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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The multimachine is an all-purpose open source machine tool that can be


built inexpensively by a semi-skilled mechanic with common hand tools, from
discarded car and truck parts, using only commonly available hand tools and no
electricity. Its size can range from being small enough to fit in a closet to one
hundred times that size. The multimachine can accurately perform all the
functions of an entire machine shop by itself.

The multimachine was first developed as a personal project by Pat


Delaney, then grew into an open source project organized via a Yahoo! group.
The 2,600 member support group that has grown up around its creation is made
up of engineers, machinists, and experimenters who have proven that the
machine works. As an open-source machine tool that can be built cheaply on-
site, the Multimachine could have many uses in developing countries. The
multimachine group is currently focused on the humanitarian aspects of the
multimachine, and on promulgating the concept of the multimachine as a means
to create jobs and economic growth in developing countries.

The multimachine first became known to a wider audience as the result of


the 2006 Open Source Gift Guide article on the Make magazine website, in
which the multimachine was mentioned under the caption "Multimachine -
Open Source machine tool".

The design goals of the multimachine were to create an easily built


machine tool, made from "junk," that is nonetheless all-purpose and accurate
enough for production work. It has been reported to be able to make cuts within
a tenth (one ten-thousandth of an inch), which means that in at least some setups
it can equal commercial machine tool accuracy.
1.1. MOTOR

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into


mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of mechanical energy
into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator, which has much in
common with a motor.

Most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's
magnetic field and winding currents to generate force. In certain applications,
such as in regenerative braking with traction motors in the transportation
industry, electric motors can also be used in reverse as generators to convert
mechanical energy into electric power.

Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine


tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be
powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles
or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power
grid, inverters or generators. Small motors may be found in electric watches.
General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and
characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use. The
largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and
pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric
motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction,
application, type of motion output, and so on.

Electric motors are used to produce linear or rotary force (torque), and should
be distinguished from devices such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers that
convert electricity into motion but do not generate usable mechanical powers,
which are respectively referred to as actuators and transducers.

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1.2. TYPES OF MILLING

Today we will learn about types of milling machine used in machining of metal
work pieces. In my last post we have learn about milling machine and its main
parts and we know that milling machine is one of the most versatile machine
which can perform any machining operation on unsymmetrical work piece. It is
mostly used in mold manufacturing. Due to its versatility, it is available milling
machine available various types and sizes. These are described below.

1.3. COLUMN AND KNEE TYPE MILLING MACHINE

It is the very common milling machine type. In this machine a vertical column
is attached to the bed which consist all gear drives which rotate the knee and
saddle. A knee is situated on the base which can provide vertical motion to the
work piece or which can move up and down. A saddle is attached to the upper
section of the knee which can move in transverse direction. The table is placed
over the which can hold the work piece by use of climbing bolts.

1.3.1 VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE

In is one of the types of knee and column milling machine. The spindle if this
machine is in vertical position. No arbor is required in this machine. The cutter
tool has cylindrical shape and the cutting edges are situated at the circumference
of the cylindrical face.

1.3.2. HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE

As the name implies the spindle is situated horizontally. The spindle rotates
horizontally. A arbor is attached to the machine which holds the cylindrical disk
shape cutter which cuts the metal work piece.

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1.3.3. UNIVERSAL MILLING MACHINE

The universal milling machine is same as horizontal milling machine except


there is a arrangement of swing up the table to 45 degree in either direction.

1.4. FIXED BED MILLING MACHINE

In this milling machine the bed of the machine is fixed to the machine. There is
no arrangement of knee and saddle which can move vertically and transversally.
The worktable is direct situated at the fixed bed. The spindle of this machine is
mountain on a movable spindle head. It can move in vertical and horizontal
direction and perform the cutting operation.

1.4.1. SIMPLEX MILLING MACHINE

In the simplex machine spindle head or the spindle can travel only in one
direction. Mostly it travels in vertical direction.

1.4.2. DUPLEX MILLING MACHINE

In this machine the spindle can travel both in vertical and horizontal direction.

1.4.3. TRIPLEX MILLING MACHINE

In triplex machine spindle can move in all three direction along X Y and Z axis.

1.5. SPECIAL MILLING MACHINE

These machines are the modern milling machines which are developed to easy
the milling operations according to the jobs.

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1.5.1. TRACER MILLING MACHINE

Tracer machine can perform all difficult die making job by synchronizing the
tracing unit. It can develop any difficult shape. It is mostly used in automobile
and aerospace industries.

1.5.2. CNC MILLING MACHINE

CNC is most versatile milling machine which is control by a computer. It is


upgrade version of bed type milling machine in which the spindle can move in
all three direction and the table can rotate 360 degree. These all movement is
hydraulically controlled which is command by a computer. Any difficult
geometry can make on it. A sketch of the work piece is loaded to the computer
which is cut on work piece by the cutters automatically.

1.6. GRINDING

A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is any of various power tools or


machine tools used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive
wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a
small chip from the workpiece via shear deformation.

Grinding is used to finish workpieces that must show high surface quality (e.g.,
low surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. As the
accuracy in dimensions in grinding is of the order of 0.000025 mm, in most
applications it tends to be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little
metal, about 0.25 to 0.50 mm depth. However, there are some roughing
applications in which grinding removes high volumes of metal quite rapidly.
Thus, grinding is a diverse field.

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1.6.1. OVERVIEW OF GRINDING

The grinding machine consists of a bed with a fixture to guide and hold the
work piece, and a power-driven grinding wheel spinning at the required speed.
The speed is determined by the wheel’s diameter and manufacturer’s rating. The
grinding head can travel across a fixed work piece, or the work piece can be
moved while the grind head stays in a fixed position. Fine control of the
grinding head or table position is possible using a vernier calibrated hand wheel,
or using the features of numerical controls.

Grinding machines remove material from the work piece by abrasion, which can
generate substantial amounts of heat. To cool the work piece so that it does not
overheat and go outside its tolerance, grinding machines incorporate a coolant.
The coolant also benefits the machinist as the heat generated may cause burns.
In high-precision grinding machines (most cylindrical and surface grinders), the
final grinding stages are usually set up so that they remove about 200 nm (less
than 1/10000 in) per pass - this generates so little heat that even with no coolant,
the temperature rise is negligible.

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1.7. TYPES OF GRINDING

1.7.1. BELT GRINDING

Belt grinder, which is usually used as a machining method to process metals and
other materials, with the aid of coated abrasives. Analogous to a belt sander
(which itself is often used for wood but sometimes metal). Belt grinding is a
versatile process suitable for all kind of applications, including finishing,
deburring, and stock removal.

1.7.2. BENCH GRINDING

Bench grinder, which usually has two wheels of different grain sizes for
roughing and finishing operations and is secured to a workbench or floor stand.
Its uses include shaping tool bits or various tools that need to be made or
repaired. Bench grinders are manually operated.

1.7.3. CYLINDER GRINDING

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Cylindrical grinder, which includes both the types that use centers and the
center less types. A cylindrical grinder may have multiple grinding wheels. The
work piece is rotated and fed past the wheel(s) to form a cylinder. It is used to
make precision rods, tubes, bearing races, bushings, and many other parts.

1.7.4. SURFACE GRINDING

Surface grinder, which has a head that is lowered to a work piece, which is
moved back and forth under the grinding wheel on a table that typically has a
controllable permanent magnet (magnetic chuck) for use with magnetic stock
(especially ferrous stock) but can have a vacuum chuck or other fixture means.
The most common surface grinders have a grinding wheel rotating on a
horizontal axis cutting around the circumference of the grinding wheel. Rotary
surface grinders, commonly known as "Blanchard" style grinders, have a
grinding head which rotates the grinding wheel on a vertical axis cutting on the
end face of the grinding wheel, while a table rotates the work piece in the
opposite direction underneath. This type of machine removes large amounts of
material and grinds flat surfaces with noted spiral grind marks. It can also be
used to make and sharpen metal stamping die sets, flat shear blades, fixture
bases or any flat and parallel surfaces. Surface grinders can be manually
operated or have CNC controls.

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1.7.5. TOOL AND CUTTER GRINDING

Tool and cutter grinder, which usually can perform the minor function of the
drill bit grinder, or other specialist toolroom grinding operations.

1.7.6. JIG GRINDING

Jig grinder, which as the name implies, has a variety of uses when finishing jigs,
dies, and fixtures. Its primary function is in the realm of grinding holes for drill
bushings and grinding pins. It can also be used for complex surface grinding to
finish work started on a mill.

1.7.7. GEAR GRINDING

Gear grinder, which is usually employed as the final machining process when
manufacturing a high-precision gear. The primary function of these machines is
to remove the remaining few thousandths of an inch of material left by other
manufacturing methods (such as gashing or hobbing).

1.7.8. DIEGRINDING

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Die grinder, which is a high-speed hand-held rotary tool with a small diameter
grinding bit. They are typically air driven (using compressed air), but can be
driven with a small electric motor directly or via a flexible shaft.

1.7.9.ANGLE GRINDING

Angle grinder, another handheld power tool, often used in fabrication and
construction work.

1.8. DRILLING

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-
section in solid materials. The drill bit is usually a rotary cutting tool, often
multi-point. The bit is pressed against the work-piece and rotated at rates from
hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge
against the work-piece, cutting off chips (swarf) from the hole as it is drilled.

In rock drilling, the hole is usually not made through a circular cutting motion,
though the bit is usually rotated. Instead, the hole is usually made by
hammering a drill bit into the hole with quickly repeated short movements. The
hammering action can be performed from outside the hole (top-hammer drill) or
within the hole (down-the-hole drill, DTH). Drills used for horizontal drilling
are called drifter drills.

In rare cases, specially-shaped bits are used to cut holes of non-circular cross-
section; a square cross-section is possible.

1.9. TYPES OF DRILLING

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1.9.1. SPOT DRILLING

The purpose of spot drilling is to drill a hole that will act as a guide for drilling
the final hole. The hole is only drilled part way into the workpiece because it is
only used to guide the beginning of the next drilling process.

1.9.2. CENTER DRILLING

Center drill is A two-fluted tool consisting of a twist drill with a 60°


countersink; used to drill countersink center holes in a work piece to be
mounted between centers for turning or grinding.

1.9.3. DEEP HOLE DRILLING

Deep hole drilling is defined as a hole depth greater than ten times the
diameter of the hole.These types of holes require special equipment to maintain
the straightness and tolerances. Other considerations are roundness and surface
finish. Deep hole drilling is generally achievable with a few tooling methods,
usually gun drilling or BTA drilling. These are differentiated due to the coolant
entry method (internal or external) and chip removal method (internal or
external). Using methods such as a rotating tool and counter-rotating workpiece
are common techniques to achieve required straightness tolerances. Secondary
tooling methods include trepanning, skiving and burnishing, pull boring, or
bottle boring. Finally a new kind of drilling technology is available to face this
issue: vibration drilling. This technology breaks up the chips by a small
controlled axial vibration of the drill. The small chips are easily removed by the
flutes of the drill.

A high tech monitoring system is used to control force, torque, vibrations,


and acoustic emission. Vibration is considered a major defect in deep hole
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drilling which can often cause the drill to break. A special coolant is usually
used to aid in this type of drilling.

1.9.4. GUN DRILLING

Gun drilling was originally developed to drill out gun barrels and is used
commonly for drilling smaller diameter deep holes. The depth-to-diameter ratio
can be even greater than 300:1. The key feature of gun drilling is that the bits
are self-centering; this is what allows for such deep accurate holes. The bits use
a rotary motion similar to a twist drill; however, the bits are designed with
bearing pads that slide along the surface of the hole keeping the drill bit on
center. Gun drilling is usually done at high speeds and low feed rates.

1.9.5. TREPANNING

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Trepanning is commonly used for creating larger diameter holes (up to 915 mm
(36.0 in)) where a standard drill bit is not feasible or economical. Trepanning
removes the desired diameter by cutting out a solid disk similar to the workings
of a drafting compass. Trepanning is performed on flat products such as sheet
metal, granite (curling stone), plates, or structural members like I-beams.
Trepanning can also be useful to make grooves for inserting seals, such as O-
rings.

1.9.6. MICRODRILLING

Microdrilling refers to the drilling of holes less than 0.5 mm (0.020 in). Drilling
of holes at this small diameter presents greater problems since coolant fed drills
cannot be used and high spindle speeds are required. High spindle speeds that
exceed 10,000 RPM also require the use of balanced tool holders.

1.9.7. VIBRATION DRILLING

The first studies into vibration drilling began in the 1950s (Pr. V.N. Poduraev,
Moscow Bauman University). The main principle consists in generating axial
vibrations or oscillations in addition to the feed movement of the drill so that the
chips break up and are then easily removed from the cutting zone.

There are two main technologies of vibration drilling: self-maintained vibration


systems and forced vibration systems. Most vibration drilling technologies are
still at a research stage. In the case of self-maintained vibration drilling, the
eigenfrequency of the tool is used in order to make it naturally vibrate while
cutting; vibrations are self-maintained by a mass-spring system included in the
tool holder. Other works use a piezoelectric system to generate and control the
vibrations.

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These systems allow high vibration frequencies (up to 2 kHz) for small
magnitude (about a few micrometers); they are particularly suitable for drilling
small holes. Finally, vibrations can be generated by mechanical systems: the
frequency is given by the combination of the rotation speed and the number of
oscillation per rotation (a few oscillations per rotation), with magnitude about
0.1 mm.

This last technology is a fully industrial one (example: SineHoling® technology


of MITIS). Vibration drilling is a preferred solution in situations like deep hole
drilling, multi-material stack drilling (aeronautics) and dry drilling (without
lubrication). Generally it provides improved reliability and greater control of the
drilling operation.

1.9.8. CIRCLE INTERPOLATING

Circle interpolating, also known as orbital drilling, is a process for


creating holes using machine cutters. Orbital drilling is based on rotating a
cutting tool around its own axis and simultaneously about a centre axis which is
off-set from the axis of the cutting tool. The cutting tool can then be moved
simultaneously in an axial direction to drill or machine a hole – and/or
combined with an arbitrary sidewards motion to machine an opening or cavity.

By adjusting the offset, a cutting tool of a specific diameter can be used


to drill holes of different diameters as illustrated. This implies that the cutting
tool inventory can be substantially reduced. The term orbital drilling comes
from that the cutting tool “orbits” around the hole center. The mechanically
forced, dynamic offset in orbital drilling has several advantages compared to
conventional drilling that drastically increases the hole precision. The lower
thrust force results in a burr-less hole when drilling in metals. When drilling in
composite materials the problem with delamination is eliminated.

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1.9.1. MATERIALS OF DRILLING

Under normal usage, swarf is carried up and away from the tip of the drill
bit by the fluting of the drill bit. The cutting edges produce more chips which
continue the movement of the chips outwards from the hole. This is successful
until the chips pack too tightly, either because of deeper than normal holes or
insufficient backing off (removing the drill slightly or totally from the hole
while drilling). Cutting fluid is sometimes used to ease this problem and to
prolong the tool's life by cooling and lubricating the tip and chip flow. Coolant
may be introduced via holes through the drill shank, which is common when
using a gun drill.

When cutting aluminum in particular, cutting fluid helps ensure a smooth


and accurate hole while preventing the metal from grabbing the drill bit in the
process of drilling the hole. When cutting brass, and other soft metals that can
grab the drill bit and causes "chatter", a face of approx. 1-2 millimeters can be
ground on the cutting edge to create an obtuse angle of 91 to 93 degrees. This
prevents "chatter" during which the drill tears rather than cuts the metal.
However, with that shape of bit cutting edge, the drill is pushing the metal away,
rather than grabbing the metal. This creates high friction and very hot swarf.
Magnetic Drilling Machine (manufactured by BDS Maschinen GmbH,
Germany) For heavy feeds and comparatively deep holes oil-hole drills are used
in the drill bit, with a lubricant pumped to the drill head through a small hole in
the bit and flowing out along the fluting. A conventional drill press arrangement
can be used in oil-hole drilling, but it is more commonly seen in automatic
drilling machinery in which it is the workpiece that rotates rather than the drill
bit.

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1.9.2. DRILLING IN WOOD

Wood being softer than most metals, drilling in wood is considerably easier and
faster than drilling in metal. Cutting fluids are not used or needed. The main
issue in drilling wood is ensuring clean entry and exit holes and preventing
burning. Avoiding burning is a question of using sharp bits and the appropriate
cutting speed. Drill bits can tear out chips of wood around the top and bottom of
the hole and this is undesirable in fine woodworking applications.

The ubiquitous twist drill bits used in metalworking also work well in wood, but
they tend to chip wood out at the entry and exit of the hole. In some cases, as in
rough holes for carpentry, the quality of the hole does not matter, and a number
of bits for fast cutting in wood exist, including spade bits and self-feeding auger
bits.

Many types of specialised drill bits for boring clean holes in wood have been
developed, including brad-point bits, Forstner bits and hole saws. Chipping on
exit can be minimized by using a piece of wood as backing behind the work
piece, and the same technique is sometimes used to keep the hole entry neat.
Holes are easier to start in wood as the drill bit can be accurately positioned by
pushing it into the wood and creating a dimple. The bit will thus have little
tendency to wander.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

The quality of the machined surface is one of the most important


concerns which affect the functionality of the machined surface. In a machining
operation surface quality depends more on the process variables rather than
characteristic features of the material itself. Hence, estimation of surface
roughness and minimization of the same has become essential. Surface finish is
important for surface sensitive parts subjected to fatigue. Hence, understanding
of surface roughness provides many opportunities to avoid failures and enhance
component integrity and reduce overall cost (Chandrasekaran et al 1997).

Hasan Oktem et al (2006) developed an approach for determining the best


cutting parameters which can produce minimum surface roughness in end
milling mould surfaces of an ortez part used in biomedical applications by
combining neural network and genetic algorithm. They developed a simulation
model for the component of ortez part to determine the critical regions to be
used in roughness measurements and to produce a plastic product.

Bharathi et al (2012) have used particle swarm optimization technique to


achieve desired surface roughness in minimum machining time. They carried
out experimental investigations on aluminium material to study the effect of
machining parameters such as cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut on the
surface roughness and to obtain the desired surface roughness on face milling
process. They developed a mathematical model for surface roughness prediction
using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) on the basis of experimental results.
The model developed for optimization was validated by confirmation
experiments.

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Ghani et al (2004) used Taguchi optimization methodology to optimize
the cutting parameters in end milling operations. They evaluated cutting speed,
feed rate and depth of cut as milling parameters while machining hardened steel
AISI H13 with TiN coated P10 carbide insert tool under semi-finishing and
finishing conditions of high speed cutting. An orthogonal array, Signal-to-Noise
(S/N) ratio and Pareto Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed to
analyze the effect of these milling parameters. The analysis of the result showed
that the optimal combination for low resultant cutting force and good surface
finish are high cutting speed, low feed rate and low depth of cut.

Dimitros Vakondios et al (2012) studied the influence of milling strategy


on the surface roughness in ball end milling. They chose Al7075-T6 alloy as the
material various cutting parameters like axial and radial depth of cut, feed rate,
inclination angles and were selected to perform 96 experiments and the results
were analyzed using regression analysis and analysis of variance. They used all
possible milling strategies viz., vertical, push, pull, oblique, oblique push and
oblique pull. For each strategy a mathematical model of the surface roughness
was established, considering both the down and up milling.

Azlan Mohd Zain et al (2010) have used Genetic Algorithm (GA) to


optimize the cutting conditions to minimize the surface roughness in end
milling. They studied the optimal effect of the radial rake angle of the tool,
combined with speed and feed rate cutting conditions in influencing the surface
roughness. By referring to the real machining case study, they developed a
regression model. The best regression model is determined to formulate the
fitness function of the GA. The analysis of this study has proven that the GA
technique is capable of estimating the optimal cutting conditions that yield the
minimum surface roughness value.

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Eyup Sabri Topal (2009) has made an attempt to study the role of step
over in predicting the surface roughness in flat end milling. They performed
machining experiments under various cutting conditions. Two ANN structures,
one considering step over ratio, and the second without considering it were
created. The artificial neural networks were trained and tested by using the
measured data for predicting the surface roughness. Average RMS error of the
ANN model considering step over ratio was 0.04 and without considering step
over ratio was 0.26. The first model proved capable of predicting the average
surface roughness (Ra) with a good accuracy.

Cevdet Gologlu et al (2008) felt that apart from the influence of the
cutting parameters the cutter path also might have an influence on the surface
roughness in pocket milling. They used Taguchi method for their study. Their
first aim was to investigate optimum cutting characteristics of DIN 1.2738
mould steel using high-speed steel end mills. The cutting parameters considered
were cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of cut and step over. The second aim was
to identify the effects of cutter path in pocket milling. They found that one
direction and back and forth cutter path strategies were better than predicted
results.

Li et al (2008) made an attempt in studying off-line optimization on NC


machining. Implementing an on-line optimization technique involves high cost
and complex system. With virtual machining gaining popularity off-line
optimization technique is simple and cost-effective. Reliability verification,
cutting parameter optimization and error compensation can be integrated into
one system to improve machining processes comprehensively. The optimization
is realized via modifying NC programs.

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Han UI Lee et al (2003) have proposed an off-line feed rate scheduling
system based on an improved cutting force model that could predict cutting
forces accurately in end milling operations. They divided the original blocks of
NC code into smaller ones with the optimized feed rates to adjust the peak value
of cutting forces to a constant value. They considered the acceleration and
deceleration characteristics for a given machine tool for realistic feed rate
scheduling. The pocket milling experiments showed that the proposed method is
accurate and efficient in maintaining the cutting force at a desired level.

Shi Hyoung Ryu et al (2006) observed that tool deflection due to cutting
forces affects the surface texture and the surface flatness. Tool run-out and tool
setting error including tool tilting and eccentricity between tool center and
spindle rotation center were considered together with tool deflection caused by
cutting forces. They used RMS deviation, skewness and kurtosis for evaluating
the generated surface texture characteristics.

Surface roughness is an indication of the machining performance, which


has to be minimized. To predict the minimum Ra value a standard mathematical
model was developed using regression and ANN by Azlan Mohd Zain et al
(2012).

Rao and Padamabhan (2006) presented digraph and matrix method for
evaluation of alternative industrial robots. A robot selection index was proposed
that evaluate and ranks robots for a given application. Purchase cost, load
capacity, velocity, repeatability, number of degrees of freedom and man-
machine interface were considered as the robot selection attributes for digraph
generation.

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CHAPTER 3

DESIGN CALCULATION

3.1. CUTTING/SHAPING SPEED

Speed of Motor- 1440 rpm

Diameter of pulley A: 25 mm

Diameter of pulley B: 180 mm

We have to find out bull wheel speed (Ns)

We know that

NS/Nm = Da/Db

Ns= Da/Db * Nm

NS = 25/180 *1440

Bull wheel speed = 200

1 stroke of Ram is completed in 1 revolution of crank wheel

K=1

Velocity of Sawing/Shaping machine

Velocity (v) = (L*N*(1+k)/1000) m/min

Length of Ram stroke(L) = 50mm

No. Of full stroke(N) = 200 stroke/min

Ratio of return time to cutting time

Hence

V = (L*N*(1+k)/1000) m/min

V = (50*200*(1+1)/1000) m/min

V=20 m/min

Therefore velocity of ram cutting speed is 20 m/min

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3.2 DRILLING SPEED

Speed of pinion(NP) = 200

No. Of teeth on pinion (TP) = 13

No. Of teeth on gear (TG) = 9

We have to find out speed of gear (Ng)

We know that,

NG/NP = TP/TG

NG = TP/TG * NP

NG = 13/9 * 240 ⇒ 139 rev./min

Therefore Drilling speed is 139 rev./min

Length of belt - Π/2(d1+d2)+ 2x + (d1-d2)2/4x

x=22 inch

Length of belt = 57 inch

Group of belt and pulley - B group

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CHAPTER 4

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

4.1 DRILLING

Drilling is the operation of producing circular hole in the workpiece by


using a rotating cutter called drill.The machine used for drilling is called drilling
machine. The drilling operation can also be accomplished on lathe,in which the
drill is held in tailstock and work is held by the chuck. The most common drill
used is the twist drill.

DRILLING MACHINE

It is the simplest and the accurate machine used in production shop. The
workpiece is held stationary i.e. clamped in position and the drill rotates to
make a hole.

FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING MACHINE COMPONENTS

The spindle holds the drill or cutting tools and revolves in a fixed position
in a sleeve.The sleeve or quill assembly does not revolve but may slide in its
bearing in a direction parallel to its axis. When the sleeve carrying the spindle
with a cutting tool is lowered, the cutting tool is fed into the work; and from the
work. Feed pressure applied to the sleeve by hand or power causes the revolving
drill to cut its way into the work a fraction of an mm per revolution. The column
is cylindrical in shape and built rugged and solid. The column supports the head
and the sleeve or quill assembly.The head of the drilling machine is composed
of the sleeve, a spindle, an electric motor and feed mechanism.

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The head is bolted to the column.The worktable is supported to an arm
mounted to the column. The worktable can be adjusted vertically to
accommodate different heights of work or it can be swung completely out of the
way.

It may be tilted upto 90 degrees in either direction, to allow long pieces to


be end or angle drilled.The base of drilling machine supports the entire machine
and when bolted to the floor, provides for vibration free operation and best
machining accuracy. The top of the base is equipped with similar to the
worktable and may equipped with t-slot for mounting work too larger for the
table.

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CHAPTER 5

ESTIMATION OF PROJECT

S.No. Particulars Total quantity Cost rs/unit Total cost


1 Motor 1440 rpm 1 2000 2000

2 Pillow block bearing 2 200 400

3 Gear and pinion 1 250 250

4 Bearing two bolt flange 1 100 100

5 Circular plate 250 mm 1 110 110


dia
6 Screw nut assembly 4 20 80

7 Iron angle thickness 12 kg 36 432


3mm
8 Shaft 20 mm 4 kg 40 160

9 Pulley (180mm) 1 240 240

10 Pulley (25mm) 1 50 50

11 Belt 1 100 100

12 Drill chuck 1 150 150


13 Drill tool(2.5) 1 50 50

14 Hacksaw tool 1 50 50

15 Shaping tool 1 50 50

16 Welding works - 1200 1200

17 Paint 2 50 100

18 Lubricant 1 100 100

19 Cable 1 30 30

20 Transportation and - 600 600

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miscellaneous
TOTAL 6225

CONCLUSION

With the idea on view we have completed the project titled DESIGN
AND FABRICATION OF MULTIPURPOSE MACHINE means of this
machine various operations can be performed using same power. "o this
multipurpose device is used for various operations with aless amount of
investment.This is one of the most reliable and simple machine in the
machineshop in which many number of operations can be done.

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REFERENCE

1. Machine Design by R.S. Khurmi.


2. Manufacturing Process by O. P. Khanna and Lal.
3. Workshop Technology by R.K. Jain.
4. Pneumatic System: Principle & Maintenance by S.R.
Mujumdar.
5. Machine Tool Design Handbook.
6. P.S.G. Design Data Book.
7. Internet sites-
a) http://www.google.com/
b) http://www.engineersedge.com/
c) http://www.efunda.com/
d) http://www.mechanicalengineeringblog.com/

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