to the m in his anger a nd troubl e them in his rage . But
I am appointed king by him over Sion, his holy mountain, preach-
ing His commandments. T he Lord had said to rne: T ho u an m y
son, this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and l will give thee
the Gentiles for thy inheritance, a nd the uttermost parts of the
earth for thy possession. Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron,
and shall break them in pieces like a potter's vessel."
The princes of lhe earth had raged agai nst the Ch urch a nd the
people had de,·isecl vain things, and now, after every a ntagonist
has exhauste d th e resources of his e ne rgies, she has th e Gentiles
90 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth CenlW J Begins

for her inhe ritance and the uttermost bounds of the earth for her
possession.
Many Wisconsin residentsjudg-ed the cemury\ changes in a religious
light. The au tho r of the fr>llowing piece wondered whether che 1m1tcrial
advances or Lhc past hundred yea rs had been matched by mo ral
progres.~. and how religion and morality mighL g uide humanity in Lhc
century 1.0 come.

Green Bay Advocate, j anuw)14, 1901

Another ce n tury has dawned. Of th e centuries past no one has


wimessed suc h wonderful development of the powers and capa-
bilities of the human race as the period of one hundred years just
completed.
As the beginning of a new year is by general consen t recognized
as a time for starting reforms, fo r "swearing off' and desisting from
past evil practices, the beginning of a new century is a time for
retrospection and survey of the past and a determinatio n to rec-
ognize and correct its evils.
The prominent feature of the world's history of the past. hun-
dred years is the remarkable advance that has been made in meth-
ods of product.ion, in the things that tend to material prospe rity.
Along this line the advan ce during the past century has been mar-
velous. T his progress has been more and more rapid in rece nt
times, the growth of ten years past having bee n almost as great as
that of the first half of the century. It seems as if developmen t in
this direction had almost reached the limit.
The progress of the huma n race towards the ideal is not made
by stead)' advancement along all the different lines in which its
capabilities are being d eveloped. Progress in one particular direc-
tion seems to be accompanied by a lack of progress or even ret-
rogression in some other direCLions.
Thus while t.he advanceme n t of the race during the past cen tury
in the development. of Lhose powers which add to its material pros-
perity h as been the greatest ever known in th e h isLory of the world,
there has not been a corresponding advance in other directions.
The race has not made the advance moral!)' Lhat it has finan cially.
The growLh along the lines which tend to th e comfort of th e outer
man is accompanied by a neglect of the inne r life.
There are unmistakable signs that the present century wi ll be
marked by greater attention to the development of the spiritual
REF LECTIONS O N A CENTUR \' OF PROGRESS 91

side of man's nature. \Vithin the past few years there has been a
decided change in the w rre n t of religious thought. Slowly but
sure Iv th e Christian churches are turning their atten tion t.o the
rern~dying of unjust socia l cond itions; a~·e making the bro ther-
hood o f man a substantial , living realiLy instead or a n abstract
the ory. Social reform is a prevai ling topic of discussion. It seems
r.o be the task of the Twentie th century to put into prac tice th e
ideals of li fe which have been vaguely discussed during the past
few years.
During the Nineteenth century we have found out how 1.0 make
the things that might enable us a ll to live in comfort. During th e
Twentieth century we must learn how to use these things so that
a ll ma)' be benefitted by them .
3
A New World of Technology

"The Unfolding Panorama of the New Century"


v\'hile Wisconsin reside n ts re lleCLed o n the g lo ries or the pasL, the)·
e xpected e\·en greater ad\'ances in the coming cc.:ntur r. Most notably.
many believed t.hal the twentielh cemury would be a Lime o f
unparalleled technolog ical progress. National ly known authors as well as
small-town newspape r editors predicte d new in w ntions and scicntilic
advances that would improve the quality of life. While some on<'.:recl
detailed clescriptio11s of d eve lopments in sci1::nce and technolot,ry, 01.hc rs,
such as the following two writers, offered more sweeping visions of tlH:
ne xt hundred years.

Wauj)aca. Post, Derembn 28, 1900

T he passing of the year 1900 marks th e close of the nineteemh


century; it is the rnosl important era, viewe d as a cycle of time,
which any one now living will probably witness. With the New Year
and the New Ce ntury will come new a nd graver responsibiliti es,
for the older we g row the more we realize our position in th e
world; the more full y do we appreciate the wo rk which we, as good
citizens, are called upo n to perform.
T he twentieth century start5 out with its people much be 1.1.e r
equipped for life than did any of its predecessors. In the hund re d
years just passed the advancement along the lines of education,
and through it in the sciences, liberal ans a nd mechanics, have
been most marve lous. vVhe n one stops to think that the applica-
tion of steam as a motive power, and th e use of electricity in a
Lhousand differe n t. ways, to speak of nothing e lse, have been the
products of the past. hundred years, o ne co mmences to realize
how vast the improvement has been. Th e d evelopm ent has not
been confined to any pa rticular science or lin e of work, it has been

92
A N l~ W WORLD OF TECHN OLOGY 93

general and universal. Much of the perfection of this development


has occurred wi thin the memory of the present generation; in
fact, it may be stated thal the inventive inlellect seems to h ave
reached its h eight during Lh e last twenty-five years.
And yel, if one is justified in prophesying for th e future by com-
parison with the past, whal unknown achieve me n ts may be re-
vealed within the h undred years to come? The o utlook would be
ap palling were it not for lli e belief that education a nd enlight-
e nrnent and civilization would keep up with Lhe progress; in facL
wi ll be necessary to, and a part of it, and Lhal Lhe world will as
quickly adjust itself to liquid air, to airships, commu n ications with
othe r planets, to th e transmission of messages on though t waves,
as we in the nineteenth centur y h ave accepted a nd used the steam-
sh ip, th e electric railroad , the telegrap h and the telephone.
The century now drawing to a close has wimcssed many great and
sanguinary wars; let us hope Lhatcivilization will have so far advanced
in another hundred years Lhat universal peace will prevail, that
nations will n ot send fonh the flower of their man hood as targets
fo r e nemy's bullets, that lands and money may be obtained.
The old century closes with a prospect of combined capital bear-
ing down upon the poor; let us hope tlrnt before the next one closes,
lhe doctrine that all men a re entitled to a chance to live, each with
his sha re of th e good things of the world, and thal no one shall be
rich , ir it makes his n eighbor poor-in other words, ll1e doctrine
of brotherly love, will be the universal law of the land.

(Suf1erio1) Leader-Clarion, January 1, 1901

Th e twe ntieth cenwry is born.


What will we do with it? T he mind of man can no t compass the
possibilities of the forthcoming one hund red years. ' \11y seek to
1

prophesy? ''vno is the re so bold as to declare that. he can justly


na me the feat impossible or performance in the realms of science
and natural law?
Who a hundred years ago, would have d eemed possible the
accomplishment of one franional portion of th e marvels that the
man of science a nd the inve ntive genius of the ninetee nth century
have produced from their teeming brains? ...
The material wealth and prosperity of the world, through the
ma ni fo ld and multiform products of the inven tor's fertile brain,
have been increased beyond computation th e past one hundred
Yes lerday'.s Futu re: The Twentieth Cenlw)' Begins

The baby 111'70 y(l(t'r in his steam-powered "Nerv Cenl'll'I)'" sleigh


lmochs the old yrmr on his back. (S-u1Jerior) Evening T e legram,
December 3 1, 1900.

years. The co ming century will see the best of the old retain ed,
while that which cannot stand the test of time and cannot mee1
comparison wi 1h 1hc new must reu·eat before th e ceaseless, end-
less, ir resistible: on rush of enterprise, energy and gen ius.
A NEW \VO RLU OF TECHNOLOGY 95

'W hethe r the century that now steps over the portal of the ages
and enters our lives shall see th e dreams of the savants of all time
real ized, who shall say? In the light of the bygone centur y's deeds,
is there a ny o ne so bold as to declare that the really impossible
e xists? Thal the border line be tween finite and infinite things has
bee n drawn by the omnipotent hand, that its existence is known
to by the unseen, but all see ing eye of I-Jim who knoweth and
cloeth everything, we cannot de ny. But. who, of man's limited and
narrow vision, can tell whe re lies tha t line between the mortal
a nd the d ivine?
In the light of the electricity that p lays about the living wires of
the tele phone and the telegraph-yes, a nd the phonograph a nd
kinetoscope- who can safely predict that the wonders of the Ara-
bian Nig hts shall h ave no place in real life? Who knows when the
gen ii of the lamp and the ring shall rise to endow some thin ker
in h is workshop, some savant in his laboratory, or some scholar in
his library, with the power to pierce the almost infinite and give
unto man th at for which the human race has Longed and for
which it has struggled and to iled , thought and dreamed, for
ce n turies?
Shall we say the twentieth century is Lo pass without the accom-
plishment of marvels we have eith e r not con ceived or, casually
thinking of, have scornfully p assed the m by as the impossible?
Who shall say we shall not see the so-called "impossible" made
possible ere the twentieth century me rges in to the rwen ty-first-
or our children and our c hildren 's ch ildre n, since we cannot live
u ntil the dying embers of the twentie th cen tury have flared up
in to th eir last brightness, e re they fli cker out forever ?
Who is so bold to declare th at the alc hemist, out of his hopes,
prayers and dreams, shall no t evolve the secret that has mystified
a nd to rmen ted the sages of all cycles? Shall the mystery or trans-
mu tati on yet be solved? Shall the master of th e ath anor not bring
us gleaming gold from the dullest dross?
Shall men not rival the swift-winged, swee t-throated lark, and
fl y through the air, in apparent defi a nce of the laws of gravity a nd
all othe r natural laws? Shall we not, without wires and without any
other maLerial signs of comrn unicat.ion, signal, and even wh isper
to, our fr ie nds and kinsfolk, thousands and thousands of miles
away? Shall not the wireless tele pho ne and wireless telegraph, now
a hope, become a reality? Is the realized dream so much more
startling than its a rchetype of today. Wh e n we speak to and signa l
96 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Cenlwy Begins

the voyager on th e smil ing Pacific or t)1)hoon-swept Indian ocean ;


when we thus greet th e friend or brother at Manila, in Paris, on
ancient Nineveh's site, in Alexand ria or in Stamboul, will it be
more wonderful to us than our presen t greetings would see m to
Sir Walter Raleigh, to Roger Wi lliams, or perhaps to George Wash-
ington if these noted dead should rise today?
Shall the twentieth century see us out-Verne Verne and indu lge
in annual jaunts to the g reat orb of light that sheds its luster over
our world with the daily sinking to slumber of the more fi e ry orb
that rules by day? Shall a "trip to the moon" forever be impossible?
Shal l the twentieth century behold the savant in his strange ly-
sce n led laboratory, pungent with the perfumes of a thousand vol-
ati le drugs and essences, and shall it hear him cry in acce nts full
of almost delirious joy: "Eureka!" as he discovers, after years of
patie nt thought and research, experiment and test, the com-
pound that insures death Lo t:he terrible germ of tuberculosis-
the dream of the Ecculapius of every age?
Shall the searcher after deathless fame, by glorious deeds of
d aring, discover the long-sought "Open Sea," and the "bright par-
ticular star" of every bold exp lo re r's constellation of hope- th e
NortJ1 Pole?
Shall the twentieth century see all or part of these things? Shall
we live to behold the extension of t11e field of the finite into what
we have deemed the infiniLe realm-because of our narrowed
scope of intellectual vision? ·w ho can tell? Unroll, and gaze back
over, the scroll of the twentie th ce ntury, and if tempted to sneer
or scoff at any prediction, howeve r, strange or weird it may seem,
pause and reflect before you assert i:hat the unfolding pan orama
of the new-born century shall have no more tluilling wonde rs to
reveal to a generation, perhaps yet unbo r n.

Ccnnan-la11guage newspapers still had a substantial readershi p in


Wisconsin, especially in Mil\\·aukcc. None tJ1eless, C\'en readers of UK'
foreign-language press had eaS)' access LO materials that originally
appeared in English. The Milwauhee 1-1!-ro/d um[ Seebote, a ( ~crma n­
language n ewspape r, printed a transla1ion or an essay by John Elf'rith
\Natkins, .Jr. , a well-known colum11is1 a11d author of more tba11 a hundred
mys tery and detective novels. The Le xi. below is taken from the orig iirnl
F.nglish-language version that appc.:arcd in the Decem ber 1900 issLic of'
the Ladies Horne.fournal, although only Lhc cxccrpLs lhat were translalcd
for the.: Herold nnd Seebole arc prinLc.:d h en::. Walkins speculaLed widel y
abou t the c hanges Americans fa ced in the t·wcntieth centur y.
A NEW \.\!ORLD OF TECHNO LOGY 97

Milwaukee Herold nnd Seebote, January 1, I 901

These prophecies will seem strange, almost impossible. Yet they h ave
come from the most learned and conservative minds in America.
To the w'isest and most careful men in our greatest institutions of
science and learning I have gone, asking each in his turn to forecast
for me what, in his opinion, will have been ·wrought in his own field
of investigation before the dawn of 2001-a century from now.
These opinions I have carefully transcribed.
There will probably be from 350,000,000 to 500,000,000 people
in Ame1ica and its possessions by the lapse of a nother century.
Nicaragua wiJI ask for admission to our Union after the comple-
tion of the great canal. Mexico will be nex t. Europe, seeking more
territory to the south of us, will cause many of the South and
Cen tral American republics to be voted into the Union by their
own people.
T he American will be taller by from one to 1wo inches. His
increase of stature will result from better health, d ue to vast re-
forms in medicine, sanitation, food and athletics. H.e will live fifty
years i.nstead 01.· thirty-five as at present- for he will reside in the
suburbs. The city house will practically be no more. Building in
blocks will be illegal. The trip from suburban hom e to office will
require a few minutes only. A penny will pay the fare.
Hot or cold air will be r.urned on from spigots to regulate the
temperature or a house as we now turn on hot or cold water from
spigots to regulate the temperature of the bath. Cen u·al p lants will
supply this coo l air and heat to city houses in the same way as now
our gas or elect.ricilv is furnish ed. Rising early to build the furnace
fire ~.viii be a task o r the olden times. Ho~11es ,.~,ill have no chimneys,
because no smoke will be created within their walls.
Insect screens will be unnecessary. l\tlosquitoes, house-flies and
roaches will have been practically e xterminated. Boards of health
\Yill have destroyed all mosquito haunts and breeding-grounds,
drained all stagnant pools, filled in all swamp-lands, a nd chemi-
e<1Uy treated all still-water streams. The extermination or the horse
and its stable will reduce the house-fly.
Ready-coo ked meals will be bought from establishme nts similar
to our bakeries of to-clay. They wi ll purchase ma£crials in tremen-
dous wholesale quantities and sell the cooked foods at a price
much lower than the cost of in d ividual cooking. Food will be
served hot or cold to private houses in pneumatic tubes or auto-
98 Yesterday's Future: The Twenlielh Cent1.1:1y Beg·ins

mobile wagons. The meal being over, the dishes used will be
packed and re turned to the cooki ng establishments where they
will be washed. Such wholesale cookery will be done in electric
laboratories rather than in kitchens. These laboratories will be
equipped with electric stoves, and all sorts of electric devices, suc h
as coffee-grinders, egg-beaters, stirrers, shakers, parers, meat-
choppers, meat-saws, potato-mashe rs, lemon-squeezers, dish-wash-
ers, dish-dryers and the like. All such utensi ls will be washed in
chemicals fatal to disease microbes. Having one's own cook and
purchasing o ne's ow11 food will be an extravagance.
Storekeepers who expose food to air breathed out by patrons
or to the atmosphere of the busy stree ts will be arrested with those
who sell stale or adulterated produce. Liquid-air refrigerators will
keep great quantities of food fresh for long inte rvals.
Coal will not be used for heating or cooking. It will be scarce,
but not entire ly exhausted. The earth's hard coal will last until the
year 2050 or 2100; its soft-coal rnines until 2200 or 2300. Mean-
while both kinds of coal will have become more and more expen-
sive. Man will have found electricity manufactured bywater-power
to be much cheaper. Every river or creek with any suitable fa ll will
be equipped with water-moto rs, turning dynamos, making elec-
tricity. A.long Lhe seacoast will be numerous rese rvoirs conrjnually
filled by waves a nd tides washing in. Out of these the war.er will be
constantly falling over revolving wh eels. All or our restless 'vaters,
fresh and salt, will thus be harn essed to do the work which Niagara
is doing to-clay: making electricity for heat, light and fuel.
There will be no street cars in our large cities. All hurry trnffic
will be below or high above ground when brought within city lim-
its. In most cities it will be confined to broad subways or tunnels,
we ll lighted a nd well ventilated, or to high t:restles with "moving-
sidewalk" stair·ways leading to the top. These underground or
overhead streets will teem with capacious automobile passenger
coaches and freight wagons, with cushioned wheels. Subways or
trestles wi ll be reserved for express train s. Cities, therefore, will
be free from all noises.
Photographs will be telegraphed from any distance. If there be
a battle in Ch ina a hundred years hence snap-shots of its most
striking events will be publish ed in the newspapers an hour later.
Even to-day photographs are being telegraphed over short dis-
tances. Pho tographs will reprod uce all of Natu re's colors.
Trains will run two miles a minute, normally; express trains one
A NEW WORLD OF TECHNOLOGY 99

hundred and fifty miles an hou r. To go from Ne w York w San


Francisco will take a day and a night by fast express. There will be
cigar-shaped electric locomotives hauling long trains of ca rs. Ca rs
will , like houses, be artificially cooled. Along the railroads there
, .y-i]] be no smoke, no cinders, because coal wi ll neither be carri ed
nor burned. T here will be no stops for water. Passengers will mwe l
through hot or dusty counr.ry regions with windows down.
Automobiles will be cheaper than horses are to-clay. Farmers
will own automobile hay-wagons, auwm.obile truck-wagons, plows,
harrows and h ay-rakes. A one-pound motor in one of these ve hi-
cles will do the work of a pair of horses or rnore. Children will
ride in automobile sleighs in winter. Automobiles will have been
substituted for every horse vehicle now known. There will be , as
already exist to-day, a utomobile hearses, automobile po li ce pa-
trols, automobile ambulances, automobi le street sweepe rs. T he
h orse in harness will be as scarce, if, indeed , no t even scarcer,
then as the yoked ox is to-day....
Fast elecu-ic ships, crossing the ocean at more than a mile a
minute, will go from New York to Liverpool in two d ays . The bod-
ies of these ships will be built above the waves. T hey wi ll be sup-
ported upon runners, somewhat like those of the sle igh. These
runners will be ver y buoyant. Upon the ir under sides will be ap-
ertures expelling jets of a ir. In this way a film of air wi ll be kept
between th e m and the water's surface. This film, cogether with the
small surface of the runners, will reduce friction against the waves
to the smallest possible degree. Propelle rs turne d by e lecu-icity
will screw themselves through both the water heneath and the air
above. Ships with cabins artificially cooled will be e ntire ly fire-
proof. In storm they will dive below the wate r and th ere await fa ir
weather.
There will be Air-Ships, but they will not successfully compete
with surface cars and water vessels for passenger o r freight traffi c.
They will be main tained as d eadly war-vessels by all military
nations. Som e will transport me n and goods. Oth e rs wi ll be used
by scientists making observations atgrear heights a bove the earth .
Gian t guns will shoot twenty-five miles or more, and will hurl
anywhere within such a radius shells exploding and destroying
whole cities. Such guns will be aimed by aid of compasses when
used on lan d or sea, and telescopes when directed from great
heights. Fleets of air-ships, hiding the mselves with dense, smoky
mists, thrown off by themselves as they move, will flo a t over c ities,
100 Yesterday 's Put-ure: The T wentieth Cenl'W)' Begins

v\!ould even Santa adopt a more 'modem modr1 o/ travel in the twentieth
r:enht·1y? Menasha Even ing Breeze, Der:einber 7900, sujJjJlemertl 2.

fort..ifl cations, camps or fleets. They wi ll surpri.s e foes below by


hurling upon the m deadly thunderbolts. These aerial war-ships
will necessitate bomb-proof forn; , protec te d by great steel plates
over th e ir tops as well as at their sides. Huge forts on \\·heels will
dash across open spaces at the speed o f' e xpress trains of to-day.
T hey will make whac are now known as cavalry charges. Great.
A NEvV WORLD OF TEC HNOLOGY 101

automobile plows will dig deep entrenchrnen ts as fasL as soldiers


ca n occupy them. Rifles will use silent cartridges. Submarin e boats
submerged for days will be capable of wiping a whole navy off the
face of the deep. Balloons and flying machin es wi ll carry tele-
scopes of one-hun dred-mile vision with came ra attachments, pho-
tographing an enemy with in that radius. Th ese photographs, as
distinct and large as if take n from across the street, will be lowered
to the commanding officer in charge of u·oops be low.
Th ere will be no wild animals except in menageries. Rats and
mice will have been exte rmi nated. T he horse will have become
practically extinct. A few of high breed will be kept by the rich for
racing, hunting and exe rcise. The automobile will have driven out
the horse. Cattle and sheep will have no horns. They will be un-
able to run faster than the fattened hog of to-clay. A century ago
the wild hog could o utrun a horse. Food anima ls will be bred to
expe nd practically all of the ir life energ·y in prod uci ng meat, milk,
wool and other by-products. Horns, bones, muscles and lungs 'Nill
have been neglecr.ed.
Man will see around the world. Persons and things of all kinds
will be brought within the foc us of cameras connected electrically
with screens at opposite ends of circui ts, th ousands of miles at a
span . American audien ces in thei r theatres will view upon huge
curtains before them the coronations of kings in Euro pe or the
progress of battles in the Orient. The instrument bringing these
d istant scenes to the very doors of people will be connected with
a gian t telephone appara tus mmsmitting each inc idental sound
in its appropriate place. T hus the guns of a d istant battle will be
heard to boom when seen to blaze, and thus th e li ps of a remote
acto r or singer will be heard to utter words or music when seen
to move.
Wireless telephone and lelegraph circuits will sp<m the world.
A husband in the middl e of the Atlantic will be able to converse
with his wife sitting in he r boudoir in Chicago. We will be able LO
telephone to China qui te as readily as we now talk from New York
to Brooklyn. By an a utomatic signal they will connect with any
ci rcuit in their locali ty without th e interven tion of a "hello girl. "
Grand opera will be telep honed to private homes, and will
sound as harmonious as though enjoyed from a theatrebox. Au-
tomalic instruments reproducing original airs e xactly will bring
the best music to the families of the untalen ted. G reat musicians
gathered in one in closure in New York will, by manipulating elec-
102 VesLerrlay 's Fu.t.ure: The Twentieth Gen f.w)i Begins

Lric keys, produce at he same lime music from inst:ruments ar-


ranged in theatres or halls in San Francisco or New Orleans, for
instance. Thus wil l great bands and orchestras give long-d istance
concerts. In great cities there will be public opera-houses whose
singers and musicians are paid from funds endowed by philan-
Lhropist.5 and by lhe governrnenl. The piano will be capable of
changing its lone from cheerful to sad. Many devices will add to
the emotional effect oC music.
A university education will be free to every man and woman.
Several great national un iversities wi ll have been established . Chil-
dren will study a simple English grammar adapted to .simplified
English, and not copied after the Latin. Time will be saved by
grouping like studies. Poor students wil l be given free board , free
clothing and !"rec books if ambitious and actually unable to meet
their school and co llege expenses. lVlecl ical inspectors regularly
vi.siting the publi c schools will fu rn ish poor children free eye-
glasses, free de ntisLry and free medical attention of ever y kind.
The very poor will , when necessary, ge t free rides to and from
school and free lunch es between sessions. In vacation time poor
childre n wil l be taken on u-ips to various parts of the world. Eti-
quette and house keeping will be important studies in the public
schools.
Pneumatic tubes, in.stead of store wagons, will deliver packages
and bundles. These tu bes will collect, de liver and transport mail
over certain distances, perhaps for hundreds of miles. They will
at first connect with the p1ivaLe houses of the wealthy; then with
all homes. Great business establishm ents will extend t11 e m to sta-
tions, si milar to our branch posL-offices of to-day, whence fast au-
tomobile vehicles will distribute purchases from house Lo house.
v\Tinter will be tu rned into summer and night into clay by the
farmer. In cold weather he wi ll place heat-conducting electric
wires under the soil of his garde n and thus w<:u-m his growing
pl ants. He will also grow large gardens under glass. At night his
vege tables will be bathed in powe rful elecu:ic light, .serving, like
sunlight, to hasten lheir growth. Elec u·ic currents appli ed to the
soil will make valuab le plants grow large r and faster, and will kill
troublesome weeds. Rays of colored light will hasten the growt11
of many plan ts. Electricity appli ed r.o garden seeds vvill make them
sprout and develop unusually early.
Fast-flying refrigeraLors on land and sea will bring delicious fruiL5
from Lhe u-opic.s a nd southern tempe rate zone within a l:ew days.
A NEW WO RLD OF TECHNOLOGY 103

The farmers of South America, South Africa, Ausu-alia and the


South Sea Islands, whose seasons ;ue directly opposite to ours, 'vill
thus su pply us in winter with fresh summ er foods which cannot be
grown he re. Scientists will have discovered how to raise here many
fruits now confined to much hotter or colder climates. Delicious
oranges will be grown in the suburbs of Philadelphia. Cantaloupes
and other summer frui ts will be of such a hardy nature that they
can be stored through the winter as potatoes are now.
Strawberries as large as apples will be eate n by our great-great-
grandchildren for their Christmas dinners a hundred years hence.
Raspberries and blackberries will be as large. One will suffice for
the fruit course of each person. Strawberries and cranberries will
be grown upon tall bushes. Cranberries, gooseberries an d cur-
rants will be as large as oranges. O ne can taloupe will supply an
entire fam ily. Melons, cherries, grapes, plums, apples, pears,
peaches and all berries will be seedless. figs will be cultivated over
th e entire United States.
Peas and beans will be as large as beets arc to-day. Sugar cane
will produce r.wice as much sugar as the sugar beet now does. Cane
will once rnore be the chief source of our sugar supply. The milk-
weed will have been developed into a rubber plant. Cheap native
rubber wi ll be harvested by machinery all over this country. Plants
,,~11 be made proof against disease microbes just as readily as man
is to-day against smallpox. The soil will be ke pt enriched by plan ts
which take their nutrition from the air and give fertility to the
earth.
Roses will be as large as cabbage heads. Vio lets will grow to the
size of o rchids. A pansy will be as large in d iameter as a sunflower.
A ce ntu ry ago the pansy measu red but half an inch across its face.
There will be black, blue and green roses. ll will be possible to
grow any fl owe r in any color and to transfer the perfume of a
seemed flowe r to another which is odorless. Then may the pansy
be given the perfume of the violet.
Few drugs will be swallowed or taken in to the stomach unless
needed for the direct treatmen t of that organ itself. Drugs needed
by the lungs, for instance, will be applied directly to those organs
through the skin and flesh. They will be carried with the electric
current applied without pain to the outside skin of the body. Mi-
croscopes wi ll lay bare the vital organs, through the living flesh,
of men and animals. The living body will to all medical purposes
be transparent. Not only will it be possible for a physician to ac-
104 Yesterday's F'll fure: The Twenlieth Centu.1)1 Begins

LUally see a living, throbbing bean in side the ch est, but h e will be
able to magnify and photograph any pan of it. This work will be
clone with rays of invisible light.

"The Century of Invention and Discovery"


T h e.: new world envisioned in the art.iclc ahovt: was bui ll on the belief'
that scien tist'> would co ntinue to discowr 111on' about th e planet and th e
human body and make greater use or n ew tec hnology. The lirsl of di e
two following articles was reprinted fru1n llH.: I .om/on 1\!Jrzil and suggests
the faith som e individuals had in th e capacity or tec hnology to transform
th e.: c.:a rth itself. The second item shows how c.:vc.:11 paid ad,·ertising used
i 111 c:: rc.:~ 1 in scic nril.ic ach'anceme nl LO promote.: pro ducts.

(Milwm.1.kee) Union Signal, January 6, 1900

F'cw persons realize how completely or l;ue years the surface as-
pect or th is wizened old globe of' o urs has been altered a nd im-
proved. The world of today, in fac t, differs from the world of ou r
ancestors, much as a society lady, in all the glory or fold and frill
and furbelow, differs from her savage sister running wild in pes-
tilcnLial woods. As arl has transform ed the one, so it has the
other. On ly the "Mme. Rachae l" who has made the earth, if nol
exactl y "bea utiful forever, " at leasl a pleasant a nd healthful place
wherein to dwell, is no charlatan with a dray-load of cosmetics
and a g lib tongue, but a civi l engin eer, owning nothing more
harml"ul than a few mysterious-lookin g instru ments and a mea-
suring tape . And the marvel of it ;1ll is this- that what has been
done is but an infinitesimal fraclion or lhat wh icb may, and doubt-
less will, be clone. \Vho can doubt, for instance, that the great
Sahara clesen- that mole upon the world 's face -will one day be
but a me mory? h was an inland sea once. It wou ld not be a very
d ifficult matter to convert it into one aga in . A canal sixty miles
long, connecting with the Atlantic the vast depression which runs
close up to the coast nearly midway between the twentieth and
thirtie th parallels of latitude, wou ld do the business beautifully.
The war.er would not, of course, cover th e entire surface of the
dese rt. Here and there are portions lying above sea level. These
wo uld become th e islands of th e new Sahara ocean. Vl hat would
be the resul ts that would e nsue upon th is stupendous transfor-
mation? Some would be good, and so me bad. Among the latte r
may be mentioned the probable clest ruction of the vineyards of
A NEW W O RLD OF T ECHNOLOGY 105

south ern Europe, which depend for their existence upon the
wcu·m, dry winds from the great African d esert. As so me compen-
sation for this, however, the mercantile marines of th e nations
affected would be enabled to gain immediate and easy access to
vast regions now give n over to barbarism, and a series of more or
less flo u rishing seaport tow11s would spring up along the southern
borders of Morocco and Algeria, where the western watershed of
the Nile sinks into the desert, and on the northern fron tier of the
Congo Free state. In a similar manner the greater portion of th e
central Australian desert, covering an area of fully 1,000,000
square miles, might be flooded. The island contin ent would then
be converted into a gigantic oval dish, of which th e de pressed
central portion would be covered with water, and only the "r im"
inhabited.

DePere News, janitm)' 2, 1901

We now stand al the threshold of the twentieth ce n tury, and th e


ninetee nth is a thin g of the past. It will, howeve r, be kn own as th e
century of invention and discovery, and among som e o f the great-
est of th ese, we can tru thfully mention Hostetter's Sto mach Bi t-
ters, th e celebrated remedy for all ailments arising from a weak
or clisorclerecl stomach , such as dyspepsia, indigestio n, flatul ency,
constipation and biliousness.
The foll owing ar ticle was part of a larger series of arricles p rinte d in Lile
1\!Jih11au.lwe S1m./iu1d. The newspaper's editors askt:d promincnl \Visconsin
reside nts to predict wha t changes the twentieth century wo uld bring to
their fields or e xpe r tise. Dr. Uranus 0. B. 'Wingate, secre tar y or Lhe
'Wisconsin SraLc Hoard of Health, speculated on rn edicil l ad vances. Like
many health e xpe rt!; uf the time, '"'ingate argued tha t heahh and
sani1.a1io n proble ms could be eliminated by preve nting the re productio n
o f "d egenc ra lc individuals,'' which include d crimina ls and the
d evelo pme n ta lly clbable d. Although th is belie f in "euge nics" was popular
at the tu r n or the century, it was d iscredited b )' the ho rro rs o f the
Ho locaust.

Milwaulu!t! Sentinel, December 30, 1900

The advances that will be made in any of the learned profe ssions
during the next hundred years will be no less startling th an those
made during the past century, probably no more so, and the medi-
cal profession will furnish no exception.
106 Yesterday 's Future: The Twentieth Centwy Begins

Science is of a slow and exac1ing growth. She makes no uncer-


Lain strides into a dark future. 1:-ler devotees will continue to search
f"or her hidden treasures in r.he future as in tJ1e past. There is no
short. road to h er attainments. Those who bow at her shrine must
walk in r.he rugged paths of patience, earnest endeavor, persever-
ance, hon esty, and unself:ishness. The medical progress of the fu-
ture must be based on science. WiLhouL such foundation it would
be on l)' empiricism. The presenl fads and delusions concerning
the hea ling an will pass away a nd others will take their places, but
sc ie nce will continue to advance and put to shame everything void
of lhe living truth.
The medical student of the future will be selected with more
care lhan now obtains. He will be required to possess a love for
the truth and his chosen calli ng as well as to have a sul1icient
preliminary mental training. T he mentally deformed and degen-
e rate '"ill knock in vain for adm ission into the learned professions.
The e nlightened public sentimenl will recognize the sci entific at-
tainments of the medical profession and learn to value such
knowledge, and while love for the mysterious will co ntinue, hu-
man creduli ty will grow less and less as the profession becomes
advanced in scientific ach ieve me n t<;.
San itary science and it.5 ad ministration will becom e more exact
and cease to be a work of charity. An e nlightened hum an inte lli-
gence will dictate the justice of paying for value received. As the
service of the lawyer which succeeds in settling his cl ie nt's case
without the expense and annoyance of litigation will be valued,
so will the service or the physician, who saves his patie nt l"rom an
auack of illness, attend with loss of time, money, and pe rhaps life,
be dul y appreciated and willingly paid for; such a course will be
lrue financial economy a nd lhe sum LOlal of human happin ess will
be Lh e result.
The springs of human life will receive greater atte nlion, a nd
Lile rearing of children will have the benefit. of the advice of the
trnly scientific physician. Ste ps will be taken to prohibit Lhe mating
of diseased, deformed, and degenerate individuals, thus prevent-
ing Lhe enonnous influx or the defective classes now filling to
overflow our almshouses, prisons and asylums-at least as 1nuch
attention will be paid to this subject as is now paid to lhe raising
of cattle and swine.
Upon this basis a new orde r of human beings will come into
existence, and the ph ysician will be relieved from continually
A NE\V WORLD OF TECHNOLO GY 107

meeting th e vexed and intricate problem of inhe1ited mental and


physical defects.
Diseases fee d upon degene rative processes, and degenerative
processes are the products of disobedience of nature's laws.
A race will even tually spring up free fro m inherited defect5, and
by following the hygie nic laws of nanire, a people will exist prac-
tically immuned from infectious diseases, in other words, a race
will exist possessing such powers of resistance, on accoun t of their
freed om from inh erited d efects and their improved hygienic liv-
ing, that th ey will defy the invasion of infection.
A national organization of public health will be created by con-
gress, properly equi pped with all the means of study and original
investigation, and with a well selected corps of experts, wi.ll devote
its entire time to study and research, and co-operating with the
various state health organizations, and they in turn with all the local
boards of health in the various cities, villages an d towns in their
respective jurisdictions. This will constitute a great national publ ic
health system, both executive and educational, furnishing such in-
formation to tJ1e people that may see at a glance the progress or
decay of the nation, and the causes which lead to either result, as
well as the necessary remedies to be applied should they be re-
quired. Quaranline as it is now understood, which has been so
destrucrive to commerce and public u-avel, will be abolished, and
immunity and disinfection will take its place. The pollution of air,
water and soil will be prohibited by law, and the consu-uction of
systems of water supply, se\\'age disposal and public buildings will
be placed under th e legal control of sanitary autho1ities. The re-
lation of public health to commerce, manufacnires, and all fo nns
of industry will be considered of such vast importance that the best
sanitarians will be engaged, and paid large salaries to look after
their health interests, in fact such in terests as will be considered
equal, if noL superior, to the legal relatio ns of such concerns, from
an econom ic standpo int. 1-Iuman life will be held nearer to its full
value, and th ere will be less neglect for the welfare of others. The
medical o!Iicer in the army and navy will be required to possess a
full knowledge of san itary science, and sanitary attainments will be
recognized to be equal in value to his surgical qualifications. More-
over, the sanitary orders issued by the medical officer in our mili-
tary organ i1.ations will become the first law, and such sad and un-
pardonable resul ts in the Joss ofl ife from disease, as have occurred
in our past and more recent military expeditions, cease to exist.
108 Yesterday's Fu tu re: T he Twentieth Cen lU.'1)' Begins

Th e public spirit that builds a counh o use for $300,000 and an


Tso la Lio n hospital for $300, tha t pays a judge a large salary for
committing the insane to an asylum o n r.he examination of a phy-
sician who bears the greatest of responsibi li ties and who is paid a
m e re pittance; that permits a public to drink water polluted by
sewage, and children to be educa ted in unsanitary school build-
ings will pass away, and one will take its p la ce which will interpret
justice in a more reasonable m anne r.
T h e physician of the future by his e ducation, experience , and
tra ining in human affairs will be consid e red among the best fi tted
LO occu py positions in our balls o r legisla tio n and in public offi ces
of executive fun ction , and he will n o lo nge r re m ain o n th e ou tside
a nd co mpla in of the incapacity o f o the rs, and po or governme n t,
but will take an ac tive pan in public aJfa irs and will be amply fitte d
to correct any evils that may exi st. His ad vice will be considered
of mo re value than his medicines, a nd h e will occupy the position
of a learn ed and honorable physician , c itize n, and gentleman, and
his c hildre n wi ll rise up and call him blessed , and the world will
b e be tter for his exisLence.

111 1.hc.: fo llowing article, th e Senli1111l askccl pro111ine nc. phorog ra phe1·
Simo n L. Ste in to discu ss th e future of ph o tog rap hy. lnternatio nall}'
known a nd a pio nee r in colo r proce~sing, Stc.: in a lso se rved as preside n t
o f th e Photographic Associa tio n of /\J m.:r ica.

J\llilwau.lw Sentinel, December JU, 1900

On e hardly n eeds to be especially inspire d to foresee that pho-


tog raphy will, a hundred years h e n ce, b e one of the most impor-
Lanl facto rs in ne arly every d e partm e nt of hum.an endeavor and
practical achievenient.
Its most important developme nt wi ll, unquestionably, be in the
directio n o f color-photography, a n cl th e progress of that form of
th e a n , eve n within the past few years, is sufficiently indicative of
its ce rtain an d successful applicatio n LO b o th commercial and ar-
tistic p u rposes that have been h ithe rto undreamed of, or o nly
vaguely h o ped for.
Alread y t11e surgeon 01· p hysician e mploys it LO record , m o re
certainly a nd faitl1fully than any writte n n o tes can do, the stages
an d va rying con ditions of a wound o r disease, and the d iffe re nt
A NEW WORLD OF TEC H NO LOGY 109

IN THE NEW .CENTURY NO ONE WILL WALK-AU WILL HAVE WHEEL'i.

(De Pere) Brown Coun ty Democrat, December 28, 1900.


110 Yesterday 's Fut·ure: The Twentieth Cml'l1 1y Begins

stages or a n o pe ration can be recorded as he proceeds so as to


p ermit of Lhe pictu res being thrown up on a screen and explained
to sLud e nt:; in a manner that is not practicable whi le the actual
ope raLio ns is in progress. Th e botanist can show, by its means, the
devcloprn en t of' a plant from reed to bloom , as il actually appears
in the fi eld or the green house, and in the actwtl coloring of
naLurc. T he merch ant can, in his olllce, see the color and texture
of the goods he wishes to purchase as accu rate ly rend e red as iC'he
was at t.he facto ry, but with far less trouble a nd in far less time.
So far as the direct registration of co lo r is conce rne d that pur-
pose is now actua lly accomplish ed, but we rnay naturally expect a
furth e r simplifi cation of method as we ll as ils appli cation to mov-
ing pictures. To this end experiments afford ing excelle nt prom ise
of success a re a lready under way and I look fo r a successful reali-
zation or the plan in the n ear futu re.
Anothe r d irection in which great p rogress is in evitable is such
a simplification of photographic methods as will permit of pho-
tography being turned to direct practical account in connection
with eve r y-clay pursuits. The day will co me whe n photography
will be a ma tter of course with all and su ndr y-not for love of it,
as a hobby, as il is with the amateur of to-day-but because it will
be th e easiest <H1d simplest means of atta ining certain practical
results. When that day comes even the school gi rl diary will
furn ish a n instance, for her diary will no longer be a written
one- she will simply tile away a pictori a l reco rd o f each day's
doings .. ,,
T he art of te le-photography 'viii be great!)' exLe nded , especially
in its appli cation to war, as well as to e ngin ee ring and other sci-
e mific purposes, the improvement be ing like ly, in this direction,
to lie in th e co nsLn.LCtion of more suitable lenses and of some
more effecLive m eans of trigger-actio n from a distance, lo admit
of timing the exposure when the came ra has to be regulated from
th e earth-as when , for instance, the came ra is sent up by a ki te.
The X-Ray will be even more in telligently a pplied to the study of
solid bodies and we shall be able, by its n1eans, LO learn more of
t.he str ucture of th e earth, of the pu rpose and action of certain
orga ns of th e human body, etc, th an any othe r method of re-
search has ye t e nabled us to accomplish.
The wonders of the deep will be laid ope n to us, for we shall-
as a legitim ate conclusion to the lines of study th a l are now being
prosecuted-be able to lmver a suitably framed camera, with a
A NF.'W 'WOR LD OF TEC HNOLO GY 111

light, and take pictures or "the deep sea and its marvels" thal will
teach us more than we could possibly learn by any other means.
Astronomical phor.ography is now being pushed ver y earnestly.
The "st.ar gazers" have made, and are still making, some of the
most remarkable discoveries their wonderful science has ever ac-
complished , and th e photographic record of their discoveries en-
ables them to register their data, and make them clear to the
interested but unscie ntific public, in a way that assures us of know-
ing much, 100 years from now, of "the outer worlds " that we now
cannot conceive of.
But it will be as a means of graphic instruction that photography
will, during the next l 00 years, make its greatest development and
be or the greatest value. By its means, by enlargements upon a
screen, every department of human knowledge will be thrown
more \·Videly open and more clearly demonstrated than is possible
by any written or oral means. No description can, in the nature
of th ings, convey "the mysteri es of the stars and the wonders of
the great deeps," the marvels of history and the splendor and
ingenuity or man's attai nment, so clearly as the actual present-
ment of its image, in natural color, upon the screen ... .

Streets of Grass
During the nin c tccn1.h cc.:nlury c 11 ~in ecrs h;m1essed steam power and
wrought a transportation revolution with the invention or railroads,
steamboats, and mnornobilt:s. T he following artides, published in the
Kenosha Evening Nmvs, prt:din 1.hal these inventions would continue to
transform life in th e years to co111c and 1.ha1 new forms of power would
bring even more clramat.ic ch a nge s.

Kenosha Evening News, December 29, 1900

' '\That will be the motive power of the twentieth century is one of
the questions being asked al this Lim e, when we are passing the
century maTk. So rnarvelous have been Lhe developments in steam
and elecu·icity during the past 100 years that we may look for still
more marvelous developmenL<; in the next hundred. No one can
foretell LO what extent human ingenuity may compel the forces
of nature to do the work of man. Wave power and sun power are
forces which may yet be utilized in turn ing the wh eels ofindusu-y
and supplying the propulsive e nergy of commerce.
The wave power inventor is al work and seems almost to .have
solved the problem of making the sea do the world 's work.
112 Y1!sterday 's Future: The Twentieth Cenlm)' Begins

Some clay this great inve ntion is likely to be perfected , and the n
it wi ll be in orde r to see a transformation of our seashores into
contin uous machin e shops. There is no doubt that powe r de rive d
rrom such a so urce would be much cheap er than that de rived
rrom rue l. T he fu e l problem is not yet pressing, but if industri es
muJ1jply in th e com ing century at the ratio that h as prevai le d
during th e closing ce ntury th e gen eration of 100 years h e nce may
sorely leel the pressu re of this need . Increased use of catarac t
war.er powe r, suc h as at Niagara, has served somewhat to check
the deve lopme nt of this crisis, and doubtless in th e course of a
few decades the water power will be utilized to the limit now
d reamed o f by en te rprising promoters.
The sun powe r inventor is a lso at work, h op ing to transform
the sun's e ne rgy into a mundane motive force. In the light or past
developme nts no o ne need ma rvel if the sun and the sea shall
rurnish the motive power of the twe ntieth century.

Kenoslw 1~·vmi ng News, .Jan:umy 3, 1901

The ElertrimL Review thinks that the rime will come whe n grass
grown streets will be Lhc sign of progress. And why not? 'Wh e n al l
fre ight Lraffi c has bee n ban ished to underground ra ilways and th e
automobi le has d ispl aced the horse for surface travel nearly th e
e n tire stn"e t be rwec n lhe pavements can be devoted Lo green turf
Cities of the Lwe ntieth and following centuries may be free fro m
dust and Lh c vile odo rs arising from animal traffic. The automo-
bile mowing mac hin e may be substituted for the sweeping ma-
chine, to the great improvement of health and increase of e njoy-
rne-n t of citize ns.

Inventions
Amcl'ic;ins disp layed ; 1 vivid imagination wilf1 their precliclions for
in vent.ions in Lil t.: lwcni.icth ce ntul'y. From "a il' y nm·i es" of passe nge r
ze ppelins 1.0 elcctl'ic matches l.O the wonders or liquid (nHnp rcssccl) a il',
auth ors speculated on a wide range of new products tha l would make
life h ca lthi c l' ;ind happie r. Many Wisconsin newspaper editors consulted
the work or Niko la Tesla , th e Se rbian-American inventor of' al te rn a ting
curre 111. and a riva l of' T homas Edison, as a so urce of information on
tcc hn o loi.:ica l advan ces. The following svndicatecl article was wriu e n bv1
journal is~ Cc orgl' l.. Kilm e r. whn di s~i.1s~cs Tesla. inventions. and c,·e 11
the C hi11 c~c 13oxcr Re be llion.
A NEW 'WOJ~LD OF TECHNO LOGY 113

Dodgeville Chronicle, December 28, 1900

'Were a prophet to foretell an advancement in n1ann e rs, morals,


learning and social and material progress for the next century
equal to that of the last he would certain ly be set down as a
dreamer. Thinkers who are not pessimists believe that in many
directions the limit, or about that, has been reached .
In mechanical inventions the nine teenth century achieved won-
ders which recall Aladdin and his lamp. Yet bold scientists declare
that we may expect revelations of hidden energy in the sun and earth
and air, which may be harnessed to do the work of mankind. Tesla
believes in the possibility of a solar engine, he considers wireless te-
legraphy proved beyond a doubt, is working at a teleautomaton which
will be simply a mentally endowed mechanism and declares that he
has discovered elecuical oscillations which will produce steady light
without the aid of lamps, incandescent filaments or wires.
Tesla also predicts an inclusu-ial revolution in the dethronement
of iron and the elevation of aluminum. He estimates the civilizing
potency of aluminum as 100 times g reater than that of iron and its
bulk available for man 30 times greater. Liquid air, while a marvel-
ous discovery, he holds can never be comme rcially profitabl e.
The sole aim of the scientist, Tesla insists, should be the increase
of human energy a nd in thanvay the increase of'human happin ess .
Material advancement is on ly a means to social advancement, and
so after all the landmarks of progress are the mon um en ts of social
changes. The conditions of life for the masses upon this globe 100
years hence are of more consequence as a speculative topic even
than the rare culture or superior development of a few or a class.
What will be the conditions of life, and especially what the degree
of immunity from grinding wil, from hunger and from disease, in
th e year 2001? It may be assumed that in the United States, if any-
where, the progress will be steady for another century. The country
is comparatively new and its resources only partially developed.
Should the population increase for the next 100 years in the same
proportion as in the last 20 years it will the n contain about
400,000,000 souls. In 1801 the population was about 5,000,000,
which is but 1,000,000 more than th e popu lation of Greater New
York and the Jersey suburbs today. New York should have a popu-
lation at the encl of the twentie th century of over 20,000,000 if its
growth remains normal and proportionate to that of the whole
country upon the above calculation.
114 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centmy Begins

At presenL New York attracts about one-eighteenth of the total


population of Lh e co untry and Chicago abom one-half as many as
New York. In ancnh e r hundred years Chicago should have a popu-
lation of about 13,000,000, P hiladelphia 10,000,000, Boston , St.
Louis and Baltimore each 3,000,000, Cincinnati, Buffalo, Cleve-
land, New Orleans and Pittsburgh 2 ,000,000 each and Deu-oit,
l\llilwaukee and J\llinne apolis 1,500,000. In that era a population
of 1,000,000 will b e nothing exu-aordinary for a thriving inland
cit;', a nd this co11clusion is borne out by the history of densely
popul ated coun tries in the old world .
The great industrial l'uture which seems fixed by the hand of
fate for this coumry will for generations at least tend to the growth
of cities. Not a lone that., but the attractions of city life will draw to
them a mass of people still having commercial interests remote
from th e towns. The rapid means of communication will perm it
the landowne r a nd rh e cou ntry manufacturer to dwe ll in the city
the greater part. or the year a nd sti ll look after their business in-
terests at a d istance. And what marvels of cheapness and conven-
ie nce those cili es or Lhe fuwre will be. i\fonicipal ownership of a ll
enterprises which co nduce to public convenience , the railways,
boals, tclc..:graph , h ealing and lighLing plants, of libraries and p e r-
h aps of amusements, will red uce the cost of city life, which now
appalls the economi cal ,·isitor, LO a mere!~' nominal su m.
At prcse n 1 th e tide of popu laLion sets toward lhc cities, and
while Lhis must c hange eve ntually a century is n othing in the life
of a natio n , and leaving out the probability of some great social
upheaval forcing Lhe people back to the soil there seems no rea-
son why th e commercial and industrial development of 1901
shou ld not continue LO the end of the cen tury and not then have
reached its limit..
The clange r LO hea lth of rn assing millions of people in cities
must be overcome by scientific appliances and discoveries. Cities
of t:he o ld world h ave been depopulated by epidemics which
would not be a ll owed to run their course today. The water of the
future city will be pure, the temperature wi ll be equalized, food
will be scientifically preserved and prepared and men will more
and more obey t.hc cornrnon sense laws of health, avoiding ex-
tremes of exe rtion a nd sLimu lation.
Many propositions loi- the simplificaLion oflife ·whi ch now seem
ch im e ri cal m ay ye tjusrify the ir champions. Condensed mi lk bas
A NEW \VORLD OF TF.CHNOl.OCY 115

"The f)(tssenger
for Buffalo can
be '/Jul off safely
from a
transcontinental
'flier' by means
oja
parachute. . . . "
Dodgevil le
Chronicle,
Derember 28,
1900.

stood the test of hall' a cenmry of use, and other foo ds may be
p1-epared in quantities by inexpe nsive labor and thus make iL pos-
sible to live, if not on 15 cen is a day, at least with om the cost of
maintaining a separate kitchen for every three or four persons. ln
that happy time there will pe rhaps be no necessity for reducing
the hours of sleep to four in every 24, yet if the forms of enter-
tainment multiply with other tl1ings everybody can keep awake 20
hours a day \dthout suffering enn ui.
The scientists tell us that even at the rapid rate projected for
all forms of acti,iry life and limb "·ill be measurably secure. The
perfected airship is one of th e certainties of dreame rs, but even
116 Veslerda)"s Future: The Twentieth CP.nltt.'1)' Begins

Tesla warns Lh e nations who would be read r to casL about for


m eans or a uaining supremacy in the matter of "air powe r. " If airy
navies, the n of course airy passenger lines. The passenger for Buf-
falo ca n be "pul of'f' safely f'rom a transcontinental "ni e r" by means
of a parac hu te, and, a lthough the ;u-tist won ' t bel ieve it as yeL, he
need not wake np eve n, but have his be rth transferred fro m the
slateroom and slung under r.he ribs of the canopy. There he may
fini sh his sleep as comfortably as did th e n ineLeenlh century tour-
ist in a Wagner or Pu ll man at the terminal sheds.
Even war is lO be robbed of its ghastlin ess, for, according Lo Tesla,
machines wi.11 do the fighting of the future and sustain all -the hard
knocks, Lhc ir h uman manipulators being out of range. Finally con-
tcsLs will come to be mere duels between automatons, and broken
met<l l will fi g ure in the casualty lists instead of broken bones.
Pho tography, a nineteenth century development, is o n the
cards for wo nde rs greater than those yet achieved. Photography
in colors is a ce rtainty of the near future , and th at wonde r of' the
age, the typescuing mac hine, is d oomed to fall down before Lhe
camera, wh ich is LO reproduce upon the prin Li ng plate text and
p ictures as set in order in the editor's san ctum without bringing
in the a id o r compositors or type.
T h e artist thin ks tha t the Chinese imbroglio will not be settled
until Uncle Sam can shout ho rse sense d own a well curb in to J ohn
Chi naman's car. And that is no wilder flighL of imagi natio n than
prophecies of nin eteenth century marvels which have beco me
common p laces wou ld have been on New Year's d ay, 180 L.

T he writn of' 1he fo llowing piece looked forward lo more munrlam·


in vc n Lions. suc h as 1he replace ment of the match.

ffocine Daily .Journal, A/nil 14, 18 97

The electric match is the next important inve n tion prornised. Be-
fore very lo ng the phosphorous tipped wooden spli nts now in use
will be replaced by a handy little tool that may be carri ed in the
pocke t o r hung up conve niently for stiiking a light wh e n wan ted .
Twentieth cen LUry people doubtless will speak of the "he ll sticks"
of Lhe presen t clay as primitive and absurd, just as we a re d isposed
to look with scorn upon the flint and steel of our forefa th e rs.
Alread y the re is o n the marke t a gaslighter whi ch affords mo re
than a suggestion of the eleccric match of th e future, a twis1 of' the
A NEW 'WOHLD OF TECHNO L()(; y 117

handle generating suffic ien l e lecLricity to accomplish the purpose;


also there are several sLyles of c igar lighters which depend for their
supply of electricity upon storage batteries. For some years past
the gas j ets in theate rs and public buildings have been lighted by
the electric spark. Indeed mosl persons have seen the ctu-ious
experiment oll ight.ing the gas with the finger after a shuffle across
Lhe carpe t to generate the elecLriciL)' need ed.
The portable e lec tric lig hte r is bound to come . !'v [eanwhile in-
ventors, as shown by the reco rds of the patent o!Iice, exercise much
ingenuity in Lrying to improve o n the common everyday match.
There are matches or bo ne and matches of pasteboard; also
matches made of glass and ma tches of paper, while one enterp1is-
ing genius proposes to manufacture matches out or a mixture of
oyster shells and clinkers ground up. Not least interesting is a spher-
ical match-a little ball o f wood pulp, covered with phosphorous
composition. In using it a holder is required, inasmuch as there is
no stick, the ignited wood pulp b urning slowly until wholly con-
sumed. Thus there is no residue of stick and char to be d isposed
of, and matches or this kind have the furlher advant<-ige that they
are cheap and can be packed in very smaH compass, like pills.

The following three pieces <ippcan:<l in the l\!Ww1.1:u/iee Senl'inel series of


Wisconsin pred ictio ns 0 11 lhc twentie th century. Ollo Martin Rau, who
had electrified Milwaukee's ~Lrcc t rai lway system, wrote the article below.

1Vfilwaulwe Sentinel, December 30, 1900

At the opening of Lhe Twenly-firsl century, elecnicity will have a


number of rivals which threate n to supersede it in many ways, simi-
lar to th e manner that e lectricity is threaten ing it5 competitors to-
day, the most promising of th ese be ing compressed or liquid air;
but before tl1ese new fo rces have reached any importance in the
commercial \VOrld, e lecu·icit.y will have bee n developed to a state of
perfection and its possible applications will have solved the many
apparently impossible proble ms brought forward by investigators
and inven tors of to-clay, in a practical and commercial way.
We may expect to see the production of e lecu·icity so cheap-
ened that gas will no longer be used for illumination and electric
power and heat will be so unive rsal that chimneys and smoke or-
dinances will worry us n o more .
Electricity in railroading wil l supersede steam to such an extent
118 Yesterday's Fill-ure: The Twentieth CentitJ)' Begins

that a locomotive will be a relic; our ocean steamers will have


convened their coal bunkers into space for elecu-ic st:o rage ca-
pacity; aerial navigation by means of stored elecu-ical e nergy will
be perfected; but while the conlinual improvement in ge nerating
and storing apparatus will cheapen the production of electricily,
its application to the comforts and ben efits of mankind is impos-
sible to foreshadow.

J. D. McLeod , a manage r [or the Wisconsin Telephone Company, wroLc


the following piece. In il, .\kLeod refers to Edward Bellamy, a n olcd
aulhor and journalisl: whose popular novel, Looking BoclmJnrd, 2000-
1887, offered a vision of a t~venlielh -century society based on utop ian
socialisl. principles.

Milwa-uhee Sentinel, Decentber 30, 1900

Let me say anen t the sphere of the telephon e an hundred years


hence, Lhal Bella my, in the full spi1it of prophecy, fai led to illu-
minate this question lo any greal extent, or to set a high e r mark
for its usefulness than we have reached to-day.
To an occasional tenderfoot, the telephone, doubtless, has ilS
mysteries; and it may be natural to expect from its achievements
in the past, new utilities and surprises for its future.
The fan cies of Bell;1my, however, have in practice become mere
commonplaces to the tele phone user, who, having every o ppor-
tunity on tap , as iL were, has long since availed of his predictions
in the fuller e njoyment of the world's material and spirilual fac-
tors.
To the practica l telephone man, the business is divested of all
but its work-a-day aspect, and promises nothing more fanciful in
its fulure than to lighten social conditions in just that degree we
will be enabled to cheapen and popularize its use.
With the business esse ntially based o n inven tion, improvements
in the art will doubtJess conti nue, an d methods be devised to make
for both, effici e ncy and lower prices.
Extensions, betterments, growth and improvement will there-
fore con tinue for some time.
As to tra ns-Atla ntic connection, we are as yet offered little as-
surance of success. The best engineering minds are, of course,
very active on that probl em, and p resent lim itations of transmit-
ting through long cables may be overcome at any time. Practical
A NEW WORLD OF Ti·'. CJ-INOl.OGY 119

work in overland lin es is limited to about J,500 miles, but in this


connection it is interesting to note that Presidem Glidden of this
company, having the annihilation of mere distance in view, has
offered $ 1,000,000 for devices that will accomplish for the tel e-
phone what th e Repeater and the Relay have done for the tele-
gr aph. ln this proposition we have the basis for one prediction at
least not like ly to go by d efault of inventive effon.
The chi ef promise for the future of the telephone is that its
advantages may become common to the body of the people-that
farming comm uni ties and the members of every hamlet may par-
ticipate in its econom ies, and live in closer touch ·with their neigh-
bors of the larger centers, and keep pace with the current affairs
of the world.
To establish th ese uplifting conditions is the highest ideal.

T he author or the 11cx1 article, Edwin Reynolds, also speculated on


improved cornm1111ica1.io11s. Rey11ulds, an inventor who held forty-eight
patents, was the driving l'orce behi nd the Edward P. Allis Company, one
of Milwaukee's largest a11d most innovaLive industrial manufacturers.

Milwaukr1e Senlinel, Dr rnmbr r 30, 1900


1 1

Can we noc conceive iL possible tl1at al some future elate we may


be able to carry apparatus on our persons which will enable us to
commun icate wiLh anOlher person similarly equipped, <'ll1)"' here 1

on eanh , without the inte r\'ention of wires, and after our expe-
rience wirh the te lephone and the "X-Ray," is it not also conceiv-
able that we may be able to see persons at long distances as well
as to talk with them .

Some authors and newspaper editors, like the author of the following
piece, predincd 1.ha1 tt:chnological changes would affect. a wider range
o[' activi I ics.

Oshkosh Daily Norll1wr1strn·n, January 5, 190 I

Printed books will be cheap and abundant, and the an of illus-


trating and embellishing them will reach high perfection.
International difficulties will be settled by commissioners
or conventions, instead of by appeal to arms to end in the de-
struction of life and property.
120 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth CPnttll)' Begins

The Hdward P. r1llis Company, M.ilwau.kee, about I <J(JO.

Air sh ips will be a regular method of transportatio11 , passengers


from "Oiers" be ing dropped to cities under the route by means of
parach uLes.
T he habit<; of insect pests will be bette r understood, and their
parnsi Le enemies discove red and utilized so as to prevenl desu·uc-
Live ravages upon vegctaLion.
ll is esLimatecl that Lhe population of the United Stat es in 2000
wil l be abouL 400,000,000 , if the proportionate ratio o f' ga in be-
tween 1800 a nd 1900 is maintained.
Photography in colors will be well understood and practiced ,
a nd Lh e camera will con test with the t)1)e-seuing machin e in the
manuf'aclure of books and newspapers.
Utensils and dwellings will be manufactured largc.:ly of' pulps
and cerncms, so as to utilize vegetation and stone in every stage
of decay, ord inary waste or unfitness.
The average crop of wheat per acre wh ere planted, wil l be likely
ro rise from twelve to twenty bushels, as n ow, lo I00 or nio rc bush-
A NEW WOR LD OF TECH NO LO CY 121

e ls per acre, LO which a ll gro 1111d in te nsive ly cult.ivaLccl is equal.


Th ere will be proportionate in crease in a ll cro ps. Sugar will be a n
extensive norther n product.
The clovers and other ni Lrogen-gaLhering plants and th e bac-
teria which aid them in collecting Lhis impo rtanl c leme nt fro m
the air, will both have been so bred as to en ric h the earth with
almost superabundance of Lhc plalll food wh ic h makes prote in in
plants and muscles and n erve in animals.
Scicmi fic discoveries and appliances will do awa)' wit h dangers
to h ealth incident to the massing of vast num bers in the cities.
\Nater will be pure, te mperature will be equa li:t.ecl, foo d wi ll be
scientifically prepared for use, a nd men a nd wo me n wi ll live
lo nger by obeying 1.h e commo n sense laws of health .
Capita l and labor will be at peace by the prevale nce of th e
golden rule, which e njoins 11s w do to others as we would have
them do to us. The working peop le, it is hoped, wi ll a ll be share-
holders, in the farm or fac to ry where ther work, and draw dh·i-
dcnds from the profits. They will lose b~· all strikes, because the
strike wi ll be against their own inte rests.
By 2000 the phonographi c principle will have been so perfected
that the best books will appear in records o r plates for use in many
different styles of speaking machin es. T he exact w nes of the e l-
ocutionist in speaking the wo rds of rh e poet, teache r, ph ilosop her
and novelist will be re produced in the library o r pa rlor of every
home . The exact Lone o r Lhe swee t singer will a lso be fai thfully
reproduced.
The supe rio r weapons of dealh made today will be ex hibi ted in
the museums of 2000 in contrast with clubs and o ther brutal in-
su·uments of war made by earl ier races, of interest now to us, and
observers will then wonder why thei r forefathe rs, wh o w<.: re e n-
dowed with the inte lligence necessar y to such mar ve lo us m echan-
ical skill, should still pos.c;es savage instin cts and so Lh irst fo r the
blood of those who may have offe nded the ir honor, th at they a re
willi ng to shed the ir own.
The dress of the fo tu re-of the year 2000-will offer no resis-
tance to free body action . Th is may invo lve a re l urn to the gar-
me n ts of earlier tim es.

Fantastic Visions
'v\'hile many observers baSl'd 1lwir predic.:ti o ns on c11 rrc11L tn·nds i11
sc.:it:11ce and tec hnology. others o lJert·d more sweeping- g'lll'SSes. Till: first
piece goes SO far as to rCpOrl lh e 11<.:WS or lh<.: f'ulltr<.:.
122 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Centu'I)' Begins

Wausau Pilot, Januai)' 22, 1901

The publishe rs of the Cleveland World recently issued a pape r pur-


porting to give the news of Jan. 1, 2001. The phon e tic system of
spellin g is used throughout this alleged twe nty-first ce ntury jour-
nal, and a mo ng the leading news articles are an account o[ the
opening of communication with Mars, a story of lhe robbery of
an airship express by bandits who froze th e messenger to death
with liqu id air, a description of the execution of a "mu rd res" by
vaporization and a recital of the discovery in the ru ins of aban-
don ed Ci ncin nati of several barrels containing a curious, fo uJ
smelling liquid labeled beer. Minor items c hronicle the inte ntion
o r "M me. Sarah Hean.burn" to make a farewell tour of Ame rica,
the death of a woman who once rocked George Washington to
sleep in his cradle and the fall of a workman fro m the ninety-sixth
fl oor of a n office building .
.i.\.nhur Palm, a founeen-year-olcl i'v1ilwaukee stude n t, publishe d a n arti cle
in his schoo l newspaper depicting his visio n or h o w Ame ri ca wo uld look
in th e yea r 200 1. ArtJrnr took some of his futuristic ideas from an
ill ustratio n in Lhe J an uary, 1901 , issue of Col/irr's WeehlJ magazine , which
appears o n 1.hc fac ing page.

(Milrom.iJwe) l~xcelsim; Februmy, 1901

How it may appear a hundred years hence, when modern inven-


tions have been carried to their highest poi nt of development that
eve n Edison would feel jealous of the great inventio ns in the year
2001. In lhe year 2001 you >vill see sky-scrapers stic king far above
tl1e clouds over 200 stories high. On the streets th e re will not be
any room for the street cars, so they will build li nes way up in th e
air, and the re will be landings fastened to the high sky-scrapers,
where th e people wail for the cars. The carlin es will have diffe rent
kinds of na mes a nd you will see the name "Manhattan Air Line"
man y hu ndreds of fee t above the ground. You see air-ships a nd
carriages faste ned to balloons for the transportation of the people
through th e air, and you will often see collisions in tl1 e clouds. In
one of th e sky-scrapers on the 119 story, you will see a sign , "O ld
People Restored to Youth by Electricity, While You Wait. " You will
see a tube stretch ed across the city called, 'The United States Mail
Tube," and a sign called , The Wireless Telepho ne Local and Eu-
ropean. T he re will be saloons in t.he large buil d in gs and in the
A :-JEW WO RLD OFTECl l NOl.OC:Y 123

Collier's Wcckly ,.f"numy 12, 1901.


124 Yesterday's Futitre: The Twentieth Cenlul)' Begins

window you will see the sign "Quick Lunch Compressed into Food
Tablets." You may go ro Europe in six hours by "The Subm arin e
Line. " T he House-keepers will have an easy Lime; th e dishes wi ll
be wash ed by electri city. In Lhe year 2001, you will no l see a single
horse on Broadwa)', New York and only auws will be seen. In war
the muions will have s ubm~arine torpedo boats which will d estroy
a whole Oeet. Jn the year 2001, the loco1notives will travel abou t
300 miles in a n hou r, but! think it is notnecessary because, before
you know it., you will be killed by a locomotive. The peopl e of the
Earth will be in close communication with Mars by being shot off
in great cannons. The cannon ball will be hollow to conta in food
and drink.
4
"It Will Be a Glorious Century"

"Old Must Ever Fall Before the New"


\ \' bile Lhe u·emendous scie ntific a nd Lechno logical ach·anccs of 1.hc
nine tee nth cenwry inspired e nthusiasm fur the: future, clevcloprnenL'i
also led man)' LO think abo111 the c ha nges that would occur in politics,
economics, inccllec1.ual lik. and n :lig io n. Bv the: ttirn or the centur y.
pone n cs of things m come: \\'ere alrcad)' in 1.ht· air. Organi zations that
called for change, such as labor unions, woman suffrage: groups. cmd
ne\\' political parties, had become promincnL in the public eye. Writers
at the turn of the ce11Ltir)' plll funh new ideas about topics ranging rrorn
religion w e ducation to dicl. As th e follow ing article shows, Lhe recen t
acquisition or th e Philippines and Pue r to Ri co in 1.h e Spanish-Ame ri can
\ Var and the annexaLion or Hawaii le d sorn c: to specu late about h ow the
nation's territorial boundaries mighL look in Lhc ruturc.

(Kenosha) Telegraj1h- Couric~1; Jan wiry 10, 1901

What is in store for the Uni ted States in the present century?
·when the century.just e nded began, it was the comforting thought
of the citizens of the new Repu blic that the re stretch ed to the
' 'Vest and the North of them a limitless, trackless, unexplored do-
main that '"ould be the abode of th e hardy frontiersmen, the
dwelling place of the rude p ioneers for ce nturi es to come. v\Then
the discoveries of [Robert] Gray a nd the explorations of Clark
and Lewis laid open the vast undefined and unconfined \iVest to
the people of d1e United States and the rest or the worl d, the mind
of man could not conceive the countless ages that should pass
before that great expanse of territory wou lcl be the habitation of
man and the home of thriving citi es. The people of those days did
not even dream of a rime when stearn transportation a nd tele-
graph and tele phone should build up great cities on the very edge
of the Western sea and bring the Columbia and th e Pacific, vague

12!'>
126 Yesterday 's Fttt,u re: The Twen lieth Centu·1y Be1:,rins

realities in the minds of the men of the day, within speaking dis-
tance of the New England States, But all these Lh ings have come
to pass, and 'virJ1in the comparatively short time of a liLtle less than
a ce ntury. The n what of r.he future ?
Already those magnificent distances that completely baffled the
conce ption ol' the fathers of the country have become all too
short. T hose broad expanses have become too confin ed, and
those countless acres too few indeed for the rapidly grmving popu-
lation of th e Un ited States at the beginning of the twentieth cen-
tury. Already it overflows the confines and reach es out fo r other
fields. Its mighty progress cannot be staid. The gen ius of advance-
men t that has so ove rleaped the bounds of all precedent in the
last on e hundred years cannot be rest.rain ed o r conmined'within
limits that it has already outgrown. Having bro ught under its mas-
tery the tracts beyond the Mississippi and th e Rockies, it will not
pause at th e brink of the sunny Pacific. But what is its goal? Hawaii
and the islands of the Philippine archipelago were in its grasp
before the cradle century of the nation had brea thed its last. Next
lie the areas of China '~ith their seething po pulations. Is there
room the re for the children of the twentieth century? The old
must ever fall before the new. The childre n of a decadent civili-
zation cannot stand before the march of the offspring of regen-
eration. Either the creatures of the present day progress and civ-
ilization must dispossess the sons of the Orie nt, or, breathe new
life into a decaying empire, and find employmen t for their ener-
gies in building a new nation from the ruins of an old.

For ma ny wriLe rs, progress meant the solmion of' proble ms that e merged
during the nine teenth ce nmry. In \ Visco nsin , b0Li1 so cia list a nd
prog ressive reformers a ddressed the proble ms o f urban pove rry a nd
mo no po lies and insisted that only throug h fund ame ntal change could
Ame ri ca trul y progress. The Vorwiirts was the Germa n-la nguage o rga n of
Milll'aukce 's Social-Democratic Party, and like Cennans in the old
coulllry, it marke d the Lurn of the century at Lhe e nd o f' 1899 rather
than 1900. Victor Berge r, che paper's editor and Lhe pan)"s cofounder,
most likely penned Lhe edito1·ial that fol lows. I::. M. Scarola wro te the
second piece, a poem entitled 'The Child with Re d Hair." Both items
appear he re i11 English translations from the origimil Ccrman.

(tvlilwauhee) Vorwarls, December 31, 1899

... ff this century has been called (often falsely) the century of
hum anitarianism, the next will be called th e century of radical
"JT WIL i. BE A GI.ORlOUS n :NTURY" 127

social change, whe ther Lh e cha nges be accomplished in a peaceful


or bloody manner, g radually or sudd en ly. Socialism has begun its
victory march rJ1rough the civilized world, and nothing can stop
it~ forward movement..
And ye t we d o no t want to co nceal the fact that monstrous
difficulties must sti ll be me t be fore we can reach our proximate
goal since a fina l goal for civilization does not exist. In this country
the teachings of soc ia li sm are noL understood by th e great rn~jor­
ity of the people , or e lse they are understood wrongly. And the
difficulties do not come jus1 from our ope n and direct opponents
the capitalists but also from those who claim to have goals similar
LO our own.

ll'J-li(:\:l)29507

A Milwaukee slrPel, abmll 1909.


128 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth Cenltl'I)' B egins

For the times are past whe n people could offer up notions like
"property sharing" a nd "woman sharing" as socialist goals without
appearing complete ly ridiculous in the eyes ofreason able people.
But with this, th e battle against socialist teach ings has not been
ended . On the one hand, capitalist reformers and proletarian
demagogues steal socialism's own \veapons and try to turn them
against it. T hey ta ke soc ialist slogans but give th em a diffe rent
meaning. l\fany of social ism 's d emands regarding municipaliza-
tion or nation alization are accep ted but brough t into a context
where they lose meani ng and significance. On r.he oth er h and, a
small ba nd of orthodox bel ievers claims the sole right to interpret
socialism. ll d ismisses any actions take n to improve cu r rent con-
d itions as purely a swindle; it persuades its followers to wait fo r
the great "Crash-bang" and the "future state" and would gladly
deliver those who disagree to the inquisition if it were possible.
Thus, it is even more important than before that we Social-
De mocrats work agai nst the falsification of democratic, scientific
socialism by hum buggers as we ll as fanatics, that we offer in place
of mere slogans insigh t into the real development5. This is doubly
n ecessary in o ur Milwaukee , where the old capitalist parties have
also a ppropriated certain socialist-sounding phrases and made
good use of them at election time .. .. In the last two decades the
conditions of earli e r tim es in Ameri ca have been completely stood
on their heads: enti rely new economic organ izations such as the
trusts have appeared, and the goals of the old political parties have
been complelcly displaced . But on Lhe other hand, d espite crises,
the capitalistic economic system has in no way take n on su ch a n
acute form that a catastrophe can be expected soon or in the
foreseeable future. ln short, given the ever new formations of eco-
nomic life, t.he o ld demands, doctrin es and proofs are io man)'
cases insufficie nt; and, rnore Lhan any socialist parties in other
countries, American Social-De mocrats have the mission of bring-
ing clarity and eve r more clarity about social conditions into th e
heads of the prole taria ns.
And tha t is one of the main missions of th is newspaper: i l
sr.ancls for trutl1 and clarity, even though many illusions and fond
hopes may be destroyed thereby. For this newspaper is a mouth-
piece for struggl e; we struggle in all areas so that the producing
classes- the worke rs and the farmers-may be raised to a higher
level in the mate rial, inLellectual, moral, and physical sense; an d
th is requires above all truth and clarity. T h ese words should be
the motto of Social-Democracy. ...
"rr WILL BE A GLORIOUS CENTURY" ] 29

We have great hopes for r.he new year, the year J 900. We ex peel
intense and ·wide-ranging action . But we also expecl great lri-
umphs for lhe young Social-Democracy of America.
Here's to the new year!

(Milwau.lwe) \!onvart.s, January 7, 1900

!vlrs. Nineteen groans and moans a nd cries


and writhes with labor pains;
the "dignitaries of the nation" unired
surround h e r childbirth bed.
She sees the cradle not far away
ready for lhe child, for h e r the funeral bier,
and she tears her clothes aparl and cries out:
"The child will have reel hair! "
Fright grips the circle of hypocrites,
the snobs and the parsons;
the blue coat quickly grabs his cudgel
and or.her "spiritual weapons."
The parson, from the pulpit,
incites his sheep to the altar:
Now you are damned! All or you .
'The child will have red hair! " ...
Into your night our despair will sink,
the day is almost h ere;
our sunrise has arrived
and your stars arc gone!
The morning song is already sounding,
the larks and the starling.
The snob is reffeating! The parson fl ee ing!
"The child will have red hair!"
We are born free and equal,
we do not know oppression!
Hurray! You prolerarian child!
You will give us equal rights!
The farmer-red! The bourgeoisie-red!
Ah, you changeable world!
Desperation is dead! The people have bread!
"The child will have red hair!"
130 Yesterday's Fu.lure: The Twentieth Centu1y Begins

Other newspapers offt:red a more modcraLc approach to progressive


reform. john De \<\1 itl Warner, a former DemocraLic congressman from
New York, outlined a numbe r or progressive init.iativcs for ttrban reform
in the following piece. It was published in u·ans lation in one of
tvlilwau kee ·s German-language nc\\'spapers. The text printed he re is
taken from the o riginal English-la nguage ve rsion.

J\llilwa:ukee Herold und Seebole, Jan:u.m)• 1, 1901

In attempting to anticipate what "reforms" we may expect in mu-


nicipal matters during the next century, experience warns us that,
while in some details they may be so radical and novel as to make
that name appropriate , they will, in th e main , be such that they
would be more accurately termed "developments."
Taking up at random the matters with wh ich city authoriries are
now busy: Artificial light has for centuries been recognized as a
necessity of civilized man and public order. It is, therefore, rapidly
and certainly coming to be regarded as a wanr wh ich should be
direcr.ly met by the municipality; and it is as nearly cert.ain as may
be, first, that public con tro l, and , in general, public operation of
city light plants will prevail. And we are tending rapidly toward a
similar policy as lo heat.
As to tnnspon facilities: not merely will clean, dry and spacious
streets be the rule, but systems o f subway transport will probably
be m ore extensive than are now surface ones; while, both above
and under ground, the rate of transport will be such as to ap-
proach a free supply. That is, fares will be so low, as compared
with other factors in the use of cars, th at these seH~same factors,
and not expense, will determine their use by each. It is probable
that, as in the case of water, the expense of individual supply, so
free as not to limit use, wi ll be fully met b)' fares so petty as to be
scarcely more than required to prevent waste; and the operation
by the city of these "moving highways" will become as much a
matter of course as is now the repair and preservation of our
streets for pedestrians. The whole field of express service will be
so extended as to provide not merely messenger service much
more complete than now, but for the safe carriage and prompt
delivery to any part of the municipality of articles deposited at any
other part. Telephone ser vice, also, will be correspondingly cheap
and abundant.
One result of in creased transpon and commun ication facilities
w;U be the growth of publ ic kitch e ns, where shal l be prepared the
" rT \\'ILL BE A GLORIOUS o :NT U RY" 131

meals of most of our citize ns, which they will rece ive ready served,
of better quality, and more promptly and regu larly, than the do-
mestic economy of the average household can hope to furnish
Lh e m. These will have been preceded by pub lic laundries, which
will reli eve the wage earn e r's household of a rnost important item
or iL5 present discomfo r L<;.
IL is not easy to predict how shall be solved th e proble m of manual
labor by married women. \ \·' hether with bette r wages and cheaper
1

living they wiJl be in ge ne ral relieved of othe r cares than those of


wife and mother? or whe ther, with more of opportunity for self-
support and partially relieved from present home duti es, the mun-
ber of wage earners among married women will in crease? It is prac-
tically certain, however, that the right of every child to good care ,
nurture and education will be better protected with every decade;
Lhat day nurseries will be one of the public fac ilities soon provided
as a matter of course; and Lhat labor which takes mothers from their
childre n will be pe rmitted only in cases whe re proper care of all
childre n below school age is definitely provided for.
Publ ic baths so nearly free as to be habitually used by all and
so numerous and extensive as to leave such use unlimited, will be
as much a matter of co11 rse as sufficient air for breathing. St.ill
greater relief, not me rely to the poor, bu t especially to those of
modera te and large means, ·will result from such a complete sys-
le rn of hospitals that, by 2000, for one who is so ill that he cannot
go about, to remain al his residence will be as unusual as a hun-
dred years sin ce it was unive rsal. In ever y co nsiderable city, edu-
cation, to the fullest extcnl of the capacitv of its vouth, will be
literally free as air, and, up Lo what would ' now be' considered a
h igh standard, made quite compulsory in one way or another.
More provision will be made for public recreation. Beautiful
sculpture, instruc tive paintings and fully eq uipped libraries will
characterize the typical city.
And long before th e year 2000 taxation will have been so ad-
justed as to encourage, noL discourage , th e fu llest improvement
or land; public franchis es will be so universally operated direct by
the public, that a street railway company or p rivate war.er-1vorks
for public supply will see rn as archaic as personal government by
royal charter, or the farm ing of taxes.

Re lig io us leaders fig ured prominently in th e e ffor t~ 10 cun: urban


proble m s. In L11e fo llowing art.icle, na tion ally syndicated column ist
132 Yesterday's Future: The Twentieth CenlW)' Begins

T homas Dcv\iitt Ta lmage of\·Vashinglon, O.C., devoted his weekly


sermon to the topic or urban "reclemplion." Ta lmagc's sennons were
widely read th roug hout \.\'isconsin and we re a weekly sra ple for twenty-
n ine years.

Elkhorn Blade, J anuary I, 1901

... Pulpit and printing press for tl1e mosl part in our clay are busy
in discussing the condition of the ci ties at this time, but wou ld it
not be healthfully e ncouraging to all Ch ristian workers and lo all
who are toiling to make the world better if we should this morning
for a little while loo k forward to the time when our cities shall be
revolutionized by the Gospel of the Son of Cod and all th e dark-
ness of sin and troubl e a nd crime a nd suffe ring shall b e gone from
th e sky, and it shall be "a morning without clouds?" . . .
I want you to undersi:and, all you who are to il ing for Christ., Lhal
the castles of sin are all goi ng to be captured. The victo ry fo r
Christ in these great towns is going LO be so complete that not. a
man on earth or an a ngel in Heaven or a d evil in hell will dispute
it. How do I know? I know it just as certain ly as God lives and tha t
this is holy truth. T he old Bible is full of il. The nation is Lo be
saved. It makes a great difference wi th you and witl1 me whethe r
we are toiling on toward a defeat or toili ng on toward a victor y.
Now, in this mun icipal elevation of wh ic h I speak, I have to
remark there will be greater fin ancial prosperity tha n our citi es
have ever seen. Some people seem to have a morbid idea of the
mille nnium, and they think when the be tte r time com es to ou r
cities and the worl d people will give their time up to psalm singing
a nd the relating of their religious expe1-ie nce, and as all social li fe
will be purified the re will be no hila1-i ty, a nd as all busin ess will be
puri fi ed there will be no e nterprise. Th e re is no ground fo r such
an absurd an ticipation . In the time of wh ic h I speak, wh e re now
one fortune is made there will b e a lnm dred fo rtunes made. We
all knovv business prosper ity depends upon confidence between
ma n and man. Now, when tlrnt time comes of which I speak, an d
all double dealing, all dishonesty and all fraud are gone ou t of
commercial circles, thorough confidence will be established , a nd
the re will be better business done and la rge r fortun es gath e red
and mightier successes achieved.
T he great busin ess disasters of this co1mtry have come from the
work of godless specula tors and in fam ous sr.ock gamblers. T he
great foe to business is crime. When the right shall have hurled
back the wrong, and shall have purified the commercial code, a nd
"rr \Vil.I. BE A GLORI OUS C l~ NTU RY " 133

shall have thundered clown fraudulent establishme n ts, and shall


have pu t into the hands of honest men the keys of busin ess,
blessed time for the bargain makers. I am not making a guess. I
am telling you God's eternal truth ....
ln that clay of which I speak, do you believe that there will be
any midnigh t carousal? Will there be any kicking off from marble
steps of shivering mendicants? Will there be any unwashed, unfed ,
uncombed children? \Nill Lhere be any blasphemies in t.he street?
Will there be any inebriates staggering past? No. No wine stores,
no lager beer saloons, no breweries where they make the three
X's, no bloodshot eye, no bloated cheek, no insu·t11nents of r uin

11'1J; ( :\3)29514

"Jn that day of which I speak . .. . [w]ill there be any unwashed,


tt'l~/ed, uncombed childrrm?" Two lvfilwcruhee childr1m., 1909.
Yesterday's Fu lure: The Twentieth Cenl'lll)' Begins

an d destruct.ion, no list pounded forehead. The grandch ildre n of


LhaL woman who goes down the street with a curse, stoned by the
boys that follow her, will be the reformers and the philanthropists
and the Christian me n and th e honest merchants of our great cities.
God's love will yet bring back Lb is ruined world to holiness and
happin ess. An Infinite Fathe r bends over it in sympathy. And to
the orphan He will be a Father, and LO the w;clow H e will be a
husband, and to the outcast H e will be a home, and to th e poorest
wretch th a t Lo-day crawls out of the ditch of his abomin a tions,
cr ying fo r mercy, He will be a n a ll-pardoning Redeem e r. The rocks
wi ll wrn grey with age , the forests will be unmoored in the hur-
ri ca ne, the sun will shut its fie r y eyelid, the stars will drop like
blasted figs, the sea will heave its last groan and lash itself in ex-
piring agony, the continents wi ll drop like anchors in the dee p,
IJ1e world will wrap itself in shee t of flame and leap on the fun e ral
pyre of the judgment d ay, but God's love will never die. It shall
kin d le its suns after all other lights have gone out. It will be a
billowing sea after all othe r oceans have wept themse lves away. [t
will warrn itself by the blaze ora consuming world. It will sing wh ile
Lhe a rchangel's u-umpet peals, and the air is filled with the crash
or breaking sepulchers, and the rush of the wings of the rising
d ead . Oh, commend th at love LO all the cities, and th e morn ing
without clouds will com e! . ..
So you and I go fonh, a nd all the people of God go forth , and
they stretch their hand over the sea, the boiling sea of crime a nd
sin and wretchedness. "ll doesn ' t amount to anything," people say.
Doesn't it? God's 'vinds of help will after awhile begin to blow. A
path will be cleared for Lhc army of Christian philanthropists. The
path wi ll be lined with the treasures of Christian benevolen ce, a nd
we wil l be greeted to the othe r beach by the clapping of all
Heave n 's cymbals, while those who pursued us and de rided us and
tried LO desu-oy us will go down unde r the sea, and all that will be
left of tl1 ern will be cast high and dry upon the beach , th e splin-
tered wheel of a chariot or thrust our. from the foam , th e brea th-
less nostril of a riderless charge r.

Thoughts from the Street


T he Mi lwm.i/111e Senlirud as keel a 11 umbe r or the city's ci tizcns a
common question: What is i'vlilwaukcc's greates t task in 1.hc
1wcnt ie th ce rllurv? Their answe rs rdlec1.c d th e diversity of
vicw po inrs in Wi~consin 's laq;e~l c iLy. '
" IT W ILL BE A GLORIOUS CENTUR Y" 135

1\!filwaul<.ee Sentinel, Deceniber 30, J 900

john Johnston [cashier, Marine Midland Bank]-! think we are


located to insure our becom ing a large manufacturing center. Our
cli mate is such thal workmen can work a foll day all year round,
while in many localities, such as SL Louis, Cincinnati and else-
where, the heat in the summer is so oppressive the workman can-
not sleep at night and is not in condition to work the following
day. It is invaluable to us that we have such a fine harbor on the
chain of great lakes. We must kee p our river so that we can adm it
th e largest: vessels. We must e ncourage manufacturers by not hav-
ing more than a moderate rate or taxation; we must furnish them
with cheap water and cheap ligh t. ...
Mrs. H.F. 'W hitcomb [wife or the presiden t of Wisconsin Cen-
tral Railroad]-Milwaukee's greatest task for the next century
must be the proper education of children. First of all we must
have adequate schools, especially in the kinderganen and primary
grades, even if the High schools must be sacrificed to get this
result. We must have the ungraded schools and th e parental farm
school in connection with the reformed system. \ Ille must also h ave
th e juvenile Court law, and efficient probation officers to investi-
gate eve ry child's case thoroughly.
S. E. Tate [secretary, Swain and Tate Co.]-The Lhing Lhat Mil-
\vaukee must have is a belt li ne. As matters are at present there
are two rai lways here, one on the lake shore and the other in the
Menomonee ~alley. This being the case, all manufactories must
be located in these two limited districts, and just so far Milwaukee 's
progress will be impeded. By having a belt line we could have
other roads touching 'Milwaukee. They would willingly come in
the n , affording us additjonal shipping faci lities, and, what is more,
provide more localities for manufacturing industries.
D. M. Schu ler, Principal Eighth District School No. 2- What
th e city needs most of all in educational circles is more school
room. Th is is a matter of present need, and might be considered
bui lding for the coming century. There should be more room, so
as to give a more reasonabl e apportionment to the class teachers.
Our teachers are woefully overcrowded, especially in th e inter-
mediate grades. I know of grades in which there are sixly-three
pupils to the teacher, when there ought really to b e fifty at most,
while forty would be about Lhe proper n um ber that a teacher
should be expected to take care of.
136 Yesterday's Fuiure: The Twentieth C1, nl 111) ' BP-gins

Ira B. Smith, Preside nt. of Merchants and J\tlanufacturers'


Association- I sh ould like to see seventy-six foot bridges at every
street that crosses the rivers, making M ilwaukee the Venice of
America, a n d more railway facilities, and th e n M.il waukee will be-
come a great commercial center.
E. A. Wadh ams lpreside nt, Wadhams Oil and Grease Co.]-
Noc within 100 years, but imrncdiately, " ·e want boulevards con -
n ecting all the parks in the ciLy, a viaduct from Twenty-seventh
street to the south side and a la ke drive to connect with Lhe boul-
evard s con n ecting with 1.he park system.
E. L. Philipp [Milwaukee businessman a n d f'uture Re publican
governor]-What do we n eed most during the n ext ce ntury? Why,
a Republ ican admin istration , to begin as soo n as possib le an d re-
rnain in charge indefin itely. We want good, honest m e n at the
head of our affairs, and wit.h su ch '"e need have no fear co ncern-
ing th e ci ty's progress during th e next 100 years.
Henry J. Baumgaenn e r [Republican nomi n ee fo r mayor,
1900] - The city is most in need of a larger percentage of citizens
who d o their own th inking; of m e n who dare to assen th e ir rights
a nd manhood, and whose action s are not wholly comrolled by an
inte rested few, for p ecun iar)' gain . T hen all other c ity n eeds, such
as municipal ownersh ip o r public utili ties, more adequate railway
facil ities, just taxation, e tc., will fo llow as a malte r of' course , in
rap id succession, and th e year 2000 will dawn upon Mi lwaukee
with a popu lation twentyfold tha t of to-day.
Matt J. Simpelaar lsuperintendent, Edward Keogh Press]-
What our fast growin g manufacturing city n eed s most in this era
or great inclusu-ial deve lo pm e nt and general prospe rity is a cen-
trally located offici al e mployrr1em bureau . I have in mind a public
office in the city h all whe re a systematic daily bulle tin sh ould be
ke pt of all employers of labor of any kind in n eed of han ds; a
place where a person in search of work could rcgisLer, and make
a daily call to see if there was any demand for help in his vocat.ion.
This bu lletj n offinns in n eed of help I would h ave pu b lished daily
in t h e official city p ape r, besides be ing kep t promine n tly on a
blackboard in th e office. l believe it would b e a s te p in r.he right
clireCLion and prove o r great benefit to e mployers as well as th e
working classes. There are no cloul)l, rnany emp loye rs to-clay lo ok-
in g for t he right person , as we ll as ,,ril ling and able h ands looking
for work, wh ile both n ecessarily are ign orant of each oth e r 's wants.
We keep a very systemati c and e laborate record or births, deaths
"IT W ILL BE A GLORIOUS CENTURY" 137

and marriages, and of people in jails and prisons. v\Thy not pay a
little more attention to the real live condition of our social struc-
tu re? I feel sure that a public office, systematically con ducted, free
from all expense to the person in need of its information in hand,
wou ld materially diminish th e population of that public factory
known as Lhe house of correction .
Under-Sheriff Louis Meyer- To secure a new place for boy
crim inals is one of the things that must be undertaken-Lhe
quicker the better.
Ignatz Czerwinski [real estate developer ]- A larger influx of
European immigration is needed. We want more factories, and
the prosperity which will accompany them.
Depu ty Comptroller George W. Po rth-One of the r.asks the
city must accomplish is the reductio n of taxes. How? More econ-
omy in all city departments. We m ust construct more schools; and
we need d eeper river channels.
Aid. Henry Smith-Social Revolu tion ! It's got to come. You
can't get away from it. It's ei ther coming or we will have slavery.
And whe n it comes there will be wisdom in city governrn en l and
all fau lLS of to-clay will be met! Publi c ownersh ip of public mili ties
also must be accomplished .
C. B. Willis, General Secretary of the YM.C.A.- v\That the city
needs is righteous men: men who fear God and keep His com-
mandments. We would the n have no diffic ulty with municipal cor-
ruption or any other.

"The Best Dairy State in the Union"


In 1900 Wisconsin was still ove rwh elmingly ru ral, and dairying was th e
backbon e of the state's agriculLUral economy. In th e following articles,
prominent state figures offer 1J1cir visio ns of Wisconsin dairying in the
twe ntie th century. Henry Cullen Adams, slate dair y food comm issioner,
wrote the firs t a r ticle. Adams strongly suppo rted the pending "'Grom
bi ll "' in Congress 1\'h ich soug ht to ban oleomarga1·ine colored to look like
buucr. William Dempster H oard, form er governor and publisher of
1-foard :~ Oailyman magazine, wrote c.hc second piece.

Milwm.thee Sentinel, December 30, J 900

Dairying is Wisconsin's greatest agricultural interest. Our cheese


factor ies produce 45,000,000 pounds or cheddar and 15,000,000
pounds of Swiss, Limberge r and other kinds of cheese each year.
O ur creameries and private dairies have an annual product of
138 Yesterday's Fut.ti.re: The Twentieth CenlW)' Begins

ll'l li(IJ.liX) 131 $

A foot-jJowered milking machine, 1901.

80,000,000 pounds of butter. Our pastures and fields support


1,000,000 cows that yield an a nnual revenue of $35,000,000.
We a re progressing rapidly toward still larger and better results.
M.ore farmers are doing more and better thinking every year. As
in every other industry, invention is cheapening the cost and im-
proving the character of the product. The old tin milk pan is a
memory. The marvelous separator that skims milk with lig htning
speed by sLearn or hand powe r is a living and profitabl e reality.
The clash churn , Lhat old-fas hioned instrument of torture, has
been displaced by modern machines run by dogs and sheep, by
steam a nd electricity. Refrigerator cars carr y fresh v\Tisconsin but-
te r int o the markets of Memphis and New Orleans. The cow her-
se lr is more respectable than te n years ago because sh e is better
bred. The future has no greate r possibilities in Wisconsin d a iryi ng
tha n in the line of breeding good dairy stock. The cow 1J1at docs
not pay and cannot be made to pay is still common in this state.
The future, with the u niversa l ed ucation which i.t will bring to
dairymen , will destroy her. ft will breed "general purpose" non-
sense o u t of dairy cows and will breed cream into milk and co lor
"IT Wll.l. BE J\ GLORIOUS CENTU RY " 139

into butter. It w;ll breed as its best type that cow which has no
waste bone or flesh, which has Lrernendous digestive capacity and
powe r to elaborate food into good milk. In other words makes a
cow machine which •..vill make the most butter fat from a given
amoun t of raw material The future will bring clean milk and
cream into eve ry market in the state.
Abso lute dairy cleanliness and paste uriza tion of milk and the
products will be secured by state and mu nici pal laws, which shall
provide a mple agencies for enforceme nt.
Barns ligh ted by electricity, well-ve mila ted a nd clean will pro-
tect our dairy cows from summer storms and winter's cold. The
sil o wi ll give canned green fodder to give summer succulence to
the winte r ration upon every dairy fa rm. T he science and art of
fee ding wil l be universally und erstood and protein and carbohy-
drates will go into cows in right proportion.
All of our butter 'Nill have good gra in , ric h flavor and the color
that na ture gives. Our American cheese will be placed upon the
marke t on ly when well cured and rich in butter fat. Our Limber-
ger cheese will be more redolent th an eve r with those odors which
beco me be tte r as they grow worse.
T he dairyman of the future will do business in a home where
fl owe rs bl oom and comfort reigns. 'Where the laws of sanilation
in co nstruction will be carefully regarded , where a good share of
the world 's knowledge as found in papers and magazines and
boo ks shall h ave a place , where a tele phone will connect him with
ne ighbors and markets, where childre n ·will be taught by sur-
roundings and the example of clea n and prosperous life to love
the farm and to so live that their good citizenship shall serve the
state. T he future will see Northern Wisconsin dotted with cream-
e ries and c heese factories. The cow will follow the a,xe \·vith an
industry as enduring as time. She will be a gold mine and a bless-
ing in every agricultural community. He r a rmy of a million will
grow to millions, that within half a ce ntu ry will yield the state a
revenue of $100,000,000 a year. Our domestic markets will grow
with our population, and per capita con sumption will increase
with im p roved quality of produce.
In the corning century, we will break in to the trade of the Ori-
e nt with our d airy products. \ \le will teach th e Chinese to eat but-
1

ter instead of bugs. The ''Yellow Peril " wi ll disappear under th e


Christ ianizing influences of the product of the American cow. The
Grou t bill will become a law. Oleomarga ri ne will wear its own uni-
140 Yesterda)"s FultffP: The Twentieth CenlW)' Begins

for m of white or go to the lockup. T he cow will chevv her cud


serene in he r comfort, beautiful in he r form , unrivaled in her
usefu ln ess, a nd vVisconsin wi ll continue to be what it now is, the
best dairy state in the Union.

MilwauJwe Sentinel, December 30, 1900

You ask for a brief statement or my op inion concerning the futu re


or 1.he dairy industry in Wisconsin. I wou ld re ply that in my opin-
io n the state has a bright future bdorc it in this particular, p ro-
vided its people look at th e question in a righ t light. \"hsconsin
occupies already a foremost positio n a mong all the states of the
Union in regard to the extent a nd quality of its dairy product and
in particu lar fo r what it. is doing fo r advanced dairy educatio n
among th e farmers. It has the strongest d airy school in the nation.
lls agricul tural college is doing more tha n any si milar institution
to eclt1cate the youth of the farm to <1 right unde rsr.anding of what
it means to be a successful dairy fa rmer. l ts State Dairymen's as-
socia tio n is one of the strongest in 1.he Union, and has kept in-
structors in Lhe field for years who travel a mong the cheese fac-
tori es a nd creameries and give instruc tion to the operators as to
th e latest a nd best methods of butte r and cheese making. T hey
a lso ho ld meetings among the patrons a nd discuss the proper
me Lhods for caring for th e milk a nd mi lk ute nsils, as well as th e
prope r management of cows.
Jts fa rm insti tutes, 100 in numbe r, d ispense a vast amount of
useful in fo rma tion con cerning the most successful methods or
dairy farrn managemen t, and the breeding a nd feeding and han-
dling of dairy cattle.
Nowhere in the Union is the thought, purpose and action of
the ('armers better organized on this great branch of agriculture
than in Wisconsin.
We have a very efficient Dairy and Food commission, with ex-
ce lle n t laws for the protection of dairy products.
I be li eve the census of 1900 wil l show that th e milk product of
Wisconsin will exceed $40,000,000 in value.
Northe rn Wisconsin, an e mpire almost in exte nt, bids fair to
become a theater of production fo r the.: fin est buner and cheese
on the continent. Its stable temperature in sum mer, its great pro-
ductive ness in all of the grasses and iL<> un exce lled water, all point
to a magn ificent future for the dairy industry in that portion of the
"IT WILL BE A GLORIOUS Ct;;NTlJ RY " 141

state. All the cow will ask at the hands of th e people of Wisconsin
is a fair show against aJI fra uds a nd counterfeit5, and she will in a
few years bring unexampled wealth and prosperity to the state.
Every man in the state be he far me r, lu mberman , manufacture r
or mecha nic should fee l a loyal patriotic pride in the bu ilding up
of so magnificent a n industry There need be no fears that th e
business will be ove rdone, provided the cow can have the market
to herself. Fron1 1880 to 1881 there was one cow to 4Y2 people;
from 1885 to 1890 one cow to 4 pe ople; from 1890 to 1895 one
to 4.80, and from 1. 895 to 1900 one cow to 5.33. The market sta-
tistics for th e same length of time show a steady decline in the
price of bu tte r. T he average for the first period was 29.33 cents;
the second period 26.23 cen ts; the third period 24.09 cents; the
fourth peri od 19.24 cen ts. Yel owing to the growth in the knowl-
edge of d airy economics, the farmer of to-clay, if he will make
h imself intclligen t, can produce butter and cheese at better profit
than he could fiftee n years ago. This condition has come about
through a man ifest im provement of the dairy capacity of our cows,
more inte lligent id eas of feeding and a better understan ding of
bow a nd what to grow as food crops for dairy cattle.
Wisconsin o ugh t of r ight, to be the foremost state in the Union
in the production of a ll breeds of dairy cattle. It has splendid
opporr.unity in this direction if on ly its most intelligent and
wealthy farmers will but take advantage of the reputation the state
now e r~ j oys as a grea t cente r of dair y activity. '"'e need a th ousand
first-class breede rs o[ J e rsey. Guernsey, Holstein and Ayrshire cat-
tle. This state shou ld be as famous for its thoroughbred dairy cat-
tle as Kentucky is fo r its horses. The demand is world wide and
Wisconsin e nte rprise and brain sh ould meet it.

As the old growth fo rest~ of' n orth e rn Wisconsin fell before the
lumbe r ma n 's ai-:, ma n y boosters sought to convince imrnigrams of th e
agricttlc.ural promise o l' Lh is thinl y populated Cuwve r distri ct. Former
Wisco nsin gove rno r \,\'i lliam Up ham predicted a bright future for
farme rs in r.h is pa rt o f the ~La le.

!Vlilwaukee Sentinel, Der:ember 30, 1900

The future of Northern Wisconsin is in the hands of the agricul-


turist. As Joseph Cook says in one of his lectures, "a country of
' '1Vetness' is a coun try or 'Fatness.' "
142 Yeste rday's Future: The T wentieth Cenlwy l3egins

Pulling slum/1s on the Cluistopher Paustenbach f arm,


east of Medf ord, Ta)'lor Count)', I 895.

\1\le cenainly have th e "wetness" which means grass and it onl)'


requires th e ha nd or ma n to place his herds of cattle a nd fl ocks
of sheep upon lhe la nds in Northern Wisconsin to make Lhis co un-
tr)' rich. Th e limbe r is rapidly being converted into lumber a nd
its vari ous proclucr.s. Pine is obsolete upon the line of th e railroads.
The he mloc k is be ing rap idly cut and th e land fo llowed up by the
farm e rs, will make Northern \Visconsi.n as wealthy and productive
as any portioll or o ur grea t and beautiful state.

A World of Ideas
I 11 addition lo stories a bout t.he future of urba n a nd rural life, newspa pe r
reade rs t: n nH 11 1t.e rt·cl a nicles that predicted sig nificant inLellcc LUal
progress. 111 the [(>Jl owing piece, Professor A.lbe n Ross Pa rso ns, prcsidcnL
of Lhc ;\111nica11 Coll t:ge o f Music ia ns in New Yo rk. offe rs his views on
die l'u1ure of music in the com ing cen tury. T he seco nd artich: offe rs a
glimpst: in to the run1rc of :\ merican literature.

Superior F.vming Telegrr1111,Janua 1)' 10, 1901

... The twe ntie th century wi II witness in America an unparalle led


ex te nsio n of musical enlightenment. \ Vith a steady increase of
1

o rchesLra l, chora l and solo performances of the greatest music by


"rr WlLJ. 13 E A CLO RfOUS C E NTU RY " 143

trave ling o rchestras and artists of world-renowned exce lle nce, a nd


resul ting growth of local musical organizations a nd socie ties of
ma ny sor ts; with an enormous increase in manufac tu re of m usical
instru men ts and the publication of good music of all types and
e ras; with hun d reds of thousands of more or less serio us stude nts
of music; a nd wi th the in troduction into the homes of tJ1 e natio n
of marve lo us auto matic devices of American inven tio n fo r ren-
dering the g reatest music familiar as household wo rds, inde pen-
d e n tly of the agency of laboriously acquired technique, pu blic
musical taste a nd appreciation cannot fast to become e x traord i-
narily improved ; a nd wi th the simplest t.o the most com plex will
have to reach a ce rtain standard of quality in orde r to enjo y any
sort or pop ul ari ty. IL has already become hard for an y one bu t a
composer o f talent and training to secure a commissio n to write
th e m usic fo r eve n the ligh test of opere ttas, a nd good composers
are mo re in de mand than ever before to supply inc iden t.al music
for tJic theatre . . . .

Kenosha Evm.ing News, jamwry 4, 190 1

It has been th e un animous verdict of the critics th a t no ho liday


season has p rod uced so many re adable books in the lin e of fi ction
and biograp hical histo ry as the last. It is indubitable tha t th e prod-
uct has bee n voluminous beyond precedent, and probably the
judg me n t o f the people, who are in reality in the e nd Lhe a rbite rs
of an a utho r's fa te, would sustain the critics. With it conceded that
the quantity or boo ks written by American authors and the qua lity
of th e wor k a re both superior to former years of the !a lter half of
the cen tury, one is incline d to speculate some on th e f'ulurc o f
litera ture in th is country.
It is a fac l t.h<H every A merican notes with reg re t an d a li ttle
m ortificatio n , perhaps, that among the authorized lists of the
g reatest au thors an d the ir v,;orks of the past cen tury, the U nite d
States is e ithe r a lLogeth er overlooked or only very meage rly rep-
rese nted. Among th ose whom the c1itics are going to le t live are,
arno ng Lhe write rs of fiction , such names as Balzac a nd D u mas, of
France, Thacke ray and Dicke ns, of England , and Scott, beside
Steve nson and Kip ling. Am o ng the poe L'> are Byron , Te nnyso n ,
Swineburne , Wordsworth , Hugo, De Mussey, H e ine , Goe the a nd
Pushkin . Among the historians are Macaulay, Mom rnse n , Ran ke,
Taine , Carlyle a nd Thie rs. Wh ere are the Am ericans? O ccasionally
144 Yesterday 's Future: ThP Twr11/ielh Cen lt11) Begins

some lone criLic will find a place among Lhc write rs of fi clion for
Hawtho rn e and Cooper, and amo ng lhe poets for Ho lmes and
Lowe ll. Emerson and Fiske are also menlioned al Lirn es, bul they
are a ll usually spoken of as among those less fortunale ones whose
writings, Lhough loved by their contemporaries, wi ll not be able
to endure the test of time.
ff Lhe beacon lights of American literarn re are a ll undeserving
or a niche in Lhe hall of fame , what are Lhe prospects for the
t:wen ti e th century? If Hawthorne and Cooper and Lowell a nd Em-
erson are doomed to "pale their ineffectual light" in th e mists of
the com ing years, what of the men and wome n who are at present
represe nting the Unite d States in the lite rary are na? The writers
or th e old school are almost passed away. Holmes lived to be as
he wrote , 'The last leaf on the tree ," and Howe lls is pracLically the
on ly survi\·or of the galaxy of li terary stars lhal formerly shone in
the diadem of American literature. New wriLe rs are taking the
p laces or the old and the new century begins with an entirely new
coterie of' aspiranr.s struggling for literary honors un a tta ined or
abandoned by those who have gone before.
What the prospects are, those best able to j udge are too reticent
to hazard. It: is probably safe to say that the younger writers of the
Un ited States have kept pace with the younger wri ters of other
cou n tries, with the possible exception of England, a nd Page,
Grant, Harl and and Bachellier h ave bee n well received bv the
public and credited by the critics with quite an unusual deg1:ee of
talcn t. What, if they are allowed to live, these authors will achieve
is entire ly a matter of c01~jecture. As ye t no latle r day au chor has
sprung into life wich that immortal spark aglow in his lines that
seems lO be LO ken another Thackeray or Di cke ns, or e\·en another
Hawthorne. Whatever else may be said of th e twentieth cen tury,
it may certainly be ventured that in the first years, at least, there
will be no dearr.h of new and fresh reading, whatever may be said
of th e q uality of the work and iL5 effect upon the li terature of the
country and the though t of the age.

/\n c;.;c(;)k111 c.:clucational sysrcm fed optim ism rm the f"11LL1n.' or


\.Visconsin. Stai.c and local officials strove to im prnvc rnc l hods of
1.c:1c hing al all levels ;111d saw grea t hope in th e s1mc's ability to meet. the
educa tion al n eed~ of its you1J1 . The following article was drnwn from the
annua l address o f 'Wiscons in Teachers' Associatin11 's Ani ng Prcsid e n t
W. 1-1. Elso11. en titled 'The Necessity for Slimulati11g a11cl Utiliz i11g
Purpos<' i11 School Work. "
"rr WILL BE A CLOlUOUS CENTURY" 145

Milwaukee Sentinel, December 29, 1899

... The nin eteenth century school leads the child to informaLion;
it leads him to re peat information; it stimulates on ly o r chiefly the
gathering-in process; it fosters the spi1it of self-accumulation; it
breeds selfishness. On the contrary the twentieth century school,
with a cleare r insight and a fuller recognition of the fundamental
law of growth, will lead the child to use his acquisi tio ns in new
fields or e ndeavor; it will lead him to put forth , to express, to
achieve by doing; it will bless h im with the joy of achievemen t; it
will breed consecration, devotion, benevolence in a helpful ser-
vice Lo others; from a tendency to self-preservation it will lead him
into a life of seir-assertion ; from a tendency to self-accumu lation
it will lead him in to ch an nels of altruism. The nine leenth century
school lays more su·ess on the inleading curren cs tha n o n the out-
leading cu rrenlS; more on the sensory system than o n the motor
system ; more on the impressive activities than on the expressive
activities; mo re on the absorbing process and on Lh e receptive
a ttiwde th an o n the productive and creative tendencies; more on
the acquisition of knowledge than on the use of it. T he twentie th
century school will adjust and equalize the emphasis; it will con-
cern itself with what the child knows that he can use, with what
h e can do, with what he measures in terms of life-effi ciency; it w;U
enquire '>Vha t power he has to solve new problems, to actj ust means
to encl, to measure action to possible result.
Two sign ificant facts are apparent in the modern move me nt in
education. First, the growing tendency and effort to base all school
work on th e child's experience and to enlarge and e nric h this
expe rie n ce. Second, the growing tendency to provide for the com-
pletion of me n tal acts in actual achievement. Th e development
of the arts and scie nces has put into active service in the condi-
tions of mode rn living a wealth of material which it is the business
of the school to utilize in cultivating a spirit of inquiry and inves-
tigati on, a nd a habit of relating all knowledge to practical life-
purvoscs. T he larger use of observation and e xperime nc which
now forms a pan of the daily work of all schools calls Fo r the larger
use or the hand in constructive doing. Experience must always
look r.o ac hievem ent for it5 justification. Progress in educational
practice is measured, not by advancement in one or the othe r of
these li nes, but in their close correlation in purpose . The child is
to gai n knowledge at first hand from personal e xperience, but he
1.46 Yesterda_y 's Future: The Twenliet.h Centtl1)' Begins

is also to develop power to use knowle dge thus gained. What


schools must need is the vitalizing touc h that purpose gives. When
observa ti on and experiment beget: in the ch ild the habit of relat-
ing nl l new income to new fields of ach ieve ment then purpose has
bee n stim ulated and proper corre lation has been made between
acquisiti on a nd expression, between thought and action . If ha lf
the time and e nergy spent within the past few years in attempting
to make forced and mechanical correlations between one
thought- subjec t and another and in aue mpting to de termine the
prope r a nd e xact number of correlating ce nte rs- whether there
should be one, or three, or five- had bee n spe nt in expanding
Ll1 e fi e ld of reactive conduct, and providing for a close correlation
between see ing and doing, between o bser va tion and expressing,
rewe r c hildren would have gone to wrec k in the meantime a nd
th e cause of education would have been greatly helped. This is
said with a full measure of appreciatio n of the rich contribution
whic h tile study of correlation in the past kw years h as brought
to t.he e le mentary school. .. .

ill 1.hc i'olluwini; piece.Jam es I-1 . StouL of' Mcnrn11011ie, a state scnawr
a11tl ph ilanthrop i~L who founded Stout Training School , whic h later
b<:came th e University of' Wisconsin-SLouL, s pcnilmcd on future
d in :c1icm s in 11n ivc rsity education.

Milwa ul<ee Senli nel, December 30, 1900

I am asked to state for The Sentinel t:h e li nes along which I think
uni versity e ducation is likely to be deve loped in the coming years.
The de ve lopment of universities in the immediate future will be
the outcome of their history in the past and the greatest and fu-
ture de mands of students see king high e r education.
Th e most significant changes in un ive rsity educati.on during the
past 1we1Hy-five years seem to me to have been the fo llowing:
I . T he introduction of tJ1e laboratory and the seminary meth-
ods of instruction.
2. T he e nla rgement of th e universit.y curriculum by the intro-
duction of the study of scie n ce, and la te r of history, econom-
ics and allied subjects.
3. T he e n large ment of the sco pe or unive rsity instruction by
th e addition of gradua te study.
4. T he d eve lopment and extension of technica l courses.
"IT W il.I . BE A GLOR IO US CENTURY" 147

\\%(X28)~6S2

Univenil)1of Wisconsin biolog)' laboratory, 1899.

The firsl in Lroduction of all of these changes must be dated


considerably farther back than a quarter o f a century, bu t their
existence in universities as active and powerful education al forces
is scarcely longer than twenty-five years. It is hard ly probable that
the first quarter of the twentieth cenw r y will witness new move-
ments and changes in university education as important and ex-
tensive as these. The work of the years immediately before us will
be to carr y forward the moveme nts already ini tiated. The enrich-
ment and e nlargement of the university curricula came as a re-
sponse to the pressure exerted by the general intellectual move-
rnent of lhe world in the generation just past. \.Vhile new sciences
will be introduced into the curriculum a nd the teaching of history
and or politics will be greatly extended, it. is hardly possible that
new fi elds for investigation >vill be opened at all comparable to
those covered by these great de partments of Lhought,-the one
pertain ing to the world and the other to socieL)'· I t is probable that
the necessi ties of the community will lead Lo a diffe rentiation in
the teaching of these subjects and tha t, on the one hand, both
scien ce and history will be taught to certain classes on account of
tl1eir valu e as a means of general culture, and that, in other di-
148 Yesterdct)' 's Future: The Twmtieth Cenlttl)' Begins

rections, the teac hing will be specialized as a means of technical


training.
Undoubtedly the fact of most imm ediate practical significance
in highe r ecl ucar.ion is the e normous in crease in the demand for
techn ica l educa tion. Increase in population, lead ing r.o a great
growth in the size of the communities, and the resulting com-
plexity a nd inte nsity of social life, makes great and in creasing de-
mands for special training. This is especially true in engineering.
T here is now a de mand for technically trained engineers in very
numerous d irections where but a few years ago no openings ex-
isted for pe rsons so trained, and, so far as the fulUre can be fore-
cast, the fi e lei for the engineer will be very rapidl y enlarged during
the years immediately before us. The same demand for technical
training is prcsen t in other directions. Only a very few years ago
there was no demand for technical training r·or those e ngaged in
agricullUre, but in all parts of th e country this de mand is now
great, and rapidly increasing, and techni cal agri cultural insLruc-
tion will form an important part of the education of the future.
T he more specialized departments of comme rce a re now begin-
ning lo dcrnand a similar technical training, and as commerce
extends and specializes, as it is sure to do, this den1and will be
great and wi ll have to be met by the multiplica tion and develop-
me nt or the new courses of study now just established in a few
universities. Training for public service is a department of tech-
n ical education about which much has been sa id, but for which
there can scarcely be said to exist a general demand at the present
time. Un do ubted ly, however, as necessity fo rces ou r co mmunities
to adm inister their public affairs from tbe standpoint of busi ness
and not of politics, a great demand will arise for men trained for
this branch of service.
This in crease in demand for technical educati on does not mean
a decrease in the demand for general ed ucatio n. On the contrar y,
all signs indicate that the coming years will see a grea t increase in
this d e mand , both as regards the numbe r or perso ns seeking a
highe r education and in the amount and qua Iity of the education
which is required. The most significant symptom of' this move-
men t is shown by the developmcn t of th e grad uat:e depart.men t5
in our universities and the great increase in th e nurnber of persons
seeking such instruction . At present there arc about 2,500 gradu-
ate slu.dc nts in the thirteen largest institu tions in this country,
" !T Wll.1. lH: 1\ Gl.OIUOUS CENTU R Y" 149

wh ile twemy-five years ago graduate work had hardly begun. T his
extension of th e undergraduate courses m eans that the re a re
many persons who fee l that the fo ur years or a college course is
too sbon a time for them to learn all they wish a nd need to know
of the e nla rged curriculum which the colleges a re offering, and
also means that in many departments, such as teaching, a g reater
amo un t of training is de manded than can be supplied by the un-
dergraduate course.
The unde rgraduate course will be sought in the fuwre by a
constantly increasing number of students as a preparation for
high e r professional study. Twe nty-five years ago very few persons
in the West were pursuing an undergraduate course as a prepa-
ration for the study of medicine or law, while to-day the n urnber
of persons in every college who are looking to one or the othe r
of these professio ns is g-reat and is rapidly growing. Still furth er,
as the community enlarges there will be a larger n umber of stu-
d ents who will come to universities for a liberal education without
expecr.at:ion o r directly using this in business or professional life,
a nd who wi ll call upon the universities for courses of liberal cul-
ture in la nguage a nd literature, science, history and o ther de-
partme n ts of learn ing and thought.
If the n 1 shou ld sum up what seems to m e the probabl e trend
of university development during the coming years, J should look
for iL in the d irections of a rapid increase in graduate instruction
and in the number of graduate student5 a nd in the techni cal de-
partments. Coord inate with tl1is increase I should expect a pro-
gressive e nrichment of the general undergraduate curricu la of the
universities a nd constant improvements in their me thods. l do n ot
expect, howeve r, to see in the university of the future any such
edt1cational revolu tions as those which have been brought. abou t
by the in troductio n of the laboratory and seminary methods. Uni-
versity development during the next generation will be a growth
rather than a revo lution .

"Knowledge Is Power, Especially in the Kitchen"


Sarah Tyson Rorer. an m nh or, e clir.or. and lect urer from Philadelphia.
offered a visionarv look at the future of diet, h ealth , and kitch e n
techno logy. i l lu~u·';ning t.he close ti es binding technology a nd ed ucation
to socia l c hange.
150 Yesterday's Future: T he Twentieth Centu·t)' B1?gins

(Suj1eri.01~ LMdPr-Clmion, J an um)' 4, 1901

In Lhc new ce ntury t.he fact will gradually be made clearer to men
and wo me n that it is much more sensible for them LO eat to live
than to live to eat. With the advent of the educated cook and the
intelligen t housekeeper we shall learn rnore about the righ t food
for different persons, said Mrs. Sarah Tyson Rorer to a Philadel-
phia Press re porter. By the educated cook I mean the one who,
especially trained for this branch of woman's work, must su rely in
the near future take the place of the ignoran t wom an in t:h e
kitchen.
T he girls in our cooking schools and public schoo ls who are
taking th e trouble now to learn the right prin ciples of cooking
will reap their reward. They will be masters of th e situation , not
servants o f Lh eir se rvants. T he general to be a perfect command er
must thoro ughl y unclersrand the tactics of the private. Knowledge
is power, especially in the kitchen.

A Wisconsin kitchen at the turn of the centw)'.


"n \VlL L l~E A G l.ORTO U S CENTURY" 151

The man of tl1e house when he wanrs a compete nt cle rk takes


infinite pains to get h im . Wh en he finds Lh c right man , he has no
hesiLaLio n in paying him his p1ice. T h e woman of the house goes
Lo an imellige nce office and often more frorn necessity than from
cho ice e mploys an inexpensive woman for he r kir.che n who is to-
tally ignora n t of eve r y possible p r inciple belonging to its manage-
men t:. If th e man of the house only knew il, the woman in the
kitche n is of far more import<mce to the health and the happiness
of hi mself and his family than the man in h is of1ice.
T he me n and women who are to do the importa nt work of the
coming century will eat less meat. Vegetari anism has acquired a
stride tJrnL no cry of fanaticism from pre:judiced meal eaters can
possibly check. The growth of vegetarianism means the disap-
pearance of the ignorant cook. Much greate r care must be given
to vege tab le than to meat cookery. ·wate r soa ked vegetables are
not appetizing or sightly. The woman from the "in telligen ce" of-
fice usuall y knows enough to take a p iece of' meat, even of the
poore r quality, put iL on th e stove, get up a fierce blaze and pro-
duce something fairly fit fo r th e table.
But what does she do w·ith vegetables? Simply ruins them. Sh e
boils them at a gallop, dissolves all their :flavor ;.111d pours it w;thout
fl inch ing down the drain . Then sh e dishes up the woody fiber and
seasons it: libe rally with salt and pep per. lf o ne wants the fl avor of
"tasty" vege tables and good coffee under such managemen t, go
to the tOp of the house . They are th ere, and the re they stay if' one
has drape ries. Badly cooked vegetables are absolute ly devoid of
nourishment and prime promoters of ind igesti on. The me n and
women o ftJ1 e twentietl1 century are not going to put up with these
blunde rs. In fa ct, they cannot do so and live . T he educated cook
must co me.
T he properly regulated kitchen wh ich I see in the n ear future
will have no use for coal. The cook who wa nts Lo prepare a dain ty
and nourishing table would rather have he r coal burned a long
d ista nce f'rom her kitchen and supplied to he r through pipes in
the form of gas. I am not enough of a mecha nic to discuss the
probable utility of elecbical stoves, but I do not think that they will
ever prove much of a factor in the kitchen. Special electrical ap-
pli ances to lessen labor in the kitchen may be rnore or less useful ,
but gas will be the cooking fuel fo r a very long time Lo come .
In the new cen tury kitchen a r11ermometer will occupy a con-
spicuous place on the shelf.
Yesterday's Futit're: The Twentieth Cenlu1y Begins

As time goes on tJ1e dinner table will be made more attractive


by preuy lamp shades and dainty flowers and ferns . It will appeal
to the eye as wel l as to the pal<ue. In satisfying their appetites men
will drift more in to the idea of esote1ic Buddhism. The coarser
forms of food will disappear. Less time will be spent in preparing
dish es that have no value as nourishment. The woman who has
no ideas of house hold economy beyond making an attractive but
indigestible layer cake will be eliminated.

"WiU Lovely Women Do the Proposing?"


Ar. the I.urn or the cc111.ury, all.hough women sr.ill lacked the vote, many
observers cxpn;~scd a great deal of optimism for the "rwentieth-cent.u r )'
woman ." Yer th ey sometimes differed as Lo what. social changes would
occur. In 1.hc following two articles, tl1e authors offer very different
perspectives 011 thL" fu1.u re of women a nd social roles. The first article is
a conLinua1.io11 or tht: piece by Gertrude Thayer begun on page 68.

Janesville Daily Gazelle, Janua·1y 4, 1901

... Here are a few things, for instance, which she expects Lo gain
by the encl of th e twentieth century:
She is go ing to vote.
She is going to insist. thm she shall be paid tJ1e same wages as
men for an equal arnounl of work.
She will have the same privileges as a man after her day's labor.
She will be able to go a lone to the theater and restaurant with-
out the painful necessity of dragging a man with her. \!\'hen tJ1is
is brought about. men will find themselves much less sought after.
\r\'hen the ne rves of her employer become a trifle on e dge and
he lights a cigareu.e 1.0 soothe them, she may give herself the same
comfort if she chooses. The fact that she ought not to smoke
because she is a woman will seem a humorous rather than a log ical
poinL of view.
vVhen she marries a man and she is the larger wage earner, she
will be the head of the house.
Her clothes will be comfortable as well as artistic .
She will ho ld any or every office where political integrity is de-
manded.
In fact should 1natters become too bad she \vouldn 't. mind be-
coming president of the United States.
"ff WILL BE A G LORJOUS C EN TUHY" 153

\VH i (:\.3\1\1290·1

Woman .rnjf1·ap/ ar.livisLs, about 1903. Kneeling at Jar right is


AdaJanws, a .mjfrage leader.from Richland Center.

Pla.llevilLeJou rnal, Jan urtl)' 11, 1901

In the Twe nti e th ce ntury-


Will lovely wome n d o the proposing?
Will woman bosses run politics as they now run the home?
Will me n wear birds on Lheir hats and crochet?
Will the house maid be a houseman?
Will horses be exhibited as curiosities?
Will politics be run on a philanthropic basis?
Will lhe Boston woman discover the north pole?
Wi ll little a irships be provided for messenger boys?
\Viii men wear friJJed shirL waists and women trousers?
\Vill the estimable Mrs. Grundy be driven to a convent?
Will the coll ege girl carry a cane and smoke a pipe?
Will the re be free lunch stands for women?
\Viii me n go to church evenings instead of to the club?
Will th e wife kiss he r husband good-bye before starting off lo
busin ess?
Will wome n e ith e r wear short skirts or have pages to carry their
trains?
154 Yesterday 's Future: The Twentieth Centiu y Begins

Will squirrels wair jusl a quarter of a second longer to make


faces at the hunte r?
Will rich nobleme n marry poor f\.merican girls?
\Nill ho rnets and othe r stinging things arbitrate instead of fight
when their nests a re pulled?
\l\1ill the grain be ex tracted from the heads of wheat and other
cereals by a magnet and save the labor of harvesting straw?
Will the re be a law compelling barbers to remain sile nt?
Wi ll cows come home at milking time as eagerly as fi eld hands
come to supper?
And wi ll ·those same cows semioccasiona11y turn grass in to bul-
te r instead of milk?
Will th e re be a ny escape from th e coon song save suicide?
Wi ll eve ry busy man wear an illuminated collar button?
Will mind reading fu rnish a key to the intentions of he ns as to
their duties a nd villainies?
Will the automatic principle be acijusted to taxes so that they
pay the mselves?
Will th e re be a society fo r the extermination of noisy milkm en
wh ich will really e xtermi nate?
·will pounds be pounds and quarts be quarts in weight as well
as in price?
Will wome n be compelled to flatten their pompadours at the
theate r so that me n n1ay see che play?
Will all consumers of anthracite have the common sense to lay
in lheir winter sLOck in midsummer a t any sacrifice?
Wi11 the creatu res that build guano mountain s a t the equator
occasio nally lly over the impoverished farms of North America?
Will our beloved countsy still be going to the "demnitio n bo-
'vvwows" a nd political orators howling for votes to save it?
Now, candidly, wouldn't you like to know what sayers will be
saying, thinke rs th in king, wri ters writing, doers doing and plotters
plotting a t the end of the next hundred years?

"Christians Will Draw Nearer Together"


Many re lig ions leade rs looked to rhe new cenmry wiLh opLim ism. The
fo llowing two a rti cles summa1;ze sermons by two such cle rgyme n. In Lhe
rirst serm o n, Rev. Lewis Keller of the Pilgrim Con gregatio nal Church in
~vlil\,·aukcc: discusses the importance of spreading Lhe in flue nce o f'
American Christianity ch roughour r11 e world.
"IT WILL BE A Gl.Olnous CENT URY" 155

1\llilwaul?ee Sent.inel, Derember 31, 1900

"'vVe have become a world power and have set sail to take our
proper position in the wo rk of evangelizing the Oriern," declared
the Rev. L. H. Ke ller in a sermo n o n "The Message of the Old
Century to the New" at Pilgrim Congregational chur ch last night.
"It is our dury to civi lize and Christianize these half-wild peoples.
Our missionary proble m is one of the most important of all that
confront us on th e threshho ld of the new century." At another
point in his disco urse Mr. Keller said: "Competition is a thing of
the past. Trusts have come in obedience to economic laws and
they will remain. Th ey may abuse their powers, but they are here
to stay and the people wi ll keep them in check." The message of
th e new century, Mr. Keller said, was one of congratulation for
th e marvelous ach ieve me nts of the past hundred years and the
promise 01· similar wonders for the corning centurial cycle. It also
bore a message of congratulation for th e world-wide fe llowship
existing. f\.rnong the bequests of the old to th e new century, Mr.
Keller mentioned a number of scientific d iscoveries and inven-
tions, and the establishm e nt of such world-wide organ izations as
the Y.M.C.A., W.C.T.U., Chris1jan Endeavo r~ Reel Cross, Sunday
school, international posLal and cable systems and in ternational
bu reau of we igh ls and measures. 1-Ie declared that it was a source
of gratification to know thal the mem bership of the Evangelical
churches had increased three times as fast as that of the Catholic
church during the sa me period. He used as his text the Nin ety-
founh psalm , "A thousand years in Thy sight are but as yesterday."
The anicle be lo w clcsc rihcs a serm on g i,·en by George Ide at the Grand
..~we nu e Church in :vlil wa11kcc. In the sermon, Ide refers to Dr.John
n owic, founder of the Christian CaLl101ic Church in Chicago and a
h ealing eva ngclisl.

Milwaukee Sentinel, January 8, 1900

T hat the re ligion of Lhe t:wen tie th century will be one in which
denominationalism wi ll be nearly or quite evolved out of existence
\Vas the ground r.ake n by Dr. George Ide in his sermon at the
Grand Avenue Congregational church yesterday morning on
"What Is Lo Be Lhe Characteristic of the Twentieth Century Reli-
gion?" In the religion whicb will be predominant in the h undred
156 Yestercla)l 'S Future: The Twentieth Century Hegi'l1S

years to come, th ere will be no religious fads , Dr. Ide he ld , a nd


there will be no radical stan d taken in behalf of the Apostolic
Succession, o f the premillen n ial advent of Christ, or of Christia n
science.
When a church devotes its a ttention to the foste ring of "isms,"
it was devoting itself to the propagation of a specially, the pastor
said. T he heathen religions developed men along on ly special
lines, and the early history of the Christian church had the same
fault. Afte r nin e teen centuries of development, however, the
theologists we re beginning to realize that the specialty of C h ris-
tianity should be that it has no specialty but was a general broad-
ener of rnan 's talents.
Dr. Ide sa id that in his estimation we were already in the begin-
ning of a ne w century and that those who thought themse lves at
the last of the nin e teemh century will "find themselves aL the rear
of the procession" eventually. The ancient world was a compe n-
dium of specialiti es, in religions, social condition and th e li ke. T he
Persian , Egyptian and the Buddhist religions were a ll spec ialti es,
as that of th e Egyptians was essentially the caring for th e dead.
vVhile the ir re ligions were already extinct th e Christian re ligio n
was growing more and more to realize that its characteristic was
love , and in love there were no specialties, as it bad no bounds or
directions. Some one might say that "We are the ch urch," said Dr.
Ide, "as our church ru ns straight back and is in line with the Ap-
ostol ic Succession." The more this poin t. was insiste d upo n the
Furr.he r away from the intent of Ch rist's religion would that churc h
be. De nom inationalism had not now the strong ho ld upon the
churches that it once had. That mean t that they were getting away
from their specialiti.es, not that they were losing the ir special forms
of organ ization, as possibly they ough t not to do.
To insist upon the doctrine of the premillennial adve n t of
Christ, not to argue as to the truth of the doctrine, is to divert the
church fro m th e m ission for which it \·Vas intended. To sav that
Christianity must not be applied to politics, learning a nd ~o the
ever y day affa irs of life was a conception of Christiani ty, Or. Ide
conte nded , thm was passing and would not be heard of after the
twentieth ce nLury.
"In the cou rse of a conversation the other clay," said Dr. Ide, "I
asked a man what church he belonged to. He said he belonged
to Dr. Dowie's church. H e said that Dr. Dowie was a wonde rfu l
man. He has bought sever al thousand acres of land and we are
"I.TWILL B E A GLORIOU S CENTURY " 157

going to build a city and we shall have a deligh tful community.


The peculiar feature of tha t ci ty wou ld be that there would be no
doctors in it. Here is an attemp t to dwarf a nd minimize Christian-
ity into a specialty, a nd lo make th e main issue consist in Faith-
cure. The who le move me nt gathe rs about this one idea; remove
that, and th ere would be nothing left of the movement. Christian
Scie nce belongs to the same class o f spurious notions concerning
Christiani ty. This is the point: if it could be shown, or if it were
admitted by th e Christi an Scientists themselves, that sickness is a
real thin g, and not a n imaginar y th ing, there would be nothing
left of the whole scheme and il wou ld evaporate into thin air."
"I believe tha t we have ente red upon an e ra of men-making
rather than the cultivation of ' fads,' and that the c hurch will be
knmvn in the future, not by certain formulae of doctrine, however
im portant in th emse lves, but by its success in transforming men
into the likeness of C hrist. What the world needs first is men, not
specialists. Get your man a nd then put him anywhere , in the legal
profession or in the ho me, and everything wh ich he does v..rill wear
the m arks a nd express the qual ity of that transformation which
has taken place in his life."
Not all predictions for the ruturc nr religion were optimistic. Citing the
pessimism of Bishop 1-1 Cl1 r y Potte r or New York and English philosopher
.Jo hn v\lar_~on, t:his ed iwrial cxp n.:~ses d o ubts that th e advances of the
nineteenth cenLUr y co uld be t:q ual e d .

( ChifJj>ewa Falls) DaiLy Jnde/H1ndent., .January 8, 1901

·what is the present outlook for Lhe twentieth century? This ques-
tion is variously answe red, bul lhe answe r of the most eminent
proph e ts, wh ethe r orthodox or heterodox, Christian or agnostic,
is pessimistic rather than optimistic, whether the critic speaks
from the standpoin t o r Europe or America. Bishop Potter, in
Am e rica, looks fo r ward to an in creased sway of Ma terialism, the
greed of wealth whose balefu l increasing influe nce he sees in the
college, the church , in the market place, in the shop , in society,
high and low. Rev. Dr. J ohn Watson (Ian Maclure) fears that while
the people are now the rule rs, have beer.er wages, more decent
h ours and amp le m eans of' education, they have n o su-ong spiri-
tual life , d o not kn ow how lO use their votes, have not learned to
be frugal and tem pe rate, read great books without thinking about
the great questions. In shon, Dr. Watson believes that the people
158 Yesterday :1· Fut-ure: The Twentieth Cenlmy Begins

"Old Fa liter Time- 'What! Two of you this time.''"


Stevens Point journal, December 31, 1900 and

have grown careless and frivolous wid1 freedom and prosperi ty,
and that th eir gods are pleasure and com.fort .. .. He finds the
blight of commonp lace se u ling clown o n the church . He finds but
very few men of ge nius and e loquence in Lhe pulpit. He finds
intelligence, education , clever, cheap work in literature and the
p ulpit, but it is the exce ll e nce of un iformity, th e average man
coming into his kingdom .
"rr WILL BE A GLORIOUS CENTURY" 159

Same Old World or Glorious Century?


The wrn o f' the century \\'a~ a time for re flecting o n the o ld a nd the
ne''" :\1c..:wspapcrs, speeches, a nd sermons cle\·or.cd a cccncio n to the fuwrc
and offe red widdy differing perspectives. The final t.wo piece s rccognir.e
that 1hc turning of the century was no more irnponant than any 01hcr
day, and )'CL found the day an opportune mome nt for re lle ction.
Whet.he r it wou ld be "the same o ld wo rld" or a "glorio us century"' was
t.oo appea ling a quest.io11 to ignore.

( ChifJjmua Fall~) Weel<.ty Herald, Janiwry 4, 1901

The Nine teenth Century passes away into history to-night.. In his-
tory it will hold a commanding place. The things which have come
to pass within tbe sweep of the hundred years have been of im-
mense proportions. Man has become master of more of th e e le-
ments of life than were dreamed of at the birth of th e ce ntury
and progress in all lines has been on a grand scale. Human life
has been made more worth having and humanity has muc h to be
thankfu l for. Conjecture as to what the new century has in store
for the wo rld is great, of course, and many predictions o r o pti-
mistic, as we ll as pessimistic sh ades, are advanced. But it see ms
doubtful that th e next century will show any greate r progress than
has th e past. or course men have gained in wisdom and have
learned many new ways to apply that wisdom, but neve rthe less it
is hardl)' probable that the progress of the new will surpass that
of the old ce n tury.
Periods o f great p rosperity are followed by per iods of d e pres-
sion and , in the same way, a spurt of advancement is sure to be
followed by a relaxation. The world will be no better beca use or
passing the century mile-post The affairs of men will continue to
be tangled in th e web of human misunderstanding a nd wars wiJI
be fought, while churches will growwir.h the growth of popu latio n,
in the same ratio that the number of thieves and evil-inclined
people will in crease.
It will be th e same old world, with the diffe rence that the lette r-
heads will be da ted L901 , up to 2000.

Kenosha Evening News, December 29, 1900

It was Charl es Lamb who wrote, "of all sounds of bells most sole mn
and touc hing is th e pea l which rings out the old year." Much more
is this true whe n th e knell of the century is sounded. T be last day
160 Yesterday :sFuture: The Twmt ielh Cen I toy Begin s

of this Dece mber marks an event wh ich ought to sober every mind
with a sense of the august flight of tim e a nd quicken every heart
with a fee ling of the broth erhood of man, ye t it may well excite
as much joy and happy anticipation as of sole mnity and sober
misgiving.
We a pproach the dawn of the new century with non e of super-
stitious expectations of p ortent or judgrnen l. with wh ich the world
approached the cfawn of the tenth century and with none of the
flippan t "afte r us the deluge" cynicism with whi ch it approached
the d awn of the n ineteenth. ·what the t·wentieth shall contain for
good o r ill for mankind on ly th e passing years can reveal-
whether it shall be a Pandora's box out of which shall come ha-
tred, war, pestilence, famine, greed of gain and un bridled ambi-
tion , or whethe r il shall be under the spe ll or a good fairy dis-
pensing peace, plenty, joy and good will amo ng me n a nd nations.
The pessimist is not likely to see the form e r wh olly prevail , nor
can the optim ist hope co see all the laucr realized. As has been
the e xpe rie nce of the past, the world is likely to get a share of
both good and ill, and the conditions ''~II in large measure be of
man kind's own making and choosing.
All things considered, th is old world, wicked as it is, is a vastly
be t.te r place to live in at the close of the nin e teenth century tlrnn
it was al its beginning, and it is a reasonable assumption that it will
be a sti ll mo re desirable place of residence at the close of the twen-
t.ieth century than it is at its begin n ing, tho ugh none of us will be
he re to tell whether it is or not. At all eve nts il is be tter a nd more
co mfortable to take a roseate view of the new century-co welcome
it with hope and joy and yet with revere nce. If it shall bring such
marve lous developmencs as has the closing ce n1ury, it. \\ill be a
wonde rfu l e poch in the world's history. No seer ca n foresee the
possibi lities which rl1e oncoming 100 years may hold fo r mankind.
If righteousness and justice and brotherly love shall go hand in
hand with the advance of science, with tb e dissem in ation of knowl-
edge and the development of nature's resources, th en indeed it will
be a glorious century.
Suggestions for Further Reading

Alth ough the li terature on the observance o f new ce ntu ries is not
exte nsive , there are a numbe r of inLrig uing works for Lhose who
wish w explore the way people ce le brated and Lhought about the
opening of the twcmic Lh and other centuries. A fascin ating book
that covers the wav new cernuries we re o bse n·ed ove r a millen-
'
niu m is Hille l Schwartz , Cenlu ry's l~nd: A Cultural J-lisf01)' of lite Fin
de Siecle from the 990s through. th(' 1990s (New York , 1990) . Peter
Stearns present~ h is study, Millennium !11, Centu ry XX!: A Relros/Jec-
liveon theFul1tr(' (Boulde r, 1996) , as a handboo k fo r unde rstanding
millennial hn >e, but a lso o ffers a good historica l background on
cemur y celebra tions and the d evelo pm ent o r th e Christian cal-
endar. Another recent title that cove rs similar ground from a clif·
ferent perspective is Ste phe n J ay Gould, Q:uestioning the i'vfillen-
nium: 11 Rationalist's Guide to a Prei.isel)' Arbitrrtl)' Countdown (New
York, 1997) . For an inte resting d iscussio n o r the development of
m ethods of tracking the passage of time, see David Ewing Dun can ,
Calendar: Humanity's Ej;ic Stru.~gle lo Deterini?w a True and Accurate
Year (New York, 1998) .
Read ers who are interested in learning more abo ut Wisco nsin
at the turn of the century sho uld consu lt .John D. Bucnker, The
Hislm'Y of \ Visconsin. Volume JV: The Pmgrnssive Era, 1893- 19 J4
1

(Madison, 1998). For a n overview of the nation at th e approach


of the new cen tu ry, see David Tr;n~e l , J898: 1'fu1 Birth r!f lite A nu~rican
Century (New York, 1998) and Judy Crich ton, Anwrir:a 1900: 1'he
Turning Point (New York, 1998) . Cric hto n's book is the companion
volu me for the film A.merir:a .l 900, which was o riginally broadcast
as part of a PBS televisio n series, The Ameriwn Ex/;erience.
There is n o better way to g e t a feel for the late n ineteen th
cen tury's view of the futu re Lhan by readi ng the li te ratu re of the
time. The best p lace to start is Edward Be llamy's, .!,oohing Backward,
2000- 1887, publish ed in 1888 a nd sti ll available in good ed itions.

161
Index
Abbon.Jarn es P.. 19 l3i e li111{s On:hes1ra. 28
Abo lition, '>I , fl'>- 66, 77 Bijou Opera Hou se ('.\lilwa ukee ) . :H- 38
Adams, Charles Francis, i'M-8() Black Rh'CI' Falls, 27, 41
Adams, Henri' Cu llen. 1 :~ 7- 1 ·!0 Blacks, 76-78
Africa, IO'l-105 Blatz Brt>wing Company. 7
;\ frican Americans, 76- 7l'l Books. Sre l.i1eranire
Agr iculture: nin e tee nth·ccntury develop· Boston. •12
rne nt., !i!i- :16, GI . t\4: 1.1ve11 1ie 1h-cc11ll1J')' Box<·r Rebe llion . 116
predictions abou1 , 102-103, 120- 121 Hor d. Charles "Buucrllr," 24
Air-condiLion ing, vii i, 97. 99 Buye r ns, Thomas. 36
Air trave l: canoon abo ut, 11 !'>: 1.we 111 ic; th·
century pred ic ti o ns about, vi ii. 50. 9:), C<i lc ndars. xi i. 2, 109
95, 99-1 00. I lfi-11 6. 11 8 . 120. 122 C;1 r r. Paul "Van Eater, .. 24
Alchemy, 9S Catholi cs ;incl Ca tholicism, 1- 2, 13-14, 17,
Alcohol, cous11mp1io11 of'. 7, 9- 11 , 21i-2R. 20- 22, 88- 90. S1:e also Relig.i on
122, 13:) Ce111ral i\Iusic Ha ll (Kenosha), 14, ! :' \-Hi
Allis, Edward P., Co111p;1ny, 120 Chicago , 22- 2:3
(Atma) Buffalo Cmmly l~i:/millihmu•r 11.1111 Ch il ds, George W., 3 1
Alma Bli.itltl; !i2, 53 'T he C hild wit h Red Hair"
Anest.h t>sia . li3, li7 ( E. M. Sca ro la}, 126, 129-1 30
Animab, IOI Chi11 a. 8(i, 98, IOI , !Hi, ·12fi, lSfi
Applc1.0n, vi ii , 18- 19, 23- :N (C/1i/Jjmvo Falls) Dail_1• lmlejmulent, 157-158
/l/J/Jleto11 Cmsm11. 18-1 \l Chif1Pno(I. Falls Weelily, 60
A/lJll11/rm Daily Post. 2'l-2<J, <!.'\. 4 7-4~ (C'lii/1/11c.11(1 Falls) Wrehkl' Heml.d, 159
Appl!·ton l:'vmh1K Cresa•11/, M-!i!) C ivil War, fiS- 6()
(i l/JjJ/e/011) Gl'gl'llWlll'l, 1- 2 Christian Sc ic uce, ·12, 13
Armory Hall ( Wausau ) . 13 Ch urc hes: scr\'iccs in. 10, 13- 14. 16- 17,
Art, 6 1. 17- 23. Se(' al~o sf1eciflr dwrch names; Re-
Astronomy, 62. 11 I ligion: Haptists: Catho li cs: Ch ri stian
1lt/m1 lic Mont/i/1'. 59 Scieu ce: Co11gregatio11alists; Episco-
Australia, I 05 · palians: :0-kthoclists; People 's Pulp it
Automob iles, 49, 6 1, 6·1. 9!J, 12·1 Clark. George Roge rs, 54, 12!i
C:le1"'i<l11d Plain Dealer. 2-8
Bailey, Thnm:L', 3S Oe11rlr111d Hodd. 122
Baptists, 18-19 C li mate. 104-105. See aLrn \\'eau1er
Barr. Thomas f.ch,•arcl, 86-88 C lo th ing. 12 1
Ban-orvs' Sermons, SS Clubs. Social. 10. 11. 13-16. 36
Baseball, ix. 12, -12 Coal. 98
Basketba ll , 12, SO C:ollil'1:1 \\ eell(v, 122. 123
Baumgaenne1-, 1-lemv.J., I :~6 Coll ins, Lou is, 36
Beer. canoon abo ut, 7 Communicatio n, 93, 95 , 98, 101 , 102, 113,
Bellam y, F.cl"·ar<l. \'i , l 18 I 19. SPe also Te lephone
Be uso11, T homas, 36 Compton's O rchestra, l ()
Be rger, Victor. l 26- 129 Cona nt. Charles A., 59-60
Bicycl ing, ix, <J l , ·12, •19, (i l. ti•I Con ker. Walt('r 'l.igh1foor.·· 24

163
164 Yes t.erday's Future: The Twenlieth Cen lul)' Begins

Congregatio n al ists. 19- 20, 6 1-63. 66-67, First Ba p tist C hurrh (Oshkosh ) . 19-20
78- 8 1 First Ba ptist C h urch (Sheboygan ). 17
Co nstru ction , 6 1, 6:{ First .\lct hodist J.::pi scopa l Churc h
Cooking . I •19- 1f>2. Ser 11/s(; Food (O shkosh ) . l !l-20
Cott011 g in. 65-6(\ First Presb1·te ri ;111 C hurc h (Oshkosh ).
CO\\'S. Sei• Dairr ing 19- 20 '
Crime. 4 1. 122 Flanner, .Joseph . 'l7
C 111nvcr d istrin. 1'11 - 142 FIO\\'Cl'S, 103
Czerwi11ski, lgna1z, 137 Food. 63. 97-9!.'. I 02- IO''· 1:10-13 1. 149-
152
Dai rying, :i:1-5(i, 137- 141 footba ll. 42
Da le. town or. x. 26- 28 !F1ie11dsliif!j J\dams Cnunty f'n•s.1. 'f>7
n af1, Hm rrtlm-, 21\- 28, 75- 76 Fulley, Marga n~• L. 25
Dav c1re, I:{ I
oe:1r peop le, cd11ca1io n of. 83- 84 Gallaude L, T ho mas H o pkins. 83
Debco rs. !i I German Methodist Church
(/)i!f'l'l'r!) /Jm11m C111111ty IJ1>1110cmi, l 09 (Sh eboygan ), 17
DePm! NP7.r>s. l 05 Ge rmans. vii, 1-2
Dickinso11. C harles "Sk:u ." 24 Gesu Church (Mi l\\':111kn:). 22
Dictio naries. 2. 6 1 Goethe. J oh a nn Wol~l:(an g n>11 . I, 2. 143
Oodgrvi/lr Clmmide. 113- 116 Go lf, 42
n odgevi/le Sl'llti11el. '16 Gree n B;t\'. 1·ii
Do wie, .Joh11 , 40, ·12, 43. l ~l5, 156- 157 Gmm Bai: Adwca/1>, ~>0-5 1 . \)()-<) I
Drews & Bu lli ng<· r. 28 Green Br1)· Sn11i-l\'ppf1Zv (;a~l'ltr: p iccl'.
Dueling . 5 1 rcprimed fro111. 38- 'l9

F.aton .Ju lian "Sk~·sc rapt:r," 2·1 Hale. ;>.Jaria n. I ·I


(!:1111 Claire) I Fr.e/dy Free l'm,s. ·l I Ha nna hs. Lo n a. I .J.
Ediso n . T ho 111as. 122 Harge r. Im ogene. 13
J.::ducaLion: nin e t<·cmh-<'cn1tll'}' d eve lop· Harker, Rar C.. l 9
mc n1. 48 , (\!)-71. 78-86: 1we111.ie1.h-ce11- Hasbrouck: Be-1sy. vii i. 32-:~:'
1111·y prt:di ctio11s aho 111, ix, 102 , 131 , Hawaii, 126
1:1!1, I :)4- 14\l H:rn•t horn c, Nat.hanic.;I , l ·.J.I
Egbert.. ~fari n n T h on11011 , .'>2 Hea1.i ng, 97, I 'lO
E.iche lma n. il•laq,:an:L, 15 Heuer, W illiam H .. 28
Elec1ricit)'. S111• Enc rgr H illsid e Hom e Sch ool (Sp ri ng Gree n ) . 80
El<,va t.or~. fi I .H oard. W illiam Deirqist er. 140- 141
El/,Jwr n /Jlrufo, I :'2- 1;H Holcom b, W illi:11 n "l-la lfgrow11." 2"1
Elson , W. H .. 144- 146 Ho lde rness, Edna. 14
f.nerg)•: 11i1wtec111h-ccnrury rleve lo p1ne nt, Holm es. Ol ive r w.. ndcl l. (\7 . I <M
49, (i I, ();I , 92, %; twe n ti e th·cc nturv Holy Name Church (Shd>oyg<u>). 17
pred ictio ns abo u t. !l8. I 02. I I 7-1I 8, Holy Rosar y Ca1 ho lic C: h ur(' h
I 'lO; cartoon abo u t, 94. Su also Coal (M il wa ukee), JO
English , Calix1a. 14 Hood.John. 25-2()
English . Mad cli11<:, 15 Hosm e r, J ames Ke nda ll. ():'i-(\(i
Episcopa lians. 17- 18 Hoste tte r"s Stomach Bi1tc1·s. I O:'i
J.::ugc n ics. 101\-107 Hotel Engleb right ( Ripnn ) . :m. :~ I
Evo lutio n , 80-8 1 Ilotcl Pfi ste r (.\lih,-;n1 kec), I I
Exploratio n. •W. :; '!. 9G Hugo. Victor. 7 1. I ·l 3
H umphre1-. F.dw;1r d "Prt'1·a rinitor," 2·1
foith hea ling. ·12. 4:~
Farnam. Georgl'. E .. 19, '.,M, 25 Id e. Geo rge. 155-1117
Fa1,·cetL. Adam. l :{ Irnmig rn tio n . .1$7
Fire figh ting. 6 1 Imrnona lit\', .'50
INDEX 165

ln1pc:: ria li sm. 54-55 , 125-126, 139 rnenl, 63. 66-68, 105; twentieth-ce n-
Industrialization. \'i. 47-48. 63-64 wry predic tio ns about. viii, 96, 102,
Industry, 120, 1:-15. 136--137 I 03- 104, I 05-l 08. llO, 131. See al.so
Insa nity, 5 1 Scien ce; Tt:d•n<ilogy
In sects, 97, 120 :Vlcdin a, 26-28
i'v lcminger, Assistan t Fire Chief, 37
J atoby and Co mpton, 14 Mmiasha HvN1ing Bnmze, 23, 25, JOO
.Jacoby's Orchestra, 16 i\kssmcr, Sehastian G., 20-22
Jam es, Ada, 153 Methodist Episcopal Chun:h
.JaneJ"oille /)ail)• Gr1.z111te, 23, 41 - 43, 57-58, (Sh e hoygan). 16- 17
68-7 1, 152 i\k1.hodisL Episcopal Church
Joh nso n. Childs Alpha, 32 (Wausau ), I 3
John s1on .John, 135 Me thodists. 13, 16-17, 19-20
Jung man. Freel. 28 \ •lexic.o, ix , :"i<I , 97
:Vlcyer. Lo uis. I '.n
Kelle r. Lc::wis. 154--155 Mih,r,111kee. vii . 9- 1 J. 34--38. 134--137
Ken osha. 13- 16 (Milwr111i1Pr) Catholic Cilium, 2 1-22, 88-90
Kenosha 1~·1w11 i11g .Vews. 13-16, 111-11 2,
Mil\\·aukcc Electri c Railway and Li" lll
t 43- 11,1, t 59-rno Company. 11 "
(Kenosha) Telegrr1/1h·Caurier. 81-83, 125- (Milwaulll'I·) l:.'xcelsio1: 26, 122, 124
126 !\!lilw1111i1e1• 1-l!;rold mul Seebote, 96--104, 130-
Kilme r, Ct:org<:: 1.., 11 3-11 6 13 1
Kindcrgane 11 , 79 Milwn.ulweJmi.mal. 4(i, 71-75
Kinetoscnpc, 62, 95 Milroa11/w1! &ntinel: advertisements re-
King, l<at hcriue: piece by reprimed, printed rro m. 7, 62; pieces repri nted
7 1-7.:) from, 2-8, 9-1 I, 34-38, 86-88, I 05-
108, 1.10-111 , 117-119, 134--142.144-
1,19. 155-157
Labor, 58, 121
(Milwa11 /w1!) U11io11Signal,104-105
Ladies l/omr..Journa/, 96--104·
(Milwa11/11xj \lorwiirts, 126--129, 129-130
L1tmclry, 13 1
(Milwa11/11•11) Wisro11.1i11 Weelily Advoc.(J.te,
I.aw, 50-5 1
76--78
Le(i XIII. Po pe , 1-2. 20
Minn eapo lis, 32
Lewis, !\le riwc the r. 54. J 25
Mim1eapoliJ.fo11mol, 32
Libraries, 13 1
Mondovi Herald. 60
Lied erkranz Hall (Wa usau), 13
:Vloon , u~1vel 10, 96
Literature. 8'1-86. I 19, 143-144
\forphy. Jot:, 35
Lithog raphy. (;(
Music, 101-102. 142-1 43
Loenis, John: poem b )' re primcd, 26
London iv/nil: piece reprinted from , 104--
105 Napoleon, 59. 69
Loohing llari<ward, 2000-188i (Edward Nationa l American Woman 's
He ll:uuy) , vi, L18 Assoc i:ui n n, 69
Louisi:rna Purd1as<':, 52, 66 Nflillmil/1: Ti'llu:.1: pit:<.:e reprinted from,
Lurnb<~ r in dustr y, 142 39-40
Lu11d ec11 , Alplrn Twencentia Minnea, 32 New Ye ar's Da)', <.:ekbrations of, 9-20, 22-
Lynching . 51. i7 30, 34-:18
Nicarag11a, ix. 97
Magicim1 s, 12-1 3 Norrell , Davirl, l I
Mai1ito woc , 28-30
Man itowor· /)(lily /-lel'(l/d, 28- 30 O conomowoc. 17-18
Match es, I 16-1 17 (Oro110111owoc) Zion Parish Papei; 17- 18
M cL eod, J. 0.: pic::ce:: by reprinted, 118- Oronto C:o1111ty Ur.f1arter, xii
11 9 Oamlt1 Falls llerold. 52
Medicine : ni ne tee nth-century den!lop- Ogden. G. W., &: Company, 62
166 Yesferda)''s Future: The T wenliffh CenfUI)' Begins

Orhiso11 , Thoma.~ "'l'hirlwind: 24 Rupple, John. 26- 28


Oshkosh , 19-20
0.f/JktJ.fh /)11ily Norlliwt!Slem, 19-20. :t~. '18- Saloons, 26-28
:>0. 119-121 S;uua Claus, I 00
O.thlw.fh Daily Times. •J(j Scarola. E. M.. 126. l'.!'J-1:10
Schools. See Ecluca1.ion
l'alrn. Anh111'. 122-12.J Science: ninctcemh-cc:11t11q dc,·ctop-
l'apcr inc111stry, &I ment. 49. 60-66: ll\'c:111ieth·ccntun•
P:.r-Ulb, AlbC'l'l Ross. 1•12-1-13 predictions about. l 13. 121. Su <1/so
1':11<:111 mC'clicinc>. lii-68 ~ledicine: Tec h11 o loi,"'
l'a11~1cnbach. Christopher. farm, 142 Sewing machines. '19. 61. 63
l'l'a,c. l'hin cas. 12- 13 Sh ebo)·ga n , 16-1 i
l't'oplc's Pu I pie (M ilwaukee) . ~6 Sheboygan TP/egram, I0- 17. ·10
Phil ippin es, 52, 55, 126 Ships, 49, 66. 9'1. 99. I 18
l'h o n of(raph , 12, 63. 05. 12 1 Shurr, George, '.!6
l' ho w graph y: nine tee 11th-cc11u1ry <il'wl- The Sijled Gmiu mu/ 1/11• (;miu Sijlers
opmc11 t, 6 l. 63: 1wcntic th-cc11 1ury prc- (Ch arles F ran cis Ad;irn s}, 1M-8fi
clini ons abo u t, 98. 108. 110- 111. I l u. "The Signilicancc of tltt: Frn1aic r in
120 .American Histor )"' ( Fr<:cl c ri ck .fackso11
l'lt v,ica l cd11c:itio 11, i9. 80 Turner), ' i
l'lt;11t~1il/r journal. 153-154 Simmons· Hall (Kc11osha). l ti
l'l~·mo111h Congregational C hu rch (Osh· Simpelaar. ~l:i11J .. 1:16
kosh). 19-20 Sla,·en·, 51, 65-0G. 77
l'oli1ic~. ++-18. 5 1, 53-55. 5i-60. 1% Smith: H emy. 13i
l'op11la1ion , 54. 9i. 114. 120 Smi th. Ira B .. 136
l'onh. George W.. 137 Smitl1, Oli,•er "Coolcddm\'n." 2.J
l'rniric 1111 C:hil'n. \ii Snowmobiles, 'iii
Pri111in~ press, 49. 61 , 63
Socialism, 126-129. I :n
Prisons, 3il. 137 Solar encr!,')'. 50. 112. I 13
P1nr('/'(/i11gs of /lie Slale llis/()liml .'ilxiPl_r 11/ Specialor, 85
Sporc.~. See Baseball, Uask1·thall. Ri<)•rling,
ll'imm.ti11 ... 1901, 65-66
l'11hlic hcalLh. 107-108. 114. 131 football. Golf
St.John 's CaLhcdr;il ( ~lih1~rnkee), 22
St. John's Home for the: :\gccl ( ~lil\\·au­
U11ri11r Daily Jrmmol. 25-26. 54-55. 11 li-
kee). 36
11 i
Si. Luke's Church ( Racim·). 26
( /{a ri111•) l\ 'i1ro11.1i11 Af!riml111mliJI. !:'15-!'>fi
State Historiral Sociel\' of Wbcon sin. 17-
Railroad s: 11in e 1ee~th-ct-111 11 ry develop·
1S. 65-66. 85- 86 .
nl!.:111, 49. 6 1, 66, 93; t\\'cnticth-<:1·111111·,·
Steam engine, 63, fi6, 92. Sr1• al-IO S hi ps
prc:diCLions ahou t, 98-99, I 17- 1 IS. Stei n , Simon L., 108, 110- 111
12·1. 130 StC\'CllS, J oh11 ''.Joker." 2·1
Rau, 0 11 0 ~'1anin , Jl7- J 18 Sievens Point Jou ma/, 20, I .'iX
Reform. 120- 134
Stout,Jamcs H ., l'lfi- l 'l!l
Rc:f'rig'Cntlion, \)$ Sturgeon Bav. 24
Re l igion: 11ine 1.e enth·<:e nl\ll')' d\'vclop· Sub1;1adnes,' G:~. I 0 I , 124
nlc11l, '12, '18, 49, 65, 8fi-!l I ; l1Vt'lllicth- Suburbs, ix, 97
C'~·111 ury pn~d i rcions abo111 . 1 :~7. 154- Suchomski.joscp h. :~4
158; and urban refor111. 13 1- l :H. S1'1' Sunday closings, 26-28
al.rn Ba pt is ts; C;icholics: C hristian Sr i· Superio r, ,-ii. \'iii. 3 1-:l2
.-nee·: l.ongreg<1tio na lis1s: Episcopa· Superior Evenillf{ Trll'{!tWll, :{ 1-32. 58-60.
li:1ns; ~lc1hodists: Peopk"' Pnlpi1 9.J. 142- 143. 158
Uipo11 :ld1•anr1 Pr~.<S. 30. 88 (S11p1!1io1·) /11la11d Ocean. f>i-68
Roht·n$, Elli~. 25 (S11prrio1) Lradrr-1./mirm. !J3-!J6. J.19-152
Roe· hr. .f 11li11s E., 36
Ron·r. Sarah Tyson, 149-152 Talmage, Thomas Dl'\\'iu, 132-13·1
I NDEX 167

Tadffs, 58 Ve r ne, Jules, 96


Taxes, 137
Teachers, 78- 79 Warfare: nin c1een1h-<:e ntury clevelop-
Technology, 49, 60- 66, 92-124. See also mc nc, 49, 5 1, 6 1, 64 ; twe mi1~1.h-ccn tury
Medicine; Science predicti ons a bout. 50 , 93, 99- 10 I. 116.
Telegraph , 49, 62, 63, 64, 93, 95, JOI 11 9, 124
Telephone: nineiccmh-ccntury develop· Warne r, J o h n De Will, 130- 13 1
m em , 49. 62, 63, 93, 95; twentieth-cen - Watches, 64
tury predi ctions abo ut, 10 1, 118- 119, Water power, 98, l I 1- 1 I 2
130 Watkins, J o hn Elfrich , Jr., 96-l 04
Telescopes, 62 W(l11/Hw1 Post, 92- 93
Television, JOI Wausau , vii , 11-1 3
Tesla. Nikola, 11 2, I 13 (Wausau) Philoso/Jh('l', <13-<H
Textiles, 61 \.\0 11sr111 Pilot, I 1- 13, l 22
Thayer, Ge ru·ude: pieces by reprinted , Weapons, 6 1, 6<1, 99-10 1, 12 1
68-7 1, 152 'Weather: o n Decembe r 3 1. 1900, l'ii- ,·iii ,
Tho m as, Ada , 16 11 , 12; fo recasting, 62. See also Climate
The Ti me Machine (H . G. Wells), ,.i Weddings. 25
Toner, Lorena, 14 Welles, Ric hard , 14
Trade, 56-58, 62 Wells, H. C., vi
Trains. See Railroads \<Vhite, Cora, 14
Transp ortacion: advenise m ent regardi ng. White, I nez, 15
62; canoon about, 109: nineteenth· Willia m s, Roger. 96
ce ntur ~· d eve lo pme m , vi-vii: Memi· Windsor. Laurn, 15
eth-century prediction s a bo ut, 98. Windsor. Mabel. 14
102-1 03, 111-112, 122. 124, 130. 135, Wingate, Uranus 0 . B., l 05- lOS
136. See also Amomobiles; Air tr;wel, Winw n. C. J ., 12
Railroads; T ravel (Wisc(msin School f or the Deaf, V elavr.m) Wis-
Trave l: nineteemh-ce mury d eve lopmcm , tonsin Ti111es, 63-(:i<I , 83-8•1
61 , 63. 64; twentieth-centur y pred ic- Woch c r, .Joseph , 35-%
tions about, 96, 99, 122, 124. See alsn Wo men: can oo ns abo ut., 70. 73; a nd cdu·
Air ffave l, Automobiles; Ra ilroads; catio n , 8 l; n inetcent.h-ce ntllry d evel-
Transportation opme nt of rig hts, 5 1, 68- 76; twcntic th-
Turner, Fre<lerickJackson, vi ccnwry predict.ions about, viii- ix ,
Turner Ha ll (Man itowoc) , 28 152-154; a nd work, 13 1
Twentieth Centu1-y: d ebate over begin- Woodmen 's Hall (Wausau) , 13
n ing of, 1-8. See (l/so New Year 's Day \.Vorld's Parliam e nt of Re lig io ns ( l 893),
Typewriters, 49, 6 1 86, 87

U nc:Je Sam, 46, 53 X mys, !i2 , (i3, 103-104, I LO


(Union Cnnr;regatimw.l C/wrch, Gre11n Bay)
Unionist, 6 1-63, 66- 67, 78- 81 You ng Me n's C hristian Association (Ke-
U nited States: ninet~:en th-<;enttff)' devel- nosh;1), 15
opment, vi-vii , 45, 47, 49- 50, 52- 55, Young Men's C hristia n Assodation (Wau-
58- 60, 66, 125-1 26: twentieth-ce ntury sau ), 12- 13
p redictions abom, 97, I 13-11 4, 120, You ng Peo ple's Local Union (Appleton) ,
126 18-19
Un iversities. Seit Education
U pham. William, 141-14·2 Zio n Churc h (Ocono m owoc) , 17-18
Urban, George, 29 Zio n C it)', 40 , 42
0 - 870l0-313-4

• 780870 ,t,138 • rr,