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Certification

It is certified that content and form of dissertation titled “impact of seasonal

changes on psychological wellbeing of women population” submitted by Saba

kanwal under the supervision of “Madam Wajiha”. It is therefore approved as the

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters (MSC) in Psychology.

Supervisor Head of Department

________________ _______________

Mrs. Mrs.

External Examiner

________________
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Firstly, I would like to thank all the members of Department of Psychology who

Provided support, guidance, and encouragement throughout my graduate study.

I especially would like to express my special thanks to my supervisor, Madam

Wajiha for his invaluable time, guidance and support during the research and my

Masters education.

I am also thankful to Madam Umma Eman Syed for her precious and encouraging

support.

Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to the members of my family who

supported and believed in me throughout my life without questioning.

Saba kanwal
DEDICATIONS

It is dedicated to my respected and beloved ‘FAMILY’,

And

My beloved ‘Teachers’
CONTENTS
Page no

List of Table i

List figures ii

List of Appendices iii

Acknowledgements iv

Abstract v

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

1. Seasonal changes 1

2. Seasonal changes effect on psychological wellbeing 4

3. Psychological well being 6

4. Literature view 9

CHAPTER II: METHODS

1. Research design 16

2. Objective 16

3. Hypotheses 16

4. Operational Definition 17

Seasonal changes
Psychological wellbeing

5. Participant of the study 17

6. Instruments 17

7. Data collection procedure

8. Statistical Analysis of the Data 18

Chapter III: Results

1. Discussion 41

2. Conclusion 44

3. Limitations & Suggestions 44

References 45

Appendices

1. Appendix A: Demographic Sheet 49

2. Appendix B: seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire 50


ABSTRACT

The present study entitled “EFFECT OF SEASONAL CHANGES ON

PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING” was intended to analyze the effects of seasonal

changes on psychological wellbeing of women population. The sample size for the

study was N=200 women’s. The seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire (modified

from Rosenthal, Bradt and Wehr 1987) were administered on university students,

which are used to measure the effect of seasonal changes. To collect data, the

instruments, which are 16-item of (SPAQ) and demographic form, were administered

to the students in COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

campus during the winter semester of 2017-2018 academic year. In order to reach

students from 30 different departments, questionnaires were administered in

department buildings, library and shopping center to volunteer students. Final result

shows that there is positive correlation of summer and spring on psychological

wellbeing. Results also disclose that winter and autumn are negatively correlate with

psychological well-being. However winters are positively correlate with sleep

duration. Results also discovered that all participants feel better during the warmer

months and worst during the colder months.


Serial No. Page
No.

Table 1 Psychometric properties of test of global seasonality scores 21


(GSS)

Table 2 Demographic and descriptive characteristics of the sample 22

Table 3 Correlation between demographic variables, global 23


seasonality scores, behavior items, weight fluctuation, and
Seasonal sleep length questionnaire

Table 4 ANOVA 25

Figure 1 Feel best in different seasons 27

Figure 2 Feel worst in different season 28

Figure 3 Gain most weight in different seasons 29

Figure 4 Lose most weight in different seasons 30

Figure 5 Socialize most in different seasons 31

Figure 6 Socialize least in different seasons 32

Figure 7 Eat most in different seasons 33

Figure 8 Eat least in different seasons 34

Figure 9 Sleep most in different seasons 35

Figure 10 Sleep least in different seasons 36

Figure 11 sleep length in summer 37

Figure 12 sleep length in autumn 38

Figure 13 sleep length in winter 39

Figure 14 sleep length in spring 40


1

Introduction

The change of season has effect on individuals psychological well-being

because negative impacts of climate change are becoming increasingly evident

today, including long term changes in average temperature and rainfall; changes in

the intensity, timing, and geographic distribution of rainfall; an increase in the

frequency of extreme events such as drought and flood; and sea level rise (IPCC

2007 & Verner 2011).

Wellbeing is complex, holistic, and subjectively perceived. Issues such as

gender, age, and environment seem to affect it. Therefore, the aim of this study was

to describe the meaning of seasonal changes towards 20–30-year-old women’s’

wellbeing.

Many factors may influence how climate change affects the well-being of

women and men differently. For example, in most households power dynamics

between men and women will influence their responses to climate shocks differently

(Carr, 2008). The interdependencies, expectations, entitlements, and livelihood

strategies that are established between women and men, among women, and among

individuals within a community that play out in various contexts also cast influence

on the impacts of climate change (Demetriades & Esplen 2008; Crane, Roncoli, &

Hoogenboom 2011; Nielsen & Reenberg 2010).

Seasonal changes

Climate change affects women and men differently in the form of humanity

and in terms of their physical and psychological health. A more severe climate
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impact on health may occur for women and children due to the indirect effects of

malnutrition, which make them additionally vulnerable to diseases—and this may

be especially evident in poor developing countries.

Seasonal changes cause an alteration in the amount of light that individuals

are exposed to. During the months where the days are shorter, primarily in the

winter, circadian patterns are disrupted. The reason is that the circadian clock is

programmed to release melatonin to induce sleep, a function that is initiated by

darkness. Because the sun sets earlier in winter months this reaction begins

occurring earlier in the evening, which results in a disrupted sleep pattern, a

common problem for depressed patients. Individuals with Seasonal affective

disorder are more likely to experience the effects of this change, and are prone to an

increased amount of sleep, known as hypersomnia, and an increased appetite.

According to Berlyne (1971) Different scenes affect individual feeling in

different way, the effect of the nature scenes was to increase Positive Affect —

including feelings of love friendliness, playfulness, and elation. According to

psychological theories, a reduction in arousal or activation produces pleasurable

feelings if an individual is experiencing stress or excessive arousal .The natural

scenes reduce the feeling of aggression.

Positive and negative moods are also by influenced by atmospheric

factors. The influence of sunshine on life satisfaction and argued that this effect is

mediated by mood are found by (Kämpfer & Mutz, 2013). Sunshine activates

positive emotions due to an increase of serotonin in the brain. Kööts et al. (2011)
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found that warmer temperatures increase the frequency of both positive and

negative emotions, whereas higher humidity has the opposite effect. Studies

conducted in hot climates show that high temperatures are disadvantageous for

physical activities (e.g., Tu et al., 2004; Miranda-Moreno and Nosal, 2011). Mature

peoples seems to be more affected by temperature and weather effect on mood

because they spend most of time outdoor (Kööts et al., 2011). By comparing mood

experienced at average daily temperatures (10–16°C or 50–60°F) with temperatures

above 70°F (21°C), Noelke et al. (2016) found that high temperatures reduce positive

emotions (e.g., joy, happiness), increase negative emotions (e.g., stress, anger), and

increase fatigue (e.g., feeling tired, low energy). Denissen et al. (2008) reported that

warmer temperatures and sunshine increase both positive and negative mood.

Weather still appears to explain only a small percent of the variance in mood,

possibly due to substantial individual differences in how mood is influenced by

weather (Klimstra et al., 2011). In line with this, Connolly (2013) report that women

are more responsive than men to different weather conditions.

According to Roecklein there are a lot of biological and physiological reasons

our moods tend to change with the season but a big element in those seasonal mood

swings is light. The scientific evidence says that length of day, which is shorter in the

winter and longest in the summer, is the main seasonal variable that affects mood.

Many studies observed seasonal changes found a major decrease in physical

activity during fall and winter related to spring and summer (Matthews et all., 2001;

Pivarnik, Reeves, & Rafferty, 2003; Uitenbroek, 1993).An reason for this seasonal
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difference might be that the long hours of darkness in winter can lead to 'winter

moods' and depression. Which can most likely counter any motivation towards

physical activity (Reilly & Peise, 2006.).

According to Uitenbroek (1993) especially females and older people don't like

to live the safety and comfort of their house when it is dark and cold outside. The

present intervention was so effective in answering this seasonal decrease in physical

activity.

Previous studies have shown that seasonal changes affect mood and

behaviour, and girls living in the 67th latitude stated more seasonal distress than

girls living in the 60th latitude. Seasonal modifications in child and adolescent

behaviour are not well understood and must be investigated more comprehensively

(Rastad, Ulfberg, & Sjödén, 2006). It was presented in other studies that girls were

physically less active and spent more inactive time during winter (Gracia-Marco et

al., 2013) and that the female gender was affected more sensitively to seasonality in

mood (Tonettia, Barbatob, Fabbria, Adanc, & Natalea, 2007).

Seasonal changes effect on psychological wellbeing

In the fall, the days start getting shorter. The shortening length of the day

tends to affect psychological well-being and to cause the happening of season bound

symptoms at the population level. The natural daylight is considered to increase

psychological well-being, or the feeling of general well-being, with non-natural light

experiences also being beneficial. Modern populations spend around 80% of their

time inside such as in house, school, offices, malls, and public transportations. This
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may lead to the circadian misalignments not only due to the seasonal changes in

mood and behaviour, but also due to poor brightness levels at home or in the work

space, and it may therefore have a harmful effect on the quality of life in general,

the health-related quality of life in particular and More specifically, on

psychological well-being (Grimaldi, Partonen, saarni, Aromas, & Lönnqvist, 2008).

Better social activities, more activities outdoors and living together are

positively related with healthier psychological well-being. On the other hand,

greater seasonal changes and poor brightness indoor associate with poorer

psychological well-being. The strength of seasonal changes in mood and behaviour

has an opposing effect on psychological well-being that is second to none (Grimaldi

cut all, 2008).

This study examined the influence of weather and seasonal change on five

behavioral aspects: mood, social activity, weight, food consumption and sleep

length; and explored patterns of seasonality and weather-related behavioral changes

among an urban Aboriginal group, a rural Aboriginal (i.e. First Nation) group, and

an urban non-Aboriginal group.

A study exploring the influence of seasonal change on human circadian rhythm

found seasonal variation in sleep time; where participants slept earliest in the

summer and latest in the winter, and woke up earlier in summer than in winter

(Honma et al.1992)
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A study assessing seasonal variation in food consumption found that humans

significantly consumed more calories, carbohydrates and sugar in fall than in any

other season (de Castro 1991).

Seasonal variation in behavior has been found to significantly influence food

consumption (de Castro 1991), sleep length (Honma et al.1992).

Psychological wellbeing

Wellbeing is a holistic experience that influenced and affected by issues that

are beyond the health sector domain. The past, present, and future also play an

important role in how wellbeing is perceived, not to mention the genes and

environment that are closely tied, and both have an equal impact on wellbeing

(Polderman et al., 2015).

When researching wellbeing, it is good to look at both negative and positive

sides; an important aspect of wellbeing is one's overall evaluation of life or life

satisfaction (Torsheim, Aaroe, & Wold, 2001).

Psychological well-being increased with high rest time physical activity.

Hence the best well-being and lifestyle was to endorse rest-time physical activity into

universities (Castillio, Molinia-Garcia, & Queralt, 2011). According to Burris,

Brechting, Carlson, and Salsman (2009), female students were more likely to report

seeking out and receiving care for psychological issues when compared to their male

student colleagues.
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This study suggests that possibly there is some connection between the way

women look for care and receive care more often than men which may increase

women's actual state of psychological well-being, (Garcia et. al, 2011).According to

This study, women reported significantly higher levels of affection, emotional, and

tangible support and positive social interactions than men (St-Jean-Trudel,

Guayand Marchnad, 2009).

According to Ryff (2005), a person with better financial well-being displayed

better psychological well-being in emotion mastery. Chan & Chan, (2012) found

that high levels of debt and poor money management practices were shown to have

negative effects on financial and personal well-being. The examples of negative

effect given were stress related health problems, poor academic performance.

Psychological well-being is used apparently with subjective well-being. The

most comprehensive term, subjective well-being, refers to the assessments and

judgments individuals make about the quality of their lives.

The psychological well-being can be referred to as the absence of negative

thoughts and occurrence or development of positive thoughts. Psychological well-

being includes many features like energetic lifestyle, balance of emotions, positive

attitude, life satisfaction, pro social behavior etc. It comprises the happiness

developed by an individual’s values, goals and need through actualization of their

abilities in their life situations.

Psychological well-being refers to positive mental health (Edwards,

2005).different studies shown that psychological well-being is a numerous


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multidimensional perception, which grows through a combination of emotional

regulation, personality characteristics, individuality and life experience (Helson &

Srivastava, 2001).

According to Keyes (2002) Psychological well-being can decreases with

neuroticism and increase with age, education, extraversion and consciousness.

Primary understanding of psychological well-being provided a

representation of the difference between positive and negative affect (Bradburn’s,

1969). Early research was mainly concerned with the experiences of positive and

negative affect, subjective well-being and life satisfaction that were formed around

the Greek word ‘eudemonia’, which was translated as ‘happiness’ (Ryff, 1989b).

Waterman (1984) and Ryff’s (1989b) work submits ‘eudemonia’ was perhaps

incorrectly translated as happiness. Carol Ryff’s (1989b) research has taken about a

shift in focus from a subjective to an objective conception of psychological well-

being. Her research is theoretically and conceptually grounded on Maslow’s (1968)

conception of self-actualization, Rogers’ (1961) view of the fully functioning person,

Jung’s (1933) formulation of individuation, All port’s (1961) origin of maturity,

Erikson’s (1959) psychosocial stage model, Buhler’s (1935) basic life fulfilment

trends, Neugarten’s (1973) reports of personality change in adulthood and old age,

and Jahoda’s (1958) six criteria of positive mental health, as well as additional more

meaningful suggestions of ‘eudemonia’, such as understanding potential through

some form of struggle.


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Ryff’s (1989b) research has resulted in a new objective psychological well-

being measurement being developed (Conway & Macleod, 2002; Keyes et al., 2002;

Ruini et al., 2003; Ryff, 1989b; Ryff & Keyes, 1995), with the following components

autonomy, personal growth, environmental mastery, purpose in life, positive

relations with others and self-acceptance. This scale has been regarded as the best

objective measure of positive mental health (Conway & Macleod, 2002).

Psychological well-being discusses to feeling more are less well in one's on

body and includes items such as 'I feel healthy' and 'I love my body as it is ‘.Female

adolescents are highly suffering for psychological disorder such as

depression, anxiety and stress.

Literature review

Lucas and Lawless (2013) identified ten studies that examined the association

between season and mood. They conclude that some associations have been found,

but that the weather conditions that appear to be most important vary across

studies, and that some studies have found no effects. For instance, Keller et al.

(2005) found that during spring time, particularly if time is spent outdoors, higher

temperatures, and higher barometric pressures correlate with positive mood.

During the summer, however, higher temperatures exceeding comfort beginnings

lead to more negative moods.

In the study of Kristjánsdóttir, Olsson, Sundelin, and Naessen (2013),

adolescent girls showed seasonal variations in self-reported health and depressive

symptoms with more symptoms during winter months and, thus, in their opinion,
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the high prevalence of suspected depression during the winter months deserves

attention. Konu, Joronen, and Lintonen (2015) found in their study that pupils

perceived their wellbeing highest during the period lasting from the middle of

October until the end of December, and the health status was perceived lowest from

the middle of March to the end of May. During autumn and winter found depressive

symptoms were common among Swedish senior high school students, especially

among girls.

Psychological well-being is an “commitment with existential challenges of

life” (Keyes et. al., 2002).Psychological well-being measure the individual’s

perception about overall control of his or her life and purpose, the degree of

achievement of one’s potential, and the nature of interpersonal relationships built. It

is a measure of a person’s perception about meaning in life (Frankl, 1963).Empirical

studies have documented relationship between PWB and meaning in life (Zika and

Chamberlain, 1992).They in their study on college students documented that

meaning in life predicted PWB amongst the students. Also work enjoyment is

related to meaning in life (Bonebright et. al., 2000) and coping with adverse

circumstances has a positive relationship with meaning in life (King et. al., 2006).

The personality correlates of three dimensions of well-being: Positive affect,

negative affect, and life satisfaction. Interpersonal competencies were found to

correlate most strongly with positive affect, internal emotional states with negative

affect, whereas the correlates of life satisfaction included both interpersonal

competencies and internal emotional states.


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Human behaviour is vital not only to causing global climate change but also

to responding and adapting to it. We review three key research areas: describing

human perceptions of climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate

change and adaptation responses.

According to different studies Employees spend a lot of time inside the

buildings, where the physical conditions influence their well-being and indirectly

influence their employers' business performance. We used path analysis to further

explain the relationship between personal (gender and seasonality of mood shifts),

building (view type, view quality, window distance, and social density), and

perceived environmental conditions (light quality, and office impression) and

physical and psychological discomfort, sleep quality, and environmental utility. The

results show that window views, which that are rated as being more attractive, are

beneficial to building occupants by reducing discomfort. However, being close to a

window and rating the lighting as being of lower quality can result in thermal and

glare problems (environmental utility). Reduced discomfort at work can improve

sleep quality, indicating that physical conditions at work influence home life.

This study investigates if stock market returns are related to the

temperature. Psychological research has shown that temperature is one of the

meteorological variables that significantly affect people’s mood. Mood changes in

turn lead to behavioral changes. It is known that lower temperatures can lead to

aggression, while higher temperatures can lead to aggression as well as apathy. Our

analysis reveals that lower temperatures are indeed related to higher stock returns,

and higher temperatures are related to lower stock returns. The relationship is
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significant both statistically and economically when the temperature is low, and is

robust to various alternative tests.

Climate change increasingly affects the livelihoods of people, and poor people

experience especially negative impacts given their lack of capacity to prepare for

and cope with the effects of a changing climate. Among poor people, women and

men may experience these impacts differently. This review presents and tests two

hypotheses on the gender-differentiated impacts of climate change on women and

men in developing countries. The first hypothesis is that climate-related events

affect men’s and women’s well-being and assets differently. The second hypothesis is

that climate-related shocks affect women more negatively than men. Climate change

affects women’s and men’s assets and well-being differently in six impact areas: (i)

impacts related to agricultural production, (ii) food security, (iii) health, (iv) water

and energy resources, (v) climate-induced migration and conflict, and (vi) climate

related natural disasters. In the literature reviewed, women seem to suffer more

negative impacts of climate change in terms of their assets and well-being because of

social and cultural norms regarding gender roles and their lack of access to and

control of assets, although there are some exceptions.

According to this study, seasonal changes and variations seem to have

meaning to the girls’ wellbeing, and, in general, the wintertime was associated with

feelings of discomfort as girls described winter as the time of physical isolation and a

passive mood. It was not specified in this study what months of the wintertime

wellbeing was perceived the lowest, but in the study of Konu et al. (2015), health

status was perceived lowest from the middle of March to the end of May.
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Kristjánsdóttir et al. (2013) found that self-reported health in adolescent girls varied

according to the season and its relation to medication and hormonal contraception.

The girls’ descriptions of the effects of winter are also supported by the finding that

the prevalence of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was also higher in female

students, which was consistent with findings in previous research (Low & Feissner,

1998). This was also the case in the study of Tonettia et al. (2007), so it seems that

seasonal sensitivity is higher in female subjects. In this study, the girls described

temperatures between −20 to −30 °C as being too cold and making it inconvenient to

go out. Thus, it is good to remember that cold results in concrete harm and that cold

spells are associated with increased mortality rates in populations around the world

(Ryti, Guo, & Jaakkola, 2015).

Earlier studies on the relationship between weather and psychological

changes have formed diverse results. In part, this discrepancy may be because

weather's psychological effects are diluted by two important factors: the season and

time spent outside. In two correlational studies and an experiment manipulating

participants' time outdoors (total N = 605), pleasant weather (higher temperature or

barometric pressure) was related to higher mood, better memory, and “broadened”

cognitive style during the spring as time spent outside increased. The same

associations between mood and weather were not observed during other times of

year, and actually warmer weather was associated with lower mood in the summer.

These results are consistent with findings on seasonal affective disorder, and suggest

that pleasant weather improves mood and broadens cognition in the spring because

people have been deprived of such weather during the winter.


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Elderly people exhibit small seasonal fluctuation in psychological well-being,

Which is probably of little clinical importance, and there is no gender difference.

The findings supported contention that seasonal mood changes are most

Pronounced among females of reproductive age.

In conclusion, high seasonality did not share the same characteristics as

seasonal affective disorder, and seasonality in itself could be a risk factor for both

anxiety and depression. The aim of this thesis was to characterize these subjects

with respect to demographic factors, anxiety, depression, sleep and general health

risk factors. Seasonal Affective Disorder has been reported to be associated with

hypersomnia, increased appetite and carbohydrate craving, and the disorder is

most common in subjects with high education and socioeconomic status.

Furthermore, high seasonality per se was significantly correlated to anxiety,

depression and sleep problems (mainly associated with 12 insomnia).However, some

subjects report a high degree of seasonal changes in mood and behavior

(seasonality) without fulfilling diagnostic criteria for depression. Subjects with high

seasonality also had more health risk factors than subjects with low seasonality.

The influence of seasonal change and weather on mood, social activity, weight, food

consumption, and sleep length were compared among an urban Aboriginal group

(n=43), an urban non-Aboriginal group (n=49), and a rural Aboriginal (i.e. First

Nation) group (n=39) in Ontario, Canada.

Weather variables had statistically significant associations with each

behavior item for each group, except for the rural Aboriginal group, where positive
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mood, high social activity, and a decreased sleep length were not associated with any

weather variable. Compared to urban groups, the rural Aboriginal group had the

fewest significant correlations between weather variables and behavior items,

despite living in a more extreme climate.

A study exploring the influence of seasonal change on human circadian rhythm

found seasonal variation in sleep time; where participants slept earliest in the

summer and latest in the winter, and woke up earlier in summer than in winter

(Honma et al.1992)

Past studies have found a significant correlation between higher latitudes

and seasonality, concluding that a decreased exposure to solar radiation in the

winter season is a significant factor to the occurrence of SAD (Rosen et al. 1990;

Haggarty et al. 2002).

A study comparing clinical groups (e.g. SAD, bipolar, depression) to a

control group found that all participants (with the exception of summer-SAD

patients) felt better during the warmer months and worst during the colder months

(Hardin et al. et al. 1991).


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METHOD

RESEARCH DESIGN

Quantitative cross sectional survey research design has been used for

conducting the research. Effect of seasonal changes on psychological well-being in

women population has been studied in the research.

OBJECTIVES

1. To explore the effect of seasonal changes on psychological well-being in

Pakistani women’s.

2. To examine the problems face by the Pakistani women’s due to seasonal

changes.

HYPOTHESIS

1. There is a significantly negative correlation of winter on psychological well-

being of women.

2. There is a significantly positive correlation of summer on psychological well-

being of women.

3. There is a positive effect of summer on sleep duration.

4. Autumn is negatively correlated with psychological well-being.

5. Spring is positively correlated with psychological well-being.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
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Psychological wellbeing. The capacity to actively participate in work and

recreation, create meaningful relationships with others, develop a sense of autonomy

and purpose of life, and to experience positive emotions (Hatch, Huppert, Abbott,

Croudace, Ploubidis, Wadsworth, Richards, & Kuh, 2007).

Seasonal changes. Movements observed in time serious that repeat

throughout the year at given time with similar intensity in same seasons.

PARTICIPANT OF THE STUDY

This study aimed to discover the effect of seasonal changes on Psychological well-

being of university students. The data was collected from CIIT students.

The participants of this study were 200 (females) graduate students enrolled in

CIIT, during the winter semester of 2017-2018 academic year. For selection of

participants convenient sampling method was used and instruments were conducted

by researcher with the volunteered individuals from different departments

The participant age range 20 to 30(M=22.17, SD=2.16)

INSTRUMENT

The data of this study was obtained by Scales of Psychological Well-Being (SPW)

(Ryff, 1989), the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire (modified from

Rosenthal, Bradt and Wehr 1987) and the demographic information.

Demographic information form: A demographic information form was

prepared by the researcher to collect information about age, sex, marital status and

education of the participants.


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Seasonal change. A survey was administered to the participants. The goal

of the survey was to examine the effects of weather and seasons on psychological

wellbeing, mood, social activity, weight, food consumption and sleep length. The

survey included a measure that was abstracted from the Seasonal Pattern

Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). The SPAQ is a self-administered instrument

used to assess seasonality (Rosenthal et al. 1987). The measure asks ― At what time

of the year do you…‖: a. feel the best, b. tend to gain weight, c. socialize the most, d.

sleep the least, e. eat the most, f. lose the most weight, g. socialize the least, h. feel the

worst, I. Eat the least, and j. sleep the most. Participants answered these questions

by marking off which month(s) of the year that they considered true for each

statement.

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

To collect data, the instruments, which are 18-item SPW, 16-item (SPAQ)

and demographic form, were administered to the students in COMSATS

INSTITUTE OF INFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGY campus during the winter

semester of 2017-2018 academic year. In order to reach students from 30 different

departments, questionnaires were administered in department buildings, library

and shopping center to volunteer students. Students were asked for participation

after explaining the purpose of the study and they were given the questionnaire sets,

including the explanation about the study, confidentiality issues, contact

information of the researcher, demographic information form, Scales of

Psychological Well-Being and Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ).

The administration of the instruments took approximately 10 minutes.


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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA

After data collection, the next step the statistical analysis of the data to

examine the hypotheses of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In

current study different statistical methods were used.


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Results
After compilation of the data collection, the 200 selected case were entered into

statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 21.0 for windows) computer program

for quantitative analyses. Keeping in view the objectives of the study, that is to

investigate the effect of seasonal changes on psychological well-being among

women’s; help was taken from different statistical analyses to achieve a number of

results. In addition the present study was aimed to address the effects of

demographic variables (Age, Weight, Education, Sex, and Marital Status) with

seasonal assessment questionnaire. Firstly reliabilities of all the study variables were

assessed. Secondly descriptive of all variables (Mean, Standard Deviation, Skewness,

upper and lower limit) were estimate. Bivariate correlation was used to assess the

relationship between ages, education, weight, Global Seasonality Scores, monthly

behavior items, weight fluctuation, and Seasonal sleep length. And ANOVA was

used to find out the marital status differences. Find the percentage and frequencies

of behavior items (Feel best, Feel worst, Gain most weight, Lose most weight,

Socialize most, Socialize least, Sleep most, Sleep least, Eat most, Eat least) and

seasonal sleep length (Summer, Autumn, Winter, Spring).


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Psychometric properties of test of global seasonality scores (GSS)

To see the psychometric properties and descriptive statistics of test of Global

Seasonality Scores (GSS), the Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities, mean, standard

deviation, range and skewness were computed.

Table 1

Psychometric properties of the major study variable (N=200).


Scores range

Variables No. Of items Cronbach Mean SD SKEW


Potential Actual

GSS 6 .37 11.36 3.86 2_21 .21

Note.GSS=Globel Seasonality Scores, SD = Standard Deviation, SKEW=Skewness

TABLE 1 illustrate the psychometric properties and descriptive statistics for

Global Seasonality Scores (GSS). When considering the reliability of variable .37

came out for global seasonality scores that is moderately reliable.

Mean and standard deviation were computed to show the average scores of

participants a study scales. Value of skewness indicates distribution of scoring

among variables. Positive value of skewness on global seasonality scores (GSS)

indicates that the distribution curve is light tailed and pointed. Absolute value for

skewness less than 2(-1 to +1) can be used as normal distribution of data and

parametric testing can be assessed. Therefore judgement was taken to go on for

further analyses with normality achieve.


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Demographic and descriptive characteristics of the sample

To see the sample distribution frequencies and percentage of the categorical

demographic variables were computed. While for the continuous demographic

variables mean a standard deviation was computed.

Table 2

Descriptive characteristics of the sample (N=200)

Descriptive Characteristics F P M SD

Age 22.9 2.8

Weight 47.9 7.7

Education 14.4 1.3

Sex 200 100

Marital status 200 100

Single 176 88.0

Married 20 10.0

Separate /divorced 4 2.0

Table 2 illustrate the demographic characteristics of the sample of the

present study. Results revealed that the age of the present sample ranges from 20 to

30 years and 22 year age of individual are in the highest percentage in the sample.14

year of education comprises the highest in 12 to 21 year of education. As per the

marital status level highest frequency is of single individual with the percentage of
23

88%, married individual comprises 10%, than are Separate /divorced comprises of

2% of the sample.

Correlation between demographic variables, global seasonality scores,

behavior items, weight fluctuation, and sleep length questionnaire

To see the correlation between demographic variables (Age, Education,

Current Weight), seasonal assessment questionnaire (Global Seasonality Scores,

Behavior Items, Weight Fluctuation, Seasonal Sleep length); bivariate correlation

analyses are computed.

Table 3 shows the superficial insight about the relationship of demographic

variables and the study variables, furthers probing will be done subsequently. Age is

positively correlate with socialize most and education, that are (r=.33, and r=.29,

p<.01), respectively. While it is education is least correlated with eat least(r=.18,

p<.01). Age is negatively correlate with socialize least (r=.12, p<.05).education is

positively correlate with lose most weight (r=.26, p<.01).Education is negatively

correlate with socialize most (r=-.14, p<.05).Current weight is negatively correlate

with eat most (r=-.29, p<.01).Global Seasonality Scores (GSS) is positively

correlated with weight fluctuation and summer (r=, 38, r=.29, p<.01). Global

Seasonality Scores (GSS) is negatively correlate with sleep least (r=-.32, p<.01).feel

best is positively correlated with autumn (r=.21 p<.01).Feel best is negatively

correlate with socialize most (r=-.14 <p< .05).Gain most weight is positively

correlate with feel worst (r=.21, p< .01).Gain most weight is negatively correlate

with winter (r=.30 p< .01).Socialized most is positively correlate with sleep most
24

(r=.36, p< .01).Sleep least with positively correlate with feel worst (r=.43,

p<.01).Sleep least is negatively correlate with weight fluctuation (r=-.15 p<. 05).eat

most is positively correlated with sleep most (r=.26 p< .01). Lose most weight is

positively correlated with eat least (r=.31 p< .01).Socialize least is positively

correlate with feel worst (r=.29 p< .01).Socialize least is negatively correlated with

autumn (r=-.22 p< .05).Feel worst is positively correlated with summer and autumn

(r=.19, and r=.19 p<.05).Eat least is positively correlate with weight fluctuation

(r=.17, p< .05).Sleep most is positively correlated with summer (r= 29, P<

.01).Weight fluctuation is positively correlated with summer (r=.36, p<.01).Winter is

positively correlated with autumn (r=.46, p< .46).Spring is positively correlated with

autumn and summer (r=.31, r=.26, p<.01).


25

Table 3

Summary of intercorrelation of the demographic and study variables (N=200)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
1 AGE - .29** .19** -.16* -.04 .21** .33** .04 .17* .28** -.17* .02 .18** .05 -.13 -.01 -.05 .24** .02
2 EDU - .02 .04 .06 -.12 -.14* -.19** -.09 .19** -.27** -.01 .06 .11 .13 .26** .10 .14* .13
3 CW - .13 -.04 -.12 .01 -.12 -.29** .08 .02 -.08 .08 -.19** .14* -.06 .02 -.11 -.04
4 GSS - -.13 -.16* .09 -.32** -.18** .08 -.14* -.02 .01 .20** .38** -.01 .20** .29** -.00
5 FB - -.08 -.14* .15* .14* .15* -.09 -.05 .13 .05 .17* .29** .02 -.15* .21**
6 GMW - .09 .20** .18** -.17* .29** .21** .15* .03 -.12 -.30** -.22** .03 -.11
7 SOC-M - .22** .27** .27** .02 .19** .26** .36** -.02 .05 -.02 .17* .11
8 SL - .25** -.00 .33** .43** .28** .12 -.15* .12 -.11 -.12 .11
9 EM - .10 -.01 .15* .19** .26** -.10 .22** .06 .03 .15*
10 LMW - -.07 .02 .31** -.00 .18* .19** .00 .05 .21**
11 SOC-L - .29** .17* .09 .06 -.18* -.18* -.03 -.22**
12 FW - .12 .17* .00 .051 .00 .19** .19**
13 EL - .02 .17* .10 -.03 .08 .16*
14 SM - .16* .14 -.06 .23** -.03
15 FW/Y - .03 .25** .36** -.00
16 WIN - .26** -.10 .46**
17 SPR - .26** .31**
18 SUM - .06
19 AUT -
.NOTE. EDU= Education,CW= Current Weight,GSS=Global Seasonality Scores,FB=Feel Best,GMW=Gain Most Weight,SOC-M=Socialize Most,SL=Sleep

Least,EM=Eat Most,LMW=Loss Most Weight,SOC-L=Socialize Least,FW=Feel Worst,SM=Sleep Most,FW/Y=Weight Flactuation during the

Year,WIN=Winter,SPR=Spring,SUM=Summer,AUT=Autumn.

*P < .05. **P <.001.


26

ANOVA

Table 4

Group Differences between Global Seasonality Scores (N=200) by using ANOVA

SINGLE MARRIED SEP/DIVORCED

VARIABLES M SD M SD M SD F P MDI-J

- -
GSS 10.93 15.00 15.00 3.24 11.04 .00 4.07*
Note. GSS=global seasonality scores,M=mean,SD=standard daviation,P=level of segnificance,MDI-J=mean

differences

Analysis of varience showed a statistically significant difference at the p <.05 level

in global sesonality scores for the three groups:F(11.04),p=0.00.


27

Figure 1

Feel best in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 1 show the percentage in which season participants feel best. The highest

percentage in which season participant feel best is spring (38%)and least percentage

in which season participant feel best is autumn (12%).


28

Figure 2

Feel worst in different seasons (N=200).

Figure 2 show the percentage in which season participants feel worst. The highest

percentage in which season participant feel worst is spring (48%)and least

percentage in which season participant feel worst is autumn (8%).


29

Figure 3

Gain most weight in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 3 show the percentage in which season participants gain most weight. The

highest percentage in which season participant gain most weight is spring (42%)and

least percentage in which season participant gain most weight is autumn (6%).
30

Figure 4

Lose most weight in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 4 show the percentage in which season participants lose most weight. The

highest percentage in which season participant gain most weight is spring (40%)and

least percentage in which season participant lose most weight is autumn (14%).
31

Figure 5

Socialize most in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 5 show the percentage in which season participants socialize most. The

highest percentage in which season participant socialize most is spring (40%)and

least percentage in which season participant socialize most is winter (14%).


32

Figure 6

Socialize least in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 6 show the percentage in which season participants socialize least. The

highest percentage in which season participant socialize most is spring (36%)and

least percentage in which season participant socialize least is autumn (4%).


33

Figure 7

Eat most in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 7 show the percentage in which season participants eat most. The highest

percentage in which season participant socialize most winter and summer with

same percentage (32%)and least percentage in which season participant eat most is

autumn (6%).
34

Figure 8

Eat least in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 5 show the percentage in which season participants eat least. The highest

percentage in which season participant eat least is spring (36%)and least percentage

in which season participant eat least is autumn (10%).


35

Figure 9

Sleep most in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 9 show the percentage in which season participants sleep most. The highest

percentage in which season participant socialize most is winter (40%)and least

percentage in which season participant sleep most is autumn (8%).


36

Figure 10

Sleep least in different seasons (N=200)

Figure 10 show the percentage in which season participants sleep least. The highest

percentage in which season participant socialize most is spring (36%)and least

percentage in which season participant sleep least is autumn (4%).


37

Figure 11

sleep length in summer (N=200)

Figure 11 show the sleep length of participant in summer .in summers mostly

participant indicated that they sleep more than 8 hours.the percentage of sleep

length is (>8) hours in summers is (56%).the percentage of sleep length is (<=8)

hours in summers is (44%).


38

Figure 12

sleep length in autumn (N=200).

Figure 12 show the sleep length of participant in autumn.in autumn mostly

participant indicated that they sleep more than 8 hours.the percentage of sleep

length is (>8) hours in autumn is (58%).the percentage of sleep length is (<=8)

hours in autumn is (42%).


39

Figure 13

sleep length in winter (N=200).

Figure 13 show the sleep length of participant in winter .in winter mostly

participant indicated that they sleep more than 8 hours.the percentage of sleep

length is (>8) hours in winter is (72%).the percentage of sleep length is (<=8) hours

in winter is (28%).
40

Figure 14

sleep length in spring (N=200).

Figure 14 show the sleep length of participant in spring .in winter mostly

participant indicated that they sleep more than 8 hours.the percentage of sleep

length is (<=8) hours in spring is (58%).the percentage of sleep length is (>8) hours

in spring is (42%).
41

Discussion

The goal of the study were to explore the effect of seasonal changes on psychological

well-being, mood, sleep, social activity, eating habits etc. For this purpose the

seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire (modified from Rosenthal, Bradt and

Wehr 1987) were used. In order to carry out the data collection, the first step was to

approach the sample. Data were collected from Abbottabad.

For this purpose information about the seasonal changes and psychological well-

being was gained through different sources and questionnaire was distributed. The

aims and objectives of current study were declared to the subjects. The sample of the

current study was decided to consist of 200. The details of the analyses are given

below:

To analyze the reliability of the scale, Cronbach’s Alpha was used. Data analyzed

reveal Global Seasonality Scores (GSS) have satisfactory reliability value of α = .37

(see Table 1).

Sleep most is positively correlated with summers (r=.23, p< .01). Age is positively

correlated with summer (r=.24, p<0.1). Weight fluctuation is positively correlated

with summer (r=.39, p<.01). Education is positively correlated with summer (r=.14,

p<.05).which proves the hypothesis that “significantly positively correlation of

summer on psychological well-being of women’s. Socialized most is positively

correlated with summers (r=.17 p<.05), peak of social activity in summers may also

be due to the holiday season. In recent studies better social activities, more activities

outdoors and living together are positively related with healthier psychological well-
42

being. On the other hand, greater seasonal changes and poor brightness indoor

associate with poorer psychological well-being

Corroborating the results presented in Figures 7 and 8, humans ate more in colder

months and less in warmer months. Humans may be inclined to consume more

calories in winter because of a physiological response to cold weather. When humans

are exposed to cold weather, their metabolic rate increases and more energy is used

to regulate their body temperature; thus leading to an increase in food consumption

(Stroebele and De Castro 2004).

In the present study, sleep length increased in winter the results presented in

figure 9 and 10. Similarly, humans were found to sleep longer during the colder

season (Albert et al. 1991; Okawa et al. 1996; Rohan and Sigmon 2000).

Results of the study indicate that weather and seasonal change have an effect on

human behavior. Past studies reflect similar results According to Berlyne (1971)

Different scenes affect individual feeling in different way, the effect of the nature

scenes was to increase Positive Affect — including feelings of love friendliness,

playfulness, and elation. In the present study spring effect the positive impact on

individual psychological well-being and nature scenes are in springs.so this

hypothesis were supported.

Past studies showed that seasonal difference might be that the long hours of

darkness in winter can lead to 'winter moods' and depression. Which can most

likely counter any motivation towards physical activity (Reilly & Peise, 2006.).

During the months where the days are shorter, primarily in the winter, circadian
43

patterns are disrupted. The reason is that the circadian clock is programmed to

release melatonin to induce sleep, a function that is initiated by darkness. Because

the sun sets earlier in winter months this reaction begins occurring earlier in the

evening, which results in a disrupted sleep pattern, a common problem for

depressed patients. Individuals with Seasonal affective disorder are more likely to

experience the effects of this change, and are prone to an increased amount of sleep,

known as hypersomnia, and an increased appetite.


44

CONCLUSION

The aim of the present study was to check the effect of seasonal changes on

psychological well-being of women popuation.For this purpose the seasonal pattern

assessment questionnaire (modified from Rosenthal, Bradt and Wehr 1987) were

used. In order to carry out the data collection, the first step was to approach the

sample. Data were collected from Abbottabad. After the data collection, the data was

precisely calculated and analyzed.

As a result of this study, it is proved that there is negative relationship of

winter with psychological well-being among women’s. The current study also showed

that age has positive correlation with summer and has negative correlation with

winter and autumn. The results also find that there is significant difference on marital

status and global seasonality scores (GSS) among women’s.

LIMITATIONS

1. The sample size of the present study was also small i-e (N=200). In future, the

large sample should be selected.

2. The data was also collected from limited areas of Abbottabad and it is

suggested that for further study on the same topic the data should be collected

on provisional or country level.

3. For current study only self-reporting technique is used but for further study

more data collecting instruments should be utilize. Such as surveys, online

interviews etc.
45

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49

APPENDIX A

This research is conducted by student of psychology department of Abbottabad University of science

and technology. The purpose of this is to find out how your mood and behavior change over time

please fill out this questionnaire. Note: we are interested in your experiences: not others. You may

have observed.

1. Name _____________________________________

2. Age ___________

3. Place of birth - City / Province (State) / Country

_________________________________________________

4. Today's date ________ ________ ________

5. Current weight (in lbs.) ____________

6. Years of education

7. Sex –

8. Marital Status –

a. Single

b. Married

c. Sep. /Divorced

d. Widowed

9. Occupation _____________________________________

10. How many years have you lived in this climatic area? _______
50

APPENDIX A

11. To what degree do the following change with the seasons?

Extremely
No Slight Moderate Marked Marked
change change change change change

0 1 2 3 4
A. Sleep length

0 1 2 3 4
B. Social activity

0 1 2 3 4
C. Mood(overall feeling of well-
being)

0 1 2 3 4
D. Weight

0 1 2 3 4
E. Appetite

0 1 2 3 4
F. Energy level

12. In the following question, fill in circles for all applicable months. This may be

a single Month O, a cluster of months, e.g. O O O, or any other grouping.

At what time of year do you…

J F M A M J J A S O N D NO PARTICULAR
MONTHS STAND
A E A P A U U U E C O E OR OUT AS
EXTREME ON A
N B R R Y N L G P T V C
REGULAR BASIS

O O O O O O O O O O O O O
Feel best
Gain most O O O O O O O O O O O O O
weight
Socialize most O O O O O O O O O O O O O
OR
Sleep least O O O O O O O O O O O O O
51

Eat most O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Lose most O O O O O O O O O O O O O
weight

Socialize O O O O O O O O O O O O O
least
Feel worst O O O O O O O O O O O O O

OR
Eat least O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Sleep most O O O O O O O O O O O O O

13. How much weight does fluctuate during the course of year?

a. 0-3 ibs
d. 12-15 ibs

b. 4-7 ibs e. 16-20 ibs

c. 8-11 ibs f. over 20ibs

14. Approximately how many hours of each 24-hours day do you sleep during
each season?(include naps)

Winter 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Over18

Spring 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Over18

Summer 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Over18

Fall 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Over18
52

15. Do you notice a change in food preference during a different seasons?

1 yes If yes, please specify

2 no

16. If you experience change with the season do you feel that these are problem
for you?

1 yes

2 no

If yes is this problem

1 Mild

2 Moderate

3 Marked

4 Severe

5 disabling