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process of chemical principle

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compositions, and condition of materials entering, leaving, and

within the process.

variables. These must be measured or computed.

1. Mass and volume

2. Flowrate

3. Chemical composition

4. Pressure

5. Temperature

amounts of material entering and leaving processes.

Density

kg , g , Ibm 3 ], typically symbolized by the Greek letter rho (

m 3 cm 3 ft

). Density has both a value and units.

1

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

Mass = (Density) (Volume)

m = V

Specific Volume

the inverse of the density.

SV 1

Specific Gravity

the density ref of a reference substance at a specific condition.

dimensionless quantity.

degrees Celsius.

Example 1:

mass of the liquid? Given

2

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

coming into or out of the process.

the mass flow rate, mass per time

the volumetric flow rate, volume per time

the molar flow rate, moles per time

The symbols for mass and molar flow rates are typically ms or ns,

sometimes with a dot overhead. The dot is often used to mark a

"rate" (per unit time).

then be converted to mass flow rate using the density:

velocity. The volumetric flow rate is then calculated from the

velocity and the cross-sectional area of the pipe:

2. Flowrate measurement

continuous reading of the flow rate in the line. Two

commonly used flowmeters;-

3

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

(a) Rotameter

large end up.

•Fluid flows upward through the tapered tube and suspends freely a float

(which is submerged in the fluid)

• Float is the indicating element, and the greater the flow rate, the higher

the float rides in the tube.

•The tube is marked in divisions, and the reading of the meter is obtained

from the scale reading at the reading edge of the float, which is taken at the

largest cross section of the float.

to flow rate.

4

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

increases the velocity head at the expense of pressure head

scale that assigns 12C (the isotope of carbon whose nucleus

contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons) a mass of exactly 12.

atomic weights of the atoms that constitute a molecule of the

compound.

the molecular weight oxygen (O2) = 16.0 +16.0 = 32.0

3. Moles

particles.

5

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

whose mass in grams is numerically the same as its molecular

weight.

moles (kgmol) and pound-moles (lbmol, mole). These are defined

the same way but using different mass units.

so 1 mol of CO2 contains 44 grams.

1 mol of CO therefore contain 28g, 1 Ib-mol contains 28 Ibm, 1

ton-mol contains 28 tons.

kg/kmol, M g/mol, and M Ibm/Ib-mol of this substance. The

molecular weight may thus be used as a conversion factor that

relates the mass and the number of moles of a quantity of a the

substance.

Example 5:

6

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

Example 6:

of one or more solutes in a liquid solvent.

mixture of substances, including a species A.

on the mass units in the numerator and denominator as long as

these units are the same.

7

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

Example 7:

defined as xC6H6 0.25 kg C6H6/kg total or 0.25 g C6H6/g total or

0.25 Ibm C6H6/Ibm total

mole fractions by

(a) assuming the basis of calculations a mass of the mixture

(100 kg, 100 Ibm)

(b) using the known mass fraction and calculate the mass

of each component in the basis quantity

(c) taking the ratio of the moles of each component to total

number of the moles.

mixture , M (kg/kmol, Ibm /Ib-mole) is the ratio of the mass of a

sample of the mixture (mt) to the number of moles of all species

(nt) in the sample.

and Mi is the molecular weight of the component,

M y M y M ... y M

1 1 2 2 i i

6. Concentration

solution is the mass of this component per unit volume of the

mixture (g/cm3, Ibm/ft3, kg/in3).

6.2 The molar concentration of a component is the number of

moles of the component per unit volume of the mixture

(kmol/m3, Ib-moles/ft3).

8

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

1.3.4 PRESSURE

(N/m2 (Pascal,Pa), dynes/cm2, Ibf/in2).

3. Hydrostatic pressure

The fluid has a density rho. The pressure P at the base of the

column is by definition the force exerted on the base divided by the

area A; that force is the weight of the column plus any force acting

on the top.

P Po gh

4. Head

9

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

that the height of the column is an indicator of the pressure

produced.

5.2 This principle is the basis of one of the traditional methods of

measuring pressure: the manometer.

5.3 When pressure is expressed in terms of a height of fluid, it

is called fluid "head". Usually, water or mercury is used.

4.4 Head units are mostly used for very low pressures and

expressed as "mm Hg" or "in H2O".

use the fluid weight term from the hydrostatic pressure equation:

5.1 Air is a fluid -- so the air above the earth exerts a hydrostatic

pressure on the surface. This is atmospheric pressure. If you look

at the hydrostatic pressure equation, you can see that the pressure

exerted will depend on the height of the column and the density of

the air. At sea level the pressure is

respect to atmospheric pressure.

10

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

For example, to use a manometer, you may attach one end to the

pressure source to be measured and leave the other open to the

atmosphere.

designated gauge pressure. If absolute pressure is to be measured,

it is necessary to evacuate one end of the manometer so that the

fluid works against vacuum.

an "open end" manometer measures gage pressure.

practice is to state negative gage pressures as positive vacuum.

11

CLD 10502 – Chemical Process Principle

Bourdon gauge –used from vacuum until 7000 atm

1.3.5 Temperature

aggregation (solid, liquid, or gas) is a measure of the average

kinetic energy possessed by the substance molecules.

2. Units;-

Rankine

Celcius

Fahrenheit

Kelvin

T(K) = T(°C)+ 273.15

(°R) = T(°F)+ 459.67

(°R) = 1.8 T(K)

(°F) = 1.8 T(°C)+ 32

1. Thermometer

2. Thermocouple

Normally in industries they use electrical resistance of conductor

and transform data onto in dimension of temperature

12

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